Advanced Placement Courses
PARENT INFORMATION NOT REQUIRED IF THE STUDENT IS OVER THE AGE OF 18
AP English Language and Composition
Unit 1 - In this unit, students learn about ethos, pathos, and logos, and about the rhetorical triangle. They learn about the SOAPSTone method of analysis, and about logical fallacies, and inductive versus deductive reasoning. They study important terminology and how to annotate a text, and explore how and why we read text.
Unit 2 - In this unit students learn about narration. They focus on this concept while reading "Graduation" by Maya Angelou, "Salvation" by Langston Hughes, and "Me Talk Pretty One Day" by David Sedaris.
Unit 3 - In this unit students focus on description. They explore this concept while reading "The Death of the Moth" by Virginia Woolf, "Listening" by Eudora Welty, "The Stunt Pilot" by Annie Dillard, and "Once More to the Lake" by E.B. White.
Unit 4 - In this unit students explore process analysis. They practice this concept while reading "On Keeping a Notebook" by Joan Didion, "Learning to Read and Write" by Frederick Douglass, "Learning to Read" by Malcom X, and "On Dumpster Diving" by Lars Eighner.
Unit 5 - In this unit students learn how to evaluate examples. They practice applying this concept while reading "The Declaration of Independence" by Thomas Jefferson, "The Inheritance of Tools" by Scott Russell Sanders, "Aren't I a Woman?" by Sojourner Truth, and "Cars and Their Enemies" by James Q. Wilson.
Unit 6 - In this unit students discover how to evaluate definitions. They apply this skill while reading "How to Tame a Wild Tongue" by Gloria Anzaldua, "On Being a Cripple" by Nancy Mairs, "On Being Black and Middle Class" by Selby Steele, and "Notes of a Native Speaker" by Eric Liu.
Unit 7 - In this unit students explore classifications. They practice this concept while reading "The Ways We Lie" by Stephanie Ericsson, "Mother Tongue" by Amy Tan, "I Just Wanna Be Average" by Mike Rose, and "There Is No Unmarked Woman" by Deborah Tannen. Following this unit students are presented with the Mid-Term Review and Exam.
Unit 8 - In this unit students learn to compare and contrast. They practice this skill while reading "The Allegory of the Cave" by Plato, "Where I Lived, and What I Lived For" by Henry David Thoreau, "Lost in the Kitchen" by Dave Barry, and "Aria: Memoir of a Bilingual Childhood" by Richard Rodriguez.
Unit 9 - In this unit students learn to recognize cause and effect. They focus on this concept while reading "Why Don't We Complain?" by William F. Buckley, "The Morals of the Prince" by Niccolo Machiavelli, "Just Walk on By: Black Men and Public Space" by Brent Staples, and "Television: The Plug-In Drug" by Marie Winn.
Unit 10 - In this unit, students explore argument and persuasion. They observe this concept while reading "Letter From Birmingham Jail" by Martin Luther King Jr., "The Gettysburg Address" by Abraham Lincoln, and "Declaration of Sentiments and Resolutions" by Elizabeth Cady Stanton.
Unit 11 - In this unit, students learn the process of rhetorical analysis. They observe examples of this process based on texts from previous AP exams including Alfred Green 2003; Coca Cola vs. Grove Press 1998; Benjamin Banneker 2010; Pink Flamingo Price 2006; and MagnaSoles 2005.
Unit 12 - In this unit students continue to study the process of rhetorical analysis. They review examples from texts of previous AP exams including Environmentalists vs. People First 2009; Immigration 2003B; Making a Home in a Restless World 2007; Abigail Adams 2014; and Caesar Chavez 2015.
Unit 13 - In this unit, students study different types of argumentative writing. They learn to defend, challenge, qualify, and develop a position. They go through the process of rhetorical analysis by studying texts from previous AP exams including Humorists 2010; Adversity vs. Talent 2009; Certainty vs. Doubt 2012; Corporate Sponsor 2008; Incentivizing Charity 2007; Ownership vs. Self-Identity 2013; Buy Nothing Day 2010B; Average Man 2011B; Teaching Creativity 2014; and Polite Speech 2015.
Unit 14 - In this unit, students identify how a take a position piece differs from an identify factors piece. They learn about and experience the process of writing synthesis pieces. They practice synthesis analysis using texts from previous AP exams including Locovore Movement 2011; Advertising Synthesis 2007; Space Exploration 2009; and Monuments 2013. They also evaluate some student writing to identify what makes an excellent essay.
Unit 15 - Students focus on skills to help them score well on a variety of multiple-choice questions. Question topics include main idea, inference, rhetorical questions, diction, grammar, form, tone or attitude, purpose, and footnote. They also identify strategies that will empower them to “play to their strengths,” and they discuss the most effective passage order for the exam.
AP English Literature and Composition
Unit 1 - Students begin this unit with an introduction to reading fiction responsively. They next discuss vocabulary, practicing syntax and diction. They explore plot through reading “Three Girls” by Joyce Carol Oates. They expand their vocabulary and read and analyze “A Rose for Emily” by William Faulkner. They explore characterization, and then read and analyze “Saving Sourdi“ by May-Lee Chai. With further vocabulary development, students then read and analyze “A&P” by John Updike.
Unit 2 - In this unit students explore setting. They work on vocabulary through reading “Soldier's Home” by Ernest Hemingway. Next, they discuss and analyze “Christmas 1910” by Robert Butler. They revisit "A Rose for Emily," discussing setting and exploring point of view. Finally they review vocabulary and analyze “The Lady with the Pet Dog” by Anton Chekhov and “Roselily” by Alice Walker.
Unit 3 - In this unit students explore symbolism, and read and discuss “Clothes” by Chitra Banerjee Divakaruni and “The Hand” by Colette. They explore literary theme as they revisit “A&P.” They explore style, tone, and irony, and study “Popular Mechanics” by Raymond Carver. They discuss vocabulary and analyze “Story of an Hour” by Kate Chopin. The read “Everyday Use” by Alice Walker, and use it to learn how to put the elements of a story together.
Unit 4 - In this unit students discuss strategies for answering questions about fiction on the AP Exam. They study prompt diagnosis and element selection. They explore how to write a fiction analysis, including the introduction, body paragraph, and conclusions. They explore chronological and topical organization, and read and analyze "The Street" by Ann Petry, "Kiss of the Fur Queen" by Tomson Highway, and "The Other Paris" by Mavis Gallant.
Unit 5 - In this unit students learn to read poetry responsibly and study poetry terms they need to know. They learn the device for poetry analysis known as TP-CASTT, and explore word choice, word order, and tone. They read and practice TP-CASTT on “Those Winter Sundays” by Robert Hayden, “Mountain Graveyard” by Robert Morgan, and “A Narrow Fellow in the Grass” by Emily Dickinson.
Unit 6 - Students begin this unit by reading and analyzing “To the Virgins” by Robert Herrick and “To His Coy Mistress” by Andrew Marvell. They read and analyze “London” by William Blake, “Root Cellar” by Theodore Roethke, “Cavalry Crossing a Ford” by Walt Whitman, and “To Autumn” by John Keats.
Unit 7 - In this unit students start with an exploration of inferring literary devices such as figurative language, and then read and analyze “You Fit into Me” by Margaret Atwood, and “The Author to Her Book” by Anne Bradstreet. They discover symbolism, allegory, and irony, and read and analyze “Acquainted with the Night” by Robert Frost, “The Haunted Palace” by Edgar Allan Poe, and “Richard Cory” by Edwin Arlington Robinson. They learn to identify and interpret rhyme scheme and types of meter, revisiting “Richard Cory” and “Acquainted with the night” as examples.
Unit 8 - In this unit students learn about poetic forms, and discuss and analyze the sonnets “The World is Too Much With Us” by William Wordsworth, and “Do Not Go Gentle Into That Dark Night” by Dylan Thomas. They study the epigram “Theology” by Paul Laurence Dunbar, and the elegy, “Elegy for my Father” by Andrew Hudgins. They learn about the ode by revisiting “To Autumn" and by reading and analyzing ”Mending Wall” by Robert Frost, “Shall I Compare Thee to a Summer’s Day” by William Shakespeare, and “Traveling Through the Dark” by William Stafford. This unit is followed by the mid-term exam.
Unit 9 - In this unit students discuss strategies for answering the poetry questions they will encounter on the AP Exam. They learn about prompt diagnosis and element selection, then move on to writing poetry analyses, including the introduction, the body paragraph, and the conclusion. They discuss chronological and topical organization of poetry, and learn to compare and contrast poetry organization. They review examples of comparing and contrasting poetry using the “block” and the “point-by-point” methods. They read and analyze "Century Quilt" and "An Echo Sonnet," and learn about comparing and contrasting reading in poetry analysis.
Unit 10 - In this unit students study the drama “A Raisin in the Sun” by Lorraine Hansberry. They begin with a thorough study of drama analysis and continue with an introduction to the three acts of the play. They systematically analyze the play, gaining an in-depth understanding of setting, plot, characters, symbols, and theme.
Unit 11 - In this unit students study the play “Hamlet” by William Shakespeare. They begin by reading and interpreting of the play’s five acts, and go on to analyze its plot, setting, characters, symbols, and theme.
Unit 12 - In this unit students explore the novel “As I Lay Dying” by William Faulkner. They begin with a discussion of what to look for as they read three sections of the novel, and then analyze the elements of the book, including characters, symbols, setting, plot, and theme.
Unit 13 - In this unit students continue their study of analyzing symbols , plot, setting, characters, and theme, while investigating the classic novel “Huck Finn,” by Mark Twain. They begin the unit with an in-depth review the book, discussed in six sections, after which they delve into the elements of the story.
Unit 14 - In this unit students study how to answer an open response question, which they will be required to do on the AP Exam. They discuss how to diagnose the prompt they will receive, as well as selecting works, organizing their answer, and writing the introduction, the body, and the conclusion. In addition, they discus the order of writing an essay response.
Unit 15 - In this unit students discuss the Multiple Choice section of the AP Exam. They review different types of questions and develop strategies for answering them well. Typical topics of questions include main idea, inference, rhetorical questions, diction, and language, as well as grammar, structure, and meter. Students also discuss general strategies for passing this section, as well as how to determine the best order in which to complete the various passages of the exam. This unit is followed by the final exam.
AP Calculus AB
Unit 1 - Pre-Calculus Review In this unit students discuss parent functions, polynomial – power functions, and trigonometric functions. The study radical, rational, inverse, logarithmic, and exponential functions, and polynomial inequalities.
