History & Geography

of Israel

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So you can look at the maps at will while I go through the text.

Why is it Important?

To truly understand the gospel, and the bible as a whole, we need to understand what Israel went through and how that looked like.

Who did what? Went where? How did they get to where they were during the gospels?

What did Jesus ministry actually look like? How can we better visualize the traveling Jesus did?

Key Notes Before We Begin

Don’t take dates as absolute- most are estimates, use them as such.

Don’t expect to read everything- a lot of information here is for individual study, and would take to long to read off everything.

Outline

1 Basic Location and Geography

2 OT Timeline

3 NT People

4 NT Places

5 NT Timeline

6 Conclusion

7 Addendum

1

Basic Location and Geography

Judea vs. Judaea???

Judea: Region in Israel

Judaea: Roman province that encompasses Israel (Judea, Samaria, Galilee) plus other territories. Sometimes spelled Iudaea (confusing) or Judea (super confusing)

2

OT Timeline

2) OT Timeline

2a Abraham Settles in Canaan

2b Joseph Moves the Israelites to Egypt

2c Israelites Return to Israel

2d Kingdom of Israel Established

2e Israel Becomes Two Kingdoms

2f Israel Conquered by Assyria

2) OT Timeline

2g Babylon Captures Judah & Assyria

2h Persia Conquers Babylon

2i Greece Conquers Persia

2j Greece Splits

2k Seleucid Empire Takes Control Over Israel

2L The Hasmonean Dynasty

2m Israel Captured by Rome

2a

Abraham Settles in Canaan

2100 B.C.E.

Abraham Settles in Canaan

God calls Abram to move from his home in Haran to a new home in the land of the Canaanites

Quotes from the Bible

They went from Ur of the Chaldees, to go into the land of Canaan. They came to Haran and lived there. Genesis 11:31

They entered into the land of Canaan. Genesis 12:5

There was a famine in the land. Abram went down into Egypt to live as a foreigner there, for the famine was severe in the land. Genesis 12:10

He went on his journeys from the South as far as Bethel, to the place where his tent had been at the beginning, between Bethel and Ai, 4 to the place of the altar, which he had made there at the first. There Abram called on Yahweh’s name. Genesis 13:3-4

2b

Joseph Moves the Israelites to Egypt

1910 B.C.E.

Joseph moves the Israelites to Egypt

Joseph’s brother sell him to Ishmaelites, who sell him to the Egyptians

Joseph later becomes head of Egypt, sparing disaster during 7 years of famine

Pharoah grants Israelites right to live in Egypt

Quotes from the Bible

Pharaoh said to Joseph, “Tell your brothers, ‘Do this: Load your animals, and go, travel to the land of Canaan. 18 Take your father and your households, and come to me, and I will give you the good of the land of Egypt, and you will eat the fat of the land.’ 19 Now you are commanded to do this: Take wagons out of the land of Egypt for your little ones, and for your wives, and bring your father, and come. 20 Also, don’t concern yourselves about your belongings, for the good of all the land of Egypt is yours.” Genesis 45:17-20

2c

Israelites Return to Israel

1440 B.C.E.

Israelites Return to Israel

Eventually, Israelites become slaves

After more than 400 years in Egypt, Israelites escape and after 40 years of traveling, return to the promised land of Israel

15th Century

B.C.

14th Century B.C.

Quotes from the Bible

He called for Moses and Aaron by night, and said, “Rise up, get out from among my people, both you and the children of Israel; and go, serve Yahweh, as you have said! 32 Take both your flocks and your herds, as you have said, and be gone; and bless me also!” Exodus 12:31-32

That same day, Yahweh brought the children of Israel out of the land of Egypt by their armies. Exodus 12:51

Now therefore arise, go across this Jordan, you and all these people, to the land which I am giving to them, even to the children of Israel. 3 I have given you every place that the sole of your foot will tread on, as I told Moses. Joshua 1:2-4

2d

Kingdom of Israel Established

1025 B.C.E.

Kingdom of Israel Established

The Israelites desire a king, just like the other nations

God, and the prophet Samuel, anoint Saul as first king of Israel

David soon becomes second king, followed by his son Solomon

11th Century B.C.

