Which biopigments are used by plants and bacteria for photosynthesis?
Chlorophyll, carotenoids, anthocyanins, phycobilin, and many more
Only chlorophyll, carotenoids, anthocyanins, and phycobilin
Only chlorophyll is photosynthetic, others not
The strongest linear polarization from photosynthetic organisms is seen
in the infrared, where most of the stellar light is reflected
in the visible, where most of the stellar light is absorbed
It is constant with wavelength.
The chlorophyll linear polarization in reflected light is
strongest at green wavelengths.
strongest at red and blue wavelengths.
The carotenoid linear polarization in reflected light is
strongest at yellow wavelengths.
strongest at blue wavelengths.
Red and yellow sand show linear polarization in reflected light
at all wavelengths.
different from that of biopigments.
similar to that of biopigments of the same color.
Reflected light from the ocean is blue because
the ocean is salty.
the ocean reflects clear sky.
water is blue when in large volumes.
By measuring flux and polarization reflected from a planet one can
determine composition of the planet atmosphere.
determine composition of the surface.
all of the above.
If the most powerful beamed terrestrial radar system was just visible from a star 30pc from Earth, using one hour of Arecibo radio telescope time, how far away could the star be detected in the same integration time if the Arecibo receiver noise power was improved (decreased) by a factor of two?
A habitable zone planet has a larger contrast (with respect to its central star)
around an M star than around an O star.
in the infrared than in the visible.
all of the above.
If the thermal sky background is the dominant noise source for detecting a Habitable Zone planet around Alpha-Cen at 10micron wavelengths, we expect the 8m VLT to require about 40 hours of integration time. When the EELT (39m) is completed and if it also is limited by thermal sky noise, how long will it take to detect the Alpha-Cen planet with the EELT at comparable sensitivity?
about 8 hours
about 1.5 hours
about 4 min
On the Earth, what fraction of the terrestrial heat input originates from human technology waste heat?
For a given coronagraphic performance level, a 30m telescope could detect about 4 HZ planets. About how many planets could be detected with a 60m telescope?
Which of the following technologies can have a large effect to decrease the cost of large optical IR telescopes designed for exoplanet studies
the use of a narrow field-of-view optical design.
the use of active, thin optical mirrors.
the use of scalable primary-secondary mirror subaperture assemblies.
all of the above
What minimum size telescope is required to make practical photometric observations of the nearest non-solar Habitable Zone exoplanet?
The earliest cellular life forms were most likely (choose the right):
Simple eukaryotic cells with only few metabolic functions.
Anaerobic prokaryotic cells.
Very simple form of viruses.
Unicellular plant cells.
The first catalytic molecules were (choose the right):
RNA molecules that were capable of self-replication.
Prion-like protein molecules capable of self-replication.
Single stranded DNA molecules that were capable of self-replication.
Self-replicating polysaccharides composed mostly of glucose.
Miller and Urey's experiments demonstrated that (choose the right):
Catalyzed chemical reactions were possible in simple vesicles.
Simple life forms emerged on early Earth from chemicals.
RNA was the first information barring molecule of life.
Organic molecules can form under early Earth conditions.
The endosymbiotic theory explains (choose the right):
How biopolymers formed out of nucleotides.
How mitochondria and plastids in eukaryotic cells originated from free-living prokaryotes.
How eukaryotic cells formed as a consequence of multicellularity.
How simple catalytic RNA molecules got concentrated in early cells.
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