Unit 2 - Limits and Continuity In this unit students learn about computations of limits, indeterminate forms, limits to infinity, and proving continuity. They discuss intermediate value theorem, and types of discontinuity.
Unit 3 - Derivatives Part 1 In this unit students explore average versus instantaneous velocity, and the tangent of y=x2 and of y=1/x. They learn about the general rule of the derivative, derivatives of constant and linear functions, the power rule for derivatives, and combination rules: sum and difference, product rule, and quotient rule.
Unit 4 - Derivatives Part 2 In this unit students investigate tangent and normal lines, and approximating values of functions using local linearization, local linearity and differentiability. They explore derivatives of trigonometric functions, product and quotient rules with trigonometric and algebraic functions, numerical derivative with a calculator, predicting what f'(x) looks like graphically, and the graph of the derivative (calculator based).
Unit 5 - Derivatives Part 3 In this unit students study the chain rule and chain rule activity, and velocity of a particle in motion. They investigate acceleration with analysis, implicit differentiation: the differential method and the y’ method.
Unit 6 - Derivatives Part 4 In this unit students discuss the derivative of the exponential function, inverse functions and derivatives, properties of logarithms, and derivative of the logarithmic functions. They study logarithmic differentiation, combination rules, and derivatives of inverse trigonometric functions. Following this unit students are presented with the Mid-Term Review and Exam
Unit 7 - Derivatives Part 5 In this unit students learn about analysis using first and second derivatives, and absolute extrema. They discuss optimization problems, related rates, and mean value theorem for derivatives.
Unit 8 - Anti-Differentiation Part 1 In this unit students explore anti-differentiation, the chain rule and anti-differentiation, U-substitution, anti-derivatives with initial conditions, and particle motion. They learn about exponential growth, decay and Newton’s law of cooling, slope fields, and slope fields with initial value problems.
Unit 9 - Anti-Differentiation Part 2 In this unit students investigate definite integrals, the fundamental theorem of calculus, approximate area using numerical methods, and Riemann Sums – midpoint. They explore net area, definite integrals with calculator, properties of the definite integral, U-substitution with definite integrals, and the velocity/position connection.
Unit 10 - Anti Differentiation Part 3 In this unit students study numerical approximations: the trapezoid rule. They investigate area under a curve, area of a region between two curves, and the average rule.
Unit 11 - Anti-Differentiation Part 4 In this unit students discuss volumes of solids of revolution: the disc, washer, and shell methods. They study volume of solids with known cross sections, arc length and surfaces of revolution, integration to find surface area, work problems, and liquid pressure and fluid force.
Unit 12 - Anti-Differentiation Part 5 In this unit students review integrals and learn about integration by parts, Newton’s Method, indeterminate forms and L'Hopital’s Rule, and inverse trigonometric integrals. They discuss velocity, acceleration, and preparing for the AP Calculus AB Exam. Following this unit students are presented with the Final Review and Exam, which completes this course and their preparation for the AP Calculus AB Exam.
AP Calculus AB Exam Prep
Prep Course Consists of short, concise lessons
Presents problems modeled after those given in previous AP Calculus AB Exams
Provides may different types of problems, some requiring an analytical (algebraic) approach, others requiring numerical analysis or a graphical solution
Covers both multiple choice and free-response types of problems
Incorporates both calculator active and non-calculator active types of problems
Provides helpful strategies to be used when taking the AP Calculus AB Exam
Includes information on exam grading
Contains suggestions on how to make final preparations prior to taking the exam
Gives students extra confidence going into the exam
AP Calculus BC
Unit 1 - Techniques of integration This unit includes the chain rule, u-substitution, expanding, separating the numerator, completing the square, dividing, adding and subtracting terms, trig identities, integration by parts, trig integrals, trig substitution, partial fractions, L’Hopital’s Rule, improper integrals, and Euler’s Method.
Unit 2 - Sequences and series This unit discusses sequences, telescoping series, integral test and p-series, and alternating series, direct and limit comparison tests, ratio and root tests, Taylor Polynomials and Taylor’s Theorem, power series, and Taylor series for familiar functions.
Unit 3 - Parametric Equations This unit covers derivatives and second derivatives of parametric equations, arc length, polar coordinates including area and arc length, and derivatives of polar functions.
Unit 4 - Vectors This unit discusses dot and cross products, vector valued functions, differentiation, integrations, velocity, and acceleration.
Unit 5 - AP Practice This unit provides practice with problems such as those encountered on the AP Calculus BC exam.
Unitt 1 - In this unit, students learn about what statistics are and how the information they learn will help them. They discuss data, bar graphs, and pie charts, two-way tables, dotplots, stemplots, and histograms. They also study measuring center and measuring spread, and look at sample Free-Response Advance Placement Exam Problems (F.R.A.P.P.Y's).
Unit 2 - In this unit students learn about measuring position, transforming data, density curves, and standard normal distribution. They explore normal distribution calculations, assessing normality, and more F.R.A.P.P.Y's.
Unit 3 - In this unit students discuss explanatory/response variables and scatterplots, measuring linear association: correlation, least-squares regression, and line and residual plots. They also investigate S and r2 in regression, and interpreting computer regression output.
Unit 4 - In this unit, students study simple random sampling, sampling methods, sample surveys, and what can go wrong with them. They also learn about observational study versus experiment, how to experiment well, what things can go wrong with experiments. In addition, they learn about blocking and the challenges of establishing causation.
Unit 5 - In this unit students explore probability, myths about randomness, simulation, and the basic rules of probability. They also discuss tables, rules, and diagrams, as well as the general multiplication rule, tree diagrams, and a special multiplication rule.
Unit 6 - In this unit, students investigate the mean of a discrete random variable, standard deviation of a discrete random variable, and linear transformations. They also study combining random variables, binomial settings and binomial probabilities, as well as mean/standard deviation in binomial distribution and geometric random variables. Following this unit, students are presented with the Mid-term Review and Exam.
Unit 7 - In this unit students are introduced to interference and learn about describing sampling distributions. They also discuss the sampling distribution of p and of x, and the central limit theorem.
Unit 8 - In this unit students learn about interpreting confidence intervals and levels, more on confidence intervals, constructing a confidence interval for p, and choosing a sample size. They also explore the t distributions, confidence interval, and choosing a sample size.
Unit 9 - In this unit students study stating hypotheses and significance tests, as well as Type I and Type II errors. They also discuss the one-sample z test for a proportion, the one-sample t test, and inference for means: paired data.
Unit 10 - In this unit students explore sampling distribution with proportions, confidence intervals between two proportions, and significance tests between two proportions. They also study the sampling distribution between two means, and the two-sample t-tests.
Unit 11 - In this unit students gain understanding of the chi-square statistic and carrying out a chi-square test. They also learn about the chi-square test for homogeneity and the chi-square test for independence.
Unit 12 - In this unit students study sampling distribution and regression conditions and constructing a confidence interval for the slope. They also explore performing a significant test for the slope, and transforming with logarithms. Following this unit students are presented with the Final Review and Exam.
Advanced Algebra l
Unit 1 - Foundations of Algebra In this unit students discuss variables and expressions, order of operations, real numbers, properties, adding, subtracting, multiplying and dividing, and the distributive property. They are also introduced to equations and two-variable equations.
Unit 2 - Equations In this unit students learn about one, two, and multi-step equations, equations with variables on both sides, and literal equations. They discuss ratios and rates, conversions, similar figures, percents, and percent change.
Unit 3 - Inequalities In this unit students explore inequalities, addition, subtraction, multiplication and division with inequalities. They learn about sets, interval notation, compound inequalities, and absolute value equations and inequalities.
Unit 4 - Graphing In this unit students investigate two-variable graphs, patterns, non-linear graphs, graphing a function, and writing a rule. They explore relations and functions, and arithmetic sequences.
Unit 5 - Functions In this unit students study rate of change, direct variation, point-slope, slope-intercept, and standard form. They investigate parallel and perpendicular, scatter plots and trend line, and absolute value functions.
Unit 6 - Systems In this unit students discuss solving systems by graphing, as well as substitution, elimination, and applications of systems. They also study linear inequalities, and systems of inequalities. Following this unit students are presented with the Mid-Term Review and Exam.
Unit 7 - Exponents In this unit students learn about zero and negative exponents, multiplying powers, multiplication and division properties. They discuss rational exponents, exponential functions, exponential growth and decay, and geometric sequences.
Unit 8 - Polynomials In this unit students explore adding and subtracting polynomials, multiplying and factoring, and multiplying binomials. They learn about special products, factoring a trinomial, factoring by grouping, and special cases.
Unit 9 - Quadratic Functions In this unit students investigate quadratic graphs, functions and equations. They explore solving by factoring, completing the square, the quadratic formula, math modeling, and systems of linear and quadratic equations.
Unit 10 - Radicals In this unit students study the Pythagorean Theorem, simplifying radicals, and operations with radicals. They investigate solving radical equations, graphing square root functions, and trig ratios.
Unit 11 - Rational Expressions In this unit students discuss simplifying, adding, subtracting, multiplying and dividing rational expressions. They study dividing polynomials, solving rational equations, inverse variation, and graphing rational functions.
Unit 12 - Probability and Statistics In this unit students learn about matrices, frequency and histograms. They discuss statistical measures, box and whisker plots, samples and surveys, permutations, combinations, theoretical and experimental probability, and compound events. Following this unit students are presented with the Final Review and Exam.
Unit 1 - Evolution Drives the Diversity and Unity of Life
In this unit, students are introduced to the AP Biology Course. They discuss the nature of science, evidence for evolution, and natural selection -- descent with modification. They also discuss the Hardy - Weinberg Theorem, as well as Hardy - Weinberg Equilibrium. They learn about biological evolution, phylogeny (evolutionary history), and the modern synthesis theory of evolution.
Unit 2 - Water Potential
In this unit students learn about abiogenesis, properties of water, organic molecules, and the origin of cells. They study endosymbiosis, characteristics of life, cell membranes and structure, selective permeability, diffusion and cell size, and water potential and the concentration gradient. The lab for this unit is on water potential.
Unit 3 - Cell Structure
In this unit students learn about basic cell structure. They explore prokaryotes, eukaryotes, mitochondria and chloroplasts, cytoskeleton, and metabolism. Students also gain understanding of enzyme structure and function, denaturation, enzyme catalyzed EA, and enzyme kinetics. The labs in this unit are on calorimetry and fingertipase-enzyme catalysis.
