Open Statement on Sexual Harassment from U.S. Law Professors
We, the undersigned law professors interested in eliminating sexual harassment, seek to offer a new vision and agenda for eliminating sexual harassment and advancing equality. We are inspired by the #MeToo movement: the courage and sheer number of people who have come forward to report sexual harassment and abuse, including in the chambers of the U.S. Senate, the solidarity among activists, the media’s in-depth and sustained coverage, and the public’s willingness to hear and believe so many victims all suggest this is a watershed moment for change. Spurred by recent events and renewed activism, we wish to contribute to the current momentum by broadening the conversation to include the law. To reduce sexual harassment and move toward a fairer, more inclusive society for everyone, we offer the following principles for addressing sexual harassment gained from years of working for progress within the law.

Ten Principles for Addressing Sexual Harassment

Principle #1: The problem with sexual harassment is sexism, not sexual desire.

Sexual harassment often refers to unwanted sexual advances and assaults, usually by powerful male bosses or benefactors against less powerful women. This is an important pattern of harassment, one that our society must address. Yet, not all harassment fits this pattern, and even this pattern is more about gender than it is about sexual attraction.

Contrary to popular perceptions, harassment is not always sexual in nature; it assumes a variety of nonsexual forms. Nor is it usually perpetrated by bosses or power brokers, nor is it always a male-to-female phenomenon. Men harass other men who don’t conform to prescribed images of who “real men” are supposed to be, for example. Women sometimes harass other women, as well as men.

In all these scenarios, the bottom line is that harassment is more about upholding status and identity than it is about expressing sexual desire or sexuality. In the usual case, harassment provides a way for some men to monopolize prized roles in society, and to maintain a superior masculine position and sense of self. Even where unwanted sexual misconduct occurs, it is typically a telltale sign of biased attitudes or broader patterns of inequality such as gender stereotyping and sex segregation, as explained below.

Principle #2: Harassment includes many forms of nonsexual sexism and abuse, not just sexual misconduct.

Recent events have focused on unwanted sexual advances, including serious sexual assaults. These acts cause serious harm. They humiliate victims, brand them as inferiors, and cause lasting psychological anguish and trauma. As the #MeToo movement insists, survivors of such sexual harassment and abuse deserve respect, empathy, and justice from society and the legal system to address these harms.

The same is true of many other nonsexual forms of sexism and abuse that women experience simply because they are women. Patronizing treatment, physical assaults, hostile or ridiculing behavior, social ostracism and exclusion, and work sabotage are all used to make women feel inferior, for example, just like sexual come-ons. In fact, research shows that nonsexual hostilities are more common than unwanted sexual overtures. Typically, even explicitly sexual overtures are accompanied by other forms of sex-based harassment and disrespect, revealing that sexual misconduct is often less about hooking up than about putting women down.

For these reasons, the laws prohibiting workplace and school harassment now prohibit all sex-based harassment, sexual and nonsexual, in a variety of institutional and social settings.

Principle #3: Sexual harassment is linked to sex segregation and inequality.

Reformers who highlight the importance of gender parity are right: sex segregation and inequality are a major cause of sex harassment. Research shows that harassment is more prevalent where women work in traditionally male-dominated jobs or settings, for example.

Women’s absence from some positions or spaces and predominance in others fosters gender stereotypes like “men are leaders” and “women aren’t tough enough to lead”—ideas that make the underlying segregation and inequality seem natural when they are not. These stereotypes foster harassment, encouraging men to view and treat women as “different” and second class. By harassing women who dare to enter traditionally male institutions or roles, or imposing sexist demands that remind women they are still women in a man’s world, men can shore up their masculine status and sense of masculine superiority. Harassment in turn reinforces the original segregation and stereotypes by driving women away and confirming ideas that they can’t cut it or don’t belong. Leaders often fail to respond or look the other way, completing the cycle.

Sex segregation not only affects mostly-male institutions: Women who inhabit traditionally female positions and spaces are often at increased risk of harassment and exploitation, too, especially where their roles require displaying heterosexual sex appeal or performing other stereotypically female roles. Without the power and safety that comes with equal representation and numbers, women cannot effectively counter stereotypes or deter or resist harassment. Combatting sexual harassment means eliminating sex segregation and ensuring that women and men work, learn, and socialize alongside each other as equals.

Principle #4: Same-sex harassment and LGBTQ harassment are prevalent and prohibited forms of sex discrimination, too.

Women are not the only victims of harassment. Men, too, frequently experience sex-based harassment—mostly at the hands of other men. At times, powerful men prey on other men for sexual favors, just as men do upon women. But more often, men harass other men through acts of gender-based hostility—including hostility toward those who don’t live up to images of “real men” prescribed by mainstream codes of masculinity. Although female-on-female harassment is less visible than other types, women do sometimes demean and ostracize women perceived as improperly feminine, including lesbians. Harassment against LGBTQ people is widespread, with transgender individuals experiencing the highest rates of all. By attacking LGBTQ people and heterosexual individuals who fail to conform to prescribed gender norms, harassers reinforce their status and shore up their own sense of self.

