Is your dog an Einstein or a Charmer? For US $60, a recently-founded company called Dognition will help you learn more about your dog’s cognitive traits. It offers an online test telling you about thebrain behind the bark.
Dognition’s test measures a dog’s intellect in several aspects—from empathy to memory to reasoning skills. But don’t expect it to measure your pet’s IQ. Dr. Hare, one of the venture’s co-founders,says a dog’s intelligence can’t be described with a single number. Just as humans have a wide range of intelligences, so do dogs. The question is what type your dog relies on more.
After you plunk your money down, Dognition’s website will take you through a questionnaire about your dog: For example, how excited does your dog get around other dogs, or children? Do fireworks scare your pup? Then, Dognition guides you through tests that are as fun as playing fetch or hide-and-seek. At the end, you get a report of your dog’s cognitive profile.
Your dog could fall into one of nine categories: Ace, Stargazer, Maverick, Charmer, Socialite,Protodog, Einstein, Expert, or Renaissance Dog. That can give you something to brag about on Dognition’s Facebook page. It also can shed new light on why dogs do the things they do. For example, a Charmer is a dog that trusts you so much that it would prefer to solve problems using information you give it rather than information it can get with its own eyes.
Dognition helps people understand their dogs in ways that they have never been able to do. This new understanding can enrich the relationship between dogs and their owners.
41. What is the third paragraph mainly about?
(A) The theory behind the questionnaire used in the Dognition test.
(B) The procedure for evaluating a dog’s intellect on Dognition.
(C) The products one can get by paying a fee to Dognition.
(D) The characteristics of the activities Dognition offers.
42. According to the passage, which of the following statements is true?
(A) Different dogs display strengths in different intelligences.
(B) A dog’s cognitive profile is composed of nine cognitive skills.
(C) The purpose of Dognition’s testing is to control a dog’s behavior.
(D) A dog’s intelligence can be ranked based on the score of a Dognition’s test.
43. Which of the following is closest in meaning to the word “venture” in the second paragraph?
(A) Creative measurement.
(B) Risky attempt.
(C) Non-profit organization.
(D) New business.
44. According to the passage, what would a Charmer most likely do?
(A) Stay away from people whenever possible.
(B) Imitate how other dogs solve problems.
(C) Rely on its owner to point out where a treat is.
(D) Follow its own senses to get what it wants.
第 45 至 48 題為題組
Capoeira is a martial art that combines elements of fight, acrobatics, drumming, singing, dance, and rituals. It involves a variety of techniques that make use of the hands, feet, legs, arms, and head. Although Capoeira appears dancelike, many of its basic techniques are similar to those in other martial arts.
Capoeira was created nearly 500 years ago in Brazil by African slaves. It is believed that the martial art was connected with tribal fighting in Africa, in which people fought body to body, without weapons, in order to acquire a bride or desired woman. In the sixteenth century, when the Africans were taken from their homes to Brazil against their will and kept in slavery, Capoeira began to take form among the community of slaves for self-defense. But it soon became a strong weapon in the life-or-death struggle against their oppressors. When the slave owners realized the power of Capoeira, they began to punish those who practiced it. Capoeiristas learned to camouflage the forbidden fights with singing, clapping, and dancing as though it were simply entertainment.
At first, Capoeira was considered illegal in Brazil. However, a man known as Mestre Bimba devoted a great deal of time and effort to convincing the Brazilian authorities that Capoeira has great cultural value and should become an official fighting style. He succeeded in his endeavor and transformed the martial art into Brazil’s national sport. He and Mestre Pastinha were the first to open schools, and the Capoeira tree grew, spreading its branches across the world. Nowadays, it is performed in movies and music clips. Capoeira is also believed to have influenced several dancing styles like breaking and hip-hop.
45. What is the passage mainly about?
(A) The history of Capoeira.
(B) The values of Capoeira.
(C) The contribution of Capoeira.
(D) The techniques of Capoeira.
46. Which of the following will probably NOT be found in the performance of Capoeira?
(A) Singing with drums.
(B) Sweeping with the legs.
(C) Stabbing with swords.
(D) Striking with the hands.
47. What is the author’s attitude toward Capoeira as a sport?
48. According to the passage, which of the following statements is true about Capoeira?
(A) It was greatly influenced by modern dancing styles.
(B) It was initially created as a type of dance and ritual.
(C) It was mainly performed to protect a bride or desired woman.
(D) It was officially recognized in Brazil through the effort of Mestre Bimba.
第 49 至 52 題為題組
Winslow Homer (1836-1910) is regarded by many as the greatest American painter of the nineteenth century. Born and raised in Boston, he began his career at age eighteen in his hometown, working as an apprentice at a printing company. Skilled at drawing, he soon made a name for himself making illustrations for novels, sheet music, magazines, and children’s books.