Unit 4 - Cellular Respiration
In this unit students gain understanding of respiration. They begin with an overview of photosynthesis, and continue with glycolysis, anaerobic respiration, and redox reactions. They study an overview of aerobic respiration, and go on to explore glycolysis in depth, as well as the citric acid cycle and oxidative phosphorylation. The lab demo in this unit is on cellular respiration.
Unit 5 - Pigments and Photosynthesis
In this unit students begin with an overview of photosynthesis, and go on to study plant pigments. The lab demo in this unit is on plant pigments and photosynthesis. Students explore light reactions, photosystems, photophosphorylation, and carbon fixation (or calvin cycle). They put these concepts together to understand the photosynthesis and respiration system, then study feedback mechanisms and cell communication.
Unit 6 - The Cell Cycle
In this unit students study the cell cycle. They consider why cells divide and learn about the origin of the cell cycle, chromosome structure, and phases of the cycle. Three parts of a five-part lab on cell division are presented in this unit. Students go on to investigate variances in the cell cycle, control of the cell cycle, and an uncontrolled cell cycle.
Unit 7 - Mitosis and Meiosis
In this unit students study the two types of cell reproduction, mitosis and meiosis. They have an overview of meiosis and learn about the phases of meiosis, as well as meiosis and genetic variation, and meiosis and gamete formation. The last two parts of the lab on cell division are presented in this unit.
Unit 8 - History of Genetics
In this unit students are first introduced to the history of genetics, and then go on to study the Mendelian theory of inheritance, including a demonstration. They learn about the Punnett square, including monohybrid and dihybrid crosses. They explore the law of probability and practice with probability.
Unit 9 - Human Genetics
In this unit students learn the exceptions to Mendel's rules. They study human genetics and learn about and practice pedigrees, and learn about karyotypes in human genetics, and practice with karyotypes.
Unit 10 - Chromosomal Alterations
In this unit students learn about diagramming nondisjunction and about the chromosomal theory of inheritance. This unit includes three labs on genetics, and students explore gene mapping, mutations, and more chromosomal alterations.
Unit 11 - DNA
In this unit, students learn about DNA. They discuss the race for the double helix, the structure of DNA, DNA replication, and priming DNA replication. They explore the central dogma of biology, and study how scientists are cracking the genetic code.
Unit 12 - Genes
In this unit, students study genes. They learn how information is transferred from nucleus to cytoplasm. They come to understand tRNA and rRNA, gene anatomy, the steps of transcription, RNA processing, the steps of translation, operons - gene expression in prokaryotes, control of gene expression in eukaryotes, and biotechnology. The lab in this unit is on biotechnology.
Unit 13 - Viruses and Bacteria
In this unit, students study viruses and bacteria. They learn about biodiversity, and the taxonomy of biodiversity. They discuss the classification, evolution, and genetics of viruses and of bacteria. The lab in this unit is on bacterial transformation.
Unit 14 - Classifications
In this unit students investigate the classification of protista, fungi, and plantae. They learn about the anatomy of a plant and plant responses to stimuli. The lab in this unit is on transpiration.
Unit 15 - Animalia
In this unit students explore the kingdom of Animalia. They learn about classification, divisions, and development of Animalia. They study the nervous system, the immune system, and the endocrine system. They investigate animal response to stimuli and learned behaviors. The lab in this unit is on fruit fly behavior.
Unit 16 - Ecosystems
In this unit students study ecosystems. They learn about biological hierarchy, abiotic and biotic factors, and energy flow in ecosystems. Three labs in this unit are on energy dynamics, including two alternatives. Students explore biogeochemical cycles, earth's terrestrial biomes, earth's aquatic biomes, and ecological succession.
Unit 17 - Population Growth and Interaction
In this unit students study population growth and interaction. They learn about species interaction. They explore population dynamics, and they discuss growth strategies.
Unit 1 - Introduction to Chemistry and Units of Measurement
In this unit students are introduced to why we study chemistry. They review the scientific method, states of matter: solid, liquid, and gas. They learn about elements, compounds, and mixtures, as well as separation methods for mixtures. They study physical versus chemical changes and physical versus chemical properties. They explore SI units and prefixes, including temperature and conversion, as well as volume derived units and density derived units. They come to understand the importance of a lab notebook. The lab for this unit is on thin layer chromatography.
Unit 2 - Uncertainty in Data
In this unit students learn about measured and exact numbers. They discuss significant figures, including rounding, adding, subtracting, multiplying, and dividing with significant figures. They learn precision and accuracy in data analysis. They study scientific notation, including adding, subtracting, multiplying and dividing, as well as unit conversion and units raised to a power.
Unit 3 - Atomic Theory
In this unit students study atomic theory. They learn the law of conservation of mass, the law of definite proportions, and the law of multiple proportions. In addition, they explore early theory and John Dalton's atomic theory.
Unit 4 - Atomic Structures
In this unit students learn about atomic structures. They study the organization of the atom. They explore different atoms and isotopes. They investigate periodic law and the periodic table. They become familiar with ions, atomic mass, the mole, converting moles to atoms, and converting mass to moles. The lab for this unit is on the synthesis of alum.
Unit 5 - Chemical Formulas and Models - Ionic Compounds
In this unit, students investigate chemical formulas and models, and ionic compounds. They learn about the types of chemical bonds, chemical formulas, and molecular models. They explore an atomic view of elements and compounds, as well as properties and formulas of ionic compounds. They learn the names of ions, and study metals with a single charge state and with multiple charge states. They learn about polyatomic ions and naming hydrates. The lab for this unit is on the analysis of calcium in hard water.
Unit 6 - Covalent Molecular Compounds
In this unit students study covalent molecular compounds. They learn the names of binary molecular compounds and explore naming acids, as well as calculating formula mass and molar mass. They learn to convert moles to particles and moles to mass, and learn about mole ratios of compounds, percent composition calculations, empirical and molecular formula calculations, and empirical formulas in combustion analysis. The lab for this unit is on determining the formula of a hydrate.
Unit 7 - Chemical Equations in Stoichiometry
In this unit students learn about chemical reactions, including balancing chemical equations and finding out how much. They learn to do mole-to-mole, as well as mole-to-mass or mass-to-mole and mass-to-mass equations. They come to understand limiting reactants and percent yield. The lab for this unit is on mole ratios in chemical reactions.
Unit 8 - Chemical Reactions
In this unit students continue to study chemical reactions. They learn about reactions in water and precipitation reactions, about acids and bases and neutralization reactions, about gas-evolution reactions, oxidation-reduction reactions, and combustion reactions. The lab for this unit is on redox titration.
Unit 9 - Gases
In this unit students explore gases. They learn about pressure units, Boyle's Law, Charles's Law, Avogadro's Law, Gay-Lussac's Law, and the Combined Gas Law. They explore the Ideal Gas Law, including molar mass and density, and they investigate Dalton's Law of Partial Pressures. They go on to understand stoichiometry in relation to gases, both volume-volume and volume-mass. They also study kinetic molecular theory and behavior of gases. Next students delve into real gases, studying the effect of particle volume, the effect of intermolecular forces, and the Van der Waals Equation. Finally, students take a look at the gases in the atmosphere. There are two labs in this unit, one on determining the molar volume of a gas, and one on determining molar volume of volatile liquid.
Unit 10 - Thermochemistry
In this unit students discover thermochemistry. They discuss energy, including definitions and units. They also discuss the first law of thermodynamics, heat, work, constant volume calorimetry, and enthalpy. They study exothermic and endothermic reactions, constant pressure calorimetry, and Hess's law. Further, they learn about standard heats of formation, calculating enthalpy change for a reaction, and energy use and environmental consequences.
Unit 11 - Quantum Mechanical Model of the Atom
In this unit students learn about the quantum mechanical model of the atom. In preparation for this, they discuss the wave nature of light, and go on to explore the electromagnetic spectrum of light and its particle nature, atomic spectroscopy and the Bohr Model. They study the wave nature of matter. quantum mechanics model for atom, and atomic spectroscopy and orbital shapes. They learn about the electronic configuration of atoms, valence electrons, electronic configuration and periodicity, and periodic trends - atomic size/electronegativity. They investigate the electronic configuration of ions and radii, and study electronic configuration of ions - radii, and periodic trends in ionization energy, electron affinity, and metallic character.
Unit 12 - Chemical Bonds - Ionic Bonds
In this unit students study types of bonds and formation. They discuss the Lewis Dot Structure for atoms, and ionic bonds and electron transfer. They explore trends in lattice energy such as ion size and charge, and investigate the properties of ionic bonding.
Unit 13 - Chemical Bonds - Covalent Bonds
In this unit students come to understand the covalent bond, the single covalent bond, and the multiple covalent bond. They also study electronegativity, polarity, and percent ionic character. They discus Lewis Structure, including covalent compound, polyatomic ions, resonance, formal charge, and exceptions. Students also explore bond energy, bond length, and bonding in metals.
Unit 14 - Molecular Shapes and VSEPR
In this unit students learn about molecular shapes and valence shell electron pair repulsion (VSEPR), including the effect of lone pairs. They study the molecular shapes of large molecules, and molecular shapes and polarity. They also learn about hybridization, including sp3, sp2, sp, sp3d, and sp3d2. They further discuss molecular orbital theory in relation to period 1 and 2 elements.
Unit 15 - Liquids, Solids, and Intermolecular Forces
In this unit students compare solids, liquids, and gases. They discuss how intermolecular forces determine state of matter. They explore liquids, solids, and vaporization and vapor pressure. They learn about the Clausius-Clapeyron Equation in regard to heat of vaporization and vapor pressure. They study critical point, sublimation and fusion, phase diagrams, crystalline solids, and types of crystalline solids.
Unit 16 - Solutions
In this unit students study solutions. They discuss homogeneous mixture, solution formation, solvation - ionic and molecular compounds, and solubility. They focus on concentration, including percent by mass, concentration - percent by volume, molarity, dilution of molar solutions, molality, and mole fraction and mole percent. They learn about vapor pressure and Raoult's Law, and about ideal and non-ideal solutions. They learn the colligative properties, including boiling point elevation, freezing point depression, osmosis, and the van't Hoff Factor. They also learn about heterogeneous mixture called colloids. The lab for this unit is on the analysis of alum.
Unit 17 - Kinetics
In this unit students discuss kinetics. They learn about reaction rates, rate laws, integrated rate law, and reaction half-life. In addition, they explore temperature effects on reaction rates, arrhenius plots, collision model, reaction mechanisms, rate determining steps, and catalysis. The lab for this unit is on kinetics of crystal violet.
