APES AP EXAM REVIEW 4
The impacts of thermal aquatic pollution can result in all EXCEPT
decreased respiration rates of organisms
decreased dissolved oxygen
increased risk of disease
interference with aquatic breeding phenology
death from thermal shock
The EPA limits hexavalent chromium to 0.1 ppm in the water supply. However, most people do not understand the ppm measurement. What is 0.1 ppm expressed as a percentage?
Hermaphroditic frogs contain both testes and ovarian tissues. If atrazine is the cause of this feminization, what type of pollutant is atrazine?
Which of the following produces the greatest amount of greenhouse gases?
commercial and residential
Which of the following is the second leading cause of lung cancer in the United States?
Which of the following is a neurotoxin?
Which of the following is found in building materials such as particle board?
Scientists can determine if a waterway is contaminated with raw sewage by testing for the presence of
Which of the following substances is NOT a source of indoor air pollution containing volatile organic compounds (VOCs)?
Indoor air freshners
Fingernail polish remover (acetone)
All of the following are correct statements about sulfur oxides (SOx) EXCEPT
it is naturally emitted by volcanic eruptions
it is a component of industrial smog
anthropogenic sources include combustion of coal
it can increase pH levels of water through acid depposition
it is a component in aerosols that decrease atmospheric temperatures
Integrated waste management is a systems of steps devised to make the best use of disposed solid waste items. The goal is to take as much permanent waste out of the waste stream as possible. Which of the following steps of integrated waste management should be carried out LAST?
Attempting to reduce the amount of garbage before it is created.
Trying to recycle materials that can be used again.
Trying to reuse or repurpose items that are not broken or damaged.
Burying non-hazardous material in a sanitary landfill.
Incinerating items in a waste-to-energy incinerator.
The Montreal Protocol was designed to help save the stratospheric ozone layer by banning substances that contained CFCs. Which substance would NOT be banned under the Montreal Protocol?
Coolants used in air conditioning units
Propellants used in aerosol room sprays or deodorants
Cleaning solvents used in circuit boards
Blowing agents used to create foam packing materials
Asbestos used to make fire-proof vests
Which of the following statements about waste generation is NOT correct?
Pre-consumer waste accounts for more waste than all municipal solid waste (MSW)
Approximately 55% of MSW in the United States ends up in landfills
The majority of MSW is plastic
Waste from mining, agriculture, and other industrial processes is considered non-MSW
Businesses and educational facilities contribute to 60% of all MSW
Which is a benefit of using fluidized bed combustion to burn coal at an electric power plant?
Fluidized bed combustion operates at a higher temperature and will generate hotter steam to run the turbine.
Power plants using fluidized bed combustion emit less mercury into the environment.
If limestone is used in fluidized bed combustion, the sulfur oxide emissions will be reduced.
It is a more efficient way to burn coal and can generate 50% more energy.
Fluidized beds act as a carbon capture system and removes 85% of the carbon dioxide emissions.
Which of the following choices is NOT on the EPA's list of top indoor air pollutants?
The EPA keeps a list of Superfund sites. What is this list called?
The Superfund List
The Brownfield List
The EPA Contaminated Sites List
The CERCLA List
The National Priorities List
When assessing the risk of harm to humans or the environment from a chemical, all of these questions are asked EXCEPT
How much of the chemical is present in the soil, air, or water?
How much will it cost to clean up the chemical?
What level of exposure to the chemical do humans experience?
How often are humans exposed to the chemical?
What is the toxicity of the chemical?
Which of the following is true about LD50?
LD50 is the dose of a substance that kills half of a population.
The lower the LD50 the more toxic a substance.
The higher the LD50 the more toxic a substance is.
LD50 is the dose of a substance that has an effect, such as blindness, on 50% of a test population.
LD50 is the minimum concentration needed to elicit a response from a substance.
The EPA is exploring the use of phytotechnology to clean up hazardous wastes. Which is the BEST example of the use of phytotechnology?
Solar-powered technologies are used to automatically filter contaminants.
Extended exposure to the Sun will degrade contaminants in the water or soil.
Various plants are used to degrade, extract, contain or immobilize contaminants in the water or soil.
The use of UV-c emitting lights will degrade contaminants in the water or soil.
Polluted waters are exposed to photons that react with and degrade contaminants.
Which of the following situations could be classified as a possible Superfund Act?
An elementary school invested with black mold.
A nuclear power plant with onsite storage of depleted fuel cells.
The manure lagoons of a large, industrial feedlot.
River sediments with high concentration of dioxin.
An old lead smelting facility which stored its industrial waste onsite.
Agriculture and logging are the driving force behind clearing millions of acres of tropical rainforest each year. Which of the following is NOT a likely result of rainforest destruction?
Habitat destruction leads to reduced populations of plants and animals leading to a decrease in biodiversity.
A decrease in soil moisture will lead to a rapid increase in soil erosion.
Lack of vegetation leads to an increase in atmospheric carbon dioxide levels which increase the rate of ozone destruction.
An increase in sediment in local waterways leads to increased turbidity and total dissolved solids.
A decrease in the amount of evapotranspiration will lead to increased shits in local precipitation patterns.
Which of the following is the most toxic substance according to its LD50?
Bleach fumes; LD50 is 850 mg/kg
Arsenic trioxide; LD50 is 15 mg/kg
Gyromitrin from a Lorchel mushroom; LD50 is 500 mg/kg
Ethanol; LD50 is 7.06 g/kg
Table salt; LD50 3g/kg
Burning coal results in mercury emissions which enter aquatic ecosystems. Organisms in lower trophic levels in the food chain have lower mercury concentrations than those in higher trophic levels. This demonstrates the phenomenon known as
By regulating which of the greenhouse gases can also decrease stratospheric ozone depletion?
The BrownsAPES Mining Company has a mine, the Brown Bucket Mine (BBM), which has been mining copper in Silver City, NM for several decades. The BBM has not been following proper mining regulations for more than a decade. Because of this, the BBM has been linked to acid mine drainage. Which of the following is NOT an impact of acid mine drainage from the BBM?
The acidic waters leach metals, such as led and aluminum, from rocks.
The acidic waters lead to increased pH and fish kills.
The acidic waters lead to increased iron precipitates that discolor water.
The acidic waters increase total dissolved solids which block sunlight and smother aquatic life.
The acidic waters corrode man-made infrastructures such as bridges and dams.
On March 11, 2011, a 9.0 earthquake hit Japan. The earthquake knocked out power supplies to the Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant in Fukushima, Japan, and a resulting tsunami wiped out the backup generators. As a result, the plant overheated and various explosions damaged several of the plant's nuclear reactors. Which of the following consequences was a result of the Fukushima environmental disaster?
Benzene exposure lead to high white blood cell counts which are precursors to leukemia.
Higher than normal levels of cesium-137 were detected in schools of Pacific fish.
Higher than normal levels of iodine-131 were linked to thyroid cancer in humans.
Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons caused heart deformities in tuna and amberjacks.
Over 100,000 animal deaths occurred in species such as birds, otters, seals, and orcas.
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