Unit 7 Vocabulary Practice
Formative Assessment
Trillions of cubic feet of natural gas believed to lie below the hills of northwest Georgia have remained virtually untouched and unwanted — until now. Some companies are looking to start ____________ operations in northwest Georgia to remove the natural gas from the shale formations found deep underground. *
1 point
Kerogen, bitumen, and methane are all ____________. *
1 point
____________ is the process of separating the metal from impurities by heating the concentrate to a high temperature to cause the metal to melt. This produces a metal or a high-grade metallic mixture along with a solid waste product called slag. *
1 point
Uranium is found as ________________ which when purified has a rich yellow color and is called "yellowcake". After reduction, the uranium must go through an isotope enrichment process. Even with the necessity of enrichment, it still takes only about 3 kg of natural uranium to supply the energy needs of one American for a year. *
1 point
_______________ can be released anywhere on the mine where sulfides are exposed to air and water -- including waste rock piles, tailings, open pits, underground tunnels, and leach pads. *
1 point
All of the Navy’s submarines and aircraft carriers are propelled by nuclear power. In order for this to happen, each ship essentially contains a small nuclear power plant. The power generated by this reactor is created through _____________. *
1 point
Containing the widest range of carbon content (45% to 86%), _____________ coal is mainly used as a fuel to generate electricity, though some is used as coking coal to produce steel. It is the oldest and most abundant coal type found in the United States. *
1 point
___________ is fuel made from vegetable oils, animal fats, or recycled restaurant greases. It's safe, biodegradable, and produces less air pollutants than petroleum-based diesel. *
1 point
Professor Charles Hall, an ecologist at the SUNY College of Environmental Science and Forestry, developed the concept of ________________ to give a common measure for comparing very different fuels. Finding out fuels’ __________ means working out how much energy it takes to make the materials usable – like finding oil, drilling the well, pumping it out and refining it – and how much energy you get afterwards. It’s a simple equation – you divide the energy output by the energy input. *
1 point
The first step in designing a________________ system is to think through the building’s relationship with the sun. In the northern hemisphere, the home will need to be south-facing, to catch the maximum amount of sunlight. All the most important rooms — the ones where people live and work — will be on the south side. The idea is to distribute solar energy (in the form of heat) around the home in the winter, and prevent excess heating in the summer. *
1 point
___________-certified buildings are resource efficient. They use less water and energy and reduce greenhouse gas emissions. As an added bonus, they save money. *
1 point
_____________ is considered the cleanest burning coal available. It produces more heat and less smoke than other coals and is widely used in hand-fired furnaces. Some residential home heating stove systems still use it which burns longer than wood. It has been nicknamed "hard coal," especially by locomotive engineers who used it for fueling trains. *
1 point
As natural gas from shale becomes a global energy "game changer," oil and gas researchers are working to develop new technologies to produce natural gas from ____________deposits. This research is important because these deposits found beneath Arctic permafrost, beneath Antarctic ice, and along continental margins in the ocean, are believed to be a larger hydrocarbon resource than all of the world's oil, natural gas and coal resources combined. If these deposits can be efficiently and economically developed, they could become the next energy game changer. *
1 point
_________________ is a clear, colorless and non-toxic liquid which forms when natural gas is cooled to -162ºC (-260ºF). The cooling process shrinks the volume of the gas 600 times, making it easier and safer to store and ship. *
1 point
Compared to conventional crude oil, ___________ contains more carbon than hydrogen, as well as many more impurities, such as nitrogen, sulfur and heavy metals. In order to produce synthetic crude, these impurities must be removed and the carbon-hydrogen imbalance corrected. *
1 point
___________ (also referred to as oil sands) are a combination of clay, sand, water, and bitumen, a heavy black viscous oil. *
1 point
Enacted by Congress in 1975, ___________ purpose is to reduce energy consumption by increasing the fuel economy of cars and light trucks. *
1 point
Because cyanide is efficient, it makes mining profitable at lower ore grades. Consequently modern mines are much larger, and create vast open pits and produce huge quantities of waste. A single gold ring creates more than 20 tons of mining waste -- thanks to cyanide. Vat leaching is where extracted ore is mixed with a cyanide solution in vats. The resulting waste, known as ____________, is stored behind large dams *
1 point
The two most common _________________ classes are olefins (including ethylene and propylene) and aromatics (including benzene, toluene and xylene isomers). Olefins and aromatics are the building-blocks for a wide range of materials such as solvents, detergents, and adhesives. Olefins are the basis for polymers and oligomers used in plastics, resins, fibers, elastomers, lubricants, and gels. Originally, they are all derived from petroleum. *
1 point
Many power plants today use fossil fuels as a heat source to boil water. The steam from the boiling water spins a large turbine, which drives a generator to produce electricity. However, a new generation of power plants with ________ systems uses the sun as a heat source. The three main types are: linear concentrator, dish/engine, and power tower systems. *
1 point
____________ is a renewable, domestically produced alcohol fuel made from plant material, such as corn, sugar cane, or grasses. Using it can reduce oil dependence and greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions. Its use in the U.S. has increased dramatically from about 1.7 billion gallons in 2001 to about 13.9 billion in 2015. *
1 point
_______________ gets its name from the process of converting light (photons) to electricity (voltage). It was discovered in 1954, when scientists at Bell Telephone discovered that silicon (an element found in sand) created an electric charge when exposed to sunlight. Soon solar cells were being used to power space satellites and smaller items like calculators and watches. *
1 point
The term oil shale generally refers to any sedimentary rock that contains solid bituminous materials (called _________) that are released as petroleum-like liquids when the rock is heated in the chemical process of pyrolysis. *
1 point
_________________ vehicles are classified globally as zero emission vehicles, and are seeing a wave of policy support in North America, Europe, and Asia. The water vapor emissions are fascinating to many. California is leading the way in the sales of these vehicles. The Toyota Mirai was the number one vehicle purchased using this fuel source. *
1 point
_______________ are used in nuclear reactors to control the fission rate of uranium and plutonium. They are composed of chemical elements such as boron, silver, indium and cadmium that are capable of absorbing many neutrons without themselves fissioning. *
1 point
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