Because harassment and discrimination against LGBTQ individuals is necessarily rooted in prescriptive stereotypes about appropriate appearance, sexual partners, and gender identity, the law has rightly begun to recognize that sexual orientation and transgender harassment is a form of illegal sex discrimination. This is true regardless of whether the motive or means are sexual in nature or whether the harassment is directed at someone of the opposite or same sex.

Principle #5: Race-based harassment and intersectional race/sex harassment and discrimination must be specifically addressed.

Women and men of color experience higher rates of racial-ethnic harassment than white people. Women of color also report and experience higher rates of harassment than white women, often on the basis of both sex and race. Men of color may also be more likely than white men to experience gender-based harassment at the hands of other men. In general, people who experience sex-based harassment are more likely to experience racial-ethnic harassment, highlighting the importance of intersectional analysis pioneered by Black feminists.

Black women have been subjected to sexual and labor exploitation for centuries, dating back to slavery. Women of color generally face increased risk of harassment, and pernicious myths about their sexuality, as well as persistent nonsexual negative stereotypes. Men of color, too, face pervasive stereotypes and are sometimes targeted for harassment or discrimination, or accused of it, because of their race and sex. Women of color, as well as immigrants and undocumented workers, are also disproportionately clustered in low-paying, unskilled occupations, leaving them further vulnerable to and less able to resist stereotyping and harassment. The law has properly begun to acknowledge the foundational role of race in contributing to sex-based harassment, along with other structural factors as discussed below.

Principle #6: Broader structural vulnerabilities, as well as arbitrary unchecked authority, must be reduced.

Many women find themselves in occupations or situations that leave them vulnerable to sex-based harassment and exploitation. Hotel housekeepers work alone; agricultural workers are “out of sight and out of mind” for the general public; and waitresses who rely on tips may feel compelled to tolerate harassment, for example. Students must depend on teachers and coaches for advancement and advice.

Even apart from such specialized vulnerabilities, many people also face a more generalized risk for harassment and abuse—bosses or benefactors who have unchecked, carte blanche authority to make or break their careers and life prospects based on the higher-ups’ own subjective say-so. The gendered character of the hierarchy contributes to the problem—because of sex segregation and inequality, too many bosses and benefactors are men—but so does the nature of the hierarchy itself. Research shows that managers who are given unfettered, discretionary authority over subordinates, for example, are more likely to abuse it. This is unnecessary and wrong. Excessive, unchecked discretion not only provides a ready mechanism for discrimination; it also provides a powerful platform for sexual misconduct and sex-based harassment and intimidation. Time-honored legal principles prohibit excessively subjective, unconstrained discretion, incentivizing greater objectivity, oversight, openness, and accountability to constrain arbitrary authority that facilitates harassment and abuse.

Principle #7: Institutions should rely on fair process to determine whether sexual behavior is unwelcome and harassing, rather than simply banning all sexual behavior across the board.

In an effort to avoid legal liability, many institutions have adopted policies that broadly prohibit all sexually-oriented conversation and behavior, regardless of their purpose or effect. Some organizations even ban dating among same-level members. Such sweeping prohibitions tend to be unhelpful; they can even hinder the cause of eliminating harassment and discrimination by creating fear and encouraging higher-ups and peers to avoid women, further fueling patterns of sex segregation and inequality.

Common sense suggests that not all sexual conversations, invitations, or relationships are discriminatory or harmful; this is why the law requires that harassment be unwanted or unwelcome. Power and representation in a given context matter. In less sex-segregated, more gender equal settings, for example, women are less likely to experience sexual harassment. In other cases, dating relationships among colleagues are welcome.

Overzealous approaches that seek to eliminate all sexual expression invite cynicism and backlash against initiatives to combat harassment. They fail to promote equality for women, while leaving LGBTQ people, men of color, and others who are stereotyped as sexually predatory vulnerable to disproportionate punishment. To help prevent discriminatory enforcement of harassment policies, and to ensure basic fairness for both complainants and people accused of sexual misconduct, it is important to provide thorough, impartial, and evenhanded investigations and hearings for all complaints.

Principle #8: Support for victims of harassment and people who stand up for them must be strengthened.

To end harassment, societal institutions must create conditions and cultures that ensure equal inclusion and respect for everyone. Leaders can provide time, money, and organizational resources to prevent harassment, investigate complaints fairly, monitor results, and establish a climate of respect for all. They can also take steps to desegregate along sex and gender lines and create structural conditions in which equality and respect can flourish.