Unit 18 - Equilibrium
In this unit students explore dynamic equilibrium, equilibrium constant expressions, equilibrium constant values, constant expression and chemical equations, and equilibrium constant expression - pressure. They investigate heterogeneous equilibria in solids and liquids, equilibrium constant in calculations, reaction quotient, equilibrium concentration calculations, and initial values for concentration calculations and pressure calculations. as we;; as approximations in concentration calculations. They study Le Chatelier's Principle in regard to concentration change. They discuss pressure or volume change, and Le Chatelier's Principle in regard to temperature. The lab for this unit is on determining the equilibrium constant.
Unit 19 - Acids and Bases - Part 1
Students begin this unit by reviewing the properties of acids and bases. They learn about the Arrhenius Model, the Bronsted-Lowry model, and the Lewis model. They discuss the strength of acids, weak acid ionization constants, the strength of bases, weak base ionization constants, and hydrogen ions and the ion product constant. They learn about pH and pOH, pH and H+ calculations, pOH and OH- calculations, pH and pOH calculations, and pH and pOH of strong acids and bases.
Unit 20 - Acids and Bases - Part 2
In this unit students continue their study of acids and bases. They learn about Ka for weak acids, including known concentrations, unknown concentrations, and quadratic equation. They also explore Ka calculations for weak acids regarding pH. They discuss percent ionization of weak acids, and mixtures of acids, including strong and weak as well as weak and weak. They explore cations as weak acids, and learn about basic, acidic, and neutral salt solutions. They explore polyprotic acids - dilute strong acid, polyprotic acids - weak acid calculations, and acid rain. The lab for this unit is on acid base titration.
Unit 21 - Aqueous Ionic Equilibrium
In the Aqueous Ionic Equilibrium unit, students learn about buffers, pH buffer calculations (acid and conjugate base), the Henderson-Hasselbalch Equation, pH calculations with addition of acid or base, pH buffer calculations (base and conjugate acid), and buffer capacity and range. They also learn about titration, including strong acid/strong base and weak acid/strong base. They explore Ksp, molar solubility, relative solubility, common ion effect on solubility, pH effect on solubility, precipitation reactions, selective precipitation, the effect of complex ion equilibria on solubility, and solubility of amphoteric metal hydroxides. The lab in this unit is on determining Ka of a weak acid.
Unit 22 - Thermodynamics
In this unit students study spontaneous and nonspontaneous reactions, entropy and second law of thermodynamics, entropy and changes of state, entropy and change to the surroundings, and Gibbs free energy. They investigate standard molar entropies, calculations of standard entropy changes, calculations of free energy change - g=h-ts, free energies of formation, free energy change - stepwise reactions, and free energy change - nonstandard conditions. The lab in this unit is on energy content of fuels.
Unit 23 - Electrochemistry
In this unit students discuss oxidation-reduction - acidic solution and oxidation-reduction - basic solution. They learn about voltaic/galvanic cells, electrochemical cell notation, and standard reduction potentials. They learn to predict direction of redox reactions and to predict metal dissolution in acid. They explore Gibbs free energy and standard cell potential, standard cell potential and equilibrium constant, standard cell potential and nonstandard conditions, concentration cells, electrolytic cells, products of electrolysis, and stoichiometry of electrolysis. The labs in this unit are on electrochemistry and lead storage batteries.
Unit 24 - Nuclear Chemistry and Radioactivity
In this unit students learn about the discovery and types of radioactivity, writing nuclear equations, and predicting radioactive decay. They study half-lives, radio-carbon dating, fission and fusion, harmful radiation, and applications of radioactivity.
Unit 25 - Organic Molecules
In this unit students explore the properties of organic molecules. They learn about hydrocarbons, including alkanes and drawing structures. They study hydrocarbons - alkanes, including straight-chain alkanes, branched-chain alkanes, cyclic alkanes, and structures from names. Regarding hydrocarbons, they investigate, cycloalkenes, and alkynes, including their nomenclature. Also regarding hydrocarbons, students also investigate aromatic and isomers. They learn about functional groups of substituted hydrocarbons, as well as about halocarbons, alcohols, ethers, amines, aldehydes, and ketones. They study carboxylic acid, including ester and amide, and substitution reactions, elimination reactions, addition reactions, oxidation-reduction reactions, and polymers.
AP Physics l
In this unit students review algebra, measuring, and trigonometry. They go on to discuss significant digits, as well as being introduced to vectors. They learn about describing motion, and about position versus time graphs and velocity versus time graphs. They experience a virtual graphing lab, and learn about projectile motion.
In this unit students learn about force diagrams. They discuss Newton's First, Second, and Third Laws and experience virtual labs on Newton's Second and Third Laws. They study friction, forces, inclined planes, and the Atwood Machine.
In this unit students study angular measures, circular and angular motion, centripetal force, and circular acceleration. They explore equations of circular motion, gravity, and Kepler's Laws of Motion. They further investigate gravitational potential energy and apparent weight.
In this unit students learn about work. They study work and angles, work and inclined planes, kinetic energy, and energy conservation. They go on to explore mechanical energy and its applications, and to experience a virtual mechanical energy lab. They finish the unit learning to understand power and efficiency.
In this unit students study momentum, impulse, and collisions. They investigate momentum on a coordinate system and are introduced to impulse, after which they learn to do graphical analysis of impulse. They further learn about conservation of momentum and about collisions, and experience a virtual conservation of momentum lab.
In this unit students come to understand the center of mass, types of motion, rolling motion, and calculations with rolling motion. They further study torque and changes in rotational motion. They learn about rotational, static, and mechanical equilibrium, the center of gravity, moment of inertia, and calculations with moment of inertia. They further investigate rotational work and angular momentum.
In this unit students learn about springs and periodic motion as well as springs and mechanical energy. They experience a virtual lab on springs and periodic motion, and learn about calculations with simple harmonic motion. They further investigate pendulums, with a virtual, four-part pendulum lab.
In this unit students receive a thorough understanding of waves, including transverse and longitudinal waves, waves and phase, sound waves, and frequencies. They learn about Doppler, wave interference, nodes and antinodes, and wave intensity.
In this unit students explore electricity. They discuss electric charge, net charge and conversion of charge, and conductors and insulators. They learn about the electroscope, and about charging it with induction and with conduction. They study the electric field and learn to draw it, and learn about field lines with interacting charges, field lines and conductors, and potential difference.
In this unit students begin to understand circuits, starting with drawing circuits, complete circuits, and current. They learn about resistance and resistivity. Next they study series circuits. They learn diagramming series circuits, resistance, voltage, current, and measurements with series circuits, current in a series circuit, and the advantages and disadvantages of the series circuit.
Students study parallel circuits in this unit, beginning with diagramming parallel circuits, followed by resistance, voltage, current, measuring current, and measurements in parallel circuits. They learn the advantages and disadvantages of the parallel circuit, they participate in an experimental analysis of Ohm's Law, and they learn about Kirchhoff.
In this unit students review vectors and angles and learn about parabolic motion and reference frame. They study vertical and horizontal motion, as well as horizontal and vertical components of motion. They explore projectiles and time aloft, projectiles and launch angle, and motion in the Y-direction. They receive a thorough understanding of velocity and acceleration.
In this unit students come to understand spring constants with both parallel and series springs. They also learn about pendulum length, angular velocity, and tangential velocity.
In this unit, students study applications of Newton's First Law, the Normal Force, gravitational attractions, and centripetal forces and satellites. They continue to learn about voltage drop and series circuit, inertia and the reference frame, and the Normal Force and inclined planes. They finish up the course exploring contact forces and tension on a rope.
AP Environmental Science
In this unit students will be introduced to the study of Environmental Science and have an overview of earth systems. They will delve into closed and open systems, the physical structure of the earth, plate tectonics and divergent, convergent, and transform fault boundaries. They will study solar intensity and latitude, as well as seasons, and will investigate atmosphere structure, atmosphere composition, weather and climate, and global circulation in atmosphere. They study water, including ocean interactions, freshwater, salt water, ground water, water use, and water use issues. They explore the rock cycle and study soil, including soil formation, soil horizons, soil classification by texture, erosion and soil issues, and soil conservation. In addition, they experience virtual labs on soil porosity, the permeability of soil, soil texture, and a soil ribbon test.
In this unit students investigate the biosphere structure, an overview of biomes, and ecosystem structure. They explore food chains, food webs, and ecological niches, as well as species function, symbiotic interactions, ecosystem competition, and ecosystem energy flow. They study photosynthesis and cellular respiration, productivity, the ten percent rule, and pyramids of energy, and learn about ecological, primary, and secondary succession, as well as matter cycling, nutrient cycles, the water cycle, the phosphorus cycle, the nitrogen cycle, and human influences on cycles. They also experience a virtual lab on decomposition.
In this unit students learn about population ecology, the law of limiting factors, biotic potential and environmental resistance, and carrying capacity. They experience a virtual lab on population, and explore logistic versus exponential growth, reproductive strategies, and survivorship and curves. They delve into biological populations and their dispersal patterns and growth patterns, as well as human historical growth and distribution, immigration versus emigration, and describing human population change. They study developed versus developing countries, doubling time, age-structure diagrams, population calculations, demographic transition, and impacts of population growth.
In this unit students explore types of agriculture, green revolution and genetic engineering, and soil conservation methods. They learn about agricultural issues, sustainable agriculture, pests and impacts, pesticide use and misuses, LD-50s of pesticides, pesticide alternatives, and integrated pest management. They also learn about pesticide-related laws and the tragedy of the commons.
In this unit students investigate how humans use land. They also learn about forest harvesting methods, deforestation and its consequences, and fire management in forests. They study rangelands, urban land development, urban and suburban sprawl, and transportation infrastructure. They explore types and impacts of mining, mining laws and remediation, public and federal lands, and managing agencies and services. They learn about wilderness areas, national parks, wildlife refuges, national forests, wetlands, public land issues, and preservation and conservation. Following this unit, students are presented with the Mid-Term Review and Exam.
