Accommodations Survey for Student Name

The purpose of this survey is to increase dialogue among students, parents, special education teachers, and general educations on the efficient and effective use of accommodations. The information is based on Nebraska Guidelines for Accommodations.
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    What are accommodations?

    Accommodations do not reduce learning expectations. Accommodations are intended to reduce or even eliminate the effects of a student's disability. Accommodations and modifications are different. Modifications refer to practices that change, lower, or reduce learning expectations.

    Directions:

    This survey contains definitions of 32 different accommodations. Please read the definitions. If you think the accommodation would significantly reduce and/or eliminate the effects's of the students disability please choose Yes. If you think the accommodation would not significantly reduce and/or eliminate the effects's of the students disability please choose No.

    Presentation Accommodations

    A student with a learning disability affecting one or more of these areas may benefit from presentation accommodations: auditory and/or visual perception and processing, abstract reasoning, long or short term memory, mathematical calculation, and executive functioning (planning and time management).

    Large Print

    Large print editions of instructional materials are required for some students with visual impairments. It is recommended that regular print materials be manipulated to reformat and enlarge or change the font as needed. All text and graphic materials—including labels and captions on pictures, diagrams, maps, charts, exponential numbers, notes, and footnotes—must be presented in at least 18-point type or larger based on the needs of each individual student. It is important for the print to be clear, with high contrast between the color of the print and the color of the background. When using large-print classroom material, consider the weight, size, and awkwardness of books. Large-print books are now available that look very similar to the same books in standard print.
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    Magnification Devices

    Regular print materials may be enlarged by using magnification devices. These include eyeglass-mounted magnifiers, free standing or handheld magnifiers, enlarged computer monitors, or computers with screen enlargement programs. Some students also use Closed Circuit Television (CCTV) to enlarge print and display printed material with various image enhancements on a screen.
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    Sign Language

    Sign language interpreters may be required for students who are deaf or hard of hearing. Some students may need all print materials interpreted while learning to read print. Interpreters need to be able to translate in the same method of sign language typically used by the student (e.g., American Sign Language, Signed Exact English, Cued Speech).
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    Braille

    Braille is a method of reading a raised-dot code with the fingertips. Not all students who are blind read Braille fluently or use Braille as their primary mode of reading. Even if they use it as their primary mode of reading, Braille users should also build skills in using audiotape, compact discs, and speech synthesis. NIMAS requirements ensure that textbook publishers make specialized formats (Braille, large print, audio, and digital) available.
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    Audiotape, Compact Disk or other recording devices.

    Instructional materials can be prerecorded on an audio cassette or compact disk (CD), or other recording devices that a student accesses by listening. Classroom directions, assignments, and lectures could also be recorded.
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    Tactile Graphics

    Tactile graphic images provide graphic information through touch instead of sight. Graphic material (e.g., maps, charts, graphs, diagrams, illustrations) is presented in a raised format (paper or thermoform). Tactile sensitivity (recognizing graphic images through touch) is less discriminating than visual reading, making many diagrams too complicated to understand without significant additional information. Additional information can be created through word descriptions.
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    Human Reader

    A qualified person may be provided to read orally to students who are unable to decode text visually. Readers may not clarify, elaborate, or provide assistance to students. Readers need to be familiar with the terminology and symbols specific to the content. This is especially important for high school mathematics and science. Graphic materials may be described but should also be made available in print or tactile formats. A student should have the option of asking a reader to slow down or repeat text.
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    Books on Tape or CDs

    Books on Tape/CD, a service provided by Recordings for the Blind and Dyslexic, is available to students and schools. Using a toll-free number , people may borrow textbooks for a specified period of time. A special tape player may also be needed.
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    Recorded Books

    Recorded Books are produced on tape, CD, or may be downloaded to and MP3 player. This material may be borrowed from libraries or purchased from bookstores. Many online bookstores also carry recorded books, making access even easier. Some of the tapes contain the  full  book  and  some  are  abridged  (e.g.,  Reader’s  Digest  version).  These  tapes  play  on   standard cassette or CD players. Tapes or CDs for children often include a book for following along. Students who can see print may want to obtain a print copy of a taped book to follow along.
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    Audio Amplification Devices