But addressing harassment is too important to be left to leadership alone. Eliminating sexual harassment requires solidarity with those who come forward to complain. Harassment can be eliminated only if people who are harassed are safe in coming forward, and if other people can safely stand up for them. All members of society have a vital stake and role to play in creating nondiscriminatory institutions and social spaces. Politicians, reporters, educators, activists, shareholders, consumers, and ordinary citizens can also stand up for victims—and for what is right—across traditional boundaries of sex, gender, sexual orientation, race, national origin, and socioeconomic and occupational status.

Research shows that most people who experience harassment do not report it, largely because they fear retaliation—and with good reason. Without empowering victims and their allies to reveal and protest perceived wrongdoing, there is no way to eliminate harassment or to move society forward.

Principle #9: Victims of sexual harassment should have open and equal access to the legal system.

Sexual harassment is a form of discrimination, and it should be treated the same as other types of discrimination. To a large extent the law recognizes this principle. But there are exceptions. Even though hostile work environment harassment is simply discrimination in the terms and conditions of employment, for example, the Supreme Court has said employers do not face the usual strict liability for this type of harassment. Further, employees who are not fired or demoted must first complain internally to their employers before turning to the courts for redress. Once there, the law requires them to prove elements not required of other employees who experience discrimination. The Court has set unduly high standards that prevents many victims from having their day in court, let alone winning. Judges often turn a blind eye to sexism, refusing to find that harassment is because of sex when it is clearly driven by sexism and stereotyping.

These barriers are unacceptable. It is unfair and unwise to subject harassment cases to more onerous legal rules than other forms of discrimination. It suggests that victims of sexual misconduct are somehow responsible or at fault for the harassment. All victims of harassment and discrimination should have recourse to the legal system on equal, accessible terms.

Principle #10: Prevention and remedies must move beyond punishing individual wrongdoers to encourage systemic institutional change.

Harassment is a large-scale problem; it requires bold solutions. Individual harassers must be held accountable for their actions, as discussed above. Allowing harassers to rise to prominence, remain in their positions, resign, or disappear from the public eye quietly does nothing to prevent them from causing more harm. But institutions and society must do much more. Even if individuals are held to account, other harassers will eventually take their place unless the underlying conditions and cultures that fostered the harassment in the first place are changed.

Ending harassment requires moving beyond individual solutions to adopt approaches that hold institutions accountable for harassment and its sources. The law should lead the way, but recent Supreme Court decisions make it difficult to seek justice along these lines. The Court has cut back on the availability of class actions, for example, and upheld mandatory arbitration agreements for harassment and discrimination claims. These decisions force complainants into private arbitration forums that tend to favor the status quo and prevent people from challenging injustices together. Not only do such decisions limit access to justice for people who have experienced harassment and discrimination: all citizens are hindered in obtaining meaningful reforms when those in power treat harassment as a problem of individual bad actors, rather than as a product of the broader structures and environments in which those individuals work, learn, and interact with each other as equals.

Employees, advocates, policymakers, educators, labor unions, activists, students, and ordinary citizens must think expansively about how to facilitate such systemic changes to prevent and remedy harassment and discrimination. We must move beyond individual punishment to embrace actions that will alter the structure and culture of our institutions and encourage greater equality, respect, and solidarity among those who inhabit them. Such actions can and should be undertaken inside and outside the legal system, inspired by enduring legal ideals of equality and fairness for all.

Conclusion

As legal scholars and educators, we know that law alone cannot create change. Yet we know also that change rarely occurs without the law. For over forty years, employees, activists, educators, and policymakers have looked to the legal system to address sexual harassment, particularly in the context of the workplace and campus. These efforts have produced important theories and information, steps forward and setbacks, that yield important lessons for the future. The laws against discrimination provide an important tool in the fight against sexual harassment. But broader reforms are needed to address the conditions in which harassment flourishes, and to make legal and social institutions more responsive to the problem. The foregoing principles are a place to start.

Signed,

Alphabetical, institutional affiliation listed for identification purposes only
Last updated 10/5/18 at 2:54 p.m. EST