In this unit students study energy forms and thermodynamic laws, power, units, and conversions, and energy efficiency. They experience a virtual lab on light bulb efficiency, and delve into describing energy, historical and projected energy use, the energy crisis, and electricity production. Next, they learn about fossil fuels, including formation and types of fossil fuels, world reserves, coal, natural gas, petroleum/oil issues, and advantages and disadvantages of fossil fuels. They also explore fusion versus fission, nuclear power plants, the advantages and disadvantages of nuclear power, radioactive wastes and disposal, major nuclear accidents, and half-lifes and calculations. Students delve into renewable energy, including solar energy, wind energy, hydroelectric energy, and hydrogen fuel cells, as well as biomass, ocean waves and tidal power, geothermal energy, and green buildings.
In this unit students study sources of air pollution, power plants and air pollution, major air pollutants, and measuring air pollution. They experience a virtual lab on parts per million, and delve into temperature inversion, photo-chemical smog, acid deposition causes, acid deposition effects, and heat islands and effects. They also investigate indoor air pollution, air pollution control strategies, and air pollution laws and treaties. They learn about aquatic ecosystems, and types of water pollution, and experience a virtual lab on what is in our water. They study sources of water pollution and the land-water connection, and experience a virtual lab on building an eco-column. They explore water pollution effects on aquatic life, and study cultural eutrophication, groundwater pollution, ocean pollution, water pollution control strategies, drinking water treatment, sewage treatment, water pollution laws, noise pollution, and noise control strategies.
In this unit students investigate environmental risk, acute versus chronic effects, and dose-response relationships. They study types of hazardous waste, bio-accumulation and bio-magnification, hazardous waste treatment and disposal, hazardous waste site remediation, and hazardous waste laws. They explore types and sources of solid waste, and solid waste disposal including landfills and incineration. They learn about reducing, reusing and recycling, as well as cost benefit analysis, marginal costs and externalities, and pollution levels.
In this unit students explore stratospheric ozone, ultraviolet radiation, ozone-depleting chemicals, effects of ozone depletion, and strategies for reducing ozone depletion. They learn about historic and recent climate patterns, and albedo and reflectivity. They experience a virtual lab on albedo and reflectivity. They study the greenhouse effect, greenhouse gas, climate shifts, effects and consequences of climate change, and reducing climate change. They investigate declining global diversity, biodiversity loss, endangered and extinct species, invasive species, conservation strategies, and laws that are relevant to conservation. Following this unit students are presented with the Final Review and Exam.
Unit 1 – Ecology
This unit discusses ecology and interdependence, the organization of the biosphere, producers, consumers, decomposition, the capturing of energy, the food web and food chain, ecological pyramids, the water, carbon, and nitrogen cycles, energy versus nutrients, primary productivity, and symbiotic relationships. Also covered are competition, mutualism and commensalism, predation, camouflage and mimicry, parasitism, significant species, population growth, carrying capacity, limits on population growth, and ecological succession.
Unit 2 – Carbon Compounds
This unit discusses carbon, monomers and polymers, carbohydrates, variation of polysaccharides, lipids, nucleic acids, proteins, enzymes, and chemical reactions.
Unit 3 – Cell Structure and Function
This unit discusses cell organelles, the nucleus, mitochondria, ribosomes, cell theory, eukaryotes versus prokaryotes golgi apparatus – endoplasmic reticulum, vacuoles and lysosome, chloroplast, and endosymbiosis.
Unit 4 – Cell Transport
This unit discusses cell membranes, cell walls, strength of solutions, osmosis, diffusion, active versus passive transport, endo and exocytosis, and facilitated diffusion.
Unit 5 – Cellular Energy
This unit discusses how photosynthesis was discovered, the equation for photosynthesis and rates of photosynthesis. Also discussed are the equation for cellular respiration, ATP and ADP, chlorophyll, pigments, stages of cellular respiration, fermentation, and photosynthesis and cellular respiration.
Unit 6 – Cell Division
This unit covers mitosis, why cells divide, cancer, meiosis and crossing over, haploid and diploid, mitosis and meiosis, asexual and sexual reproduction, the cell cycle, and cytokinesis.
Unit 7 – Genetics
This unit discusses the contributions of Gregor Mendel to the science of genetics. Also covered are characters and traits, genotypes and phenotypes, genes and alleles, homozygous and heterozygus, fertilization, probability, Mendel's F1 cross, the law of segregation, Mendel's F2 Generation, incomplete dominance, codominance, multiple alleles, and polygenic versus single gene traits. In addition, this unit considers sex and autosomal chromosomes and karyotypes, genetic engineering, sex-linked genes, and genetic disorders.
Unit 8 – DNA
This unit discusses the history, shape, and structure of DNA, as well as nucleosomes, replication, transcription, RNA, genetic code, translation, mutations, and gene regulation.
Unit 9 – Evolution
This unit discusses the work of Charles Darwin, the galapagos, inherited variation and artificial selection, the evidence of evolution, natural selection, vestigial structures, allele frequencies, changes in the population, and coevolution.
Unit 1 – Introduction to Chemistry
In this unit students discuss why we study chemistry, the characteristics of matter, and the scientific method. They also study scientific notation, SI units and prefixes, conversions between SI units for temperature, derived SI units for volume and density, scientific notation for addition, subtraction, multiplication, and division, unit conversion in dimensional analysis, data analysis, significant figures and rounding, and calculations using significant figures in addition, subtraction, multiplication, and division.
Unit 2 – Matter, Atomic Structure, and the Period Table
In this unit students explore states and properties of matter, physical versus chemical changes, and elements versus compounds, as well as types of mixtures and separation methods for mixtures. They also investigate the organization of the atom, what makes atoms different, radioactive decay, the quantum theory and the atom, and electron configuration. Additionally, they delve into the modern periodic table, electron configuration and periodicity, and periodic trends.
Unit 3 – Chemical Bonding
In this unit students study valence electrons, ionic bonds and compounds, properties and formulas of ionic compounds, and names of ions and ionic compounds. They also discuss covalent bonds, single and multiple covalent bonds, and the strength of covalent bonds.
Unit 4 – Naming Compounds and Lewis Structures
In this unit students investigate the names of binary molecular compounds. They also explore naming acids, and Lewis Structures, including covalent compounds, polyatomic ions, resonance, and exceptions.
Unit 5 – Molecular Shapes and Chemical Equations
In this unit students discuss valence shell electron pair repulsion (VSEPR), electronegativity, and polarity. They also study chemical reactions, balancing chemical equations, types of chemical reactions, and reactions in water.
Unit 6 – The Mole
In this unit students explore how to convert moles to particles and to mass, and the mole ratios of compounds. They also investigate calculations for molar mass of compounds, percent composition calculations, empirical and molecular formula calculations, and formulas of hydrates.
Unit 7 – Stoichiometry
In this unit students discuss chemical reactions in terms of stoichiometric calculations, including mole to mole, mole to mass, mass to mole, mass to mass, limiting reactants, and percent yield. Following this unit students are presented with the Mid-term Review and Exam.
Unit 8 – Solids, Liquids, and Gases
In this unit students study gases in terms of behavior, units, and the kinetic-molecular theory, and in terms of Dalton’s Law of Partial Pressures. They also investigate liquids, solids, and the intermolecular forces that determine the state of matter.
Unit 9 – Gas Laws
In this unit students explore the laws that pertain to gases, including Boyle’s, Charles’s, and Gay-Lussac’s laws, as well as the Combined Gas Law and the Ideal Gas Law. They also discuss the Ideal Gas Law in terms of molar mass and density, as well as stoichiometry in gases with volume-volume and volume-mass.
Unit 10 – Mixtures and Solutions
In this unit students investigate heterogeneous and homogeneous mixtures, as well as concentration as percent by mass, percent by volume, molarity, dilution of molar solutions, molality, and mole fractions. They also study solvation in ionic and molecular compounds, solubility, and colligative properties.
Unit 11 – Acids and Bases
In this unit students discuss the Arrhenius, Bronsted-Lowry, and Lewis Models, the strength of acids, weak acid ionization constants, the strength of bases, weak base ionization constants, hydrogen ions, ion product constant, pH and pOH, pH and H+ calculations, pOH and OH- calculations, pH and pOH calculations, and pH and pOH strong acids and bases. They also explore Ka calculations for weak acids, neutralization reactions for acids and bases, basic, acidic, and neutral salt solutions, and buffer solutions.
Unit 12 – Organic Chemistry
In this unit students study hydrocarbons, including alkanes, drawing structures, naming straight-chain alkanes, branched-chain alkanes, and cyclic alkanes. They also investigate structures from names, alkenes, alkynes, aromatics, isomers, substituted hydrocarbons – functional groups, halocarbons, alcohols, ethers, amines, aldehydes, keytones, and carboxylic acid, including ester and amide.
Unit 13 - Reactions
In this unit students explore substitution and elimination reactions, addition reactions, oxidation-reduction reactions, and polymers. Following this unit students are presented with the Final Review and Exam.
Unit 1 – Introduction to Physics
This unit discusses what Physics is, measured numbers, using significant digits, scientific notation, and the metric system. Also covered are math with units, and conversions.
Unit 2 – 1-D Kinematics
This unit discusses position and displacement, average velocity, position graphs, velocity graphs and acceleration, positive, minus, and zero acceleration, 1-D kinematic equations, using motion equations, solving motion problems, free fall and gravity, solving a quadratic for time, and 2-part motion problems.
Unit 3 – Vectors and 2-D Kinematics
This unit discusses vectors an 2-D motion, graphical addition of vectors, vector components, vector magnitude and direction, analytical addition of vectors, unit vector notation, breaking down and solving 2-D motion, projectile motion, and range versus angle.
Unit 4 – Forces and Newton's Laws
This unit introduces dynamics and discusses Newton's second law – single force, Newton's first law, multiple forces, weight, Newton's third law and normal force, kinetic and static friction, friction problems, 2-D force problems and examples of these problems, inclined plane, examples of inclined plane, and inclined plane with friction.
Unit 5 – Circular Motion and Gravity
This unit discusses uniform circular motion, centripetal force and acceleration, period, vertical circles, centripetal versus centrifugal force, and the force and acceleration of gravity, as well as gravity and orbits, and Kepler's Law.
Unit 6 – Energy
This unit discusses work, including positive and negative work, work and energy, kinetic energy, gravitational potential energy, mechanical energy, energy problems with and without work, energy of a pendulum, elastic potential energy, and power.
Unit 7 – Momentum
This unit covers momentum, impulse, conservation of momentum, collisions, inelastic collisions, recoil, elastic collisions, and 2-D momentum.
Unit 8 – Rotational Motion
This unit discusses rotational kinematics, rotational motion problems, rotational and linear motion, torque, equilibrium, moment of inertia, rotational dynamics, rotational kinetic energy, and angular momentum.
