OPO/DOC Wilderness First Aid Recertification
For each question choose the most correct answer.
Test created 04/2019 by David Vonderheide '21
Which of the following is not a life threat you need to immediately address in your Primary Assessment?
A major bleed from the femoral artery
Vomit obstructing the airway
They are facedown in a pool of water
Deformity to the rib cage
An unconscious hiker does not respond when you call their name, but moans when you pinch the back of their hand. You should categorize their responsiveness as:
While bouldering, a climber takes a fall and is now complaining of pain in her left leg, but there is no obvious deformity. (Questions 3-5)
You should record her primary complaint in which portion of your SOAP note?
All of the following are reasons not to clear her spine except:
The climber fell from more than twice her height
The climber reports tingling in her hands
The climber does not have full range of motion in her neck
The climber is fixated on the pain in her leg
The climber is alert and oriented x 4
You clear her spine and perform a secondary assessment to discover point tenderness in her leg. She has full CSMs in both feet. You should diagnose this as ____ and do ____:
Sprain, give ibuprofen to reduce swelling
Fracture, splint the leg
Fracture, splint the leg and immobilize the spine because there is now a positive MOI for a spinal injury
You might expect hypothermia in a winter hiker exhibiting any of the following except:
Their two water bottles are full and frozen and they haven’t eaten anything
They are disoriented and have trouble forming sentences when you ask them questions
They put on three layers once the group stopped moving
Their clothes are wet and they can’t stop shivering
Identify how to handle the following soft tissue injuries (Questions 7-9):
A 16 year-old female canoeist has a two-inch laceration (jagged cut) on her cheek from where she scraped a rock on the second day of a week long canoe trip. There is a take-out point a quarter of a mile up river with road access.
Clean the wound, seal it to the best of your ability with Steri-Strips and continue with the trip
Clean the wound, cover it with a moist, sterile dressing and evacuate
Rinse the wound with river water, cover it with gauze and continue with the trip
Pack the wound with a cravat and evacuate
A camper spills boiling water on himself while cooking dinner. He has blistering burns across both his thighs.
Cover the burns with a moist, sterile dressing and evacuate
Cover the burns with a moist, sterile dressing and continue with the trip
Pop the blisters with a sterile needle and apply a dressing. Have him rate his pain afterward to decide if the trip should continue
Have him soak in a nearby river for at least fifteen minutes and see if he improves in the morning
On the second day of a week long hut-to-hut cross-country ski trip, a skier falls and gets an abrasion at the heels of their palms which is contaminated with pine-needles and dirt from a bare patch in the snow.
Leave the wound as is, cover it with a moist dressing and evacuate
Scrub out the wound, let it dry, apply a moist dressing, monitor for infection
Lightly wrap the wound with a Ace Bandage, monitor for infection
Soak the wound for at least fifteen minutes before deciding your course of action
What is the best answer regarding impaled objects?
Remove objects as soon as possible to avoid infection
Unremoved impaled objects should be stabilized
Impaled objects should be removed unless they interfere with the airway
Always remove impaled objects from appendages
Which is incorrect regarding frostbite?
Refreezing recently thawed frostbite can be much more damaging than the initial frostbite
When rewarming a frostbitten hand use hot water or hot air
Frostbitten skin looks hard and waxy
Tissue that has turned dark grey and gone numb should not be rewarmed in the field
You come across a 19 year-old female ice climber who is lying on the snow. Her partner reports that she was struck in the helmet by icefall. The climber is conscious and oriented but says she does not remember the events of the accident. She is bleeding from her temple. You have established that the scene is safe and directed her partner to stabilize her spine. (Questions 12-14)
Which of the following should you do next?
Place the climber on an insulated pad
Take a set of vitals
Take an AMPLE history
Check for breathing
Later in your assessment, the climber reports an allergy to shellfish, no regular medications, no pertinent medical history, and that she had a cup of black coffee for breakfast and plenty of water throughout the day. Her heart rate and respiratory rate are normal. She becomes increasingly distant throughout the conversation and her sentences keep trailing off. Which of the following is the least likely reason for this?