Kathryn Abrams, Professor of Law, Berkeley Law School
Miriam R. Albert, Professor of Skills, Hofstra Law School
Anne L. Alstott, Jacquin D Bierman Professor of Law, Yale Law School
Nadia B. Ahmad, Associate Professor of Law, Barry University School of Law
Maryam Ahranjani, Assistant Professor, University of New Mexico School of Law
Ifeoma Ajunwa, Assistant Professor, Cornell University ILR School Associate Faculty Member, Cornell Law School
Susan Appleton, Lemma Barkeloo & Phoebe Couzins Professor of Law, Washington University School of Law
Rachel Arnow-Richman, Professor of Law, University of Denver Sturm College of Law
Hader Aviram, Thomas Miller ’73 Professor of Law, UC Hastings College of the Law
Ian Ayres, William K. Townsend Professor of Law, Yale Law School
Sahar Aziz, Professor of Law and Chancellor’s Social Justice Scholar, Rutgers Law School
Barbara A. Babb, Associate Professor of Law, University of Baltimore School of Law
Rick Bales, Professor, Ohio Northern College of Law
Elizabeth Bartholet, Morris Wasserstein Prof. of Public Interest Law, Harvard Law School
Jennifer Baum, Professor of Clinical Legal Education, St. John’s University School of Law
Marsha L. Baum, Professor of Law, University of New Mexico
Nadine Baum, Distinguished Professor of Law, University of Arkansas-Little Rock
Julia Belian, Associate Professor of Law, University of Detroit Mercy School of Law
Anita Bernstein, Professor of Law, Brooklyn Law School
Beryl Blaustone, Professor of Law, CUNY School of Law
Susan Block-Lieb, Cooper Family Professor of Urban Legal Issues, Fordham Law School
Amelia Boss, Trustee Professor of Law, Drexel University School of Law
Robin Boyle, Professor of Legal Writing, St. John’s University School of Law
Shawn Marie Boyne, Professor of Law, Indiana University Robert H. McKinney School of Law
Grace Ganz Blumberg, Distinguished Professor of Law Emerita, UCLA School of Law
Stephanie Bornstein, Associate Professor of Law, University of Florida Levin College of Law
Nikolas Bowie, Assistant Professor of Law, Harvard Law School
Deborah Brake, Professor of Law, University of Pittsburgh
Joanne Brant, Professor of Law, Ohio Northern University College of Law
Melissa Breger, Professor of Law, Albany Law School
Kelly Browe-Olson, Associate Professor of Law, University of Arkansas at Little Rock
Patricia Broussard, Professor of Law, Florida Agricultural and Mechanical University College of Law
Margaret Burnham, Distinguished University Professor of Law, Northeastern University
Erin Buzuvis, Professor of Law, Western New England University
Nancy Chi Cantalupo, Associate Professor of Law, Barry University School of Law
Alexander Capron, University Professor and Scott H. Bice Chair in Healthcare Law, Policy and Ethics, University of Southern California
June Carbone, Robina Chair of Law, University of Minnesota Law School
Catherine L. Carpenter, Arleigh M. Woods and William T. Woods Professor of Law, Southwestern Law School
Martha Chamallas, Robert J. Lynn Chair in Law, Moritz College of Law, The Ohio State University
David F. Chavkin, Professor of Law Emeritus, American University Washington College of Law
Pat Chew, Salmon Chaired Professor of Law, University of Pittsburgh School of Law
Gabriel J. Chin, Edward L. Barrett Jr. Chair and Martin Luther King Jr. Professor, University of California, Davis School of Law
Sumi Cho, Professor of Law, DePaul University College of Law
Carol Chomsky, Professor of Law, University of Minnesota Law School
Stephen Clark, Professor of Law, Albany Law School
Jessica A. Clarke, Professor of Law, Vanderbilt Law School
Zachary Clopton, Associate Professor of Law, Cornell Law School
Donna Coker, Professor of Law, University of Miami School of Law
Ruth Colker, Distinguished University Professor, Ohio State University Moritz College of Law
Dana Harrington Conner, Professor of Law, Widener University, Delaware Law School
Kim Diana Connolly, Professor of Law, University at Buffalo School of Law
Elizabeth Cooper, Associate Professor of Law, Fordham Law School
Angela Cornell, Clinical Professor of Law, Cornell Law School
Jan C. Costello, Professor of Law, Loyola Law School - Los Angeles
Bridget J. Crawford, Professor of Law, Elisabeth Haub School of Law at Pace University
Mary Crossley, Professor of Law, University of Pittsburgh School of Law
Pamela A. Daiker-Middaugh, Clinical Professor of Law, Cleaveland-Marshall College of Law
Ellen E. Deason, Joanne Wharton Murphy Classes of 1965 & 1973 Professor of Law, The Ohio State University Moritz College of Law
Christine A. Desan, Leo Gottlieb Professor of Law, Harvard Law School
Deborah Dinner, Associate Professor of Law, Emory University School of Law