Unit 9 – Fluid Mechanics
This unit discusses fluids, pressure, pressure and depth, Pascal's principal, buoyant force, buoyant force with air, flow rate, bernoulli equation, and bernoulli examples.
Unit 10 – Thermodynamics
This unit discusses heat, temperature, thermal expansion, heat and temperature change, calorimetry, phase change, calorimetry with phase changes, measuring gases, behavior of gases, kinetic theory of gases, the first law of thermodynamics, and heat engines.
Unit 11 – Oscillations and Waves
This unit discusses oscillations, Hooke's Law, simple harmonic motion, period and frequency, energy in simple harmonic motion, oscillation of pendulums, waves, wave properties, interference, standing waves, and the standing wave equation.
Unit 12 – Sound
This unit covers sound waves, sound properties, the speed of sound, and sound intensity, as well as string instruments, open pipes, closed pipes, and Doppler shift.
Unit 13 – Light
This unit discusses light waves, color, the electromagnetic spectrum, reflection, index of refraction, refraction, internal refraction, dispersion, interference of light, diffraction grating, single slit diffraction, resolving power, thin films, and doppler shift of light.
Unit 14 – Optics
This unit discusses lenses and images, thin lens equation, ray tracing, a convex lens with a real image, magnification, and a convex lens with a virtual image, concave lens, optics of the eye, mirror equation, and mirror with virtual image.
Unit 15 – Electric Forces
This unit discusses electric charges, Coulomb's Law, force from multiple charges, 2-D Coulomb's Law, electric field, electric field with multiple charges, electric field from charged plates, electric potential energy, electric potential, potential difference and E and V of charged plates.
Unit 16 – DC Electric Circuits
This unit covers electric current and circuits, resistance and Ohm's Law, simple circuits, electric power, series and parallel, and series and parallel resistors. Also discussed are systems of resistors, capacitors, energy in capacitors, systems of capacitors, and DC versus AC.
Unit 17 – Magnetic Forces
This unit discusses magnetic forces, magnetic fields, magnetic field from a current, from multiple wires, and from current loops, solenoids and electromagnets, and magnetic force on moving charges. Also covered are the right hand rule, motion of charges in B field, magnetic force on a current, and magnetic force in parallel wires.
Unit 18 – Induction
This unit discusses Induction, magnetic flux, Faraday's Law, Lenz's Law, generators, transformers, and electromagnetic waves.
Unit 19 – Atomic Physics
This unit discusses the structure of the atom, the photoelectric effect, atomic spectra, the Bohr model, matter waves, and lasers.
AP European History
Unit 1 - A Society Awakens, 1450-1556
In this unit students learn about Italian renaissance humanism, the printing press, renaissance art and architecture, new monarchs, Machiavelli, mannerism, christian humanism, and the Protestant, Catholic, and English reformations. They also learn about motivations for exploration, waves of exploration and colonization, the Columbian exchange, and the African slave trade. Students also evaluate the differing views of the Renaissance held by Jacob Burkhardt and Peter Burke. They explain why they do or don't believe that the Renaissance is a distinct period. Further, they evaluate the artist's purpose, point of view, and intended audience of two pieces of art, one northern, one southern, and compare and contrast the values and ideals of the societies that produced them. In addition, students analyze the reasons for European exploration and its effects upon European and American societies, as reflected by the authors Richard Reed, M.L. Bush, and Gary Nash. Students consider how the Renaissance and the Reformation changed the way society viewed individuality, as well as how the movements restructured individuals' relationships with God.
Unit 2 - The Age of Religious Tensions, 1556-1648
In this unit students learn about the scientific revolution, baroque art, the English Civil War, wars of religion, the Thirty Years' War, economic expansion in the 15th and 16th centuries, agriculture, and the Price Revolution. They also learn about the rise of urban centers, family life in early modern Europe, popular culture, and witchcraft. In addition, students compare and contrast the political, economic, and religious reasons for the rise of the Dutch and the decline of the Spanish in the period 1550-1650. They also evaluate Holborn and Schiller's explanations of the Thirty Years' War and compare them with the account provided by Spielvogel. They explain which argument they find most compelling and express their opinions on the matter. Students consider the ways in which European states and institutions used religion and culture (science and the arts) to control their society, and which states were the most successful at this.
Unit 3 - Society in Transition, 1648-1750
In this unit students learn about Louis XIV and absolutism, the Glorious Revolution, constitutionalism, development of a market economy, and mercantilism. They also learn about commercial rivalries and warfare, Dutch realism, the enlightenment, how the enlightenment was popularized, religious enlightenment, and enlightened absolutism. Students evaluate the changing roles of the nobility in European society (1450-1789) using three secondary sources: John Roberts, Leonard Krieger, and Jerome Blum. In addition, students compare and contrast the lives of common people and elites during the period 1650-1750, and their own lives. They further consider in what ways enlightenment thinkers challenged previously held notions of human nature, government, and religious beliefs.
Unit 4 - An Age of Revolution, 1750-1815
In this unit students learn about Malthusian growth, the consumer revolution, the French Revolution, and Napoleanic Europe. They also learn about neoclassicism, British industrialization, and continental industrialization. Students analyze the extent to which the Industrial Revolution altered the lives of England's working class. They further analyze the political, economic, and social causes for the French Revolution of 1789. Students study French Revolution documents to analyze the influence of enlightenment theory on the moderate phase of the French Revolution. They compare and contrast the accounts of the French Revolution provided by Lefebvre and Sutherland. They consider to what extent the French Revolution amounted to a "Revolution" in economic terms for each of the following groups: nobility, middle class, average person, and women.
Unit 5 - An Age of Change, 1815-1871
In this unit students learn about the industrial class system, liberalism, conservatism, and nationalism. They also learn about socialism and marxism. They study the concert of Europe, romanticism, the revolutions of 1830 and 1848, the Crimean War, nationalism, national unification, and realism. Students assess whether the Old Order or the New Order won the battle to control Europe between 1815 and 1830. They research modern 21st century liberalism in Europe and compare and contrast these views with those of early 19th century classical liberalism. They assess the extent to which the Crimean War changed the course of 19th century European history. They go on to use a map to analyze Haussman and the changes he made, and to explain how those changes, along with new breakthroughs in medicine and sanitation, are representative of the new Industrial Revolution. Further, they consider to what extent the western European powers sacrificed the interests of the working classes to please the middle class in the period 1815-1848.
Unit 6 - An Age of Questioning, 1871-1914
In this unit students learn about the second industrial revolution, 19th-century family life, consumerism, impressionism, mass politics, governmental responses to industrialization, the new nationalism, Charles Darwin, and social Darwinism. They also learn about the study of the irrational, post-impressionism, motivations of imperialism, technology and imperialism, imperialism itself, and the alliance system. Students analyze the reasons why late nineteenth-century Europeans argued for and against imperialism. Using one Impressionist piece of art from this period and one piece of art from any prior period, students explain why the Impressionist period was the turning point for modern art. They discuss the views of Hobsbawm and Landes on the short and long-term effects of imperialism. They assess the ways in which the following individuals challenged the established social/intellectual order in the period 1871-1914: Freud, Neitzesche, Einstein, the Pankhursts, Herzl, Bernstein, and the Social Democratic Parties in Germany and Great Britain.
Unit 7 - A Time of Crisis, 1914-1933
In this unit students study the causes of World War I, the war itself, the Russian Revolution, and the Treaty of Versille. They also learn about postwar economic challenges, cubism, Fascist Italy, and Nazi Germany. They use three pieces of art to assess to what extent the artistic movements of the 1920s reflected the mood of European society. Using the secondary sources Roland Stromberg, Hartmug Pogge von Strandmann, and Gordon Craig, students analyze the various reasons for the coming of the First World War in 1914. Students also compare and contrast the depictions of World War I provided by early press releases and the "trench poets."
Unit 8 - A Time of Tragedy and Triumph, 1938-2010
In this unit students learn about World War II and its causes. They also learn about the Holocaust, the Cold War, decolonization, the rise of the welfare state, and Cold War Eastern Europe. Students analyze the various views on the wisdom of appeasement and how it contributed to World War II. They assess the reasons that Europeans began to decolonize in the period after 1945. Further, they compare and contrast appeasement on the eve of World War II with western European responses to the annexation of Crimea by Russia in 2014. They also assess the negative and positive impacts of European interactions with Africa and Asia. They go on to research the development of the welfare state in Europe and America, and then select.an individual country and argue in favor of it providing "the best life" to all of its citizens.
Unit 9 - The Twentieth Century
In this unit students learn about science and technology in the 20th Century. They also learn about anxiety and existentialism, the changing face of religion in the 20th century, and social transformation in the 20th Century. They go on to learn about feminism and the modern woman, and new voices in politics and social life.
AP World History
In this introductory unit, students are introduced to the concepts of big geography & the peopling of the Earth, the River Valley Civilizations of Mesopotamia, Egypt, India & China, and exceptions to River Valley Civilizations.
This unit delves into classical China, and its political, religious, economic, and social attributes. Additionally, the formative years of India, classical India including the Mauryan and Gupta empires, and the political, religious, economic, and social characteristics of India. This unit also covers the Persian influence, Minoans, Mycenaeans, and the mediterranean empires of Greece and Rome, followed by their comparisons and trade networks.
This unit begins with an introduction to the era from 600 C.E - 1450 C.E, the origin of Islam, the spread of Islam & the Umayyad Dynasty, the Abbasid & Golden Age of Islam, and the Byzantine Empire. This unit continues by introducing the analyzing western Europe & the Middle Ages, the Sui Dynasty and Tang Dynasty of China, as well as the Mongols and the Americas and Oceania.
In this unit, students analyze belief systems, European exploration, China, the Ming, Japan & Africa, and the transformation of western Europe. The Scientific Revolution & the Enlightenment, the rise of Russia, and the westernization of Russia are also analyzed. Finally, the Spanish in America, labor systems, the Atlantic Slave Trade, and the Gunpowder Empires are discussed.
This unit begins with an introduction to the era from 1750 - 1900 with a particular focus on the Industrial Revolution, the social effects of industrialization, the imperialism of India & China, Japan, and Africa, as well as absolutism. Additionally, a focus is placed on the American Revolution, the French Revolution, Haitian Revolution, and migrations and review.
Students begin in this unit by analyzing the important historical significance of the 1900’s. A particular focus is placed on World War I, the Russian Revolution, The Great Depression, the rise of fascism, and Japan after WWI. These concepts are built upon with an analysis of World War II in Europe, and World War II in Asia.
