When a site is developed for gas well development, the change is dramatic, essentially transforming the land to an industrial landscape. The result is destruction of acres of vegetation (8.8 acres per well pad in 2011 with 30 acres of forest impacts due to edge effects, more than double that is the trend today), soil compaction and destruction of the natural land contours, alterations to watershed drainage patterns, and hydrologically connected systems such as wetlands and vernal pools. Habitats and complex ecosystems are disrupted or lost. 85% of the Upper Delaware where the Marcellus Shale is located is forested. Forest destruction and fragmentation in turn destroys the ability of the forest ecosystem to capture, clean, and infiltrate precipitation, removes the trees that sequester carbon, reduces biodiversity, encourages invasive species, and destroys vital habitat.