    Some students may use audio amplification devices in addition to hearing aids to increase clarity. Individual and classroom FM systems are available.
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    DVDs

    Many books have been made into movies, giving students a visual and auditory way to access literature.
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    Descriptive Video

    Descriptive video is a descriptive narration of key visual elements, making television programs, feature films, home videos, and other visual media accessible to people who are visually impaired. Key visual elements include actions, gestures, facial expressions, and scene changes. Inserted within the natural pauses in dialogue, audio descriptions of important visual details help to engage viewers with the story.
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    Screen Reader

    A screen reader is a computer application that converts text to synthesized speech or to Braille (read with an auxiliary Braille display). Computer literacy is essential for screen reader use. Screen reading software allows students to listen to text as it is displayed on a computer screen. Students can choose to listen to any text multiple times. Some products work by having a student lay a page on a scanner. When a student activates the machine, it reads the text aloud using an optical character recognition (OCR) system. Mathematic formulas are normally displayed on screen as graphics that cannot be read by a screen reader.
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    Talking Materials

    Many classroom materials are now available with auditory components. These include calculators,  “talking”  clocks,  thermometers,  timers,  and  voltmeters.
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    Response Accommodations

    Response accommodations can benefit students with physical, sensory, or learning disabilities. Students with disabilities may require response accommodations to help with memory problems, the sequencing of events, and the organization of thoughts.

    Scribe

    A scribe is someone who writes down what a student dictates using an assistive communication device, pointing, sign language, or speech. A scribe may not edit or alter student work in any way and must record word for word exactly what the student has dictated. Scribes should request clarification from the student about the use of capitalization, punctuation, and spelling key words, and must allow the student to review and edit what the scribe has written.
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    Word Processor or Computer

    A student types on a word processor or computer keyboard. This option may increase a student’s  independence  and  reduce  the  need  for  a  scribe.  Research  has  found  that  stu- dents who are very familiar with computers and have good keyboarding skills com- plete better work on computers than by handwriting. Assistive technology that can be used for typing includes customized keyboards, mouth/ headstick/pointing devices, sticky keys, touch screen, and trackball.
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    Brailler

    A Brailler is a Braille keyboard used for typing Braille that can then be printed in standard print or Braille (embosser). Students must be proficient in the use of Braille to successfully use the Brailler which is similar to a typewriter or computer keyboard. Paper is inserted into the Brailler and multiple keys are pressed at once, creating Braille dots with each press. Through an alternative computer port, newer Braillers can simultaneously act as a speech synthesizer that reads the text displayed on the screen when paired with a screen reading program.
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    Note Takers

    Students may have another student take notes that can be photocopied for both students to use. Portable note-taking devices are small, lightweight devices equipped with a Braille or typewriter-style keyboard for input and synthetic voice. Some note takers also contain a Braille display (between 18 and 40 characters) for output. Note takers are excellent tools for recording notes in school, at home, or at work. They often have additional features such as a calculator and a calendar function. Newer models have a built-in modem, which allows the user to access e-mail as well as surf the Web. When these models are connected to a PC, files can be exchanged or information can be sent from the note taker to a Braille embosser or to an ink printer. When linked to a computer using a screen reader, note takers equipped with a Braille display can act as a Braille output device.
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    Tape Recorder

    A student uses a tape recorder to verbally record class work rather than writing on paper.
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    Speech to Text

    Voice recognition may be used to dictate text into the computer or to give commands to the computer (e.g., opening application programs, pulling down menus, or saving work). Continuous speech voice recognition allows students to dictate text fluently into the computer. These new applications can recognize speech at up to 160 words per minute. While these systems do give students system control, they are not yet hands- free.
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    Word Lists, math and science formulas, etc.

