Open Letter: Ontario’s Triage COVID-19 Protocol

April 8, 2020

Hon. Doug Ford, Premier of Ontario
Legislative Building
Queen’s Park
Toronto, ON M7A 1A1

Hon. Christine Elliott, Deputy Premier and Minister of Health of Ontario
College Park 5th Floor,
777 Bay Street, Toronto, ON M7A 2J3

Hon. Raymond Sung Joon Cho, Minister of Seniors and Accessibility of Ontario
Ministry for Seniors and Accessibility
College Park, 5th Floor
777 Bay Street, Toronto, ON M5G 2C8

Dear Hon. Premier Ford, Hon. Deputy Premier and Minister Elliott, and Hon. Minister Cho:

Re: Ontario’s Clinical Triage Protocol

We, the undersigned, share grave concerns regarding Ontario Health’s Clinical Triage Protocol for Major Surge in COVID Pandemic, dated March 28, 2020, which has yet to be released to the public.  As disability organizations, we write in particular to underscore the disproportionate and adverse impact that the Triage Protocol will have on people with disabilities, and to make recommendations for reform.

The COVID-19 pandemic is disproportionately impacting persons with disabilities: our communities are more vulnerable to the virus and are being severely impacted by the necessary emergency response measures, like physical distancing, which interferes with the supports they need for daily living or is not altogether possible.

The Triage Protocol must respect the human rights of all persons, including persons with disabilities. Consultation with human rights experts and the marginalized communities of persons who are going to be disproportionately impacted by the Triage Protocol, must be conducted. Even though it is an emergency situation, the COVID-19 pandemic cannot be used as justification for discrimination.

To this end, we make the following specific recommendations:

(1) Persons with disabilities cannot be deprioritized for critical care on the basis of their disability

According to the Triage Protocol, some people will not get critical care because of their disability. For example, the Triage Protocol identifies particular disabilities, such as cognitive disabilities and advanced neurodegenerative diseases including Parkinson Disease, and Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis. Persons with these disabilities may in some stages of their disability be deprioritized in determinations about who receives critical care.

It is imperative that decisions about who receives critical care should be made using objective clinical criteria directly associated with mortality risks of COVID-19, and must not be based on stereotypes or assumptions about a person’s disability, and longer term mortality rates that are not directly related to COVID-19. It should also be made clear that by virtue of someone’s disability, they will not be deemed a lower priority and passed over for another patient who does not have a disability.

(2) The Triage Protocol must clearly state that clinical judgment must not be informed by bias, stereotypes, or ableism

The Triage Protocol explicitly states that clinical assessments cannot take into consideration a patient’s socioeconomic privilege or political rank. As the health-care system has a long-entrenched history of ableism, the Triage Protocol must also explicitly state that implicit disability-based bias, stereotypes and ableist assumptions cannot factor into clinical judgment or assessment when allocating critical care resources. It must also make clear that decisions cannot be made on the basis of human-rights protected characteristics and intersecting identities. We understand that clinical judgment is an important part of the Triage Protocol, but there must be necessary safeguards to ensure that particular marginalized groups are not adversely impacted.

(3) Persons with disabilities cannot be deprioritized for critical care based on the supports they receive for daily living

According to the Triage Protocol, persons with disabilities who receive accommodations or supports from others for daily living are in some circumstances less likely to receive critical care. This means that the Triage Protocol has the effect of deeming the lives of persons who require assistance as being less worthy, or assumes that they have a lesser quality of life. These kinds of criteria are discriminatory and devalue the lives of persons with disabilities. The Protocol invites value-based judgments on the basis of disability-related accommodations, which are a basic human right.

(4) The Triage Protocol must clearly ensure that persons with disabilities receive necessary disability-related accommodations

The Triage Protocol does not have a clear statement that persons will receive necessary disability-related accommodations in the implementation of the Triage Protocol. Accommodations, such as interpretation, support or other services to access medical services, are a basic tenet of human rights law. Disability-related accommodations ensure that persons with disabilities have equal opportunity to receive, understand, and benefit from critical care.

We understand and appreciate that health care workers are working hard to care for all Ontarians, and a practical framework is required to help them make very difficult decisions about who gets critical care with some level of efficiency. We therefore support the development of a policy that respects human rights and has a fair procedure of decision making. We ask that any such framework not violate the basic human rights of persons with disabilities. The rationing of scarce resources in the health care system during this health crisis cannot be used as justification for discrimination.



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