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Saskatoon Roofing Service, 6 Steep-Slope Roofing Material Options

Roofing is classified as applying a water-shedding roof covering to a surface with a slope of more than 14 degrees. This covering does not need to be watertight as water will run right off, but it will likely be visible from the ground and thus need to compliment the aesthetics of the building.

Below we’ll walk you through six generic classifications of steep-slope roof materials to help as you discuss your options with your contractor.

But before we get into the roof coverings, we need to discuss the underlayment.
Underlayment Sheets

Steep-slope roofing need to use an underlayment, which is fabric material applied to the roof’s surface prior to installation of the primary covering. This material provides additional protection to the roof, but is not directly exposed to the elements.

They are generally comprised of organic felts, glass fiber mats, composites or modified bitumen sheets. They are also either mechanically fastened (most common) or self-adhered (common when used for ice dam protection) to the roof.

Underlayment sheets must adhere to the following ASTM standards:

ASTM D 226, “Standard specification for asphalt saturated organic felt used in roofing and waterproofing.”
ASTM D 1970, “Standard specification for self-adhering polymer modified bitumen sheet materials used as steep roofing underlayment for ice dam protection.”
ASTM D 4869, “Standard specification as asphalt saturated organic felt shingle underlayment used in roofing.”

6 Steep-Slope Roof Coverings
1. Asphalt Shingles

Asphalt shingles are made up of several layers:

A base material, either organic felt or a glass fiber mat. This base supports weather resistance and strength.
Asphalt and assorted fillers.
A surface material (generally mineral granules), which provides protection from impact and UV degradation, and improves fire resistance.

The most common type of shingle is a strip shingle, which is 12-in. x 36-in., and includes three or four exposed tabs. These tabs can be separated from each other, one continuous piece (called non-cutout strip shingles), or randomly distributed (called random tab strip shingles).

These shingles can also come in a single layer, or with two or more layers. The latter are called laminated strip singles or architectural shingles.

Asphalt shingles must meet the following ASTM standards:

ASTM D 225, “Standard specification for asphalt shingles (organic felt) surfaced with mineral granules.”
ASTM D 3462, “Standard specifications for asphalt shingles made from glass fiber felt and surfaced with mineral granules.”

2. Clay and Concrete Tile:

There are two main types of roofing tiles: Clay and Concrete.

Clay Tiles: Produced by baking molded clay. The density of the tile is determined by the length of time and temperature the clay is heated.
Concrete Tiles: Made of portland cement, sand and water, concrete tiles are mixed and extruded under high pressure into molds.

Tiles are available in a variety of profiles, styles, finishes and colors, and textures can be applied.

Clay tiles must meet the following ASTM standards:

ASTM C 1167, “Standard specification for clay roof tiles.”

3. Fiber-Cement Shingles:

As the name would imply, fiber-cement shingles are made of cement and reinforced fibers. They are designed to serve as substitutes for wood shingles and shakes, slate, and tile in steep-slope applications.

They are made to look like and simulate these materials, and in most cases are installed in a similar fashion. However, they may not perform as well.

Fiber-cement coverings must meet the following ASTM standards:

ASTM C 1225, “Specification for non-asbestos fiber-cement roofing shingles, shakes and slates.”

4. Metal Coverings and Components:

There are two general types of metal roof systems: architectural and structural. Architectural metal possess water-shedding qualities, making it ideal for steep-slope roofing systems. See flat-roof materials for more information on structural metal.

Architectural metal can be categorized into the following:

Individual components: Metal-roofing products designed to resemble traditional steep-slope residential products.
Panels: Large sheets that include several different categories:
Standard seam: The seams are joined above the panel flats.
Batten seam: Vertical leg panels placed between wooden batten strips and covered with a cap.
Flat seam: Individual panels applied in a shingled application.
Bermuda panel: A continuous panel positioned perpendicular to the roof slope, creating horizontal lines.
Shingle panel: Die-formed panels designed to look like tile, slate or wood shingles.