Quotes from the Bible

But the thing displeased Samuel, when they said, “Give us a king to judge us.” 1 Samuel 8:7

Saul was thirty years old when he became king, and he reigned over Israel forty-two years. 1 Samuel 13:1

So all the elders of Israel came to the king to Hebron, and king David made a covenant with them in Hebron before Yahweh; and they anointed David king over Israel. David was thirty years old when he began to reign, and he reigned forty years. 2 Samuel 5:3-4

Solomon sat on David his father’s throne; and his kingdom was firmly established. 1 Kings 2:12

2e

Israel Becomes Two Kingdoms

931 B.C.E.

Israel Becomes Two Kingdoms

Solomon’s son Rehoboam becomes the fourth king

With the people unhappy with his reign, he faces opposition from Jeroboam

The Kingdom of Judah (Rehoboam) and the Kingdom of Israel (Jeroboam) are established

9th Century BC

Quotes from the Bible

Solomon slept with his fathers, and was buried in his father David’s city; and Rehoboam his son reigned in his place. 1 Kings 11:43

When all Israel saw that the king didn’t listen to them, the people answered the king, saying, “What portion have we in David? We don’t have an inheritance in the son of Jesse. To your tents, Israel! Now see to your own house, David.” 1 Kings 12:16

When all Israel heard that Jeroboam had returned, they sent and called him to the congregation, and made him king over all Israel. There was no one who followed David’s house, except for the tribe of Judah only. 1 Kings 12:21

2f

Israel Conquered by Assyria

740 B.C.E.

Israel Conquered by Assyria

After many generations of wicked kings, God allows the Kingdom of Israel to be conquered by an opposing force, Assyria

Kingdom of Israel officially falls

824

-

671

B.C.

Quotes from the Bible

In the ninth year of Hoshea the king of Assyria took Samaria, and carried Israel away to Assyria, and placed them in Halah, and on the Habor, the river of Gozan, and in the cities of the Medes. 2 Kings 17:6

There was none left but the tribe of Judah only. 2 Kings 17:18

753 B.C.

Rome founded during Assyrian conquest of Israel

Assyria

2g

Babylon Conquers Judah & Assyria

597 B.C.E.

Babylon Conquers Judah, Assyria

Rising Babylon takes over Assyrian territory, including Israel

Moves in and sieges Jerusalem, and conquers Judah

“Jews” deported to Babylon

Quotes from the Bible

He carried away all Jerusalem, and all the princes, and all the mighty men of valor, even ten thousand captives, and all the craftsmen and the smiths. No one remained, except the poorest people of the land. 2 Kings 24:14

In the ninth year of his reign, in the tenth month, in the tenth day of the month, Nebuchadnezzar king of Babylon came, he and all his army, against Jerusalem, and encamped against it; and they built forts against it around it. 2 So the city was besieged until the eleventh year of king Zedekiah. 2 Kings 25:1-2

2h

Persia Conquers Babylon

539 B.C.E.

Persia Conquers Babylon

Persia conquers the failing Babylonian Empire

Allows Jews to return to Israel

Persian Empire

500 B.C.

Rome during Persian expansion,

510 B.C.E.

Persia

Quotes from the Bible

He carried those who had escaped from the sword away to Babylon, and they were servants to him and his sons until the reign of the kingdom of Persia, 21 to fulfill Yahweh’s word by Jeremiah’s mouth, until the land had enjoyed its Sabbaths. 2 Chronicles 36:20-21

Now in the first year of Cyrus king of Persia, that Yahweh’s word by the mouth of Jeremiah might be accomplished, Yahweh stirred up the spirit of Cyrus king of Persia, so that he made a proclamation throughout all his kingdom, and put it also in writing, saying, 23 “Cyrus king of Persia says, ‘Yahweh, the God of heaven, has given all the kingdoms of the earth to me; and he has commanded me to build him a house in Jerusalem, which is in Judah. Whoever there is among you of all his people, Yahweh his God be with him, and let him go up.’ ” 2 Chronicles 36”22-23

2i

Greece Conquers Persia

332 B.C.E.

Greece Conquers Persia

Israel becomes part of Alexander the Great’s conquest

Israel is left untouched by Greece

Greece (Macedonian Empire)) 330s B.C.

Rome during Macedonian Conquest,

320 B.C.E.

Greece

Quotes from the Bible

It came to pass, after that Alexander the Macedonian, the son of Philip, who came out of the land of Chittim, and struck Darius king of the Persians and Medes, it came to pass, after he had struck him, that he reigned in his stead, in former time, over Greece. 1 Maccabees 1:1

2j

Greece Splits

323 B.C.E.

Greece Splits

Alexander the Great dies (323 B.C.)

