Ecology Summer Assignment
Terminology and Multiple Choice
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1. leeches attach to and feed off the blood of animals to gain nutrition to the detriment of the other organism *
1 point
2. layer of the atmosphere containing the ozone layer *
1 point
3. an overlapping zone between ecosystems *
1 point
4. turbidity, temperature, transparency *
1 point
5. hunts for its food *
1 point
6. range of conditions with the highest population density *
1 point
7. range of conditions in which organisms survive, but do not thrive *
1 point
8. anything that inhibits the growth, and development of a population; examples: climate, too many predators *
1 point
9. process by which producers convert sunlight to glucose *
1 point
10. fungi and bacteria *
1 point
11. layer of the atmosphere where people and animals live *
1 point
12. have a broad niche; adapt well to changing conditions *
1 point
13. groups of different interacting species *
1 point
14. Asian long-horned beetle in NY *
1 point
15. when two different species fight for a food source or territory *
1 point
16. the parts of a niche that are actually used by the species (reduced because of competition) *
1 point
17. frogs, lichens, birds of prey *
1 point
18. grey wolves, sea otters, sea stars *
1 point
19. the role of an organism in an ecosystem *
1 point
20. process by which deep sea bacteria convert hydrogen sulfide gas into nutrition *
1 point
21. carpenter ants, termites, worms *
1 point
22. contribute to the ecosystem by consuming “leftovers” which aids in the decomposition process
1 point
23. consists of the Earth’s crust and upper mantle *
1 point
24. prone to endangerment when environmental conditions change *
1 point
25. all living organisms and their physical abiotic environment
1 point
26. bees get the nectar they need to make honey by traveling between flowers and bring pollen from one plant to another, resulting in pollination *
1 point
27. the entire range of conditions that supports any growth of a species
1 point
28. the base of a biomass pyramid *
1 point
29. shark and remora relationship *
1 point
30. a group of the same species *
1 point
31. 99% of the biosphere exists in the thermosphere *
1 point
32. The biosphere and ecosphere are synonymous terms. *
1 point
33. The highest concentration of beneficial ozone is located in the upper stratosphere. *
1 point
34. Primary consumers are heterotrophs. *
1 point
35. Energy can be recycled in the environment. *
1 point
36. Energy degradation in a food chain is best explained by the First Law of Thermodynamics *
1 point
37. silicon and oxygen are most abundant elements in this region *
1 point
38. lowest layer of the atmosphere *
1 point
39. the region that is 480km in depth, but the bottom 12km consists of the highest concentration of oxygen *
1 point
40. makes up 71% of Earth’s surface *
1 point
41. Which of the following is true of the food web shown? *
1 point
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42. Most of the energy put into the food chain *
1 point
43. In the diagram below, which organisms are correctly paired with their nutritional roles? *
1 point
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44. A fundamental concept of ecology is that living organisms *
1 point
45. Which of the following statements is true of tertiary consumers in an ecosystem? *
1 point
46. Which trophic level does a lion belong to *
1 point
47. What percentage of energy is generally said to be passed upwards each successive level in the biomass-energy pyramid? *
1 point
48. Approximately what percentage of the solar energy that strikes the Earth is used for photosynthesis by plants? *
1 point
49. The second trophic level of a typical biomass pyramid consists of *
1 point
50. Which term (or terms) can be used to describe a city rat? *
1 point
51. Which of the following reasons account for the decrease in energy passed on to each successive trophic level? *
1 point
52. Which of the following organisms occupies the trophic level of greatest biomass? *
1 point
53. In the food web, which animals are tertiary consumers? *
1 point
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54. Organisms that have the exact same source of nutrition within a food web can best be described as *
1 point
55. In which level would a monarch caterpillar that feeds on the milkweed plant belong to? *
1 point
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56. If the first trophic level represents an ecosystem with 100,000 kcal available to its producers, how much energy is available for the tertiary consumers in the ecosystem? *
1 point
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57. In a forest food chain, the least amount of energy would flow to which of the following organisms? *
1 point
58. Which of the following organisms occupies the lowest trophic level? *
1 point
59. A food chain represents *
1 point
60. The chart below shows three ecological terms used to describe levels of organization on Earth. Which choice best represents the relationship of these ecological terms? *
1 point
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61. Which statement best describes an ecosystem maintaining a state of approximate equilibrium? *
1 point
62. What is the term used to describe the transitional zone in which one ecosystem merges with an adjacent one? *