Nancy Dowd, Professor of Law, University of Florida Levin College of Law
Jennifer Drobac, R. Bruce Townsend Professor of Law, Indiana University
Alice Eakin, Associate Legal Methods Professor, Widener University Delaware Law School
Victoria L. Eastus, Visiting Professor of Law, New York Law School
Lauren Edelman, Agnes Roddy Robb Professor of Law and Professor of Sociology, University of California Berkeley
Jean Eggen, Distinguished Professor Emerita of Law, Delaware Law School – Widener University
Nancy Ehrenreich, Professor of Law, University of Denver Sturm College of Law
Maxine Eichner, Graham Kenan Distinguished Professor of Law, UNC School of Law
Kathleen Engel, Research Professor, Suffolk University
Sam Erman, Associate Professor of Law, USC Gould School of Law
Katie Eyer, Associate Professor of Law, Rutgers University
Marie Failinger, Professor of Law, Mitchell Hamline School of Law
Stephanie Farrior, Distinguished Faculty Scholar, Vermont Law School
Zanita E. Fenton, Professor of Law, University of Miami School of Law
Martha Albertson Fineman, Robert W Woodruff Professor of Law, Emory University
Davida Finger, Clinic Professor, Loyola University New Orleans College of Law
Richard Michael Fischl, Professor of Law, University of Connecticut
Linda E. Fisher, Professor of Law, Seton Hall Law School
Joseph Fishkin, Marrs McLean Professor in Law, University of Texas, Austin
Catherine L. Fisk, Barbara Nachtrieb Armstrong Professor of Law, University of California, Berkeley
Barbara Flagg, Professor of Law Emerita, Washington University
Akilah Folami, Professor of Law, Hofstra University Law School
Pamela Foohey, Associate Professor, Indiana University Maurer School of Law
Carolina Forell, Professor of Law Emerita, University of Oregon
Cynthia L. Fountaine, Professor of Law, Southern Illinois University School of Law
Susan F. French, Professor of Law Emerita, UCLA School of Law
Clark Freshman, Professor of Law, University of California, Hastings College of the Law
Hiroshi Fukurai, Professor of Legal Studies and Sociology, University of California Santa Cruz
Martha E. Gaines, Distinguished Clinical Professor of Law, University of Wisconsin Law School
Paula Galowitz, Clinical Professor of Law Emerita, New York University School of Law
Susan N. Gary, Professor of Law, University of Oregon School of Law
Hannah R. Garry, Clinical Professor of Law, USC Gould School of Law
Urs Gasser, Professor of Practice, Harvard Law School
Erika George, Samuel D. Thurman Professor of Law, University of Utah S.J. Quinney College of Law
Sarah Gerwig-Moore, Associate Professor of Law, Mercer University
Lauren Gilbert, Professor of Law, St. Thomas University School of Law
Theresa Glennon, Professor of Law, Temple University
Nicole B. Godfrey, Visiting Assistant Professor, University of Denver Sturm College of Law
Rachel Godsil, Professor of Law, Rutgers University
Susan Goldberg, Associate Dean and Associate Professor, Delaware Law of Widener University
Phyllis Goldfarb, Jacob Burns Foundation Professor Emerita of Clinical Law, George Washington University Law School
Julie Goldscheid, Professor of Law, CUNY School of Law
Jasmine Gonzales Rose, Associate Professor of Law, University of Pittsburgh
Robert W. Gordon, Professor of Law, Stanford Law School
Nise Guzmán Nekheba, Associate Professor of Law, Florida A&M University
Steve Gray, Assistant Clinical Professor of Law, University of Michigan
Michael Green, Professor of Law, Texas A&M University
Tristin Green, Professor of Law, University of San Francisco School of Law
Elayne E. Greenberg, Assistant Dean of Dispute Resolution, Professor of Legal Practice, Director of the Carey Center for Dispute Resolution, St. John’s Law School
Julie A. Greenberg, Professor Emeritus, Thomas Jefferson School of Law
D. Wendy Greene, Professor of Law, Cumberland School of Law
David Singh Grewal, Professor, Yale Law School
Ariela Gross, John B. and Alice R. Sharp Professor of Law and History, University of Southern California Gould School of Law
Joanna L. Grossman, Ellen K. Solender Endowed Chair in Women and Law & Professor of Law, SMU Dedman School of Law
Aya Gruber, Professor of Law, University of Colorado Law School
Phoebe Haddon, Chancellor and Professor of Law, Rutgers University School of Law
Jacqueline Hand, Professor of Law, University of Detroit Mercy School of Law
Jon Hanson, Alan A. Stone Professor of Law, Harvard Law School
Angela P. Harris, Professor Emerita, Distinguished of Law, UC Davis School of Law
Bruce Hay, Professor of Law, Harvard University
Dina F. Haynes, Professor of Law, New England Law
Jennifer S. Hendricks, Professor of Law, University of Colorado Law School
Tanya Hernandez, Professor of Law, Fordham Law School
