In Japan, a person’s blood type is popularly believed to decide his/her temperament and personality. Type-A people are generally considered sensitive perfectionists and good team players, but over-anxious.Type Os are curious and generous but stubborn. Type ABs are artistic but mysterious and unpredictable, and type Bs are cheerful but eccentric, ndividualistic, and selfish. Though lacking scientific evidence, this belief is widely seen in books, magazines, and television shows.
The blood-type belief has been used in unusual ways. The women’s softball team that won gold for Japan at the Beijing Olympics is reported to have used blood-type theories to customize training for each player. Some kindergartens have adopted teaching methods along blood group lines, and even major companies reportedly make decisions about assignments based on an employee’s blood type. In 1990, Mitsubishi Electronics was reported to have announced the formation of a team composed entirely of AB workers, thanks to “their ability to make plans.”
The belief even affects politics. One former prime minister considered it important enough to reveal in his official profile that he was a type A, while his opposition rival was type B. In 2011, a minister, Ryu Matsumoto, was forced to resign after only a week in office, when a bad-tempered encounter with local officials was televised. In his resignation speech, he blamed his failings on the fact that he was blood type B.
The blood-type craze, considered simply harmless fun by some Japanese, may manifest itself as prejudice and discrimination. In fact, this seems so common that the Japanese now have a term for it: bura-hara, meaning blood-type harassment. There are reports of discrimination leading to children being bullied, ending of happy relationships, and loss of job opportunities due to blood type.
41. What is the speaker’s attitude toward the blood-type belief in Japan?
42. According to the examples mentioned in the passage, which blood type can we infer is the LEAST favored in Japan?
(A) Type A.
(B) Type B.
(C) Type O.
(D) Type AB.
43. Why did Prime Minister Ryu Matsumoto resign from office?
(A) He revealed his rival’s blood type.
(B) He was seen behaving rudely on TV.
(C) He blamed his failings on local officials.
(D) He was discriminated against because of blood type.
44. Which field is NOT mentioned in the passage as being affected by blood-type beliefs?
第 45 至 48 題為題組
Like many other five-year-olds, Jeanie Low of Houston, Texas, would use a stool to help her reach the bathroom sink. However, the plastic step-stool she had at home was unstable and cluttered up the small bathroom shared by her whole family. After learning of an invention contest held by her school that year, Jeanie resolved to enter the contest by creating a stool that would be a permanent fixture in the bathroom, and yet could be kept out of the way when not in use.
Jeanie decided to make a stool attached to the bathroom cabinet door under the sink. She cut a plank of wood into two pieces, each about two feet wide and one foot long. Using metal hinges, Jeanie attached one piece of the wood to the front of the cabinet door, and the second piece to the first. The first piece was set just high enough so that when it swung out horizontally from the cabinet door, the second piece would swing down from the first, just touching the ground, and so serving as a support for the first piece of the wood. This created a convenient, sturdy platform for any person too short to reach the sink. When not in use, the hinges allowed the two pieces of wood to fold back up tightly against the cabinet, where they were held in place by magnets. Jeanie called her invention the “Kiddie Stool.”
Jeanie’s Kiddie Stool won first place in her school’s contest. Two years later, it was awarded first prize again at Houston’s first annual Invention Fair. As a result, Jeanie was invited to make a number of public appearances with her Kiddie Stool, and was featured on local TV as well as in newspapers. Many people found the story of the Kiddie Stool inspiring because it showed that with imagination, anyone can be an inventor.
45. Why did Jeanie Low invent the Kiddie Stool, according to the passage?
(A) Many other five-year-olds had problems reaching the bathroom sink.
(B) She did not think that plastic stools were tall enough for her.
(C) The stool in her bathroom was not firm and often got in the way.
(D) She was invited to enter an invention contest held by her school.
46. Which of the following statements is true about how the Kiddie Stool works?
(A) The Kiddie Stool will swing out only when the cabinet door opens.
(B) It uses hinges and magnets to keep the wooden pieces in place.
(C) It swings from left to right to be attached to the cabinet door.
(D) The platform is supported by two pieces of metal.
47. What are the characteristics of Jeanie’s Kiddie Stool?
(A) Permanent and foldable.
(B) Fragile and eye-catching.
(C) Conventional and touching.
(D) Convenient and recyclable.
48. Which of the following sayings best captures the spirit of Jeanie Low’s story?
(A) Failure is the mother of success.
(B) There’s nothing new under the sun.
(C) Necessity is the mother of invention.
(D) Genius is 1% inspiration and 99% perspiration.
第 49 至 52 題為題組
Ongoing conflicts across the Middle East have prevented more than 13 million children from attending school, according to a report published by UNICEF, the United Nations Children’s Fund.
