Chapter 17: From Gene to Protein Practice MCQ's (Campbell's Biology, 9e)
Multiple Choice

Identify the letter of the choice that best completes the statement or answers the question.
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Which of the following variations on translation would be most disadvantageous for a cell? *
2 points
Garrod hypothesized that "inborn errors of metabolism" such as alkaptonuria occur because *
2 points
Garrod's information about the enzyme alteration resulting in alkaptonuria led to further elucidation of the same pathway in humans. Phenylketonuria (PKU) occurs when another enzyme in the pathway is altered or missing, resulting in a failure of phenylalanine (phe) to be metabolized to another amino acid: tyrosine. Tyrosine is an earlier substrate in the pathway altered in alkaptonuria. How might PKU affect the presence or absence of alkaptonuria? *
2 points
The nitrogenous base adenine is found in all members of which group? *
2 points
A particular triplet of bases in the template strand of DNA is 5' AGT 3'. The corresponding codon for the mRNA transcribed is *
2 points
The genetic code is essentially the same for all organisms. From this, one can logically assume which of the following? *
2 points
The "universal" genetic code is now known to have exceptions. Evidence for this can be found if which of the following is true? *
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Which of the following nucleotide triplets best represents a codon? *
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Which of the following provides some evidence that RNA probably evolved before DNA? *
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Which of the following statements best describes the termination of transcription in prokaryotes? *
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Which of the following does not occur in prokaryotic eukaryotic gene expression, but does in eukaryotic gene expression? *
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RNA polymerase in a prokaryote is composed of several subunits. Most of these subunits are the same for the transcription of any gene, but one, known as sigma, varies considerably. Which of the following is the most probable advantage for the organism of such sigma switching? *
2 points
Which of the following is a function of a poly-A signal sequence? *
2 points
In eukaryotes there are several different types of RNA polymerase. Which type is involved in transcription of mRNA for a globin protein? *
2 points
Transcription in eukaryotes requires which of the following in addition to RNA polymerase? *
2 points
A part of the promoter, called the TATA box, is said to be highly conserved in evolution. Which of the following might this illustrate? *
2 points
The TATA sequence is found only several nucleotides away from the start site of transcription. This most probably relates to which of the following? *
2 points
What is a ribozyme? *
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A transcription unit that is 8,000 nucleotides long may use 1,200 nucleotides to make a protein consisting of approximately 400 amino acids. This is best explained by the fact that *
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During splicing, which molecular component of the spliceosome catalyzes the excision reaction? *
2 points
Alternative RNA splicing *
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In the structural organization of many eukaryotic genes, individual exons may be related to which of the following? *
2 points
In an experimental situation, a student researcher inserts an mRNA molecule into a eukaryotic cell after he has removed its 5' cap and poly-A tail. Which of the following would you expect him to find? *
2 points
Use the following model of a eukaryotic transcript to answer the next few questions.
5' UTR E1 I1 E2 I2 E3 I3 E4 UTR 3'
Which components of the previous molecule will also be found in mRNA in the cytosol? *
2 points
When the spliceosome binds to elements of this structure, where can it attach? *
2 points
Which of the following is a useful feature of introns for this model? *
2 points
Suppose that exposure to a chemical mutagen results in a change in the sequence that alters the 5' end of intron 1 (I1). What might occur? *
2 points
Suppose that an induced mutation removes most of the 5' end of the 5' UTR. What might result? *
2 points
A particular triplet of bases in the coding sequence of DNA is AAA. The anticodon on the tRNA that binds the mRNA codon is: *
2 points
Accuracy in the translation of mRNA into the primary structure of a polypeptide depends on specificity in the: *
2 points
What is the function of GTP in translation? *
2 points
A mutant bacterial cell has a defective aminoacyl synthetase that attaches a lysine to tRNAs with the anticodon AAA instead of the normal phenylalanine. The consequence of this for the cell will be that: *
2 points
There are 61 mRNA codons that specify an amino acid, but only 45 tRNAs. This is best explained by the fact that: *
2 points
Which of the following is the first event to take place in translation in eukaryotes? *
2 points
Which of the following is a function of a signal peptide? *
2 points
When translating secretory or membrane proteins, ribosomes are directed to the ER membrane by: *
2 points
An experimenter has altered the 3' end of the tRNA corresponding to the amino acid methionine in such a way as to remove the 3' AC. Which of the following hypotheses describes the most likely result? *
2 points
