Grade 8
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ENGLISH LANGUAGE ARTS / READING
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• SCOPE AND SEQUENCE: Grade 8 Language Arts/Reading uses literary classics in teaching students to analyze literature and recognize literary structures and devices. Writing skills are reinforced through the mechanics of a logical and organized writing process in various types of texts, from personal narrative and poetry to persuasive and expository writing. Course topics include:
• Reading Strategies
• Narrative Writing
• Point of View and Figurative Language
• Wonderful Words; Expository Essay
• Power of Poetry
• Drama; Speaking Your Words
• Informational Texts
• Writing; Research
• Analyzing Text
MATH
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• SCOPE AND SEQUENCE: 8th Grade Math course is designed to help students become High School ready by ensuring they have a firm understanding of middle school mathematical concepts. Course topics include: Algebraic Expressions with Integers; Rational Numbers and Exponents; Applying Irrational Numbers to Pythagorean Theorem; Transformations; Angles and Pairs of Lines; Volume of Circular Solids; Linear Functions; Systems of Linear Functions; Scatter Plots.
• Unit 1 In this unit students study variables and expressions, coefficients, terms, and constants, evaluating algebraic expressions, and algebraic expressions with order of operations. They are introduced to equations, and learn to solve equations by adding and subtracting and by multiplying and dividing. They learn to solve twostep equations and multistep equations. They learn to solve equations with distributive property and with variables on both sides, and they learn to solve special equations.
• Unit 2 In this unit students study rational numbers to decimal expansion, terminating decimals to rational numbers, repeating decimals to rational numbers, and percents to decimals. They explore exponents and bases, powers and exponents, multiplying powers with similar bases, multiplying powers with different bases, and dividing powers with similar bases. They learn about exponents of zero, negative exponents, converting exponential expressions, scientific notation, operations with scientific notation, and scientific notation formats.
• Unit 3 In this unit students learn about perfect squares, irrational numbers, and irrational numbers on the number line. They study cubes, cube roots, cube roots of negative numbers, and learn the Pythagorean Theorem with known legs, the Pythagorean Theorem with an unknown leg, proving the Pythagorean Theorem, and applying converse of Pythagorean Theorem. They further study PT determining right, acute and obtuse triangles, and using PT in the coordinate system.
• Unit 4 In this unit students explore dilations, translations, reflections, and rotations. They study combinations of transformations, congruent polygons, transformations and congruency, determining similarity with transformations, and similarity transformations.
• Unit 5 In this unit students learn about linear pairs of angles, and vertical angles. They explore corresponding angles and parallel lines, alternate interior angles and parallel lines, alternate exterior angles and parallel lines, same side interior angles and parallel lines, angles of parallel lines with algebra, angles and polygons, and similar figures and parallel lines.
• Unit 6 In this unit students study exact and approximate pi, area of circles, and volume of spheres, cylinders, cones, and composite shapes. They also study the Pythagorean Theorem in cones.
• Unit 7 In this unit students learn about relating graphs to events, functions, sequences, slope, unit rate as slope, and comparing proportional relationships. They study graphing linear equations with slope, slope formula, yintercept, graphing lines with slope and yintercept, special linear equations, independent versus dependent variables, and slopes of similar triangles.
• Unit 8 In this unit students learn about solving systems of equations, parallel lines, perpendicular lines, parallel slopes, and perpendicular slopes. They investigate solving systems of equations via elimination, solving RW systems of equations via elimination, solving systems of equations via substitution, and solving RW systems of equations via substitution. They study comparing linear functions, transforming linear functions, quadratic functions, exponential functions.
• Unit 9 In this unit students study clustering, linear association, positive versus negative association, outliers, and nonlinear association. They also learn about modeling data with lines, trend lines in scatter plots, correlation, interpolation vs. extrapolation, categorical data.