Her partner remembers the climber takes insulin and might have diabetes. You have a Cliff bar in your pocket. How should you proceed?
You should give her the Cliff bar because her glucose levels might be low
You should not give her the Cliff bar, because her glucose levels might be high and you could make the situation worse
You should not trust this new information because the patient reported she had no pertinent medical conditions
You should not do anything in the field to treat a diabetic episode
On a hot day hiking in the desert, a hiker becomes anxious and complains of cramps. Which of the following does not indicate a life-threatening emergency?
His skin is dry
He is shivering
He is combative and not oriented
He is heavily sweating
A headache requires evacuation for all of the following reasons except:
Accompanied by waves of nausea and vomiting
Accompanied by a sudden change in mental status
The patient reports sharp, severe pain after intense exercise
The patient has no prior history of headaches
You and your CPR-certified surfing partner come across an unresponsive, pulseless child on a beach. EMS has been notified. You should:
Do nothing because this is a front-country emergency
Collect a patient history you can give to the EMTs when they arrive, but you should not touch the patient
Begin CPR with a compression-to-breath ratio of 30:2
Begin CPR with a compression-to-breath ratio of 15:2
On a climbing trip a participant sprains their ankle while walking to a crag. All of the following are correct treatments except:
Have the climber rest their ankle
Apply a cool ice compress
Encourage light exercise
Wrap their ankle with an ACE bandage
Signs of infection include all of the following except:
Warm, red and tender
Red streaks radiating from the wound
Dark or yellow scabs
Fever and chills
How would you open the airway of an unresponsive patient if you suspected a spinal injury?
Use the head-tilt-chin-life manuever
Use the jaw-thrust manuever
Turn the patient onto their side
Open their mouths with the cross-finger technique
What is most important when splinting a fracture?
Maintain normal function and range of motion
Maintain circulation distal to the injury site
Adjust the fracture site until there is normal sensation
Splint the fracture exactly as you found it
You are sharing a campsite with a 52 year old thru-hiker who begins to choke on his dinner. He can’t speak, but is frantically gesturing toward his neck. (Questions 22-23)
Deliver quick, upward, abdominal thrusts just above the navel until the obstruction is removed or the patient becomes unresponsive
Deliver firm back blows until the obstruction is removed or the patient becomes unresponsive
Deliver chest thrusts because of the patient’s level of fitness
Wait for the patient to become unresponsive
You fail to remove the obstruction and now the thru-hiker collapses. You should:
Give rescue breaths, one every five seconds
Perform a tracheotomy
Begin CPR, sets of 30 compressions and 2 breaths, checking for the obstruction each breath
Begin CPR, sets of 15 compressions and 2 breaths, checking for the obstruction each breath
Begin CPR, continuous compressions until the obstruction is dislodged
A sudden storm appears at a local pond and a swimmer running for cover is struck by lightning. (Questions 24-26)
Which is the LEAST likely injury?
What is your first priority?
Maintaining airway, breathing and circulation
The swimmer is unresponsive and breathing fast and shallow at 42 breaths per minute and their lips have a blue tint. They have a thready but present pulse. You should:
Perform a detailed secondary-exam
Give rescue breaths once every five seconds
Begin immediate CPR
Which of the following is false about tourniquets?
You should use a tourniquet if you cannot control bleeding otherwise
You should record the exact time you apply a tourniquet
You should place tourniquets a few inches above the injury (closer to the heart)
You should never leave a tourniquet on longer than three hours to avoid tissue damage
All of the following are signs of a stroke except:
Severe chest tightness
An inability to raise one arm
A facial droop on one side
Which of the following patients do not need evacuation?
A climber at a campsite bleeding from a dog bite on his wrist
A mountain biker with extreme pain and instability in their pelvis
A fisherman allergic to bees who has been stung and used an Epi-Pen
A hiker with moderately blistered feet
A 13-year-old camper believes he has accidently ingested walnuts, to which he is severely allergic. You should direct him to administer his Epi-Pen for all the following symptoms except:
Localized rash on the back of the hands
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