Chapter 3: The Asian Contribution
TERMS:
• Chinese calligraphy (pages 35-43)
• Logograms (page 35)
• Chiaku-wen: bone-and-shell script (page 35)
• Oracle bones (pages 34-35)
• Chin-wen: bronze script (pages 35-37)
• Hsiao chuan: small seal style (pages 34 and 37)
• Chen-shu or kai-shu: regular style (page 37)
• Album of Eight Leaves (page 37)
• Paper (page 39)
• Relief printing (pages 39-47)
• Chop (page 40)
• Woodblock printing (pages 42-43)
• Diamond Sutra (pages 42-43)
• Dharani (pages 42-43)
• Paper money (page 43)
• Pen Ts’ao (pages 44-45)
• Playing cards (page 45)
• Movable type (pages 46-47)

PEOPLE AND PLACES:
• Ancient China (page 35)
• Cangjie (page 35)
• Emperor Shihuangdi (page 37)
• Prime Minister Li Si (page 37)
• Cai Lun (page 39)
• Japan (page 41)
• Emperess Shotoku (page 41)

1. Three innovations developed by the ancient Chinese that changed the course of human events are listed below. Which does NOT belong?
1 point
2. Chinese legend says that __________ was inspired to invent Chinese writing by the claw marks of birds and foot prints of animals. Like ancient Egyptian hieroglyphs, he made pictures of things in nature that were highly stylized and composed of a minimum number of lines. The Chinese sacrificed the realism found in hieroglyphs for more abstract designs.
1 point
3. Chinese calligraphic writing consists of __________, graphic signs that represent an entire word. There is no direct relationship between the spoken and written Chinese languages. Written Chinese was never broken down into syllabic or alphabetic signs for elementary sounds.
1 point
4. The earliest Chinese writing is called chiaku-wen, or______________. It was incised on tortoise shells and the flat shoulder bones of large animals called oracle bones, and closely bound to the art of divination: to fortell the future by communication with gods or dead ancestors.
1 point
5. The next phase of Chinese calligraphy was chin-wen, or ____________, which consisted of inscriptions on cast-bronze objects including food vessels, musical instruments, weapons, coins, and seals. Messages were inscribed in the casting molds to preserve answers received from gods and ancestors, and it was also used for treaties, laws and contracts.
1 point
6. Many different Chinese writing styles were unified under the powerful emperor Shihuangdi. His prime minister Li Si designed the new writing style called hsaiochuan, or “small-seal” style. Though the emperor’s rule was brutal, how did this benefit China?
1 point
7. The final step in the evolution of Chinese writing is chen-shu (also kai-shu, or “regular” style). The painting _______________ shows how vividly descriptive strokes with the bamboo brush join calligraphy and painting, poem and illustration, into a unified communication.
1 point
8. Cai Lun, a high government official, is credited with the invention of _______ in 105 CE. His process for making writing substrates from natural fibers continued almost unchanged until Industrial Age manufacturing.
1 point
9. The chop is a traditional Chinese identification stamp made by carving calligraphic characters into a flat surface of jade, silver, gold, or ivory and imprinted on paper in black or red ink. The stamp became the fundamental technique that led to the development of __________.
1 point
10. Another theory about the origins of printing focuses on the practice of making __________ from inscriptions carved in stone.
1 point
11. The oldest surviving printed manuscript is the ____________. It consists of seven sheets of paper pasted together in a scroll. Six sheets of text convey Buddha’s teachings; the seventh is a complex linear woodcut of the Buddha and his disciples.
1 point
12. During the eighth century, Chinese culture and the Buddhist religion spread to Japan where the empress Shotoku decreed one million copies of Buddhist __________ (charms) be printed and placed inside miniature pagodas and distributed – presumably to lengthen her life and ensure entrance to paradise.
1 point
13. The Japanese had no writing system until the adoption of Chinese writing from about the 5th century on. Though the languages are spoken different, much of Chinese writing can be read and understood by Japanese. Since the Han Dynasty, the meanings of some kanji words have changed in modern Chinese. Today, Japanese writing uses a combination of kanji, phonetic characters, and logograms for foreign words. What does the Japanese term “kanji” mean literally?
1 point
14. China became the first society in which ordinary people were in daily contact with printed images. In addition to block prints of religious images and texts, ___________ began to be designed and printed around 1000 CE due to a shortage of metal currency.
1 point
15. In the tenth or eleventh century, stitched books were developed: two pages of text were printed from one block; the sheet was folded down the middle, then the sheets were gathered and sewn to make a codex-style book. The _________________ was an illustrated book on Chinese herbal medicine that was printed in this manner.
1 point
16. Another early form of Chinese graphic design and printing was ____________. These “sheet dice” were first printed on heavy paper cards at about the time paged books were replacing manuscript scrolls.
1 point
17. When making a woodblock print in China, the wood around each character is painstakingly cut away. Around A.D. 1045, the Chinese alchemist Pi Sheng extended this process by developing the concept of __________, an innovative printing process that was never widely used in Asia because the sheer number of` characters made the process too tedious.
1 point
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