Territory becomes Ptolemaic Kingdom in the West

Seleucid Empire in the East

Ptolemaic Kingdom claims majority control over Israel

300 B.C.

(Seleucid)

(Ptolemaic)

Roman expansion during Ptolemaic and Seleucid rule,

300 B.C.E.

Seleucid

Ptolemaic

Quotes from the Bible

And he called his servants, which were honorable, which had been brought up with him from his youth, and he divided to them his kingdom, while he was yet alive. 7 And Alexander reigned twelve years, and he died. 8 And his servants bare rule, each one in his place. 1 Maccabees 1:6-8

And there came forth out of them a sinful root, Antiochus Epiphanes, son of Antiochus the king, who had been a hostage at Rome, and he reigned in the hundred and thirty and seventh year of the kingdom of the Greeks. 1 Maccabees 1:10

2k

Seleucid Empire Takes Control Over Israel

198 B.C.E.

Seleucid Empire Takes Control Over Israel

The Seleucid Empire and Ptolemaic Kingdom fight for territory

Israel is right in the middle

Seleucid Empire eventually wins out

300 B.C.E.

(Seleucid)

(Ptolemaic)

281 B.C.

Roman expansion during Seleucid Empire,

270 B.C.E.

Seleucid

Quotes from the Bible

And the kingdom was well ordered in the sight of Antiochus, and he thought to reign over Egypt, that he might reign over the two kingdoms. 17 And he entered into Egypt with a great multitude, with chariots, and with elephants, and with horsemen, and with a great navy; 18 and he made war against Ptolemy king of Egypt; and Ptolemy was put to shame before him, and fled; and many fell wounded to death. 19 And they got possession of the strong cities in the land of Egypt; and he took the spoils of Egypt. And Antiochus, after he had struck Egypt, returned in the hundred and forty and third year, and went up against Israel… 1 Maccabees 1:16-19

2L

The Hasmonean Dynasty

140 B.C.E.

The Hasmonean Dynasty

In 167 B.C.E. rebellious Jews led by Judas Maccabeus revolted against the Seleucid Empire

In 164 B.C.E the Jews recaptured and rededicated the temple, which was under Seleucid control- a festival was created to celebrate this rededication, called Hanukkah

By 140 B.C.E. the Seleucid Empire is fading out and the Maccabees form a new, independant leadership called the Hasmonean Dynasty

167 - 63 B.C.E.

Quotes from the Bible

And on the fifteenth day of Chislev, in the hundred and forty and fifth year, they built an abomination of desolation upon the* altar, and in the cities of Judah on every side they built idol † altars. And at the doors of the houses and in the streets they burned incense. And they tore in pieces the books of the law which they found, and set them on fire. 1 Maccabees 1:54-56

Then Judas appointed certain men to fight against those that were in the citadel, until he should have cleansed the holy place. 1 Maccabees 4:41

And they kept the dedication of the altar eight days… And Judas and his kindred and the whole congregation of Israel ordained, that the days of the dedication of the altar should be kept in their seasons from year to year by the space of eight days… 1 Maccabees 4:56,59

2m

Israel Captured by Rome

63 B.C.E.

63 BCE: Israel Captured by Rome

Rome continues to grow and be a dominant force in the Mediterranean area

Conquers the Hasmonean Dynasty in Israel in 63 B.C.E.

Quotes from the Bible

No direct quotes.

And Judas heard of the fame of the Romans, that they are valiant men, and have pleasure in all that join themselves to them, and make friends with all such as come to them, 2 and that they are valiant men. 1 Maccabees 8:1-2

...Greece took counsel to come and destroy them; 10 and the thing was known to them, and they sent against them a captain, and fought against them, and many of them fell down wounded to death, and they made captive their wives and their children, and plundered them, and conquered their land, and pulled down their strongholds, and plundered them, and brought them into bondage to this day… 1 Maccabees 8:9-10

OT:ELI5

Old Testament

Explained like I’m Five

(OT Summary)

