Unit 18: Complex Genetics (initial)
“This Knowledge Audit will gauge your understanding of the material for the "Complex Genetics" unit before instruction begins. Your teacher will use the information to modify, change and improve instruction as suggested by the results. Please answer each question accurately and honestly. You are scored for on time completion of the assignment, not how much you already know.”
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Syllabus Statements
For each statement below, indicate your level of confidence and knowledge about the statement using the following scale:
1. Very poor: you've never heard of this topic or idea.
2. Poor: you've heard this, but couldn't tell share any detailed information about it.
3. Fair: you remember the basic information about this topic or idea.
4. Good: you remember details and examples about this topic or idea.
5. Very good: you could teach others about this topic or idea.
10.2.A1: Completion and analysis of Punnett squares for dihybrid traits. *
Determine possible allele combinations in gametes for crosses involving two genes. Use correct notation to depict a dihybrid cross between two unlinked genes. Construct a Punnett square to show the possible genotype and phenotype outcomes in a dihybrid cross.
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Very Good
10.2.S1: Calculation of the predicted genotypic and phenotypic ratio of offspring of dihybrid crosses involving unlinked autosomal genes. *
Determine the predicted genotype and phenotype ratios of F1 and F2 offspring of dihybrid crosses.
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10.2.S3: Use of chi-squared test on data from dihybrid crosses. *
Calculate a chi-square value to compare observed and expected results of a dihybrid genetic cross. Using the df and critical chi-square values, determine if there is a significant difference between observed and expected results of a dihybrid cross.
Very Poor
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3.4.S2: Comparison of predicted and actual outcomes of genetic crosses using real data. *
Explain the reason why the outcomes of genetic crosses do not usually correspond exactly with the predicted outcomes. Describe the role of statistical tests in deciding whether an actual result is a close fit to a predicted result.
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10.2.U5: Chi-squared tests are used to determine whether the difference between an observed and expected frequency distribution is statistically significant. *
State the two possible hypotheses of a statistical test. Calculate the chi square value to determine the significance of differences between the observed and expected results of a genetic cross. Determine the degrees of freedom and critical value for the chi-square test. Draw a conclusion of significance by comparing the calculated and critical chi-square values.
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10.1.NOS: Making careful observations- careful observations and record keeping turned up anomalous data that Mendel's Law of Independent Assortment could not account for. Thomas Hunt Morgan developed the notion of linked genes to account for the anomalies. *
Describe the experiment of Bateson and Punnett that lead to results that did not support Mendel's Law of Independent Assortment. Describe the trends and discrepancies that led Morgan to propose the idea of linked genes.
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10.2.A2: Morgan's discovery of non-Mendellian ratios in Drosophila. *
Describe the trends and discrepancies that led Morgan to propose the idea of linked genes.
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10.2.U2: Gene loci are said to be linked if on the same chromosome. *
Define autosome and sex chromosome. Describe what makes genes "linked".
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10.2.S2: Identification of recombinants in crosses involving two linked genes. *
Use correct notation to show alleles of linked genes. Construct a Punnett square to show the possible genotype and phenotype outcomes in a dihybrid cross involving linked genes. Explain how crossing over between linked genes can lead to genetic recombinants.
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10.2.U4: The phenotypes of polygenic characteristics tend to show continuous variation. *
Explain polygenic inheritance using an example of a two gene cross with codominant alleles. State that a normal distribution of variation is often the result of polygenic inheritance. State two example human characteristics that are associated with polygenic inheritance.
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10.2.A3: Polygenic traits such as human height may be influenced by environmental factors. *
Outline two example environmental factors that can influence phenotypes. Compare continuous to discrete variation.
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