This unit begins with an in depth analysis of the Cold War, followed by the study of communism in China, decolonization, and the world economy. Additionally, religion in the age of globalization is covered, as well as global liberation & feminism, and global environmentalism.
AP U.S. History
Unit 1 - Colonial America (1492-1754)
In this unit students learn about the early inhabitants of the Americas, American Indian empires, worlds that collided in the United States, the conquistadors, and the arrival of England. They study the Jamestown/Virginia Colony, the Carolinas, religious diversity in the colonies, and resistance to colonial authority. They also explore transatlantic trade, the enlightenment or great awakening, and colonial governments.
Unit 2 - Revolutionary Era (1754-1783)
In this unit students explore the Revolutionary Era. They study the French and Indian War, the Imperial crisis, resistance to Britain, and the War for Independence. They further learn about the Articles of Confederation and the Federal Constitution.
Unit 3 - The New Nation (1783-1816)
In this unit students investigate federalists and republicans, the war of 1812, and education for women. They also study the second great awakening and the growth of slavery in the United States.
Unit 4 - Nationalism, Sectionalism, and Reform (1816-1848)
In this unit, students study nationalism, sectionalism, and reform. They explore the transportation revolution and the national market economy. They learn about class as it related to immigration, nativism, and planters.
Unit 5 - The Era of Expansion (1828-1848)
In this unit students learn about how politics transformed during the era of expansion. They study evangelical protestant revivalism, social reform, transcendentalism and utopia, and literary and artistic expression. They further explore the Western migration and territorial gain -- the Mexican war.
Unit 6 - Crisis, Civil War, and Reconstruction (1848-1877)
In this unit students investigate the slavery argument and compromise, the Kansas-Nebraska act, and the 1860 election. They explore the two societies that were at war, emancipation and its effects, and the effects of war on the North and the South. They learn about the reconstruction, the African-American role in post-war America, and the compromise of 1877.
Unit 7 - The Gilded Age (1877-1900)
In this unit students explore the new South, the expansion of the railroad system, the people of the West, and the United States versus the Natives. They discuss the corporate world, labor unions, social Darwinism, migration and immigration, urbanization, political machines, and cultural movements.
Unit 8 - The Progressive Movement and U.S. World Affairs (1865-1930)
In this unit students study the origins of progressive reform, progressive presidents, women and progressivism, and American imperialism. They learn about war in Europe, World War I at home, and the Treaty of Versailles.
Unit 9 - The Roaring Twenties (1919-1929)
In this unit students explore the economy and modernism. They also discus fundamentalism and the struggle for equality.
Unit 10 - The Great Depression and the New Deal (1929-1939)
In this unit students learn about the causes of the great depression, the hoover administration, and the new deal. They also study new deal critics and american society.
Unit 11 - World War II (1930-1945)
In this unit students investigate the rise of fascism, the road to war, the multi-front war, and global power. They also explore the war economy, civil rights and liberties, and the expansion of government power.
Unit 12 - The Beginnings of the Cold War and the 1950's (1945-1960)
In this unit students study the origins of the cold war, containment, the Asia problem, and diplomatic strategies. They also learn about the red scare, the impact on society, modern civil rights, suburbia, rebels, and changes to society.
Unit 13 - The 1960s and 1970s (1960-1979)
In this unit student explore the new frontier and the great society, as well as civil rights, confrontations, and the counterculture. They also discuss the silent majority, Nixon's America, and changes in the economy.
Unit 14 - America Since 1980 (1980 - Now)
In this unit stduents discuss the Reagan Revolution, the end of the cold war, demographic changes, and revolutions in technology. They also study politics, globalization, foreign policy, and environmental issues.
Unit 1 - Psychology – History and Approaches
In this unit, students consider the question "what is psychology?" They learn the pre-history of psychology, as well as early schools of thought in psychology, the psycho-dynamic approach, the behavioral (learning) approach, the cognitive approach, the biological (neuroscience) approach, the humanistic approach, the socio-cultural approach, and the evolutionary approach. In addition, they study an eclectic view of psychology and sub-fields of psychology.
Unit 2 - Research Methodology and Statistics
In this unit, students study hurdles to research, the scientific method, descriptive research, and correlational research. They explore experimental research, including basics, set up, and variables. They investigate statistics, including measures of central tendency, measures of variation, and inferential statistics. Finally, they discuss ethical guidelines in psychology.
Unit 3 - Biological Basis of Behavior
In this unit, students study neurons, including the basics, structure, action/resting potential, and how neurons communicate (neurotransmitters). They also learn about types of neurotransmitters, the nervous system, sympathetic vs. parasympathetic, and the endocrine system. They gain understanding of brain damage and brain imaging techniques. They investigate the brain, including the brain stem, the limbic system, the cerebral cortex, the lobes, language, plasticity, and splitting the brain. They discuss evolutionary psychology, gene structures, and twins.
Unit 4 - Developmental Psychology
In this unit, students consider the question, "what is developmental psychology?" They go on to study prenatal development, reflexes, infancy, and early childhood. They explore Piaget and the four states of cognitive development. They investigate attachment and parenting styles as described by Baumrind, as well as gender, adolescence, moral development, including the work of Kohlberg, and Erikson's eight stages of social development. They further study adulthood and aging, as well as death and dying.
Unit 5 - States of Consciousness
In this unit students learn about consciousness versus unconsciousness. They study the circadian rhythm and the four stages of sleep, they give particular attention to the REM stages of sleep, and they consider why we sleep. They explore sleep disorders, dreams, why we dream, hypnosis, drugs: dependence and addiction, and categories of drugs.
Unit 6 - Sensation and Perception
In this unit students study the processing of sensation and perception. They discuss thresholds, selective attention, transduction and sensory adaptation. They learn about vision, including light energy, the structure of the eye, the retina, visual processing, and color processing. They discuss hearing, including sound waves, the structure of the ear, perception, and deafness. They explore touch sensation, taste sensation, smell sensation, and perceptual organization, as well as form perception, binocular and monocular cues in depth perception, motion perception, perceptual constancy, perceptual adaptation and set, and extrasensory perception.
Unit 7 - Learning
In this unit students consider the question, "what is learning?" They explore classical conditioning, including studying Pavlov’s dog and Little Albert. They study operant conditioning, including Thorndike and Skinner. They investigate types of reinforcers, types of punishments, reinforcement schedules, and motivation. Students also discuss social-cognitive learning and the work of Edward Tolman, as well as learning by observation, and pro-social versus anti-social learning.
Unit 8 - Cognition
In this unit, students study the information processing model, including basics, encoding basics, encoding process, encoding SPE, encoding mnemonics, storage basics, storage stages 1, 2, and 3, and retrieval. They also learn about forgetting and interference, as well as why we forget, memory construction, thinking, and concepts about thinking. They explore problem solving, including algorithms and heuristics, and insight and creativity. They investigate obstacles to problem solving, and talk about language, including language parts, structure, basic development, explanations of development, and linguistic determinism.
Unit 9 - Motivation and Emotion
In this unit students come to understand instinct and drive reduction, incentive and arousal, the hierarchy of needs, hunger, eating disorders and obesity, and work motivation. They also explore theories of emotion, happiness, and social conflict. They investigate stress, including basics and personality types, general adaptation syndrome, and dealing with stress.
Unit 10 - Testing and Individual Differences
In this unit students study the G Factor Theory of Intelligence, as well as multiple other theories of intelligence. They also discuss creativity and emotional intelligence, as well as intelligence testing, its origins, and its modern state. They explore standardized test construction, extremes of intelligence, influences and differences with intelligence, and the Flynn effect and test bias.
Unit 11 - Personality
In this unit students gain understanding of psychoanalysis, including Freud's model of the mind, and his personality structure. They learn about defense mechanisms, the neo-freudians, what a projective test is, and about humanistic perspective. They also study trait perspective, behaviorism and social-cognitive, and exploring the self.
Unit 12 - Abnormal Psychology
In this unit students learn about defining and understanding psychological disorders, including classifying psychological disorders. They study causes of abnormal behavior, anxiety disorders, somatoform disorders, dissociative disorders, mood disorders, schizophrenia, personality disorders, and other disorders.
Unit 13 - Treatment of Psychological Disorders
In this unit students study an overview of therapy. They explore psychoanalysis (psychodynamic) therapies, humanistic therapies, behavioral (learning) therapies, cognitive therapies, and biomedical (biological) therapies.
Unit 14 - Social Psychology
In this unit students explore attribution, attitudes and actions, roles and cognitive dissonance, conformity including the work of Asch, and obedience, including the work of Milgram. They also investigate group influence and group interaction, prejudice, aggression, attraction, altruism, conflict and peacemaking.
Unit 15 - AP Psychology National Test Preparation
In this unit students prepare for the AP Psychology National Test. They study an overview of the test, and prepare for both the multiple choice and the free response sections of the test.
AP Music Theory
Unit 1 - Introduction to Music Theory
In this introductory unit, students learn about the most essential music theory skills and what to expect in this course. They discuss sight-reading practice, dictation practice, and ear training practice.
Unit 2 - Review of Fundamentals I
In this unit students review the fundamentals of music. They go over the musical alphabet, the chromatic alphabet, and staff and clef signs. Reviewing meter, they discuss rhythmic values and beat units, time signatures and conducting patterns, and counting systems and metric hierarchy. They go on to study registers and ledger lines, and dynamic and tempo markings, and learn to listen for texture.
Unit 3 - Review of Fundamentals II
Continuing their review of the fundamentals of music, in this unit students study rhythm, including dots, ties and slurs, syncopation, and hemiola. They review anacrusis notation (pick-ups), chromatic and diatonic pitch collections, ordered pitch-class collections, scales, key signatures - including scale degree names - and identifying duple, triple, and quadruple meters.
Unit 4 - Compound Meters and Minor Tonality
In this unit students are introduced to compound meter. They learn about syncopation and hemiola, metrical accents, minor scales (parallel and relative), forms of minor, identifying major/minor keys, modes, binary and ternary forms, and vocal forms.
Unit 5 - Intervals and Triads
In this unit students begin to learn about intervals and triads. They explore combining pitches, interval qualities, augmented and diminished intervals, consonant/dissonant intervals, chords and triads above the scale, triad qualities, and spelling triads. In addition, they study scale-degree triads - roman numerals, figured bass, and triad inversions.