The process of translation, whether in prokaryotes or eukaryotes, requires tRNAs, amino acids, ribosomal subunits, and which of the following? *
2 points
When the ribosome reaches a stop codon on the mRNA, no corresponding tRNA enters the A site. If the translation reaction were to be experimentally stopped at this point, which of the following would you be able to isolate? *
2 points
What is the function of the release factor (RF)? *
2 points
When the function of the newly made polypeptide is to be secreted from the cell where it has been made, what must occur? *
2 points
Suppose that a mutation alters the formation of a tRNA such that it still attaches to the same amino acid (phe) but its anticodon loop has the sequence AAU that binds to the mRNA codon UUA (that usually specifies leucine leu). *
2 points
Why might a point mutation in DNA make a difference in the level of protein's activity? *
2 points
In the 1920s Muller discovered that X-rays caused mutation in Drosophila. In a related series of experiments in the 1940s, Charlotte Auerbach discovered that chemicals–she used nitrogen mustards–have a similar effect. A new chemical food additive is developed by a cereal manufacturer. Why do we test for its ability to induce mutation? *
2 points
Which of the following types of mutation, resulting in an error in the mRNA just after the AUG start of translation, is likely to have the most serious effect on the polypeptide product? *
2 points
What is the effect of a nonsense mutation in a gene? *
2 points
A frameshift mutation could result from: *
2 points
Which of the following DNA mutations is the most likely to be damaging to the protein it specifies? *
2 points
Which small-scale mutation would be most likely to have a catastrophic effect on the functioning of a protein? *
2 points
The most commonly occurring mutation in people with cystic fibrosis is a deletion of a single codon. This results in: *
2 points
Which of the following mutations is most likely to cause a phenotypic change? *
2 points
If a protein is coded for by a single gene and this protein has six clearly defined domains, which number of exons below is the gene likely to have? *
2 points
Which of the following statements is true about protein synthesis in prokaryotes? *
2 points
Of the following, which is the most current description of a gene? *
2 points
Gene expression in the domain Archaea in part resembles that of bacteria and in part that of the domain Eukarya. In which way is it most like the domain Eukarya? *
2 points
Which of the following is true of transcription in domain Archaea? *
2 points
In comparing DNA replication with RNA transcription in the same cell, which of the following is true only of replication? *
2 points
In order for a eukaryotic gene to be engineered into a bacterial colony to be expressed, what must be included in addition to the coding exons of the gene? *
2 points
When the genome of a particular species is said to include 20,000 protein-coding regions, what does this imply? *
2 points
Art Questions: The following question refers to this figure of a simple metabolic pathway:
According to Beadle and Tatum's hypothesis, how many genes are necessary for this pathway? *
2 points
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A mutation results in a defective enzyme A. Which of the following would be a consequence of that mutation? *
2 points
If A, B, and C are all required for growth, a strain that is mutant for the gene-encoding enzyme A would be able to grow on which of the following media? *
2 points
If A, B, and C are all required for growth, a strain mutant for the gene-encoding enzyme B would be capable of growing on which of the following media? *
2 points
The following questions refer to this table of codons.
A possible sequence of nucleotides in the template strand of DNA that would code for the polypeptide sequence phe-leu-ile-val would be: *
2 points
What amino acid sequence will be generated, based on the following mRNA codon sequence?5' AUG-UCU-UCG-UUA-UCC-UUG 3' *
2 points
A peptide has the sequence NH2-phe-pro-lys-gly-phe-pro-COOH. Which of the following sequences in the coding strand of the DNA could code for this peptide? *
2 points
Use this representation to answer the following questions. DNA template strand 5' ____________________________ 3' DNA complementary strand 3' ____________________________ 5'
Given the locally unwound double strand above, in which direction does the RNA polymerase move? *
2 points
In the transcription event of the previous DNA, where would the promoter be located?Untitled Question *
2 points
The following information should be used for the next few questions. A part of an mRNA molecule with the following sequence is being read by a ribosome: 5' CCG-ACG 3' (mRNA). The following charged transfer RNA molecules (with their anticodons shown in the 3' to 5' direction) are available. Two of them can correctly match the mRNA so that a dipeptide can form.
The dipeptide that will form will be: *
2 points
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The anticodon loop of the first tRNA that will complement this mRNA is: *
2 points
What type of bonding is responsible for maintaining the shape of the tRNA molecule? *
2 points
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The figure represents tRNA that recognizes and binds a particular amino acid (in this instance, phenylalanine). Which codon on the mRNA strand codes for this amino acid? *
2 points
The tRNA shown in the figure has its 3' end projecting beyond its 5' end. What will occur at this 3' end? *
2 points
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