NPACC Survey Literature Review
Below is the bibliography used to develop the National Policy Agenda for Community Colleges (NPACC) survey. Please feel free to recommend other sources we should consider.

The goal of the survey ( is to develop a data informed, national agenda for community colleges. The agenda will be used to advance federal support for community colleges and the vital role they play in social justice and equity. Please direct question about N-PACC to Dr. Bryan Reece (
Do you have a source(s) you would like to recommend to N-PACC as part of their survey literature review?
Literature Reviewed in Development of Survey

American Nonprofit Academy. (2020, May 4). All Too Rare: A Gift Underscores a Persistent Lack of Support for Community Colleges. Retrieved from American Nonprofit Academy:

Applied Educational Systems. (2019, July 31). 78 Career and Technical Education Facts for 2019. Retrieved from Applied Educational Systems:

Barham, J. A. (2019, September 13). The 100 Richest Universities: Their Generosity and Commitment to Research. Retrieved from The Best Schools:

Bielak, D., Murphy, D., & Shelton, J. (2020, January 8). "Billion Dollar Bets" to Create Economic Opportunity for Every American. Retrieved from The Bridgespan Group:

California Community College Chancellor's Office. (2020, January 2). Management Information Systems Data Mart. Retrieved from California Community College Chancellor's Office:

California Community Colleges Chancellor's Office. (2020, April 20). Management Information Systems Data Mart. Retrieved from California Community Colleges Chancellor's Office:

Carnevale, A. P., Smith, N., Melton, M., & Price, E. W. (2015). Learning while Earning: The New Noral. Retrieved from Georgetown University, Center on Education and the Workforce:

Cause, L. R., Holtzman, T., Gault, B., Croom, D., & Polk, P. (2019, April 11). Parents in College by the Numbers. Retrieved from Institute for Women's Policy Research:

Chen, G. (2020, June 15). The Catch-22 of Community College Graduation Rates. Retrieved from Community College Review:,rate%20stands%20at%2028%20percent.

Chetty, R., Hendren, N., Kline, P., Saez, E., & Turner, N. (2014). Is the United States Still a Land of Opportunity? Recent Trends in Intergenerational Mobility. American Economic Review, 141-47.

College Rank. (2020, January 5). The History of College Rankings. Retrieved from College Rank:

Community College Research Center. (2015). The Movement Torwards Pathways. Retrieved from Community College Research Center:

Community College Research Center. (2020, June 22). Community College FAQs. Retrieved from Community College Research Center:

Community College Research Center. (2020, March 29). Communty College FAQs. Retrieved from CCRC Community College Research Center:

Dale, S., & Krueger, A. B. (2011, June). Estimating the Return to College Selectivity Over the Career Using Administrative Earnings Data. Natrional Bureau of Economic Research.

De Alva, J., & Schneider, M. S. (2015, April 6). Rich Schools, Poor Students: Tapping Large University Endowments to Improve Student Outcomes. Retrieved from AIR American Institute for Research:

Dernoncourt, F. (2016, December 4). How much public funding do private universities in the United States receive, directly or indirectly? Retrieved from Academia:

DeVol, R. (2016, October 23). Address Income Inequality through Investing in CTE Skills Training. Retrieved from Huffington Post:

Doar, R., Bowman, K., & O'Neil, E. (2016, August 8). 2016 Poverty Survey: Attitudes Toward the Poor, Poverty, and Welfare in the United States. Retrieved from American Enterprise Institute and Los Angeles Times:

Dynarski, S. (2018, September 28). At Elite Colleges, Racial Diversity Requires Affirmative Action. Retrieved from The New York Times:

EAB. (2019, October 8). 60% of adults have considered returning to college, but worry about cost. Retrieved from EAB:

Education Commission of the States. (2018, June). Transfer and Articulation Statewide Common Course Numbering. Retrieved from Education Commission of the States:

Education Data. (2020, February 27). Percentage of High School Graduates That Go to College. Retrieved from

Education Encyclopedia. (2019, December 12). Community Colleges: The History of Community Colleges, The junior college and the research university., The Community College Mission. Retrieved from Education Encyclopedia -

Edwards, C. (2010, March). Public-Sector Unions. Retrieved from Cato Institute:

Falciano, V., Kuncle, R., & Gnolek, S. (2014). Modeling Change and Variation in U.S. News & WorldReport College Rankings: What would it really take to bein the Top 20? Res High Educ.

Fuschillo, A. (2018, August 14). The Troubling Student-to-Counselor Ratio That Doesn't Add Up. Retrieved from Education Week:

Gerda Hagenauer, S. E. (2014, May 21). Teacher–student relationship at university: an important yet under-researched field. Retrieved from Oxford Review of Education:

Giancola, J., & Kahlenberg, R. (2016, January). True Merit: Ensuring Our Brightest Students Have Access to Our Best Colleges and Universities. Retrieved from Jack Kent Cooke Foundation:

Gier, N. (2018, September 2). An update on unions in higher education. Retrieved from Idaho State Journal:

Gladwell, M. (2011, February 6). The Trouble with College Rankings. Retrieved from The New Yorker:

Glynn, J. (2019, January). Persistence: The Success of Students Who Transfer from Community Colleges to Selective Four-Year Institutions. Retrieved from Jack Kent Cooke Foundation:

Green, K. C. (2018, July 22). The Babel Problem with Big Data in Higher Ed. Retrieved from Inside Higher Ed:

Gregor Aisch, L. B. (2017, January 18). Some Colleges Have More Students From the Top 1 Percent Than the Bottom 60. Find Yours. Retrieved from The New York Times:

Helhoski, A. (2018, October 16). 2018 FAFSA Study: Students Missed Out on $2.6 Billion in Free College Money. Retrieved from Nerdwallet:

Hoxby, C. M., & Avery, C. (2012, December). The Missing "One-Offs": The Hidden Supply of High-Achieving, Low Income Students. Retrieved from The National Bureau of Economic Research:

Hurwitz, M. (2011). The impact of legacy status on undergraduate admissions at elite colleges and universities. Economics of Education Review, 480-492. Retrieved from

Jack, A. A. (2019). The Priveleged Poor: How Elite Colleges Are Failing Disadvantaged Students. Cambridge: Harvard University Press.