Unit 6 - Triads and Seventh Chords
In this unit students continue to study triads and also learn about seventh chords. They investigate seventh chords in major and minor keys, seventh chord inversions, uncommon seventh chords, and spelling seventh chords.
Unit 7 - Counterpoint - Connecting Melodic and Harmonic Intervals
In this unit students learn about counterpoint. They discuss connecting melodic intervals, labeling harmonic intervals, consonant and dissonant harmonic intervals, note-to-note counterpoint in strict style, invertible counterpoint, motives, and ground bass.
Unit 8 - Establishing the Two-Voice Composition
In this unit students learn to compose with two voices. They learn second-species counterpoint with non-chord tones, how to write second-, third-, fourth-, and fifth-species counterpoint. They also learn to listen for the rondo form.
Unit 9 - Eighteenth Century Counterpoint
In this unit students study 18th century counterpoint, beginning with contrapuntal motion. They learn about chordal dissonance, bass and melodic lines, writing with a given line, and non-chord tones, or embellishments.
Unit 10 - Four Part Harmony
In this unit students begin to understand four-part harmony. They learn to write four-part harmony for SATB and keyboard, as well as basic phrases, and tonic and cadential areas. The study connecting dominant and tonic areas, and harmonizing folk songs.
Unit 11 - Dominant Sevenths, Predominant Area, Melody Harmonization
In this unit students begin to explore more advanced harmonic devices. They study dominant seventh inversions, expanding the phrase, realizing figured bass, and harmonizing melodies.
Unit 12 - Expanding Harmonic Area
Continuing with harmony, in this unit students gain understanding of using six-four chords, neighboring six-four, arpeggiating and passing six-four, extending the tonic, and introducing the submediant.
Unit 13 - Diatonic Harmonies and Root Progressions
Moving on to diatonic harmonies and root progressions, in this unit students investigate additional cadences, root progressions, motion by descending third, and motion by second. They also study mediant triads and parallel six-three chords, and learn to recognize the fugue.
Unit 14 - Embellishing Tones (Non-Chord Tones)
In this unit students learn about embellishing tones. They study passing tones and neighbor tones, as well as more about suspensions, incomplete and double neighbor tones, and other embellishments. They end this unit with a summary of non-chord tones.
Unit 15 - Leading Tones Chords
Students use this unit to learn about leading tones chords. They learn to double and resolve the vii°6, the vii°7 and the viiø7, and study these chordes in context. They also study neighboring and passing four-two chords.
Unit 16 - Form and Analysis
In this unit students explore form and analysis. They learn to do phrase analysis, and learn about smaller segments of phrases, parallel and contrasting periods, extended periods, and the structure and hypermeter of phrase rhythm.
Unit 17 - Diatonic Sequences
In this unit students become familiar with diatonic sequences, first gaining understanding of that a sequence is, then moving on to descending-fifth sequences, descending-third sequences, and sequences based on seconds. They finish up the unit by studying sequences in musical context.
Unit 18 - Secondary Dominants and Leading-Tone Chords to V
In this unit students focus on dominants. They learn about intensifying the dominant, modulation and tonicization, writing and resolving V/V to V, secondary leading tones to V, and secondary chords in dominant expansions.
Unit 19 - Tonicizing Other Scale Degrees
In this unit students explore secondary chords in basic phrases and secondary chord in musical contexts. They also learn about spelling secondary chords, resolving secondary chords, and modulations.
Unit 20 - Preparing for the AP Test
In this unit students prepare for taking the AP Music Theory test. They cover Section I, parts A and B, as well as Section II, Part A (aural stimulus), Part A (no aural stimulus), and Part B (sight-singing).
AP Studio Art - Drawing
Unit 1 - The AP Portfolio
In this introductory unit, students gain understanding of how to create a drawing portfolio. They learn about the three sections of a portfolio (quality, concentration, breadth), and about ethics, artistic integrity, and plagiarism. They discuss developing concentration ideas and photographing artwork, and learn how to critique art through description, analysis, interpretation, and evaluation.
Unit 2 - Line and Expression/Line Quality
In this unit students learn about line and expression, and line quality. They study types of lines and see a demonstration of line quality. They learn to use blind contour lines, cross contour lines, gesture lines, implied lines, and line quality, and learn about exploration of mark making, and monoprint and line exploration.
Unit 3 - Composition
In this unit students delve into composition, learning about visual potential, positive and negative shapes, and the rule of thirds. They receive composition recommendations and a demonstration of negative shape design.
Unit 4 - Principles of Design
This unit provides students with the principles of design, beginning with design basics. They learn about unity and variety, contrast emphasis, balance, movement, repetition and rhythm, and an overview of the principles of design.
Unit 5 - Form
In this unit students are introduced to form. They explore planar analysis, mass gesture drawing, continuous line drawing, and topographical drawing. They are given a demonstration of planar analysis drawing with value, as well as a demonstration of painting cloth.
Unit 6 - Illusion of Depth
In this unit students learn to create the illusion of depth. They gain understanding of figure-ground relationship, methods for creating three-dimensional space, foreshortening, and ambiguous space.
Unit 7 - Linear Perspective
In this unit students come to understand linear perspective. They study point of view, one- and two-point perspective, units on a receding plane, three-point perspective, the circle in perspective, and the benefits and limitations of linear perspective. They are given a demonstration of combining 1- and 2-point perspective.
Unit 8 - Proportions
In this unit students discover proportions. They learn about measuring with a pencil, more basics of pencil sighting, using a viewfinder, and seeing angles, and receive a demonstration of sighting a doorway.
Unit 9 - Value (Light and Shade)
In this unit students investigate value. They study value scale, value shapes, and value on form. They are given demonstrations of drawing reflective objects, value and line as texture, and tonal drawing.
Unit 10 - Color
In this unit students learn to work with color. They explore hue and value, receive a demonstration of landscape drawing, and learn about intensity, color schemes, and space and form. They are given demonstrations of drawing an apple and of complementary color painting.
Unit 11 - Ideation
In this unit students gain understanding of ideation. They learn about scamper, about real, abstract, and non-objective, about design ideas, and about building on ideas. They are given a demonstration of creating a collage.
Unit 12 - The Human Figure
In this unit students learn to draw the human figure. They discuss ideal proportions, basic shapes, gesture drawing, the head and face, the foot, the hand, and the foreshortened figure. They are given a demonstration of drawing a charcoal portrait.
AP Computer Science Principles (CTE)
Unit 1 - Introduction
In this unit students begin with an introduction to algorithms and to computer programs and languages. They are also introduced to the educational, graphical programming language, Snap!, which they will use throughout this course for hands-on experience with programming. They explore programming as a creative activity and program music and art in the Snap! language.
Unit 2 - Abstraction
Students study binary numbers and the concept of bits. They learn about text and the ASCII Table, about colors in the RGB system, and about numeric precision and round-off errors. They learn hexadecimal notation and how to convert between number bases. They explore logic gates and learn to make a half adder, as well as a full adder with overflow. They discover simulations, Conway's Game of Life, what "random" is, and they learn to program the roll of dice.
Unit 3 - The Internet
In this unit students begin to understand the characteristics and the spirit of the Internet. They learn important vocabulary and discuss Internet privacy in terms of cookies and proxy servers, Internet security, and intellectual property.
Unit 4 - Artificial Intelligence (Algorithms and Programming)
In this unit students explore artificial intelligence (AI). They begin by studying the Turing Test, and then dive into programming by creating a Mad Libs program. They learn about AI and decision trees, and learn to program a recommendation. They investigate AI and winning games, they study modulo arithmetic, and they program a game of stones. They consider whether we should fear AI, and they program a number guessing game.
Unit 5 - Data and Information
Students learn about Big Data in this unit. They learn about privacy issues with Big Data, and they are introduced to lists in the Snap! language. They learn to store simulation results in a list, they discover abstractions in programming, and they learn about the average and the maximum of a list of numbers. They explore linear and binary searches and learn to swap the values of two variables. They learn sorting algorithms, they learn how to code a bubble sort, and they investigate compression of data, lossless compression, lossy compression, and programming the compression of a sentence. They discuss becoming a Data Scientist and exploring Big Data web sites. They learn to download a CSV file into a spreadsheet, and they learn what can be determined from Big Data once it has been collected.
Unit 6 - The Power and Limits of Computing
In this unit students discover intractable problems. They learn about problems that cannot be solved within a reasonable time, about The Traveling Salesperson problem, and about hueristic solutions to intractable problems. They study unsolvable and undecidable problems, and the impact of computing on society. They explore cryptography and learn to program a Caesar Cipher. They investigate the Enigma Machine and Alan Turing, as well as public key encryption.
Unit 7 - Preparing for the College Board Assessments
In this unit students learn about the performance tasks they will need to complete in preparation for the College Board Assessments, which will make up 40% of their grade. They explore the two required tasks: the Explore Performance Task, which considers computing innovations, and the Create Performance Task, which focuses on the creation of a computer program. They discuss the requirements for submitting the Performance Tasks in the digital portfolio.
AP Computer Science A (CTE)
This unit discusses introductory computer programming concepts, such as primitive data types, how to write a basic program using arithmetic data, converting between number bases, and beginning programming using math. It continues with writing a program with mathematic operators, what relational operators are and how to program with them, truth tables using logical operators, what operator precedence is and how to program with it, and scanner input.
This unit expands on basic computer programming concepts with decision making statements and how to program with them, iteration and how to write a program using it, and the difference between public and private definitions. Following this, students learn to understand headers, method overloading, variable scope, parameters reference versus primitives, and how to program using classes, as well as with data files.
This unit explores superclass/subclass versus instance variables, using a super call in the sub constructor, method overriding, and inheriting methods and variables. Students also learn to create a super/sub class program, and to use polymorphism, abstract classes, and interfaces (implements).
This unit discusses string classes. Students learn skills such as combining strings with the “+”, comparing strings, and writing string methods. The unit concludes by exploring the math class and the wrapper class.
This unit introduces arrays, discussing both one- and two-dimensional arrays. Students learn how to traverse arrays, as well as to add to, delete from, and insert into an array. Also covered are parallel arrays, arraylist methods, and writing a 2D array program.
This unit explores searching and sorting. Students learn to perform a sequential search and a binary search. Also discussed are programming a number search, recursion, and performing selection, insertion, bubble, and merge sorts, as well as coding for the selection sort.
How did you hear about us?
If you were referred by a friend, please type their name here.
Never submit passwords through Google Forms.
This content is neither created nor endorsed by Google.
Terms of Service