Solid roof sheathing or decking is required for this roofing system.

5. Slate:

Slate is a dense, durable, naturally occurring material that is essentially nonabsorbent.

The surface texture of slate is determined by the rock from which it was quarried. Some will appear smooth, while others are rough and uneven. The color and the degree to which the color changes after exposure to weather will also vary based on the rock used.

There are three classifications of slate:

Standard: Usually between 3/16-in. and 1/4-in. thick, rough surface and uniform length.
Standard Smooth: A standard slate but with a smooth surface.
Graduated/textural: Designed in varying lengths, thicknesses and are rougher than standard slate.

Slate must meet the following ASTM standards:

ASTM C 406, “Standard specification for roofing slates.”

6. Wood Shakes and Shingles:

Made of Western red cedar, cypress, pine and redwood trees, wood steep-slope roofing materials are available in shakes and shingles.

Shingles are sawed on both sides, have an even taper and uniform thickness. They generally come in two sizes: Perfection (18-in.) and royal (24-in.).
Shakes are split from logs and reshaped by manufacturers for commercial use. They tend to be thicker at the butt end than shingles, and one or both sides are split to give it a texture.

It’ll be important to consult with your roofing contractor on the best steep-slope roofing system for your building and the environment it will be exposed to. For example, level of protection, weather resistance and aesthetics all need to be taken into account

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Saskatoon Roofing Service, 5 Common Causes of Metal Roof Leaks

Few Roofing Products offer the durability, strength, and performance of metal roofing. That being said metal roofs aren't indestructible and they can leak. Here are 6 common reasons even properly installed metal roofs can leak.

1. Metal roofing screws

Roofing screws are responsible for the majority of leaks on metal roofs. Metal roofing screws seal water out by compressing a rubber washer at the base of the screw head. When the screw is driven into the metal roofing panel the rubber washer forms a “ gasket” between the roofing panel and the screw head. It sounds simple enough but several things can go wrong like under driving screws, over driving screws, driving screws at the wrong angle and screws that missed the framing member.

Over driven screws: In an attempt to ensure a tight seal between the metal roofing and the screw head many roofing companies will over drive the screw. The unneeded torch breaks the rubber washer and tends to spin it out to the side.

Under driven screws: These are a result of not enough torch on the screw to properly seat the rubber washer to the metal roofing panel. The rubber washer is never compressed and no gasket is formed.

Screws driven at the wrong angle: These don't allow the rubber washer to sit flat on the metal roofing. Part of the screw is sealed but part is not sealed.

Screws that have missed the metal strut or wood framing below: These have nothing to seal against. These can be hard leaks to find as many times the screw is their but without touching it you wouldn't know that it didn't hit anything and didn't seal.

Even if the screws were installed correctly with the right amount of torch it doesn't mean that the rubber washer is safe. Hot summers followed by hard cold winters are unkind to the rubber washers. They degrade and lose their seal and it can be very difficult to distinguish which screw is leaking and which is not.

2. Stack flashings

Metal_Roof_Leak_.jpgAnother area very prone to leaks on a metal roof is the area around stack flashings. Stack flashings are the “ boots “ or flashings around pipes that come out of the metal roof. HVAC vents, air vents, and plumbing pipes all have to vent and come through the metal roof. The stack flashing is how the pipe is water proofed. Most stack flashings are rubber or rubberized material that sits flat on the metal roof and forms a seal but also “squeezes” around the pipe to form another seal. The movement in the metal roofing from expansion and contraction is always testing these seals.

The sun also degrades the rubber flashings which last only about half the time of the metal roof. The more caulking, sealant, or tar that is placed behind and around the stack the more they seam to pond water and leak, it ’s a catch 22.

Plan on replacing worn or rotten stack flashings in order to keep your building dry.

