Unit 23: Cladistics (initial)
This Knowledge Audit will gauge your understanding of the material for the "Cladistics" unit before instruction begins. Your teacher will use the information to modify, change and improve instruction as suggested by the results. Please answer each question accurately and honestly. You are scored for on time completion of the assignment, not how much you know.
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Syllabus Statements
For each statement below, indicate your level of confidence and knowledge about the statement using the following scale:
1. Very poor: you've never heard of this topic or idea.
2. Poor: you've heard this, but couldn't tell share any detailed information about it.
3. Fair: you remember the basic information about this topic or idea.
4. Good: you remember details and examples about this topic or idea.
5. Very good: you could teach others about this topic or idea.
5.3.U6: In a natural classification, the genus and accompanying higher taxa consist of all the species that have evolved from one common ancestral species *
Define natural classification. List two difficulties in determining the natural classification of species.
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5.3.U8: Natural classification helps in identification of species and allow the prediction of characteristics shared by species within a group *
Explain two specific advantages of natural classification.
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5.4.U1: A clade is a group of organisms that have evolved from a common ancestor *
Define clade and cladistics.
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5.4.U5: Cladograms are tree diagrams that show the most probable sequence of divergence in clade *
Define cladogram and node. Outline how computer programs analyze biological sequence data to create cladograms. Identify members of clades given a cladogram.
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5.4.A1: Cladograms including human and other primates *
Interpret a cladogram depicting primate species.
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5.4.S1: Analysis of cladograms to deduce evolutionary relationships *
Analyze a cladogram to explain the evolutionary relationship between species. Discuss the use of cladograms as hypotheses of evolutionary relationships.
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5.4.U2: Evidence for which species are part of a clade can be obtained from the base sequences of a gene or the corresponding amino acid sequence of a protein *
Outline the relationship between time, evolutionary relationships and biological sequences (nitrogenous base or amino acid).
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5.3.U7: Taxonomists sometimes reclassify groups of species when new evidence shows that a previous taxon contains species that have evolved from different ancestral species *
List two situations in which the reclassification of a species may be necessary. Outline an example of a species (or group of species) which were reclassified when new evidence was discovered.
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5.4.U6: Evidence from cladistics has shown that classifications of some groups based on structure did not correspond with the evolutionary origins of a group or species *
Outline the role of technological advancements in the development of cladistics. Explain why the development of cladistics lead to the reclassification of some species.
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5.4.A2: Reclassification of the figwort family using evidence from cladistics *
Outline the reason and evidence for the reclassification of the figwort family.
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5.4.NOS: Falsification of theories with one theory being superseded by another- plant families have been reclassified as a result of evidence from cladistics *
Outline the reason why biological theories may change with time.
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5.4.U3: Sequence differences accumulate gradually so there is a positive correlation between the number of differences between two species and the time since they diverged from a common ancestor *
State the source of differences between biological sequences (nitrogenous base or amino acid). Outline the use of a “molecular clock” to determine time since divergence between two species.
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5.4.U4: Traits can be analogous or homologous *
Contrast analogous and homologous traits. State an example of analogous and homologous traits.
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D.1.A1: Production of ascorbic acid by some mammals, but not others that need a dietary supply *
State the function of ascorbic acid, Vitamin C.Analyze a cladogram based on the mutations in the GLO gene, used in Vitamin C synthesis. Outline the cause, symptoms and treatment of scurvy.
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D.1.NOS: Falsification of theories with one theory being superseded by another—scurvy was thought to be specific to humans, because attempts to induce the symptoms in laboratory rats and mice were entirely unsuccessful. *
Based on cladistics, explain why some animals are poor models for the study of scurvy.
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