OT:ELI5

2100 B.C.E. Abraham moves from Ur to Canaan (Israel)

1910 B.C.E. Joseph moves from Israel to Egypt

1440 B.C.E. Moses moves from Egypt to Israel

1025 B.C.E. Kingdom of Israel established

931 B.C.E. Israel splits into Kingdom of Israel and Kingdom of Judah

740 B.C.E. Kingdom of Israel conquered by Assyria

OT:ELI5

597 B.C.E. Kingdom of Judah and Assyrian territory conquered by Babylon

539 B.C.E. Jews restored to Israel by Persia

332 B.C.E. Persian territory (including Israel) conquered by Greece

323 B.C.E. Greece splits into Ptolemaic Kingdom and Seleucid Empire

198 B.C.E. Seleucid Empire takes Israel from Ptolemaic Kingdom

140 B.C.E. Hasmonean Kingdom is formed and replaces the Seleucid Empire

63 B.C.E. Rome conquers Israel from the Hamoneans

3

NT People

3) NT People

3a Herod the Great

3b Augustus

3c Archelaus

3d Antipas

3e Tiberius

3f Caiaphas

3g Pontius Pilate

3a Herod the Great

Client King of the Judaean Province of Rome. Reign: 37 B.C.E. - 4 B.C.E.

1 Now when Jesus was born in Bethlehem of Judea in the days of King Herod...” Matt 2:1

3b Augustus

1st Emperor of the Roman Empire. Reign: 27 B.C.E. - 14 C.E.

1 Now in those days, a decree went out from Caesar Augustus that all the world should be enrolled. 2 This was the first enrollment made when Quirinius was governor of Syria. Luke 2:1-2

3c Archelaus

Son of Herod the Great, reigns over Judea, Samaria, and Idumea after the death of his father, Herod the Great. Reign: 4 B.C.E. - 6 C.E.

But when he heard that Archelaus was reigning over Judea in the place of his father, Herod, he was afraid to go there. Matt 2:22

3d Antipas


Son of Herod the Great, reigns over Galilee and Perea after the death of his father, Herod the Great. Reign: 4 B.C.E. - 39 C.E.

1 At that time, Herod the tetrarch heard the report concerning Jesus... Matt 14:1

Division of New Testament relative territory only,

6 C.E.

Antipas’ territory in NT in

GREEN

Archelaus’ territory in

PURPLE

3e Tiberius

Second emperor of Rome. Reign: 14 C.E. - 37 C.E.

1 Now in the fifteenth year of the reign of Tiberius Caesar... Luke 3:1

3f Caiaphas

Jewish High Priest.

57 Those who had taken Jesus led him away to Caiaphas the high priest, where the scribes and the elders were gathered together. Matt 26:57

3g Pontius Pilate

Fifth Roman Governor (Prefect) of Judaea. Rule: 26 C.E. - 36 C.E.

...2 and they bound him, and led him away, and delivered him up to Pontius Pilate, the governor. Matt 27:2

Division of New Testament relative territory only,

6 C.E. - 36 C.E.

Antipas’ territory in NT in

GREEN

Prefect’s territory in

PURPLE

4

NT Places

4) NT Places

4a Nazareth

4b Bethany

4c Cana

4d Capernaum

4e Jerusalem

4f Bethlehem

4g Sychar

4h Bethsaida

Basic map of Judaea during Jesus’ ministry,

Around 30 C.E.

4a Nazareth

The location where Jesus grows up, and where he begins his ministry.

He came to Nazareth, where he had been brought up. Luke 4:16

4b Bethany

A town very near to Jerusalem, where Jesus often stayed. Known most for the raising of Lazarus.

When they came near to Jerusalem, to Bethsphage and Bethany, at the Mount of Olives… Mark 1:11

4c Cana

A town in Galilee north of Nazareth. Known for wedding in which Jesus turns water into wine, his first public miracle.

The third day, there was a marriage in Cana of Galilee. Jesus’ mother was there. 2 Jesus also was invited, with his disciples, to the marriage. John 2:1-2

4d Capernaum

Jesus stays here during most of his ministry- also home to a number of his disciples. Seated on the Sea of Galilee.

Leaving Nazareth, he came and lived in Capernaum, which is by the sea... Matthew 4:13

4e Jerusalem

Capital city of Judea and the cornerstone of Jewish culture and trade. It is here that Jesus is crucified.

He went on his way through cities and villages, teaching, and traveling on to Jerusalem. Luke 13:22

4f Bethlehem

The location of Joseph’s ancestry, and Jesus’s birth.

