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In this excerpt, the writer discusses how immigration has shaped modern societies.

1. Explain in your own words the “two things” which, according to the writer, “all of these immigrant populations . . . have in common”. (2)

The early Italians found the route to Glaswegian hearts through their stomachs as they set up chains of chip shops and ice-cream parlours; the Chinese, too, helped the local palate become rather more discerning when they began to arrive in numbers half a century ago.

All of these immigrant populations have two things in common: they were economic migrants and their effect on their adopted homeland has been, almost without exception, a beneficial one. 
In this excerpt, the writer discusses his love of libraries.

2. Explain how the sentence “My love affair … in the Fifties” acts as a link in the passage. (2)

The internet search engine Google, with whom I spend more time than with my loved ones, is planning to put the contents of the world’s greatest university libraries online, including the Bodleian in Oxford and those of Harvard and Stanford in America. Part of me is ecstatic at the thought of all that information at my fingertips; another part of me is nostalgic, because I think physical libraries, book-lined and cathedral-quiet, are a cherished part of civilization we lose at our cultural peril.

My love affair with libraries started early, in the Drumchapel housing scheme in the Fifties. For the 60,000 exiles packed off from slum housing on the city’s outer fringe, Glasgow Council neglected the shops and amenities but somehow remembered to put in a public library – actually, a wooden shed. That library was split into two – an adult section and a children’s section. 
This is an excerpt from a speech by Martin Luther King, as part of the larger civil rights campaign for racial equality in America in the 1960s.

3. How does Martin Luther King use word choice to convey the suffering of African Americans? (2)

I am not unmindful that some of you have come here out of great trials and tribulations. Some of you have come fresh from narrow jail cells. And some of you have come from areas where your quest - quest for freedom - left you battered by the storms of persecution and staggered by the winds of police brutality. You have been the veterans of creative suffering. Continue to work with the faith that unearned suffering is redemptive. Go back to Mississippi, go back to Alabama, go back to South Carolina, go back to Georgia, go back to Louisiana, go back to the slums and ghettos of our northern cities, knowing that somehow this situation can and will be changed.
In this excerpt, the writer discusses how the UK government's approach to immigration is too harsh.

4.  How does the writer use imagery to convey a common “misconception” about refugee numbers in the UK? (2)

At the heart of this ever more draconian approach to immigration policy lie a number of misconceptions. The UK is not a group of nations swamped by a tidal wave of immigration. Relatively speaking, Europe contends with a trickle of refugees compared with countries who border areas of famine, desperate poverty, or violent political upheaval. 
This is an excerpt from an article about why we shouldn't regulate information on the internet, and why we should learn to filter out what's useful or true by ourselves. 

5. How is sentence structure used to convey the writer's feelings about how we should deal with the varying quality of information we find online? (2)

So bring on the fake news; bring on the slosh of sentiment; bring on the wildfires of anger and accusation. They are windows into the interior worlds of other human beings. Let us learn to see what lives there and make our own judgements. Let us learn to navigate, as we do in the spoken word, in the printed word and in our own lives. Let us learn to think for ourselves.
This is an excerpt from Greta Thunberg's famous speech to the UN urging them to act on climate change.

6. What is the tone, and how is it created? (2)

“How dare you? You have stolen my dreams and my childhood.” 
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