1 point
63. “True” decomposers that secrete enzymes to absorb nutrition are known as *
1 point
64. In deep sea environments, by what process do bacteria convert sulfur compounds to organic sugars? *
1 point
65. Which type of organism that ordinarily inhabits a lake ecosystem would not be found in level B because of the lack of light penetration? *
1 point
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66. A possible food chain represented by the diagram could be *
1 point
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67. The amount of light received by the pond would be considered a(n) *
1 point
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68. Which of the following are necessary to sustain life on Earth? *
1 point
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69. Almost all of the Earth's weather occurs in the: *
1 point
70. The ozone layer helps life on Earth because ozone *
1 point
71. Which formula correctly illustrates the process of photosynthesis? *
1 point
72. Which level of biological organization includes the greatest total number of species? *
1 point
73. What does the diagram best represent? *
1 point
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74. The abiotic factors of a given area include the
1 point
Clear selection
75. Which term refers to the behavior of two species attempting to use the same living space, food source, and water source? *
1 point
76. During its annual migration, the red knot, a medium-size shorebird, flies the entire length of North and South America. During one critical stop to feed on the eggs of horseshoe crabs, the birds nearly double their body mass. The relationship between the red knot and the horseshoe crab is that of *
1 point
77. Which relationship best describes the interactions between lettuce and a rabbit? *
1 point
78. Which of the following would be considered a specialist species? *
1 point
79. Two interactions between organisms are shown in the table below. X and Y do not represent the same organisms in the two interactions. Which statement best describes the relationship between organism X and organism Y in each interaction? *
1 point
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80. Which organisms would most likely be found at level A? *
1 point
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81. Which represents the correct flow of energy through an ecosystem?
1 point
Clear selection
82. The reason that producers are at the base of almost all energy pyramids and food chains is
1 point
Clear selection
83. The net primary production of a pine forest on a lava flow on Mount Fuji is about 180,000kcal/m2/yr, and the plant respiration is estimated to be 110,000kcal/m2/yr . Using the primary productivity formula (NPP = GPP – R) formula, what is the total amount of energy transferred during photosynthesis for this ecosystem? *
1 point
84. Which of the following combinations are all consumers? *
1 point
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85. Which organisms are in competition for the vegetables? *
1 point
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86. If the number of owls was to increase, the number of mice would
1 point
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Clear selection
87. A diagram frequently used in ecological studies is shown to the right. This diagram can be used to represent the
1 point
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Clear selection
88. According to the Second Law of Thermodynamics, *
1 point
89. Burmese pythons are large snakes that have been introduced into the Florida Everglades ecosystem. Burmese pythons and alligators hunt the same prey. One likely effect of the introduction of the pythons is that *
1 point
90. “Nature’s early warning system” of the changing health of an ecosystem rests in observations of changing populations of environmentally sensitive organisms such as frogs and lichens. The aforementioned sentence makes reference to the importance of *
1 point
91. Parasitism is best represented by the relationship between *
1 point
92. Which of the following is a characteristic of a keystone species? *
1 point
93. When environmental change occurs, which type of species is most prone to extinction because they do not adapt well to such change? *
1 point
94. An earthworm lives and reproduces in the soil. It aerates the soil and adds organic material to it. The earthworm provides a source of food for other organisms. All of these statements together best describe *
1 point
95. An ecological relationship in which one species benefits, but another remains unaffected is known as *
1 point
96. Resource partitioning helps organisms avoid *
1 point
97. Which pair of organisms would most likely compete for the same ecological niche? *
1 point
98. Which lettered zone indicates the range of conditions necessary for the ideal growth of this species? *
1 point
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99. Which lettered zone indicates the zone in which organisms survive, but do not thrive? *
1 point
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100. Which lettered zone indicates the zone in which conditions are outside the range of tolerance? *
1 point
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