LIFE SCIENCE
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• SCOPE AND SEQUENCE: Life Science students study living organisms, including plants, animals, and human beings. Beginning with a review of the basics of science, such as the scientific method, explore life itself, beginning with cellular organization and discussing the organization of living things. Particular emphasis is placed on human biology. Course topics include: The Scientific Method; Science and Nature; The Nature of Life; Plant and Animal Cells; Cell Division; The Six Kingdoms; Protists; Fungus; Plants; Simple Invertebrates Vertebrates; Major Systems of the Human Body; Nutrition.
• Unit 1 – Exploring Science This unit covers the various branches of science, basic science and metric system vocabulary, the scientific method, tools used in science, the microscope, and safety rules and symbols for science. It also includes a lab on chemical color.
• Unit 2 – Science and Nature This unit discusses food webs and chains, the history of life on Earth, evidence of evolution, forest, land, and water biomes, cycles in nature and time, organisms and the environment, and conservation.
• Unit 3 – The Nature of Life, Cells, and Classification of Organisms This unit discusses five basic life processes, the basic needs and the chemistry of living things, cell theory, and levels of organization. Also discussed are the inner and outer parts of plant and animal cells, cell processes and division, and mitosis.
• Unit 4 – Simple Kingdoms and Classification This unit explains what classification is and how it works, introduces the six Kingdoms, discusses characteristics of Viruses, Monerans, and Protists, and describes parts of a Moneran, animallike Protists, and plant and funguslike Protists.
• Unit 5 – Fungi and Plants This unit covers fungus, spotlighting mushrooms, and discusses multicellular algae, land and vascular plants, seeds, leaves and photosynthesis, gymnosperms, angiosperm flower parts, mold and graphing.
• Unit 6 – Simple Invertebrates This unit discusses sponges, cnidarians, mollusks, worms (with a spotlight on earthworms), groups of arthropods, characteristics of insects, echinoderms, and the parts of a starfish. Earthworm and starfish dissection labs are also included.
• Unit 7 – Vertebrate Animals This unit discusses the characteristics of fish, amphibians, reptiles, birds, and mammals. It presents the parts of bony fish and frogs, groups of reptiles, mammals, and placental mammals, types of birds, beaks, and feet, and how to use dichotomous keys. A frog dissection lab is also included.
• Unit 8 – Skeletal and Muscular System This unit discusses types of tissue, characteristics of the skeletal system, bones, skeletal joints, what muscles and the muscular system are, and the muscles of the body.
• Unit 9 – Nutrition This unit discusses the six food groups and the six basic nutrients, as well as the digestive system and its parts.
• Unit 10 – Major Systems of the Body This unit covers the major systems of the body, including the circulatory system, the heart, the blood, and the immune, respiratory, excretory, integumentary, and endocrine systems.
• Unit 11 – The Nervous System and Senses This unit describes the central and peripheral nervous systems, the senses, and the systems of the body.
• Unit 12 – Reproductive System and Genetics This unit discusses the female and male reproductive systems, the history of genetics, probability, heredity, DNA, phases of meiosis, and asexual reproduction.
• Unit 13 – Alcohol, Drugs, and Tobacco This unit discusses drugs, alcohol, and tobacco, including drug prevention.
MIDDLE SCHOOL AMERICAN HISTORY
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• SCOPE AND SEQUENCE: Middle School American History is a thorough course covering early people in the Americas through the period of reconstruction following the civil war. Course topics include: Early People of the Americas; Age of Exploration; Colonization; French and Indian War; Causes of the American Revolution; The American Revolutionary War; The Constitutional Convention; The United States Constitution; The Federal Period; Age of Jackson and Reform Movements; Westward Expansion; Industrial Revolution; The Civil War; Reconstruction
• Unit 1 – Early People of the Americas This unit includes a review of geography and archaeology and discusses the land bridge, the Olmec, the Maya, the Aztec, and the Inca, as well as early North Americans of the North, West, Plains, East, Southeast, and Southwest.
• Unit 2 – Age of Exploration This unit discusses a political world map; why men explore; the growth of ideas; advanced technology; the West African Empires of Ghana, Mali, and Songhai; Portuguese, Spanish and other European explorers; mercantilism; capitalism; and disease and commerce as effects of exploration.
