ANONYMOUS QUESTIONNAIRE
Social demographics
A. Age *
Your answer
B. 1. What is your position in the sport of football? *
Nationality *
Defining match-fixing
The definition of match-fixing underpinning this survey is as follows: Match-fixing is not identical to corruption and/or manipulation of sport competitions through financial means and/or possibly peer pressure and the threat of physical violence. Instead, it includes various combinations of financial and non-financial factors that shape the motivations of the parties involved. In the spirit of sport and fair competition the outcome of a sports match should be achieved only through the maximum commitment and will to win on the part of each of the competing parties. Thus, match-fixing can be defined as any intentional act or omission which produces a sporting result that is inconsistent with the actual capabilities of a player or a team; it covers any act or omission which can have an influence on the outcome of a sporting encounter.
SECTION I
Perception/Phenomenon of match-fixing in the sport of football
Q1.A In your opinion, how serious is the phenomenon/problem of match-fixing in your country: (Professional level): *
low
high
Q1.B In your opinion, how serious is the phenomenon/problem of match-fixing in your country (Amateur level): *
low
high
Q2.1.A What is, in your opinion, the percentage of players involved/participating in match-fixing (Professional level) *
Q2.1.B What is, in your opinion, the percentage of players involved/participating in match-fixing (Amateur leverl) *
Q2.2.A What is, in your opinion, the percentage of other stakeholders involved/participating in match-fixing (Professional level) *
Q2.2.B What is, in your opinion, the percentage of other stakeholders involved/participating in match-fixing (Amateur level) *
Q3.In your opinion, which of the following factors – or combinations thereof – are mostly responsible for match-fixing:
• Organized crime *
(Professional level)
low
high
• Organized crime *
(Amateur level)
low
high
• Club complicity, i.e., lack of strict policies against match-fixing *
(Professional level)
low
hight
• Club complicity, i.e., lack of strict policies against match-fixing *
(Amateur level)
low
high
• Greed of some players/coaches/staff members *
(Professional level)
low
high
• Greed of some players/coaches/staff members *
(Amateur level)
low
high
• Economic problems of some players *
(Professional level)
low
high
• Economic problems of some players *
(Amateur level)
low
high
• Gambling addiction of some players/coaches/staff members *
(Professional level)
low
high
• Gambling addiction of some players/coaches/staff members *
(Amateur level)
low
high
• External pressures on players (e.g. financial rewards, peer pressure) *
(professional level)
low
high
• External pressures on players (e.g. financial rewards, peer pressure) *
(Amateur level)
low
high
• Lack of integrity in the world of sports in general *
(Professional level)
low
high
• Lack of integrity in the world of sports in general *
(Amateur level)
low
high
• Lack of serious sanctions and their enforcement *
(Professional level)
low
High
• Lack of serious sanctions and their enforcement *
(Poziom amatorski)
low
high
• Lack of good sports governance and regulations *
(Professional level)
low
high
• Lack of good sports governance and regulations *
(Amateur level)
low
high
• General lack of ethical standards across the whole society *
(Professional level)
low
high
• General lack of ethical standards across the whole society *
(Amateur level)
low
high
P4. In your opinion, what are the most important consequences of match-fixing?
• Erosion of trust in sport in general *
low
high
• Damage to the spirit of sports *
low
high
• Damage to club loyalty *
low
high
SECTION II - Prevalence and extent of match-fixing
Q5.1a. Have you ever been engaged in match-fixing? *
Q5.1b. Have you ever been approached to be engaged in match-fixing? *
Q5.1c. Have you ever noticed someone being engaged in match-fixing in your league? *
Q6. To what extent do you believe match-fixing is a problem in your league? *
low
high
Q7. Which football stakeholder group do you think may be involved in and/or responsible for match-fixing in your league?
Player *
low
high
Coach *
low
high
Referee *
low
high
Club Management/Staff *
low
high
External Influence *
low
high
SECTION III - Motivations for match-fixing
Q8. In your opinion, what are the main reasons that lead players or any other stakeholder in football to get involved in match-fixing? Are they primarily:
• Financial incentives (e.g., bribery, betting) *
low
high
• Non-financial incentives (a) (e.g., blackmail, intimidation, external pressure, physical threats) *
low
high
• Non-financial incentives (b) (e.g., peer pressure, the need for acceptance in a group, weakness of character) *
low
high
• Non-financial incentives (c) (e.g., barter, i.e., the “exchange” of a beneficial result in a cup match for the outcome of a league match) *
low
high
• Sports-related reasons (e.g., individual sporting success, career advancement) *
low
high
Q9. In your opinion, what is the monetary threshold that would motivate a player or any other football stakeholder to engage in match-fixing in your league? *
SECTION IV - Systematic aspects of match-fixing
Q10. If you were approached with the intention/request to engage in match-fixing how would you react? *
If yes please specify which authorities
Your answer
Which way would you follow in reporting?
Q11. What should be the criminal law and sports disciplinary consequences for players, stakeholders, and football clubs involved in match-fixing?
Q12. In your opinion, what are the most effective ways/interventions to combat the practice of match-fixing?
• Improving currently existing regulations and laws, in particular strengthening penalties
low
high
• Improving information and communication with education and awareness-raising activities across all football stakeholders on risks and penalties, as well as broader negative implications (e.g., permanent reputation damage).
low
high
• Encouraging football players and other stakeholders to report any evidence or indication of match-fixing.
low
high
• Appointing or electing a sports ombudsman.
low
high
• Appointing or electing a league-level integrity officer.
low
high
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