Jasmine E. Harris, Acting Professor of Law, UC Davis School of Law
Kathy Hessler, Professor of Law, Lewis & Clark Law School
Jeffrey Hirsch, Professor of Law, University of North Carolina
Ann C. Hodges, Professor of Law Emeritus, University of Richmond
Nan Hunter, Professor of Law, Georgetown Law School
Clare Huntington, Joseph M. McLaughlin Professor of Law, Fordham Law School
Alan Hyde, Professor of Law, Rutgers University
Lisa C. Ikemoto, Professor of Law, University of California, Davis School of Law
Lolita Buckner Inniss, Professor and Robert G. Storey Distinguished Faculty Fellow, SMU Dedman School of Law
Melanie B. Jacobs, Senior Associate Dean and Professor of Law, Michigan State University College of Law
Peter Jaszi, Professor of Law Emeritus, American University Law School
Dawn Johnsen, Walter W. Foskett Professor of Law, Indiana University Maurer School of Law
Margaret E. Johnson, Professor of Law, University of Baltimore School of Law
Thea Johnson, Associate Professor of Law, University of Maine School of Law
Patrick Johnston, Associate Professor of Law, Widener University Delaware Law School
Ann Juliano, Professor of Law, Villanova University
Jonathan Kahn, Professor of Law, Mitchell Hamline School of Law
Marcy Karin, Jack and Lovell Olender Professor of Law, UDC David A. Clarke School of Law
Joshua E. Kastenberg, Professor of Law, University of New Mexico
Eileen Kaufman, Professor of Law, Touro Law School
Alicia Kelly, Professor of Law, Widener University Delaware Law School
Deseriee Kennedy, Associate Dean of Diversity & Inclusion and Professor of Law, Touro Law Center
Laura Kessler, Professor of Law, University of Utah
Kathleen Kim, Professor of Law, Loyola Law School Los Angeles
Susan King, Associate Professor of Legal Methods, Widener University Delaware Law School
Daniela Kraiem, Practicioner in Residence, American University Washington College of Law
Kit Kinports, Distinguished Faculty Scholar, Penn State Law
Catherine F. Klein, Professor of Law, The Catholic University of America
Harold Hongju Koh, Sterling Professor of International Law, Yale Law School
Jean Koh Peters, Sol Goldman Clinical Professor of Law, Yale Law School
Laurie Kohn, Associate Professor of Law, George Washington Law School
Jasleen Kohli, Director, Critical Race Studies Program, UCLA School of Law
Judith Koons, Professor of Law, Barry University School of Law
Jane Korn, Professor of Law, Gonzaga Law School
Minna J. Kotkin, Professor of Law, Brooklyn Law School
Candy Kovacic-Fleischer, Professor of Law Emeritus, American University
Zachary Kramer, Professor of Law, Arizona State
Douglas Kysar, Joseph M. Field ’55 Professor of Law, Yale Law School
Rebecca K. Lee, Associate Professor of Law, Thomas Jefferson School of Law
Sophia Lee, Professor of Law, University of Pennsylvania
Nancy Leong, Professor of Law, University of Denver Sturm College of Law
Mary Leto Pareja, Associate Professor of Law, University of New Mexico
Nancy Levit, Professor of Law, University of Missouri, Kansas City
Mary A. Lynch, Kate Stoneman Chair in Law and Democracy, Albany Law School
Orly Lobel, Professor, University of San Diego School of Law
Antoinette Sedillo López, Professor Emerita, University of New Mexico School of Law
Jean Love, Professor of Law, Santa Clara University
Lois R. Lupica, Maine Law Foundation Professor of Law, University of Maine School of Law
Elizabeth MacDowell, Professor of Law, William S. Boyd School of Law University of Nevada Las Vegas
Jody Madeira, Professor of Law, Indiana University Maurer School of Law
Solangel Maldonado, Eleanor Bontecou Professor of Law, Seton Hall University School of Law
Maya Manian, Professor of Law, University of San Francisco School of Law
Ellen Marrus, Royce Till Professor of Law, University of Houston Law Center
Nathalie Martin, Frederick M. Hart Chair in Consumer and Clinical Law, University of New Mexico
Miriam Marton, Assistant Clinical Professor of Law, University of Tulsa College of Law
Serena Mayeri, Professor of Law and History, University of Pennsylvania Law School
Goldburn P. Maynard Jr., Assistant Professor of Law, Brandeis School of Law
Martha T. McCluskey, Professor of Law, University at Buffalo, State University of NY
Elizabeth McCormick, Associate Clinical Professor of Law, University of Tulsa College of Law
Marcia McCormick, Professor, Saint Louis University School of Law
Ann McGinley, William S. Boyd Professor of Law, University of Nevada, Las Vegas Law School
Miranda Oshige McGowan, Professor of Law, University of San Diego Law School
M. Isabel Medina, Ferris Family Distinguished Professor of Law, Loyola University New Orleans College of Law
Joan S. Meier, Professor of Clinical Law, George Washington University Law School
