Indian History Quiz-10
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In the English the title of the work is often given as the "Recognition of Shakuntala". It is the story of a king married a poor orphan, named Shakuntala. However, the king is put under a spell and forgets about his bride. Eventually, he recovers his memory and the two of them become one again *
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The administrative capital of the Raj and the location of the Viceroy's Residence became the center of Anglo-Indian society. It was as though they simply ignored the inhospitable weather and a myriad of quite nasty diseases and pests. They imposed a genteel, ordered English social life, entirely separate from the native population, in an Indian city known for its culture. It was a city labeled at different times "The Cultural Capital of India", "The City of Processions" and "The City of Palaces." Calcutta was originally chosen by the East India Company and then continued to be the seat of power under the Raj. What city became the new capital of India in 1911? *
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Unsuspecting wives made the voyage out, once their spouses were established in their chosen field of endeavor. Many had to deal with the prospect of having servants for the first time. Many 'how to' books were available for new 'memsahibs' in all matters pertaining to the household and servants. Ultimately, it was usually essential to have a punkawalla or two, dependent upon the size of house. Who or what is a punkawalla? *
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The whole question of servants was an endless conversation amongst the various British matrons, young and old. Trying to establish references proved to be generally fruitless. One of the 'how to' books of the day described Indian servants as having the inherent vices of "laziness, dishonesty and falsehood". If the house was not cleaned well enough, particularly the kitchen, the home was immediately open to one of the many unpleasant diseases that plagued Calcutta. One of the writers of the "Complete Indian Home Cook", declared that she never went into their kitchen for fear that her appetite be marred by the sight of a servant using his toes as an efficient toast rack or the soup being strained through a greasy turban. *
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With all of the discomforts of the journey and daily living one might, quite reasonably, question the motivation of going to India in the first place. The answer was undoubtedly money, or the prospect of wealth, and colonial power in the world. Many young men from good families were making their fortunes with great speed, in a wide variety of enterprises, or were part of a burgeoning civil service. In true Victorian fashion, society feared that if these young men were to remain unmarried for long in the sultry heat, they would be tempted by the loose-moralled local lovelies, and take a mistress. (Not to say that marriage ever prevented such an event). Arrangements were made for a bevy of marriageable, well brought-up young ladies, from excellent families, to travel out to Calcutta for the Christmas season, in the hopes of finding a wealthy husband. By what collective name were these young ladies facetiously known? *
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The colonial city of Calcutta was originally established by the East India company, and then became the capital of the British Empire in India. The British built their mansions and splendid government buildings entirely separated from the dreadful poverty and disease spread among the natives. The native slums of Calcutta were known as 'Black Town', and the British sector as 'White Town'. Despite this separation of living areas, it did not prevent the nasty and virulent tropical diseases spreading to 'White Town', for which there was no treatment or cure, until late in the nineteenth century. One disease, in particular, became synonymous with Calcutta, and was responsible for many dreadful European deaths. Which disease was this? *
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Despite the many inconveniences of life, the British in Calcutta established and enjoyed many of the pastimes and sporting events that they had enjoyed at home. This included both polo and horse racing, the dubious sport of pig-sticking and the hunt. These local hunts usually included motley packs of dogs of varying breeds. One cynical writer summed up the British social world as: 'Duty and red tape, picnics and adultery.' What became one of the centers of sporting and social life, still existing in modern times? *
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From April to November each year, the Viceroy and his retinue moved, bag and baggage, out of Calcutta to the cooler air of Simla. (Known as Shimla, by the natives.) The hot summer season in Calcutta officially began in March, with temperatures reaching the low 100s. It was a hot and unbearably dusty season, prone to cyclones forming in the Bay of Bengal. The monsoon season followed on directly, lasting from July to September/October. One can see why the British administration and leaders in society headed for the hills. Hill stations had been established all over India, originally with one purpose. What was that purpose? *
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Unlike many other areas of the world colonized by the British, India had many hundreds of Princely States, the most important numbering about 175. These larger states had independent princely rulers entitled Maharajah, Raja, Rawal, Rana, etc for Hindus, and Nabob for those Muslim princes, descended from the Mughal emperors. Many of these rulers were immensely wealthy and by British standards were marginally civilized, despite some barbaric traditions. How did the British deal with these princely states, with regard to overall rule by the Viceroy and British government? *
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The trident-shaped symbol of Buddhism does not represent *
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