The report states that 40% of all children across the region are currently not receiving an education, which is a result of two consequences of violence: structural damage to schools and the displacement of populations, also called “forced migration.” Both issues result from the tide of violence that has crossed the region in recent years. The report examines nine countries where a state of war has become the norm. Across these countries, violence has made 8,500 schools unusable. In certain cases, communities have relied on school buildings to function as shelters for the displaced, with up to nine families living in a single classroom in former schools across Iraq.
The report pays particularly close attention to Syria, where a bloody civil war has displaced at least nine million people since the war began in 2011. With the crisis now in its fifth year, basic public services, including education, inside Syria have been stretched to breaking point. Within the country, the quality and availability of education depends on whether a particular region is suffering violence.
The report concludes with an earnest request to international policymakers to distribute financial and other resources to ease the regional crisis. With more than 13 million children already driven from classrooms by conflict, it is no exaggeration to say that the educational prospects of a generation of children are in the balance. The forces that are crushing individual lives and futures are also destroying the prospects for an entire region.
49. What is this article mainly about?
(A) Why people are moving away from their own countries.
(B) Why there are civil wars and violence in the Middle East.
(C) Why many schools have become shelters for displaced families.
(D) Why many children in the Middle East are not attending school.
50. Why is “Iraq” mentioned in the second paragraph?
(A) To convince people that temporary housing can be easily found.
(B) To prove that classrooms there are big enough to host many families.
(C) To give an example of why schools are not usable for children’s learning.
(D) To show how structural damages of school can affect the quality of education.
51. What does the phrase “in the balance” in the last paragraph most likely mean?
(A) Being well taken care of.
(B) In an uncertain situation.
(C) Under control by the authority.
(D) Moving in the wrong direction.
52. According to the passage, which of the following statements is true?
(A) The war in Syria has been going on since 2011.
(B) More than nine thousand schools have been destroyed by wars.
(C) Thirteen million people have been forced to leave their homes in the Middle East.
(D) Forty percent of all children in the world are not attending schools due to ongoing conflict.
第 53 至 56 題為題組
Many marine animals, including penguins and marine iguanas, have evolved ways to get rid of excess salt by using special salt-expelling glands around their tongue. However, the sea snake’s salt glands cannot handle the massive amounts of salt that would enter their bodies if they actually drank seawater. This poses a serious problem when it comes to getting enough water to drink. If seawater is not an option, how does this animal survive in the ocean?
An international team of researchers focused on a population of yellow-bellied sea snakes living near Costa Rica, where rain often does not fall for up to seven months out of the year. Because yellow-bellied sea snakes usually spend all of their time far from land, rain is the animals’ only source of fresh water. When it rains, a thin layer of fresh water forms on top of the ocean, providing the snakes with a fleeting opportunity to lap up that precious resource. But during the dry season when there is no rain, snakes presumably have nothing to drink. Thus, the team became interested in testing whether sea snakes became dehydrated at sea.
The researchers collected more than 500 yellow-bellied sea snakes and weighed them. They found that during the dry season about half of the snakes accepted fresh water offered to them, while nearly none did during the wet season. A snake’s likelihood to drink also correlated with its body condition, with more withered snakes being more likely to drink, and to drink more. Finally, as predicted, snakes captured during the dry season contained significantly less body water than those scooped up in the rainy season. Thus, it seems the snake is able to endure certain degrees of dehydration in between rains. Scientists believe that dehydration at sea may explain the declining populations of sea snakes in some parts of the world.
53. What is the purpose of the study described in this passage?
(A) To test if sea snakes lose body water at sea.
(B) To see whether sea snakes drink water offered to them.
(C) To find out if sea snakes are greatly reduced in population.
(D) To prove that sea snakes drink only water coming from rivers.
54. Which of the following is true about sea snakes?
(A) Their salt glands can remove the salt in the seawater.
(B) They can drink seawater when it mixes with rainwater.
(C) The ocean is like a desert to them since they don’t drink seawater.
(D) They usually live near the coastal area where there is more fresh water.
55. Which of the following is one of the findings of the study?
(A) If a sea snake was dried and weak, it drank more fresh water.
(B) If captured in the wet season, sea snakes drank a lot of fresh water.
(C) Most of the sea snakes had lost a lot of body water when captured.
(D) Dehydration is not a problem among sea snakes since they live at sea.
56. What can be inferred from the study?
(A) Sea snakes can easily survive long years of drought.
(B) Evolution will very likely enable sea snakes to drink seawater.
(C) Sea snakes will be the last creature affected by global warming.
(D) The sea snakes’ population distribution is closely related to rainfall.
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