He then moved to New York City, where he worked as a freelance illustrator with Harper’s Weekly, a popular magazine of the time, and began painting. Homer was assigned to cover the inauguration of President Lincoln and, later, the Civil War. His pictures of the Union troops won international recognition. Homer moved to England and, after a two-year stay, returned to America. He settled permanently in Maine in 1883.
From the late 1850s until his death in 1910, Winslow Homer produced a body of work distinguished by its thoughtful expression and its independence from artistic conventions. A man of multiple talents, Homer excelled equally in the arts of illustration, oil painting, and watercolor. Many of his works—depictions of children at play and in school, farm girls attending to their work, hunters and their prey—have become classic images of nineteenth-century American life. Others speak to more universal themes such as the primal relationship of humans to nature.
This two-week exhibition highlights a wide and representative range of Homer’s art. It shows his extraordinary career from the battlefields, farmland, and coastal villages of America, to the North Sea fishing village of Cullercoats, the rocky coast of Maine, the Adirondacks, and the Caribbean. The exhibition offers viewers an opportunity to experience and appreciate the breadth of his remarkable artistic achievement.
49. Where does this passage most likely appear?
(A) On an ad featuring contemporary arts.
(B) On a website of an art gallery.
(C) In a booklet on American-born British artists.
(D) In an encyclopedia on the art of printing.
50. Which of the following is true about Homer’s career?
(A) He achieved international fame with his vivid paintings of England.
(B) He is considered the greatest illustrator in the history of American art.
(C) He is better known for his watercolors than his illustrations and oil paintings.
(D) He first established his reputation as an illustrator in his hometown of Boston.
51. According to the passage, which of the following best characterizes Homer’s art?
(A) His pictures vividly portrayed the life of nineteenth-century Americans.
(B) His art thoughtfully expressed the voices of people suffering from war.
(C) His style faithfully conformed to the artistic traditions of his time.
(D) His paintings constantly reflected his desire to escape from society.
52. What does “Others” in the third paragraph refer to?
(A) Other artists.
(B) Other themes.
(C) Other works.
(D) Other images.
第 53 至 56 題為題組
Tea, the most typical English drink, became established in Britain because of the influence of a
foreign princess, Catherine of Braganza, the queen of Charles II. A lover of tea since her childhood in Portugal, she brought tea-drinking to the English royal court and set a trend for the beverage in the seventeenth century. The fashion soon spread beyond the circle of the nobility to the middle classes, and tea became a popular drink at the London coffee houses where people met to do business and discuss events of the day. Many employers served a cup of tea to their workers in the middle of the morning, thus inventing a lasting British institution, the “tea break.” However, drinking tea in social settings outside the workplace was beyond the means of the majority of British people. It came with a high price tag and tea was taxed as well.
Around 1800, the seventh Duchess of Bedford, Anne Maria, began the popular practice of “afternoon tea,” a ceremony taking place at about four o’clock. Until then, people did not usually eat or drink anything between lunch and dinner. At approximately the same time, the Earl of Sandwich popularized a new way of eating bread—in thin slices, with something (e.g., jam or cucumbers) between them. Before long, a small meal at the end of the afternoon, involving tea and sandwiches, had become part of the British way of life.
As tea became much cheaper during the nineteenth century, its popularity spread right through all corners of the British society. Thus, tea became Britain’s favorite drink. In working-class households, it was served with the main meal of the day, eaten when workers returned home after a day’s labor. This meal has become known as “high tea.”
Today, tea can be drunk at any time of the day, and accounts for over two-fifths of all beverages consumed in Britain—with the exception of water.
53. How is this passage organized?
(A) By cause and effect.
(B) In the order of importance.
(C) In the sequence of time.
(D) By comparison and contrast.
54. What does the phrase “a lasting British institution” in the first paragraph mean?
(A) The most popular British organization.
(B) A long-standing tradition in the UK.
(C) The last tea company in London.
(D) A well-established British business.
55. According to the passage, why was tea NOT a common drink of everyday life in the seventeenth century?
(A) It was only served at coffee houses in London.
(B) It was taxed as an alcoholic drink.
(C) It was forbidden outside of the business setting.
(D) It was too expensive for most people.
56. According to the passage, which of the following is true?
(A) High tea was served later in the day than afternoon tea in the nineteenth century.
(B) British people had tea breaks twice a day in the eighteenth century.
(C) Princess Catherine brought tea to England after visiting Portugal.
(D) The Earl of Sandwich started the afternoon tea ceremony.
1. 玉山(Jade Mountain)在冬天常常覆蓋著厚厚的積雪，使整個山頂閃耀如玉。
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