Sands - Arenology
Include the names of your team members
Your answer
Identify the location from which the sand was collected
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To get the latitude and longitude, type in the name in Google Maps. Use satellite view. Zoom in and right click on the desired location and copy copy the coordinate under "what's here?"
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To get the latitude and longitude, type in the name in Google Maps. Use satellite view. Zoom in and right click on the desired location and copy copy the coordinate under "what's here?"
Your answer
Which of the following are found in your sample?
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Which of the following best describes the most common type of grain in your specimen?
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Grain size
Sand is defined as: Small, loose grains of mineral, rock, or other naturally occurring material, with grain sizes between 1/16 mm and 2 mm. Design and print your own mm graph paper. Measure the average size of the particles in your sample by placing grains on this paper. What size grains are represented in your sample (check all that apply)?
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Sand type
Measure the distribution of sand types using sieves. What is the most abundant (by mass)
Motion of waves, wind and/or current
How swift was the water or wind movement in the sand you collected? Where rivers flow or waves surge, sand moves. The stronger the motion, the larger the sand grains that are carried and/or kept in suspension. FAST CURRENT / STRONG WAVES - Where rivers run swiftly or waves are strong,
they can carry larger or heavier grains and build beaches of boulders or gravel. The finer materials keep on moving, you won’t find them here! SLOW CURRENT / WEAK WAVES- Where rivers are slow or waves are weak,
they carry only small or light grains. As water movement weakens, even the smallest sands are dropped, contributing to deposits of fine sand. What inferences can you make about the motion of the waves, wind or current in the region from which your sand sample was taken based upon the average sand size.
Biogenic components?
Which of the following biotic elements are in your sample?
PLUTONIC (Granite, igneous rock formed below the surface) - Granite rocks include of several different minerals, but quartz – made of silicon dioxide is the most durable to erosion. Quartz is often clear. Depending on the degree of weathering, granite sand may also include light-colored grains of the mineral feldspar or darker grains of hornblende, mica or magnetite. Where you find quartz sands, there must be some continental rocks somewhere. VOLCANIC– Sands of volcanic origin tend to be black, red, or green. METAMORPHIC ORIGIN – Sands that are of metamorphic origin often have garnet, a purple rock. If you have purple in your sample, it may indicate a history of metamorphosis.
Percent biogenic origin - reaction with acid
Sand of biotic origin (from living organisms) tends to bubble in mild acid. Place dilute hydrochloric acid on a small sample of sand and observe under the microscope. What percentage of the sand material (by mass) appears to be of biogenic origin?
Age, Hardness, or Source (Origin relative current location)
Angular Grains - (young, resistant rock, and/or local) Grains that are angular may indicate the sand is from a source (parent rock) near by. Sands that haven't traveled very far usually aren’t as worn by water, wind, or waves. Smooth Grains - (old, softer rock, and/or transported far. Grains that are smooth. may indicate the sand is from a source far away. As sand grains are carried long distances from their source, they dissolve or are worn down, becoming smoother. What do you infer regarding your sample.
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Summary *
Review your responses to the questions in this form and write a paragraph describing your sand sample. You will copy this description to the collaborative map
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