Oppose the Use of Military Force Against Racial Justice Protests
We, the undersigned academics, denounce in the strongest possible terms the call by the President of the United States and US Senator Tom Cotton (R-Arkansas) to deploy US military troops to disband the protest movements that have spread around the country in reaction to the police killing of George Floyd on May 25. Regardless of any legal authority the President may have, we vehemently disagree with this call to military action for several reasons.

First, the President has employed an overly broad conception of terrorism to include any persons identified as “antifa” or anyone engaged in so-called “looting.” Both descriptors are vague and could easily result in the loss of innocent life. The term “antifa,” for instance, does not identify an organization. It has no official membership, and could describe any individuals or groups defending against violence, including necessary--and legally protected--forms of self-defense. The term “looting” is likewise difficult to define, and the deployment of these terms seem intent on conflating protests with “riots.” Only a small percentage of protestors are engaged in looting or identify as antifa. With the line between looter, “antifa,” and protestor difficult to discern, this could lead to the use of lethal violence against anyone dissenting from police brutality, constituting  a violation of their freedom of speech and assembly. It bears repeating that antifa has never killed anyone, and the prevention of “looting” is also not worth the taking of human life. The fact that these protests involve African American communities, in a society where Blackness and crime are routinely conflated, exacerbates the risk of violence for these citizens.

Indeed, the President and Senator Cotton’s inflammatory statements describe threatening “riots” filled with looters and violent anarchists, in what seems a thinly veiled effort to criminalize these protests in their entirety. Cotton’s call for the military to offer “no quarter,” to show no mercy by threatening anyone the government places in these categories with death, advocates a war crime. The calls for state repression have moved beyond the hypothetical, with hundreds of examples of police brutality in the last few days alone, including the killing of protestors. On June 1, the President ordered that a peaceful and legal protest in Lafayette Park in Washington D.C. be attacked with tear gas and rubber bullets.

Second, militaries are not trained for peacekeeping in civilian contexts, which have wholly distinct dynamics and rules of engagement than war zones. Deploying military tactics in inflamed contexts to “keep the peace” with ambiguous and expansive definitions of “the enemy” holds the potential for significant casualties. These risks are evident to almost anyone with relevant expertise and training. Indeed, Trump’s own Secretary of Defense Mark Esper has criticized Trump’s call to invoke the Insurrection Act for the use of active duty military to quash civilian protests.

Third, such rhetoric also courts the deeper involvement of pro-Trump militias, many of whom are heavily armed, poorly trained, subscribe to white nationalist ideologies, and may react to what they perceive as an official call to violence in support of their leader. Trump’s belligerent tweets, amplified by the media, create a direct line of communication to millions of supporters in a tense moment of social unrest and media confusion, adding fuel to a smoldering fire. This is heightened when many supporters see their leader in political peril and may believe that violent repression of protests will serve his political interests. Some heavily armed right-wing militias have already taken to the streets in order to confront protestors.

Rather than use inflammatory rhetoric and launch a misguided military invasion that will only further escalate violence, lead to loss of innocent life, violate core civil and human rights, and continue to polarize our citizenry and undermine democracy, we urge all police departments--in concert with local, city, and state governments--to engage in meaningful dialogue, which involves humbly listening to the protestors and taking their demands seriously.

It is imperative to do whatever we can to prevent an exacerbation of what are already deeply troubling patterns of violence inflicted on Black bodies by police. These new calls seem to have the express intent on destroying the autonomous forms of organizing in these communities as well as preventing other organizations from joining their peaceful and democratic movements for social change.

For these reasons, we call on all public officials to denounce these incitements to violence and embrace dialogue in civil society to address deeply rooted social inequalities.