Now when Jesus was born in Bethlehem of Judea in the days of King Herod, behold, wise men from the east came to Jerusalem, saying, 2 “Where is he who is born King of the Jews? Matthew 2:1-2

4g Sychar

Only mentioned in the gospel of John, it is here that Jesus explains everlasting life to a Samaritan woman gathering water.

So he came to a city of Samaria, called Sychar, near the parcel of ground that Jacob gave to his son, Joseph. John 4:5

4h Bethsaida

Jesus spends a fair amount of time in this city; many disciples were from it as well.

Immediately he made his disciples get into the boat, and to go ahead to the other side, to Bethsaida, while he himself sent the multitude away. Mark 6:45

Basic map of Judaea during Jesus’ ministry,

Around 30 C.E.

Basic map of Judaea during Jesus’ ministry,

Around 30 C.E.

5

NT Timeline

5 NT Timeline

5a Text Timeline

5b Visual Maps

5a NT Timeline

63 B.C.E. Roman Republic annexes Judaea (Israel + other provinces)

37 B.C.E. Herod the Great named client-king of Judaea

27 B.C.E. Augustus becomes first emperor of Roman Empire

4 B.C.E. Herod the Great dies, territory is divided between offspring, particularly Archelaus (Judea, Samaria, etc.) and Antipas (Galilee, etc.)

6 C.E. Archelaus removed from rule, Rome installs a governor in his place

14 C.E. Tiberius becomes second emperor of Rome

5a NT Timeline

26 C.E. Pontius Pilate installed as fifth governor

~ 29 C.E. Jesus Ministry begins (estimated date)

~ 33 C.E. High Priest Caiaphas arrests Jesus (estimated date)

Caiaphas brings Jesus to Pilate, to be crucified by Rome

Seeing Jesus that Jesus is from Galilee, Pilate sends Jesus to Herod (Antipas)

Thinking that Jesus has done no wrong, Herod sends Jesus back to Pilate

Believing his innocence, Pilate reluctantly crucifies Jesus

5b Visual Maps

Now in those days, a decree went out from Caesar Augustus that all the world should be enrolled. 2 This was the first enrollment made when Quirinius was governor of Syria. Luke 2:1-2

Joseph also went up from Galilee, out of the city of Nazareth, into Judea, to David’s city, which is called Bethlehem, because he was of the house and family of David… Luke 2:4

Now when Jesus was born in Bethlehem of Judea in the days of King Herod… Matthew 2:1-2

...an angel of the Lord appeared to Joseph in a dream, saying, “Arise and take the young child and his mother, and flee into Egypt, and stay there until I tell you, for Herod will seek the young child to destroy him.” Matthew 2:13

But when Herod was dead, behold, an angel of the Lord appeared in a dream to Joseph in Egypt, saying, 20 “Arise and take the young child and his mother, and go into the land of Israel, for those who sought the young child’s life are dead.”

Matthew 2:19-20

He arose and took the young child and his mother, and came into the land of Israel. 22 But when he heard that Archelaus was reigning over Judea in the place of his father, Herod, he was afraid to go there. Being warned in a dream, he withdrew into the region of Galilee, 23 and came and lived in a city called Nazareth; that it might be fulfilled which was spoken through the prophets: “He will be called a Nazarene.” Matthew 2:21-23

5 But they insisted, saying, “He stirs up the people, teaching throughout all Judea, beginning from Galilee even to this place.” 6 But when Pilate heard Galilee mentioned, he asked if the man was a Galilean. 7 When he found out that he was in Herod’s jurisdiction, he sent him to Herod, who was also in Jerusalem during those days. Luke 23:5-7

Herod with his soldiers humiliated him and mocked him. Dressing him in luxurious clothing, they sent him back to Pilate. Luke 23:11