Jaschik, S. (2018, September 24). The 2018 Surveys of Admissions Leaders: The Pressure Grows. Retrieved from Inside Higher Ed:

Kahlenberg, R. D. (2015, May 28). How Higher Education Funding Shortchanges Community Colleges. Retrieved from The Century Foundation:

Kelly, R. (2017, December 12). Survey: 94% of Students Want to Use Their Cell Phones in Class. Retrieved from Campus Technology:

Lawrence, S. (2009). Social Justice Grantmaking II. New York City: The Roundtion Center.

Levine, E. (2019, November 7). Are Colleges and Universities Meeting the Online Learning Challenge? Retrieved from EdTech: Focus on Higher Education:

Mayer, A., Kalamkarian, H. S., Cohen, B., Pellegrino, L., Boynton, M., & Yang, E. (2019). Integrating Technology and Advising: Studying Enhancement to Colleges' iPASS Practices. New York: Community College Research Center, Teachers College, Columbia University.

Moore, J. C. (2019). A Brief History of Universities. Switzerland: Springer Nature.

National Center for Education Statistics. (2019, December 12). Fast Facts. Retrieved from National Center for Education Statistics:

National Center for Education Statistics. (2019, December 19). Fast Facts. Retrieved from National Center for Education Statistics:

Nelson, C. (2010, December 21). Defining Academic Freedom. Retrieved from Inside Higher Ed:

Paterson, J. (2019, February 5). Elite colleges a better bet for low-income minority students, ranking finds. Retrieved from The New York Times:

Pechan, C. (2019, December 12). Looking Back and Moving Forward – Philanthropy in the 2010s. Retrieved from Fluxx Blog:

Robert Morse. (11, January 27). Students Say Rankings Aren't Most Important Factor in College Decision. Retrieved from U.S. News and World Report:

Robert Morse, E. B. (2019, September 8). How U.S. News Calculated the 2020 Best Colleges Rankings. Retrieved from U.S. News and World Report:

Sara Goldrick-Rab, C. B.-S. (2019). College and University Basic Needs Insecurity: A National #RealCollege Survey Report. Philadelphia, PA: The Hope Center, Temple University.

Schmidt, P. (2010). A History of Legacy Preferences and Privilege. In R. D. Kahlenberg, Affirmative Action for the Rich: Legacy Preferences in College Admissions (p. 59). New York: The Century Press.

Schmidt, P. (2015, April 15). Unionization Pays Off for Community-College Instructors. Retrieved from Chronicle of Higher Education:

Shema, H. (2014, April 19). The Birth of Modern Peer Review. Retrieved from Scientific American:

Signe-Mary McKernan, C. R. (2017, October 5). Nine Charts about Wealth Inequality in America (Updated). Retrieved from Urban Institute:

Smith, A. A. (2015, June 8). 2 + 2 Shouldn't = 5. Retrieved from Inside Higher Ed:

Stauffer, A. (2019, October 15). Two Decades of Change in Federal and State Higher Education Funding: Recent Trends across Levels of Government. Retrieved from The Pew Charitable Trusts:

Stevens, A. H., Kurlaender, M., & Grosz, M. (2018). Career Technical Education and Labor Market Outcomes: Evidence From California Community Colleges. The Journal of Human Resources, 2.

TED: The Economic Daily. (2017, May 22). 69.7 percent of 2016 high school graduates enrolled in college in October 2016. Retrieved from TED: The Economic Daily:

The Center for Community College Leadership. (2018, April). Money Left on the Table: An Analysis of Pell Grant Receipt Among Financially-Eligible Community College Students in California. Retrieved from The Center for Community College Leadership:

The Century Foundation. (2019, April 25). Recommendations for Providing Community Colleges with the Resources They Need. Retrieved from The Century Foundation:

The New York Times. (2017). Economic Diversity and Student Outcomes at America’s Colleges and Universities: Find Your College. Retrieved from The New York Times:

The New York Times. (2017). Economic Diversity and Student Outcomes at America’s Colleges and Universities: Find Your College. Retrieved from The New York Times:

The Postsecondary National Policy Institute. (2018, 9 November). Fact Sheets: Verterans in Higher Education. Retrieved from The Postsecondary National Policy Institute:

U.S. News and World Report. (2019, December 20). U.S. Best Colleges. Retrieved from U.S. News and World Report:

U.S. News and World Report. (2020, January 6). Top Performers on Social Mobility: National. Retrieved from U.S. News and World Report:

Vedder, R. (2018, April 8). There Are Really Almost No Truly Private Universities. Retrieved from Forbes:

Wachter, M. L. (2007, July 19). The Rise and Decline of Unions. Retrieved from SSRN:

Wermund, B. (17, September 10). How U.S. News college rankings promote economic inequality on campus. Retrieved from Politico:

White, B. P. (2016, April 19). Inside Higher Ed. Retrieved from Beyond a Deficit View:

Woetzel, J. B. (2019, January). Navigating a World of Disruption. Retrieved from McKinsey and Company:

Ziegler, A. (2010, June 28 28). Smart Phones Beating out Computers. Retrieved from The Daily Nebraskan:
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