3. Missing sealants

Metal roof sealants that are installed in conjunction with a metal roof rarely last as long as the metal roofing panels do and need to be replaced with regular roof maintenance. Sealants under trims such as metal ridge caps and Z flashings, around roof transitions, counter flashings, reglets, and pitch pans will all need to be “topped off” from time to time as they wear. Use a metal roof sealant specifically made for metal roofing. Other types silicone caulkings may not adhere to the paint on the roofing panel and trims. Metal roofing goes through a daily expansion - contraction cycle and if any sealants are to last they must be able to remain flexible and stretch with metal without breaking their seal.

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Saskatoon Roofing Service, How Much Does Metal Roof Repair Cost?

Gain general knowledge about metal roof repair cost and the factors that influence the price of roof repairs. For more detailed repair estimates based on your specific building's metal roof, we strongly recommend that you invite us out to do a site visit and free evaluation or have a reputable roofing company in your area look at your metal roof repair project.
Targeted Use of Metal Roof Sealants and Metal Roof Coatings

Just because a metal roof starts to leak doesn't mean that the entire roof is bad or needs to be replaced. Many times leaks can be found and fixed using the correct metal roof sealant or by replacing screws or tape sealer. Metal roofs that were installed correctly and that still have service life remaining, fall into this category.

Targeted specific leaks on metal roofs is the least expensive type of repair because it is isolated and usually confined to specific area. Our skilled roofers can usually track down a leak to its source and make necessary repairs within the first visit.

Minor metal roof repairs that can found and fixed during the first trip out usually cost somewhere between $200-$600 depending on the length of time spent on the building and amount of material used to make the repair. More difficult or mystery leaks that require follow up trips to completely eliminate will cost more but how much more will depend on the following factors:

Amount of leaks to be stopped
Size of the leaking areas
Accessibility to roof
Amount of materials needed to make repairs

We will work within your budget and help you prioritize leaks based on importance and estimated cost to stop the water intrusion into your building.

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Saskatoon Roofing Service What Roof is Best for You?

Now in this blog, we'll continue with two different roofing types that may be exactly what you're looking for!

Metal Roofing

Metal roofing is one of the most durable, and is popular with companies as well as homeowners! There might not be as many options like asphalt shingles, however, whichever option you choose, both have impressive durability.

Metal Types

Standing Seam
More popular due to its superior durability and sleek look, standing seam is becoming more and more common. (Pictures seen above) Many home owners are incorporating standing seam metal for porch coverings or shed rooftops while many businesses and corporations will use it as their primary rooftop protection! Yet with its higher durability and looks comes a higher price than barn style sheet metal.

Sheet Metal (Barn Style)
Sheet metal was the standard metal rooftop for most manufacturers and farmers. Not only is it cheaper, but the installation was less complex usually quicker. (Depending on the job) While it may not have the sheen of standing seam, it does the job and provides suitable protection!

Metal roofing provides some of the best roofing protection for large manufacturers or home owners! However, its superior qualities come at a considerable price, so it may not be for everybody.

Flat Roofing

There are multiple types of flat roofing, most of which are popular with large scale corporations! While some homeowners may have flat roofing sections, it is more commonly seen with commercial buildings, restaurants, manufacturers, etc. Installation and repairs are much easier and less visible in many cases as well.

Most Common Types
Flat Roofing Membrane (PVC)
Flat roofing membrane has become one of the most popular choices for roofing protection in the recent years, especially for businesses and manufacturers. Metal roof recovers are done with this membrane, and is less intrusive than other repair methods given the fact that the old roof does not need to be removed!

Rubber Rooftops
Like barn metal, rubber roofing was the most common flat roofing option before PVC membrane came along. The installation process is not as "user-friendly" however, repairs are quick, easy, and affordable; all three of which may be what a cost-concerned business is looking for! Schools, manufacturers, and some businesses still use rubber roofing as their main protection.

While it may seem like we covered all there is to know about roofing types, we still have more to go! Again we hope this blog gave you a good idea of what to look for when it comes to your own projects.

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