Intro to Neurotechnology

BCI Decal

Pierre Karashchuk

Overview

  • Introductions
  • Course structure
  • Neurotech in industry and academia
    • Measuring human cognition
    • Applications of BCI
    • BCI in the industry

Who are we?

Main instructors

Lab assistants:

  • Pierluigi Mantovani (pierpressure22@gmail.com)

Introductions

Turn to someone sitting next to you and introduce yourself.

  • Who are you?
  • Why are you taking this class?
  • Anything interesting about yourself?

Course structure

  • Lecture
    • Mondays 6-7pm
    • Big idea and context of each approach
  • Lab
    • Tuesdays 5-7pm
    • Jupyter Notebooks
      • Will use numpy, scipy, matplotlib to view and process signals
    • Short demo, then work through the lab with a partner

This week and next week

  • No lab this week (no need to come in tomorrow!)
  • Next week, Tomás will introduce sensory extension in lecture and lab

What is BCI?

Brain-Computer Interface

“Direct communication pathway between the brain and an external device” (Wikipedia)

Measuring human cognition

The problem of brain computer interfaces:

How to measure human cognition and use it to improve our interaction with computers?

How can we measure human cognition? We can get at it through the nervous system, which in fact touches the whole body.

The central nervous system (aka “the brain”) is measured by various devices used throughout neuroscience, but the peripheral nervous system (the rest of the body) can also be measured via various ways!

We’ll focus on EEG here, but in the future we can explore the other sensors too.

Brain imaging

EEG

MEG

ECoG

fMRI

PET

Electrode arrays

fNIRS

How can we measure human cognition? We can get at it through the nervous system, which in fact touches the whole body.

The central nervous system (aka “the brain”) is measured by various devices used throughout neuroscience, but the peripheral nervous system (the rest of the body) can also be measured via various ways!

We’ll focus on EEG here, but in the future we can explore the other sensors too.

Peripheral nervous system imaging

Heart rate

Galvanic skin response

Peripheral nervous system imaging

Electromyography

(EMG)

Electrooculography

(EOG)

Electrogastrogram

(EGG)

Applications

  • Active BCI: User controls brain activity to control some device
  • Reactive BCI: User sees stimulus, BCI monitors user activity in response to stimulus
  • Passive BCI: BCI monitors brain activity to extract cognitive metrics to improve HCI

Applications: Restoring abilities

Control

BCI Wheelchair

Communication

P300 Speller

Applications: Monitoring

Workload/stress monitoring

Drowsiness/sleep detection

Applications: Getting cognitive metrics

Meditation quality

Sleep quality

Rewards

Commercial Headsets

  • 24 bit resolution ADC
  • Can place electrodes anywhere
  • Can use any electrodes, but default is wet electrodes
  • More DIY

Other companies in Neurotech

Analysis of EEG signals

Spire - Measure breathing

Elon Musk

Developing invasive BCI to augment memory

This week and next week

  • No lab this week (no need to come in tomorrow!)
  • Next week, Tomás will introduce sensory extension in lecture and lab
Lecture 1 - Intro to Neurotech - Google Slides