Planetary Atmosphere Lectures
What is the equation that determines the amount of gas in the atmosphere at the surface of Triton (the largest moon of Neptune)?
The equation for the saturation vapour pressure of water
The Clausius-Clapeyron equation for CO₂
Boltzmann’s equation for N₂
The Clausius-Clapeyron equation for N₂
Which group of gases in the Earth’s atmosphere all have predominantly biogenic sources?
O₂, CO₂, N₂
O₂, CH₄, SO₂
O₂, N₂O, CO₂
O₂, CH₄, N₂O
Which chemical terminology best describes a hypothetical atmosphere of an exoplanet that has a bulk composition (by volume) of 80% N₂, 19% CO₂, 0.5% H₂, and 0.5% CH₄?
Which of the following group has planetary atmospheres that all have hydrocarbon hazes?
Jupiter, Titan, Mars
Saturn, Uranus, Jupiter
Venus, Jupiter, Titan
Titan, the early Earth, Io
The coldest level in a thick planetary atmosphere is typically
The measured lapse rate [i.e., the change of temperature with altitude] in a rocky planet’s troposphere is usually
smaller than the adiabatic lapse rate
bigger than the adiabatic lapse rate
the same as the adiabatic lapse rate
The tropopause in the atmospheres of Earth, Titan, Jupiter, Saturn, Uranus and Neptune occurs at a level where the pressure has the following magnitude (within a factor of 2-3):
The presence of the stratospheric ozone layer on Earth (compared to Mars) arises because our atmosphere has a high concentration of
Arguably, the most important free radical species that determines the chemical character of the Earth’s troposphere is:
Earth’s reflected colour in visible light appears to the human eye as a “Pale Blue Dot”, as seen in images by NASA’s Cassini and Voyager-1 spacecraft of Earth from the distance of Saturn. The colour is predominantly caused by
blue oceans on the Earth
Rayleigh scattering by Earth’s atmosphere
Which of the following phrases best describes the “runaway greenhouse effect” that could be experienced by an Earth-like planet close to its parent star?
a limit on the stellar flux incident on a planet
a limit on the surface temperature of a planet with a water-vapour dominated atmosphere
a limit on the outgoing thermal infrared flux to space from a planet with a water-vapour dominated atmosphere
a limit on the water vapour content of an atmosphere
The outer edge of the habitable zone for rocky planets can be at a relatively large distance because of
the carbonate-silicate cycle, which acts as a thermostat on climate on geologic timescales
the potential for H₂ to act as a greenhouse gas for worlds with H₂-rich atmospheres
the potential for methane to act as a greenhouse gas
both a and b above
Which of the following statements is false?
observing an exoplanet’s reflectance spectrum in the visible generally requires a smaller telescope than in the thermal infrared for the same angular resolution in the sky
an exoplanet that is found in the habitable zone of its parent star is not necessarily habitable
the radiative emission of an exoplanet’s surface will always been seen in its infrared spectrum, allowing us to determine the exoplanet’s surface temperature
CH₄ and O₂ gases in Earth’s atmosphere are in extreme chemical thermodynamic disequilibrium.
Proxima Centauri-b is an exoplanet that exists in the present habitable zone of the nearest star, Proxima Centauri. Which possible problems (for the planet’s habitability) might have been experienced during the planet’s formation and evolution?
a. erosion of the planet’s atmosphere caused by impact bombardment
b. thermally-driven hydrodynamic escape of the planet’s atmosphere caused by heating of the upper atmosphere from extreme ultraviolet radiation when Proxima Centauri was a young star
c. a runaway greenhouse effect caused by a luminous pre-main-sequence phase of Proxima Centauri
none of the above
all of a. b. c.
a. and b. only
b. and c. only
What is difference between scattering in stellar and planetary atmosphere?
there is no difference, it is Rayleigh scattering in both
in planetary atmosphere radiation from outside the atmosphere is to be considered
in planetary atmosphere radiation from outside the atmosphere is to be considered at shorter wavelengths
in planetary atmosphere intrinsic radiation of the planet is about the same as the stellar irradiation
Can humans see polarization with unaided eyes?
not at all
some claim they can see sky polarization
yes, because human eyes are similar to eyes of bees
yes, because vikings used polarized skylight for navigation
Scattering polarization can be seen from a planetary atmosphere when
the planet transits the star
measured near the limb
the planet eclipsed by star
the planet has transparent atmosphere
Single-scattered photons with high polarization dominate planetary atmosphere when
the planet is far from the star
the planet has water vapour in its atmosphere
the planet is strongly irradiated by the star
absorption is larger than scattering
Choose the right answer:
Forward scattering dominates scattering on droplets
If size of the particle is larger than wavelength, scattering in the blue is more efficient
scattering in molecular bands produce less polarization than in the continuum
Rayleigh scattering is isotropic
Choose the wrong answer:
Measuring polarization from unresolved exoplanets can provide inclination of the orbit.
Measuring polarization from unresolved exoplanets can provide orientation of the orbit.
Measuring polarization from unresolved exoplanets can provide eccentricity of the orbit.
Measuring polarization from unresolved exoplanets can provide the planet mass.
Blue color of the planet is determined by
Rayleigh scattering and molecular absorption in the red.
Mie scattering on water droplets.
reflection from the blue ocean.
reflection from blue clouds.
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