ICU | 英語リーディング | 2018
31. According to the text, which of the following ideas would Pinker support?
a. Musical skills are innate in every human being.
b. Musical skills are processed by dedicated parts of our brains.
c. Musical skills are developed by cultural trial and error.
d. Musical skills are independent of our cultural experiences.
32. What was the direct effect of Pinker's hypothesis?
a. Some researchers found conclusive evidence of music in our genes.
b. More scholars in various fields examined the origin of music.
c. Theories were classified into two distinct categories.
d. Music became a subject of study in one or two disciplines.
33. According to paragraph 4, which of the following statements is true about duetting primates?
a. They produce more offspring.
b. They have stronger offspring.
c. They remain with one partner.
d. They have multiple partners.
34. According to Dunbar, which of the following is NOT true about "vocal grooming" In early humans?
a. It is more comparable to speech than song.
b. It lacks propositional meaning.
c. It is possible without the use of hands.
d. It eventually replaced grooming.
35. Which one of the following reflects the caregiver hypothesis from paragraph 6?
a. Parents use songs to make their partners laugh.
b. Parents use lullabies to soothe infants to sleep.
c. Mothers use music to relieve their stress from caregiving.
d. Mothers use a high-pitched voice to talk to their babies.
36. Which of the following is the best definition of the word "debunk" underlined in paragraph 7?
a. to disagree with an opposing argument
b. to cite evidence in support of an idea or theory
c. to show the truth of something by using logic
d. to expose the falseness of an idea or theory
37. Which of the following is the best title for this text?
a. The Role of Music from an Evolutionary Perspective
b. Cross-Cultural Evidence in Evolutionary Musicology
c. Confusion in the Theory of Evolutionary Music
d. The Evolutionary Features of Music in Protohumans
38. What is the author's likely stance on this topic?
a. mostly supportive of Pinker's position
b. mostly supportive of Darwin's position
c. neutral towards both Pinker's and Darwin's positions
d. critical of both Pinker's and Darwin's positions
39. According to paragraph 1, which of the following is true of capitalism?
a. It is similar to previous economic systems that reward innovation.
b. It is based on making skilled financial decisions to accumulate wealth.
c. It increases opportunities for making people wealthy.
d. It forces people to provide new services at greater profits.
40. Which of the following is the best synonym of the underlined word "tenets" in paragraph 1?
41. What is the purpose of paragraph 2?
a. to clarify the concept of rationalization and its relevance
b. to illustrate that rationalization is a purely modem concept
c. to contrast early forms of rationalization with modem ones
d. to indicate the prevalence of rationalization in social organizations
42. According to paragraph 3, which of the following best explains the effect rationalization has had on the modem food industry?
a. Efficiency and practicality have become more valued than worker autonomy.
b. Division of tasks is less likely to occur due to the replacement of humans.
c. Labor and technology have become more expensive in traditional societies.
d. New services and machines are less important than working conditions.
43. What is the irony expressed about modem stores in paragraph 4?
a. Although people prefer modern stores, they go to traditional stores more frequently.
b. Despite the recent expansion of modem stores, they employ fewer people.
c. Although modem stores have a variety of goods, their prices are actually higher.
d. Despite objections to modern stores, consumers prefer the savings they offer.
44. What does the "iron cage" metaphor described in paragraph 5 represent?
a. a feeling of discontent among people in monotonous work environments
b. the indispensable role that rationalization plays in the work environment
c. humanity's inability to overcome the contradictions of rationalization
d. the inescapable truth that people will never revolt against social injustices
45. Which of the following illustrates the idea of rationalization expressed in the text?
a. remaining loyal to a store for its friendly service
b. buying a work of art for its aesthetic value
c. donating money to charity to pay less tax
d. empathizing with victims of financial crisis
46. Which of the following is the best title for this text?
a. The Acceptance of Weber's Theory of Rationalization
b. Understanding Rationalization and Its Impact on Society
c. The Application of Rationalization in Modem Society
d. Understanding Issues Surrounding Consumption and Capitalism
47. What is the main function of paragraph 1?
a. to introduce the reader to an interesting concept
b. to contrast two viewpoints on design ideas
c. to explain the effectiveness of a type of fastener
d. to endorse an innovative product to the reader
48. Why does the author use the 24-hour clock metaphor?
a. to indicate that time moves more slowly for nature
b. to illustrate the relatively short history of humanity
c. to demonstrate nature's ability to evolve throughout history
d. to acknowledge that humans require more time to develop
49. The phrase "rogue species" underlined in paragraph 2 is closest in meaning to which of the following?
a. a group of beings who are not fully integrated into their environment
b. a group of beings who look for lh aas tJi yngso solutions stoto short term problems
c. a group of beings who use ingenuity to overcome difficulties in the short-term
d. a group of beings who do not have the ability to co-exist with their own kind
50. What is the main idea of paragraph 3?
a. Natural laws are modified by scientists and engineers.
b. Natural processes evolve slowly over time.
c. Scientists and engineers utilize principles found in nature.
d. Fundamental principles are observed in nature.
51. Which law of nature is the Eastgate Building following?
a. Nature recycles everything.
b. Nature runs on sunlight.
c. Nature cooperates with its surroundings.
d. Nature fits form to function.
52. Which is NOT a characteristic of gecko tape?
a. It can cling to glass surfaces and walls using electrodynamic adhesion.
b. It can support heavily weighted objects with a limited application.
c. It can stick to objects in the same way as tiny hairs on a gecko's feet.
d. It can be removed and reused numerous times with chemical adhesion.
53. According to the text, which scenario is the most likely to occur without the use of biomimicry?
a. Life on earth will develop in a fashion never witnessed before.
b. Society will progress in a manner that is uncooperative with nature.
c. People will make use of their surroundings for solutions.
d. The environment will cease to issue warnings across the globe.
54. What is the main message of the text?
a. Nature emulates its surroundings to solve complex problems.
b. Humans develop solutions in response to problems in nature.
c. Nature provides a basic template for inventive ideas.
d. Humans solve problems through research and development.
c. had examined
d. is examining
a. In addition
b. In contrast
c. In particular
d. In theory
a. by considering
d. to consider
a. All the same
b. As a result
c. In other words
d. To sum up
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