6

Conclusion

AKA OT & NT Summary

Grand Summary

2100 B.C.E. Abraham moves from Ur to Canaan (Israel)

1910 B.C.E. Joseph moves from Israel to Egypt

1440 B.C.E. Moses moves from Egypt to Israel

1025 B.C.E. Kingdom of Israel established

931 B.C.E. Israel splits into Kingdom of Israel and Kingdom of Judah

740 B.C.E. Kingdom of Israel conquered by Assyria

Grand Summary

597 B.C.E. Kingdom of Judah and Assyrian territory conquered by Babylon

539 B.C.E. Jews restored to Israel by Persia

332 B.C.E. Persian territory (including Israel) conquered by Greece

323 B.C.E. Greece splits into Ptolemaic Kingdom and Seleucid Empire

198 B.C.E. Seleucid Empire takes Israel from Ptolemaic Kingdom

140 B.C.E. Hasmonean Kingdom is formed and replaces the Seleucid Empire

63 B.C.E. Rome invades Israel and takes it from the Hasmoneans

Grand Summary

37 B.C.E. Herod the Great named client-king of Judaea

27 B.C.E. Augustus becomes first emperor of Roman Empire

4 B.C.E. Herod the Great dies, territory is divided between offspring, particularly Archelaus (Judea, Samaria, etc.) and Antipas (Galilee, etc.)

6 C.E. Archelaus removed from rule, Rome installs a governor in his place

14 C.E. Tiberius becomes second emperor of Rome

26 C.E. Pontius Pilate installed as fifth governor

Grand Summary

~ 29 C.E. Jesus Ministry begins (estimated date)

~ 33 C.E. High Priest Caiaphas arrests Jesus (estimated date)

Caiaphas brings Jesus to Pilate, to be crucified by Rome

Seeing Jesus that Jesus is from Galilee, Pilate sends Jesus to Herod (Antipas)

Thinking that Jesus has done no wrong, Herod sends Jesus back to Pilate

Believing his innocence, Pilate reluctantly crucifies Jesus

Addendum

Addendum

After completing the original presentation, I thought it would be a good idea to add some material from Acts. As Acts is the final major catalog of events I felt it would fit describe some names and help fit the timeline together as well. So without further ado…

Acts 11: “... in the days of Claudius.”

Now in these days, prophets came down from Jerusalem to Antioch. 28 One of them named Agabus stood up, and indicated by the Spirit that there should be a great famine all over the world, which also happened in the days of Claudius.

Claudius here in Acts 11 refers to Emperor Claudius, who was the 4th emperor of Rome. He reigned from 41 - 54 C.E.

Acts 12 King Herod Arrests Members of the Church

One early aspect of the book of Acts that may be confusing to people is King Herod being mentioned in the book of Acts. As we can recall, King Herod in the Gospels died, leaving Judaea split between his sons. So who is this Herod? Well, 5-10 years after Pontius Pilate left office as governor of Judaea, Rome returned the region to the Herods. And so the king we see in Acts 12 is King Agrippa I, nephew of Herod the tetrarch and grandson of Herod the Great that we find in the gospels.

Acts 12 King Herod’s Death

Further down in Acts 12, begins the story of Herod’s death. Herod Agrippa I’s death has been attributed to 44 C.E, giving us a specific year not only for his death but for a timeframe for the events in this section of Acts.

Acts 23 Paul on Trial

In Acts 23, Paul is arrested in Jerusalem. Upon finding nothing that Paul has done wrong, the commander sends Paul to the governor, Marcus Antonius Felix. After Agrippa I died, Judaea returned to Roman rule in the south, with a governor. Felix was known to rule from 52-60 C.E. We can see a significant amount of time has passed in the last 8-9 chapters.

Acts 24 Felix Replaced as Governor

Paul and Felix had actually built quite a friendly relationship while Paul was locked up. After some time, Felix was replaced by a new governor, Porcius Festus. This exchange is recorded to have happened in 60 C.E, another specific year.

Acts 25 Festus Consults King Agrippa

Another King Agrippa mentioned in Acts? This time it’s King Agrippa II, King Agrippa I’s son. Also of note, Agrippa I ruled all of Judaea, while Agrippa II rules the north and newly appointed Porcius Festus runs the south.

Acts 25 Paul Appeals to Caesar

In Acts 25, we see that Paul would like to take his trial to Caesar himself. But who is Caesar? In this case, it’s Emperor Nero, who reigned from 54 C.E. to 68 C.E. Nero was the fifth Roman Emperor, while Augustus and Tiberius -both mentioned in the gospels- were the first and second emperors respectively. Don’t forget the fourth emperor of Rome, Claudius, who is mentioned in Acts 11.

Questions?

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Credits

Hasmonean_kingdom; by Effib. Wikipedia

Abraham’s Journey. Bible History Online

First century Iudaea province; Andrew_c. Wikipedia

Israel: Geography and History - Google Slides