What are the 8 ways of knowing in ToK?

  • Language
  • Sense perception
  • Emotion
  • Reason
  • Imagination
  • Faith
  • Intuition
  • Memory

What do we explore in ToK?

The 8 ways of knowing (WOK)

  • language
  • sense perception
  • emotion
  • reason
  • imagination
  • faith
  • intuition
  • memory.

The 8 areas of knowledge (AOK)

  • mathematics
  • natural sciences
  • human sciences
  • history
  • the arts
  • ethics
  • religious knowledge systems
  • indigenous knowledge systems.

How do we know stuff in the natural sciences?

  • language
  • sense perception
  • emotion
  • reason
  • imagination
  • faith
  • intuition
  • memory.

Language - Essential for effective collaboration worldwide.

Sense perception - Ability to observe is foundational in collection of empirical evidence.

Emotion - Provides an element of drive for scientists although interpretation of data should be rational not emotional.

Reason - The use of [primarily] inductive logic to identify trends in data.

Imagination - Important in hypothesising and explanations.

Faith - Not particularly important?

Intuition - ‘Gut feeling’ related to subconscious experience can be important in design of experiments and interpretation of data e.g. Rutherford and nucleus.

Memory - Not particularly important?

Key features we might consider…

  • Replication and falsification.
  • Deductive and inductive reasoning.
  • Peer-review process.
  • Difference between theories and laws.
  • Pseudoscience.

Limitations we might consider…

  • Human subjectivity in research.
  • Paradigm shifts.
  • Correlations and causal relationships.
  • Inductive reasoning.
  • Models are never 100% accurate.

ToK concepts we might consider…

meaning

judgement

perspective

value

evidence

justification

fact

interpretation

assumption

opinion

belief

paradigm

hypothesis / conjecture

theory

prediction

… durability

… accuracy

explanation

Independence /

dependence / interdependence

technology

certainty

reliability

probability

accuracy

precision

experience

correlation

causality

coherence

consistency

completeness

clarity

model

pattern

axiom

context

authority

generalisation

What is useful for ToK teachers?

  • Highlight real-life examples related to any of the previous slides.
  • Be explicit with the ways of knowing.
  • Use the ToK concepts terminology.
ToK outline for science department - Google Slides