108 學年度學科能力測驗試題
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四、閱讀測驗
第 41 至 44 題為題組
Angelfish, often found in the warm seas and coral reefs, are among the most brightly colored fish of the ocean. Brilliant colors and stripes form amazing patterns on their body. These patterns actually help the fish to hide from danger among roots and plants. At night, when these fish become inactive, their colors may become pale. Often, the young ones are differently colored than the adults. Some scientists believe that the color difference between the young and the old indicates their different social positions.

Another interesting fact about angelfish is that they have an occupation in the fish world. Most of them act as cleaners for other fish and pick dead tissue from their bodies. This is not their food, though. Their diet consists mainly of sponge and algae.

One particular kind of angelfish, the blackspot angelfish, has a special capability that allows it to change gender from female to male. However, the change is not made at random; it happens for a specific reason. Angelfish live in groups, and each group has one male fish, which is blue in color, and four female fish, which are yellow. The male angelfish is the strongest and largest member of the group. He is the one who protects and looks after the females. When the male dies, the group needs a new “security guard.” This is when the largest female in the group begins to change in appearance. She begins to grow larger in size, and after a week, she starts changing color, from yellow to blue. Slowly, her behavior toward the other fish also changes. She begins behaving like a male. Two weeks later, black stripes appear on her body, indicating the gender change is complete. She is now completely male!

41. What is the job of an angelfish in the sea?
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42. Which of the following statements is true about the color of angelfish?
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43. According to the passage, what triggers the gender change in the blackspot angelfish?
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44. Which of the following describes the order of changes in the features of a blackspot angelfish during gender change?
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第 45 至 48 題為題組
Totem poles in North America are poles or posts carved with symbols or figures by Aboriginal peoples of the Northwest Coast. Carved from large, straight trees and painted vibrant colors, the totem poles are not just unique works of art. The coastal peoples have long passed on knowledge from generation to generation through oral traditions, and totem poles were the traditional way of telling the story of an individual family or clan.

The totem pole can be grouped into specific categories, depending on its location and the occasion for which it was carved. Welcome poles were traditionally placed on village beachfronts to greet visitors arriving by canoe. Inside the homes of high-ranking chiefs is where house poles were found. The family’s history was carefully carved into each pole. Placed along the rear or front walls of a house, house poles also helped to support the main beam of the roof.

Memorial poles stood in front of a house. They were erected in memory of a deceased chief or a high-ranking clan member. The poles depicted the person’s accomplishments or family history. Mortuary poles were also raised to honor the dead, but they differed from memorial poles, having a burial box placed at the top of the pole. Inside the burial box were the remains of the deceased.

While many of these poles can still be found in various locations on the west coast of North America, there is one pole that can now only be found in a museum—the shame pole. Traditionally, shame poles were carved for a chief to embarrass and ridicule another who had done something wrong. Once the wrong was made right, the pole was taken down.

Totem poles are important expressions of specific Aboriginal cultures. Despite the threats posed by cultural and political encroachment of colonial forces, the art of totem pole carving has survived. Aboriginal carvers continue to carve totems as symbols of their cultural pride and clan kinship.

45. Which of the following is the best title for this passage?
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46. How is the information about totem poles organized in Paragraphs 2 to 4?
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47. Which of the following is located at the edge of a body of water?
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48. Which is closest in meaning to the word “encroachment” in the last paragraph?
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第 49 至 52 題為題組
Music has a tendency to get stuck in our heads. Sometimes a tune intrudes on our thoughts and then plays, and replays, in a never-ending loop. This interesting phenomenon becomes a subject explored by many scientists. They use a range of terms to describe it—stuck-song syndrome, sticky music, cognitive itch, or most commonly “earworm.” Earworms can run around our heads for several minutes to numerous hours. As the melody repeats, it becomes embedded into our mind. Even though our ears do not hear the tune, our brain continues to play it.

While earworms might be annoying, most people who experience them nevertheless report that they are pleasant or at least neutral. Only a third of people are disturbed by the song in their heads. How people cope with their earworms seems to depend on how they feel about them. Those who have positive feelings about their stuck songs prefer to just “let them be,” while those with negative feelings turn to more behavioral responses, which include coping strategies such as singing, talking, or even praying.
49. According to the passage, which of the following is true about an earworm?
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50. Which of the following best defines “subject” in the first paragraph?
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51. Which of the following is NOT mentioned as a feature that would trigger earworms?
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52. What is the third paragraph mainly about?
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第 53 至 56 題為題組
Got a bug bite problem? Many people who are troubled by skin rashes caused by bug bites use “foggers,” or “bug bombs,” to get rid of the annoying crawlers in their homes. Many people think these bug killers or pesticides will penetrate every place where the insects hide. Actually, quite the opposite is true. Once the pests detect the chemical fog in the room, they’ll hide themselves in walls or other hideaways, where you’ll never be able to treat them effectively.

Ohio State University researchers tested three commercially sold foggers in a study on the effect of foggers on bedbugs. After testing these brands on five different groups of live bedbugs for two hours, the scientists saw that the foggers had little—if any—effect on the insects. The researchers said bedbugs hide in cracks and crevices such as under sheets and mattresses, or deep in carpets where foggers won’t reach. Moreover, bugs that do come in contact with the mist may be resistant to the pesticide.

Foggers, or bug bombs, should really be a measure of last resort. First of all, the gases used in bug bombs are highly flammable and thus pose a serious risk of fire or explosion if the product is not used properly. Second, once a bug bomb is used, every surface in your home will be covered with the toxic pesticide. When you use a bug bomb, a chemical mixture rains down on your counters, furniture, floors, and walls, leaving behind oily and toxic substances. Your health might thus be endangered. Therefore, it is suggested that people leave the problem to the professionals.

53. What is this passage mainly about?
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54. How do bedbugs react to foggers?
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55. According to the passage, which of the following statements about foggers is true?
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56. What does the author advise people to do with bedbug problems?
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一、中譯英( 占 8分 )說明:1.請將以下中文句子譯成正確、通順、達意的英文,並將答案寫在「答案卷」上。 2.請依序作答,並標明子題號。每題4分,共8分。
1. 自2007年營運以來,高鐵(the High Speed Rail)已成為臺灣最便利、最快速的交通工具之一。
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2. 對於強調職場效率的人而言,高鐵當然是商務旅行的首選。
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二、英文作文( 占 20分 ) 說明︰1.依提示在「答案卷」上寫一篇英文作文。 2.文長至少120個單詞(words)。
提示︰身為臺灣的一份子,臺灣最讓你感到驕傲的是什麼?請以此為題,寫一篇英文作文,談臺 灣最讓你引以為榮的二個面向或事物(例如:人、事、物、文化、制度等)。第一段描述 這二個面向或事物,並說明它們為何讓你引以為榮;第二段則說明你認為可以用什麼方式 來介紹或行銷這些臺灣特色,讓世人更了解臺灣。
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