National 5 RUAE - Initial Test
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In this excerpt, the writer discusses how written communication has changed since the invention of the internet.

1. Explain why the writer believes “The digital revolution has transformed our relationship with words”. (2) 

The digital revolution has indeed transformed our relationship with words, but mostly for the better. We are communicating in writing as never before; we are now able to speak instantly across cultures and among languages, and millions are alert to the importance of written words in a way once restricted to an intellectual elite.

In this excerpt, we learn about an important scientific discovery.

2. Explain how the sentence “The blast … light-years away” acts as a link in the passage. (2)

The biggest explosion in the universe since the Big Bang has been discovered by astronomers.
The blast came from a supermassive black hole at the centre of a galaxy hundreds of millions of light-years away. The explosion occurred in the Ophiuchus galaxy cluster, about 390 million light-years from Earth, and was so powerful it blasted a hole in the cluster plasma – the super-hot gas surrounding the black hole.
In this excerpt, the writer covers the topic of modern factory farming, which involves keeping as many animals as possible on the farm for increased profit.

3. How does the writer’s word choice convey the horror of factory farming? (4)

The green pastures and idyllic barnyard scenes of years past are now distant memories. On today's factory farms, animals can be kept in cramped, cruel and oppressive conditions, many animals will never be permitted to raise families, build nests or do anything else natural and important to them. Some won't even get to feel the warmth of the sun on their backs or breathe fresh air until the day they're loaded onto lorries bound for slaughter.
In this excerpt, the writer discusses how hard it is to transition from being an amateur footballer into a pro.

4. How effective do you find this image in describing how difficult it is to succeed as a professional footballer? (2)

For every first-team player, there are millions of others, like grains of sand on the beach, who have tried, who have dreamt, but who have failed.
This is an excerpt from Prime Minister Winston Churchill's famous speech to the British public during the Blitz in WW2. 

5. How did Winston Churchill use sentence structure to create an effective speech? (4)

We shall not flag or fail. We shall fight in France, we shall fight on seas and oceans, we shall fight with growing confidence and growing strength in the air, we shall defend our island, whatever the cost may be, we shall fight on the beaches, we shall fight on the landing grounds, we shall fight in the fields and in the streets, we shall fight in the hills; we shall never surrender.
This is an excerpt from Bill Bryson's novel 'A Walk in the Woods', in which he prepares to go walking in hills where there will be bears. He is reading about bears to prepare himself.

6. What is the tone, and how is it created? (3)

To ward off an aggressive black bear, the books suggest making a lot of noise, banging pots and pans together, throwing sticks and rocks, and "running at the bear." (Yeah, right. You first, Professor.)
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