Kathryn Mercer, Professor, Case Western Reserve University School of Law
Vanessa Merton, Professor of Law, Elisabeth Haub School of Law at Pace University
Binny Miller, Professor of Law, American University, Washington College of Law
Seema Mohapatra, Associate Professor of Law, Indiana University Robert H. McKinney School of Law
Margaret Montoya, Professor Emerita of Law, University of New Mexico
Jennifer Moore, Professor of Law, University of New Mexico School of Law
Calvin Morrill, Stefan A. Riesenfeld Professor of Law and Professor of Sociology, University of California, Berkeley
Elora Mukherjee, Jerome L. Greene Clinical Professor of Law, Columbia Law School
Melissa Murray, Professor of Law, New York University
Yxta Maya Murray, Professor of Law, Loyola Law School
Smita Narula, Haub Distinguished Professor of International Law, Elisabeth Haub School of Law at Pace University
Carol A. Needham, Emanuel Myers Professor of Law, Saint Louis University
Marie Stefanini Newman, Professor of Law and Law Library Director, Elisabeth Haub School of Law at Pace University
Victoria F. Nourse, Professor of Law, Georgetown Law School
Michael A. Olivas, William B. Bates Distinguished Chair, University of Houston Law Center
Angela Onwuachi-Willig, Dean and Professor of Law at Boston University School of Law
David Oppenheimer, Professor of Law, University of California Berkeley Law School
Laura Oren, Professor Emerita, University of Houston Law Center
Richard Ottinger, Dean Emeritus, Elizabeth Haub School of Law of Pace University
Jessica Owley, Professor of Law, SUNY Buffalo Law School
Laura Padilla, Professor of Law, California Western School of Law
Cathren Page, Associate Professor of Law, Barry University School of Law
Joyce Palomar, Professor of Law Emeritus, University of Oklahoma College of Law
Sachin Pandya, Professor of Law, University of Connecticut Law School
Sarah H. Paoletti, Practice Professor of Law, University of Pennsylvania School of Law
Wendy Parmet, Professor of Law, Northeastern University
Sanjukta Paul, Assistant Professor of Law, Wayne State University
Danielle Pelfrey Duryea, Clinical Visiting Assistant Professor, Assistant Dean, University at Buffalo, SUNY
Andrea L. Peterson, Professor of Law Emerita, University of California, Berkeley School of Law
Catherine Powell, Professor of Law, Fordham Law School
Nicole Buonocore Porter, Professor of Law, University of Toledo College of Law
Jeanne Frazier Price, Professor of Law, University of Nevada, Las Vegas
Lisa Pruitt, Professor of Law, UC Davis School of Law
Dara E. Purvis, Associate Professor of Law, Penn State Law
Carolyn B. Ramsey, Professor of Law, University of Colorado Law
Vernellia Randall, Professor Emerita of Law, The University of Dayton School of Law
Srividhya Ragavan, Professor of Law, Texas A&M School of Law
Gowri Ramachandran, Professor of Law, Southwestern Law School
Jaya Ramji-Nogales, Proessor of Law, Temple Law School
Sarah Redfield, Professor Emerita, University of New Hampshire
Renee C. Redman, Adjunct Professor of Law, University of Connecticut School of Law
Meredith Render, Professor of Law, Hugh F. Culverhouse Jr. School of Law at the University of Alabama
Judith Resnik, Arthur Liman Professor of Law, Yale Law School
Deborah L. Rhode, Professor of Law, Stanford Law School
Camille Gear Rich, Professor of Law and Sociology, USC Gould School of Law
Stephen Rich. Professor of Law, University of Southern California Law School
Michelle Richards, Assistant Professor of Law, Detroit Mercy Law
Kimberly Richman, Professor, University of San Francisco
Sarah E. Ricks, Distinguished Clinical Professor of Law, Rutgers Law School
Florence Wagman Roisman, William F. Harvey Professor of Law and Chancellor's Professor, Indiana University Robert H. McKinney School of Law
Adam Romero, Professor of Law, University of California Los Angeles
Carrie Rosenbaum, Adjunct Professor, Golden Gate University School of Law
Joseph Rosenberg, Professor, CUNY School of Law
Bette Roth, Lecturer in Law, Boston University
Laura Rovner, Professor of Law, University of Denver College of Law
Susan Deller Ross, Professor, Georgetown University
Merrick Rossein, Professor of Law, City University of New York School of Law
Brandi Katz Rubin, Adjunct Professor of Law, Cardozo School of Law
Teemu Ruskola, Jonas Robitscher Professor of Law, Emory Law School
Margaret Russell, Professor of Law, Santa Clara University
Leticia Saucedo, Professor of Law, U. C. Davis School of Law
Wayne Sandholtz, Professor of International Relations and Law, University of Southern California
Margaret Satterthwaite, Professor of Clinical Law, New York University School of Law