• Unit 3 – Colonization This unit discusses the Spanish conquest and colonization of the Americas, Spain in the Americas, the Columbian Exchange, Roanoke, Jamestown, the quest for religious freedom, the Mayflower Compact, the New England Colonies, the Middle Passage – the slave trade, the Southern Colonies, slavery in Colonial America, the thirteen colonies, and the French and Spanish Colonies.
• Unit 4 – French and Indian War This unit discusses Colonial Life in New England, the Middle Colonies, and the Southern Colonies, colonial government, the clash between Britain and France, the Seven Years' War, the fall of New France, the Treaty of Paris, and the effects of the French and Indian War.
• Unit 5 – Causes of the American Revolution This unit discusses Britain's interests in the Colonies, the Sugar, Stamp, and Townshend Acts, the Boston Massacre and the Boston Tea Party, the Intolerable Acts, and the Continental Congress.
• Unit 6 – The American Revolutionary War This unit covers the battles of Lexington, Concord, and Bunker Hill, the second Continental Congress, the Continental Army, Thomas Paine, Common Sense, American Values, the debate over independence, The Declaration of Independence, loyalists versus patriots, the Patriot Army, defeat on Long Island, a low point for the Patriots, the Battles of Trenton and Saratoga, America's European allies, war in the West and South, victory at Yorktown and postwar details.
• Unit 7 – The Constitutional Convention This unit discusses America's movement toward a republic, the Articles of Confederation, land policies, independence and economics, Shay's rebellion, slavery, the Constitutional Convention, the Virginia and New Jersey Plans, principles of compromise, and the approval of the Constitution.
• Unit 8 – The United States Constitution This unit discusses influences on The United States Constitution; federalists and antifederalists; branches of Federal Government; the adoption of The Constitution; popular sovereignty; republicanism; limited government; federalism; separation of power; checks and balances; and individual rights. Also covered are The Preamble, Article 1: The Legislative Branch, Article II: The Executive Branch, Article III: The Judicial Branch, as well as Constitutional Articles IVVII, the Bill of Rights, the Constitutional Amendments, and citizenship.
• Unit 9 – The Federal Period This unit discusses America's first President – George Washington – as well as the first Congress, the economics of new government, the Whiskey Rebellion, the first political parties – Federalist and Republican – President John Adams, the Alien and Sedition Acts, how Republicans took power when Thomas Jefferson was elected, the Louisiana Purchase, Lewis and Clark, foreign conflicts, the War of 1812, and the Monroe Doctrine.
• Unit 10 – Age of Jackson and Reform Movements This unit discusses James Monroe and the Era of Good Feelings, John Quincy Adams' Presidency, the Spoils system, the tarriff debate, the removal of the Indians and the Trail of Tears, Jackson and the National Bank, how the Whigs took power with William Henry Harrison, American immigrants, religious and educational reform, the Abolitionists, and the Women's Movement.
• Unit 11 – Westward Expansion This unit covers manifest destiny, Oregon Country, mountain men, the difficult life of and tools used by pioneers, Texan independence, the Mexican War, and the California Gold Rush.
• Unit 12 – Industrial Revolution This unit discusses Northern geography and manufacturing, the economics of manufacturing, the Industrial Revolution and the factory, the cotton plantation, the realities of slavery, the increasing importance of cotton farming and the effect this importance had, and a political map of the United States as of 1860.
• Unit 13 – The Civil War This unit discusses slavery and the conflicts between the North and the South, the Fugitive Slave Act, President Abraham Lincoln, the Confederate attack at Fort Sumter, advantages and disadvantages of the North and the South, what it was like to be a soldier, the major battles of the Civil War, the Emancipation Proclamation, the effect of the war on civilians, the Gettysburg Address, the strategy of Total War, the end of the American Civil War, and the effects of this war.
• Unit 14 – Reconstruction This unit discusses plans for reconstruction, the freed African Americans, radical reconstruction, scalawags and carpetbaggers, Rutherford B. Hayes and the end of reconstruction, and the Southern Shift to political change and industrial growth.
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