Checking for Understanding
When biologists speak of "survival of the fittest", which of the following attributes do they consider most important to the concept?
the ability of the fastest individuals to avoid predators
the ability of the strongest individuals to capture prey
the ability of the most fertile individuals to successfully reproduce
the ability of the most colorful birds to attract mates
Only 5% of a population of lizards survive a major flood, and by chance, the majority of survivors are green. If the original population was composed mostly of brown individuals, then which phenomenon has most likely occurred?
a bottleneck effect
In which of the following situations has evolution most likely taken place?
An individual produces only taller offspring
A population produces offspring that are representative of the gene pool
A population recombines with an isolated group of distantly related individuals
A population's allele frequencies have changed over time
An individual reproduces more successfully than others in its population
A founder group of cats arrives on an isolated island and after thousands of generations produces several different cat species that each prey on different kinds and sizes of animals. This is an example of
Which of the following best describes the term "endemic species?"
a species colonizing a far-flung range
a species that benefits from its relationship with a second species
a species found in one specific region
a species that spreads disease
a species whose genetic diversity is harmed by a catastrophe
A species is most likely to go extinct in a changing environment if it has
high genetic diversity
low genetic diversity
a large niche
evolutionary divergence from a founder population
A new island is colonized by a small number of mice that occasionally trade members with mainland mice when the receding tide reveals a land bridge between the two. This is an example of
a bottleneck effect
the founder effect
An alteration in the arrangement of nucleotides in a chromosome, possibly resulting in either a structural or physiological change in the organism, is called
A given plant population is pollinated exclusively by a particular bee. A wet spring leads to a disease that wipes out all the bees in the plant's habitat. What is the likely outcome for this plant population?
A mutation will arise which will allow the plants to be pollinated by other insects.
Because they need to change their pollinators, some plant individuals will adapt to be pollinated by other insects.
This plant population will die off.
Enough variation exists within the plant population to allow it to adapt any environmental challenge.
Human's can increase an area's biodiversity when they
drain a swamp to build a Christmas tree farm
plow a field to plant crops
break one large habitat into two smaller habitats
encourage a river's algae growth by allowing an inflow of fertilizer
allow two populations of a species to trade members
Which of the following is the BEST example of artificial selection?
adaptation of finches to different sources of food on different islands
bees pollinating different species of flowers
an isolated population of frogs develops a phenotype distinct from the original population
a small population has an unusually high percentage of a rare phenotype
humans transferring a gene from a fish and injecting it into the DNA of a tomato
Which statement about genetic diversity is NOT correct?
Maintaining genetic diversity of a species is critical to its conservation.
Genetic diversity is the result of two processes known as mutation and recombination.
Genetic diversity is the sum of the different genes and gene combinations within a population of a species, and the entire species.
Genetic diversity can be seen in individuals within a population.
Although separated geographically, Mexican grey wolves are genetically the same as Yellowstone's wolves, and these genetic similarities help protect this species from becoming extinct.
If a bird that normally has green feathers produces an offspring with blue feathers, this is most likely the result of _______________.
a genetic mutation
Which of the following is NOT a way evolution can occur?
_____________ is a trait that improves an individual's fitness.
An evolved characteristic
Which process of evolution is not random?
Florida Panthers were nearly hunted to extinction. About 20 remained before they were placed on the Endangered Species List and provided protection. The Florida Panther is an example of
the Founder effect
geographic isolation leading to speciation
the Bottleneck effect
genetically modified organisms
Which pair would most increase the rate of evolution within a species?
slow environmental change and high genetic variation
rapid environmental change and large population size
large population size and slow environmental change
short generation time and small population size
long generation times and low genetic variation
Which of the following processes would NOT influence evolution?
Which of the following is how Florida biologists are working to increase the genetic diversity of the Florida Panther?
Transgenics - injecting genetic material from different panther species from all around the world
Mutations- exposing the remaining Florida Panthers to nuclear radiation to increase the number of genetic mutations per individual
Gene flow - captive-breeding program with Texas cougars
Bottleneck effect - introducing the Texas cougars to the Florida Panther habitat so they can breed on their own
Founder effect - capturing all of the remaining Florida Panthers and re-locating them to an island off the coast of Florida
Which of the following is the ancestor species?
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