Nicholas Copeland, Sociology, Virginia Tech
Shannon Bell, Sociology, Virginia Tech,
Marian Mollin, History, Virginia Tech
Christine Labuski, Women’s and Gender Studies, Virginia Tech
Whitney Hayes, Virginia Tech, Sociology
Ashley Reichelmann, Virginia Tech, Sociology
Sarah Ovink, Sociology, Virginia Tech
Sharon Johnson, Director, Women’s and Gender Studies, Virginia Tech
Wornie Reed, Director of the Race and Social Policy Center, Sociology, Virginia Tech
David Brunsma, Virginia Tech, Sociology
Emily Satterwhite, Appalachian Studies, Religion and Culture, Virginia Tech
James Hawdon, Chair of Sociology, Virginia Tech
Stephanie Quiles-Ramos, Sociology, Virginia Tech
C.J. Micelli, Sociology, Virginia Tech
Christine McCown, Sociology, Virginia Tech
Amanda Burroughs, Sociology, Virginia Tech
C.L. Bohannon, Landscape Architecture, Virginia Tech
Trevor Jamerson, Sociology, Virginia Tech
Ellen Moodie Anthropology, University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign
Matthew Gabriele Virginia Tech
Stuart Kirsch Anthropology, University of Michigan
Carrie Seay Fleming Sociology, University of Colorado
Melissa Faircloth Sociology, Virginia Tech
Karen Kovaka Philosophy, Virginia Tech
Neal King Virginia Tech
Steve Striffler UMass Boston
Nicole Fabricant Towson University
Jodi O'Brien Sociology, Seattle University
Mubbashir Rizvi Georgetown University
Susan Pearce
Santiago Bastos CIESAS, México
Biko Agzino Virginia Tech
Liana Lewis Virginia Tech
Ronda Brulotte University of New Mexico
Matthew Heaton History, Virginia Tech
Nusrat S Chowdhury Anthropology, Amherst College
Ronald Walter Greene Communication Studies, University of Minnesota
Mauro J. Caraccioli, Political Science Virginia Tech
Alicia Cohen Virginia Tech
Clare Sammells Anthropology, Bucknell University
Ashleigh Bingham Director of the LGBTQ+ Resource Center, Virginia Tech
Deborah Gewertz Anthropology, Amherst College
Mary E Stuckey Penn State
Robert Elliot Mills Communication Arts and Sciences, The Pennsylvania State University
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Lea Helou Virginia Tech
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Jordan Fox Besek SUNY Buffalo
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Tom Ewing Virginia Tech
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Muriel Lederman Emerita, Virginia Tech
Amanda Morrison Sonoma State University
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Jennifer Guzmán Anthropology, SUNY Geneseo
Randall Morris Portland State University
Erin Bransford Portland State university
Lindsay Edwards Chicago Medical School
Carol Spector University of San Francisco
Steve Estes Sonoma State University
Alison Sibol Mathematics Department, Virginia Tech
Heidi Iverson, Ph.D North Seattle College
Ashley Shew STS, Virginia Tech
Shana Minkin University of the South
Nicole Coffey Kellett University of Maine Farmington
Jaclyn Nadeau University at Albany
Lisa Liseno Florida State University
Maggie Rosenau University of Colorado Denver
Tristan Harty Barnstable
Louisa Rice History, University of Wisconsin, Eau Claire
Rachael Stryker Human Deveopment/Women's Studies, CSU East Bay
Zoila Mendoza University of California, Davis
Joseph Steele University of Colorado
Robert H. Rice University of California Davis
Jonathan London UC Davis
Ines Hernandez-Avila University of California, Davis
Caren Kaplan UC Davis
Kathryn Komorek Appalachian State University
James Igoe Anthropology, University of Virginia
Britland Tracy University of Colorado-Boulder
Pam Stalker Berkley City College
Chris Hebdon Yale University
Jill Schepmann University of San Francisco
Stefano Varese UC Davis
Conerly Casey Rochester Institute of Technology
Patricia Taber University of California, Santa Barbara
Pellegrino Antonio Luciano American University of Kuwait
Chloe Grigsby, Comparative Cultures & Politics Michigan State University
Diane Savarese Rush University
Beth Baron City University of New York
 O. Matthew Odebiyi The University of Alabama
Sarah Glasco Elon University
Charles Walker UC Davis
Julia Gruber Tennessee Tech University
Bhuvana Srinivasan Virginia Tech
Nancy Ryoo University of San Francisco
Melissa Forbis Brooklyn College CUNY
Megan Wawro Virginia Tech
Steve Falconer Anthropology, University of North Carolina Charlotte
Brooke Persons Anthropology, University of Tennessee at Chattanooga
Jennifer Erickson Anthropology, Ball State University
Richard Stahler-Sholk Eastern Michigan University
Monica Williams
Annie Y. Patrick Virginia Tech
Brian Wright University of North Texas
Elena Nava Morales Instituto de Investigaciones Sociales - UNAM
Melissa Fore Michigan State University
Adrienne Pine American University
Franklin R. Lucas Reading Area Community College
Shelly Biesel University of Georgia
Helen Schneider History, Virginia Tech
Kathryn Randall University of Colorado Boulder
Randolph Haluza-DeLay The King's University
Cydney Seigerman University of Georgia
Janet Abbate Virginia Tech
Matthew Wisnioski Virginia Tech
Megan Farrer University of Georgia
Christine Bailey Western Carolina University
Margaret Sallee University at Buffalo
Leslie R Lewis Urban Studies and Planning Dept, UC San Diego
Marcianna Nosek Nursing & Health Professions, University of San Francisco
Elsheba Abraham Virginia Tech
Jacob Weger University of Georgia
Krista McQueeney University of Wisconsin-Whitewater
Jill Kelly Moore Santa Rosa Junior College
Alayne Unterberger Florida Institute for Community Studies
Nora Haenn North Carolina State University
Jeanne Hall University of Oregon
Walker DePuy University of Georgia
Brian Williams Geosciences, Mississippi State University
Emari DiGiorgio Stockton University
Michelle Ausman Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute
Michael Rosino Molloy College
Gretchen Sneegas Geography, Texas A&M University
Sara Shneiderman University of British Columbia (US citizen in Canada)
R. Tougas Portland State University
Patricia Waters Colorado College
Kathleen Coll U. of San Francisco
Michael Bailey Bowling Green State University
Michael James-Deramo Virginia Commonwealth University
Alison Buck Eastern Kentucky University
Aaron Ansell Virginia Tech
Sirida Srisombati University of Nevada Las Vegas
Peter P. C. Carlson California Lutheran University
Katelyn Dembowski UC Hastings College of the Law, California Lutheran University
Christina Steele Stockton University
Michelle Pribbernow University of Arkansas
M. Ruth Dike University of Kentucky
Jennifer A. Devine Texas State University
Christian Pridemore Marshall University
Ronald Mize Oregon State University
Adam Schwartz Oregon State University
Kathryn McIntosh Oregon State University
Ajay Kumar Koli Pune Institute of Business Management
Celeste Henery
Stephanie Seery-Murphy Sacramento State University
Liam Murphy California State University Sacramento
Stephanie Jenkins Oregon State University
Stephanie Seery-Murphy Sacramento State University
Maria Elisa Christie Center for International Research, Education, and Development, Virginia Tech
Lauren Marsh University of Pittsburgh
Gisela Lanzas California State University, Northridge
Faran saeed Oregon State
Monica Mellini Montgomery College
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