Christina Sautter, Professor of Law, Louisiana State University Paul M. Hebert Law Center
Nadia N. Sawicki, Georgia Reithal Professor of Law; Academic Director, Beazley Institute for Health Law & Policy, Loyola University Chicago School of Law
Irene Scharf, Professor of Law, Univ. of Massachusetts School of Law
Elizabeth M. Schneider, Rose L. Hoffer Professor of Law, Brooklyn Law School
Naomi Schoenbaum, Associate Professor of Law, George Washington University Law School
Vicki Schultz, Ford Foundation Professor of Law and Social Science, Yale Law School
Paul Secunda, Professor of Law, Marquette University
Dveera Segal, Professor of Law Emeritus, Villanova University Charles Widger School of Law
Rachel Settlage, Associate Professor, Wayne State Law School
Ann Shalleck, Professor of Law, American University Washington College of Law
Mitra Sharafi, Professor of Law, University of Wisconsin Law School
Steven H. Shiffrin, Charles Frank Reavis, Sr., Professor of Law Emeritus, Cornell University Law School
Elaine Shoben, Professor of Law, University of Nevada Las Vegas
A.R. Siek, Lecturer, University of New Mexico
Matiangai Sirleaf, Assistant Professor of Law, University of Pittsburgh Law School
Abbe Smith, Professor of Law, Georgetown University
Charisa Kiyô Smith, Associate Professor of Law, City University of New York School of Law
Peggie Smith, Charles Nagel Professor of Employment & Labor Law, Washington University in St. Louis School of Law
Gemma Solimene, Clinical Associate Professor of Law, Fordham University School of Law
Karen C. Sokol Associate Professor of Law, Loyola University New Orleans College of Law
Brian Soucek, Professor of Law, UC Davis School of Law
Jane Spinak, Professor of Law, Columbia Law School
Jayashri Srikantiah, Professor of Law, Stanford Law School
Kathryn Stanchi, Jack E. Feinberg Professor of Litigation & Professor of Law, Temple University School of Law
Sarah Steadman, Assistant Professor of Law, University of New Mexico
Nomi Maya Stolzenberg, Nathan and Lilly Shapell Chair in Law, University of Southern California Law School
Charles Sullivan, Professor of Law, Seton Hall University
Allison Tait, Associate Professor of Law, University of Richmond School of Law
Ann Thomas, Otto L. Walter Distinguished Professor of Tax Law, New York Law School
Grace Calabrese Tonner, Professor of Lawyering Skills, University of California Irvine School of Law
Michelle Travis, Professor of Law, University of San Francisco School of Law
Laurence H. Tribe, Carl M. Loeb University Professor and Professor of Constituional Law, Harvard Law School
Deborah Tuerkheimer, Research Professor, Northwestern University Pritzker School of Law
Inge Van der Cruysse, Lecturer in Law, Faculty Director Externship Program, Indiana University Maurer School of Law
Liza Vertinsky, Associate Professor of Law, Emory Law School
Valorie Kay Vojdik, Professor of Law, University of Tennessee
Leti Volpp, Robert D. and Leslie Kay Raven Professor of Law, UC Berkley School of Law
Rachel Vorspan, Professor of Law, Fordham University School of Law
Lu-in Wang, Professor of Law, University of Pittsburgh
Ettie Ward, Professor of Law, St. John’s University School of Law
Rhonda Wasserman, Professor of Law, University of Pittsburgh School of Law
Gary Watson, Provost Professor of Philosophy and Law, University of Southern California
Danielle Weatherby, Associate Professor of Law, University of Arkansas School of Law
Jessica Dixon Weaver, Associate Professor of Law, SMU Dedman School of Law
Kelly Weisberg, Professor of Law, University of California Hastings College of Law
Marley Weiss, Professor of Law, University of Maryland Francis King Carey School of Law
Deborah M. Weissman, Reef C. Ivey II Distinguished Professor of Law, University of North Carolina School of Law
Robin West, Professor of Law, Georgetown University
Barbara Ann White, Professor of Law, University of Baltimore School of Law
Lucie White, Louis Horvitz Professor, Harvard Law School
Deborah Widiss, Professor of Law, IU Bloomington
Stephanie Wildman, Professor Emerita, Santa Clara University of School of Law
Pam Wilkins, Professor of Law, University of Detroit Mercy School of Law
Richard J Wilson, Emeritus Professor of Law, American University, Washington College of Law
Stephen Wizner, William O. Douglas Clinical Professor of Law Emeritus, Yale Law School
David Yamada, Professor of Law, Suffolk University
Donna Young, President William McKinley Distinguished Professor of Law and Public Policy, Albany Law School
Deborah Zalesne, Professor of Law, CUNY School of Law
Noah Zatz, Professor of Law, UCLA School of Law
Candace M. Zierdt, Professor of Law, Stetson University College of Law




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