    Word banks, scientific words, vocabulary words, math and science formulas will support comprehension, computations and laboratory experiences for students with memory problems and/or organizational skills.
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    Materials or Devices Used to Solve or Organize Responses

    Calculation Devices

    If  a  student’s  disability  affects  mathematics  calculation  but  not  reasoning,  a  calculator   or other assistive device (e.g., abacus, arithmetic table, manipulatives, or number chart) may be used. It is important to determine whether the use of a calculation device is a matter of convenience or a necessary accommodation. Calculators may be adapted with large keys or voice output (talking calculators). In some cases, an abacus may be useful for students when mathematics problems are to be calculated without a calculator. The abacus can function as paper and pencil for students with visual impairments.
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    Spelling and Grammar Devices

    Pocket spell checkers may be useful to some students. Students enter an approximate spelling and then see or hear the correct spelling or correct use of a word. Computer spell-check, grammar check, or dictionaries are also helpful.
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    Visual Organizers

    Visual organizers include graph paper, highlighters, place markers, scratch paper, and templates. If students are not allowed to write in books owned by the school, photocopying parts of written text allows a student to use a highlighter and write in the margins.
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    Graphic Organizers

    Graphic organizers help students arrange information into patterns in order to organize their work and stay focused on the content. Graphic organizers are especially helpful for writing reports and essays. Semantic mapping software is now available to enable students to understand a narrative story or writing elements through graphics.
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    Other Response Accommodations

    Will the student's completion of activities, assignments, and/or assignments significantly benefit from the following accommodations?
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    Setting, Timing and Scheduling Accommodations

    Setting accommodations can benefit students who are easily distracted in large group settings and who concentrate best in a small group or individual setting. Changes in location also benefit students who receive accommodations (e.g. reader, scribe, frequent breaks) that might distract other students. Students with physical disabilities might need a more accessible location, specific room conditions, or special equipment.

    Setting Accommodations

    Reduce Distractions to student

    To reduce distractions, allow a student to do individual work in a different location. Changes  may  also  be  made  to  a  student’s  location  within  a  room.  For  example,  a  student who is easily distracted may not want to sit near windows, doors, or pencil sharpeners. Sitting near the teacher’s  desk  or  in  the  front  of  a  classroom  may  be  helpful   for some students. Study carrels might also be helpful for students who are easily distracted. Students with low vision may prefer to sit in the part of a room that has the best light. Some students concentrate best while wearing noise buffers such as ear- phones, earplugs, or headphones.
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    Reduce Distractions to Others

    Some students use accommodations that may distract other students. In addition, some students might perform better when they can read and think out loud or make noises that may distract other students. Distractions to other students are reduced by using these accommodations in individual settings.
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    Change Locations

    Occasionally a setting might be changed to increase physical access for a student. Other students may need equipment that requires specific locations for learning. Students should be able to access any room or space on the school grounds used by students in general.
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    Timing and Scheduling Accommodations

    Extended Time

    Extended  time  may  require  a  student’s  IEP  team  to  determine  a  fairly  specific  amount  of   extra time to complete assignments. A standard extension may be time and one half, or double time allotted to disabled persons. Decisions should be made on a case-by-case basis.
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    Multiple or Frequent Breaks

    Extended  time  may  require  a  student’s  IEP  team  to  determine  a  fairly  specific  amount  of   extra time to complete assignments. A standard extension may be time and one half, or double time allotted to disabled persons. Decisions should be made on a case-by-case basis. Breaks may be given at predetermined intervals, after completion of assignments, or after activities. Sometimes a student is allowed to take breaks when individually needed. Some- times assignments are divided into shorter sections so students can take a break between. If the length of a break is predetermined, a timer might be used to signal the end of the break.
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    Change Schedule or Order of Activities

    If possible, activities that require focused attention should be scheduled at the time of day when a student is most likely to demonstrate peak performance. Students may be allowed to complete activities over multiple days—completing a portion each day. This is usually done to reduce fatigue.
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