APES AP Exam Review #5
High fertility rates are MOST commonly associated with countries that have
access to advanced medical care
high life expectancy
low gross domestic product
low infant mortality
delayed age of childbearing
Which of the following countries would be represented by a broad-based, pyramid-shaped age structure diagram?
Which of the following describes land suitable for growing crops?
The greatest amount of fresh water is found in which of the following?
rivers and streams
polar ice caps and glaciers
By the year 2050, world population is expected to approach 10 billion. If the current population trends continue, which region of the world will most likely experience the majority of the growth?
North and Central America
Central and South America
Eastern and Western Europe
Africa and Asia
Australia and New Zealand
Which of the following human activities is most closely associated with depletion of the stratospheric ozone layer?
Mining of coal
Disposal of refrigerators and air conditioners
Heating homes and factories
Generation of electricity
Which three sources supply the majority of commercial energy in the world today?
Coal, oil, and natural gas
Solar, wind, and biomass
Nuclear, hydropower, and photovoltaics
Wood, dung, and charcoal
Fuel cells, geothermal, and tidal power
Of the following strategies to decrease the landfill volume of packaging material from food and other consumer products, the most energy efficient is
recovering plastic packaging material from the waste stream and recycling it
recovering metal packaging material from the waste stream and recycling it
limiting the size of individual beverage containers made from metal, glass, or plastic
using more packaging materials that are manufactured from raw materials that are renewable
promoting the use of reusable containers for consumer goods
Of the following, which is true of noise pollution?
Noise pollution is an insignificant occupational hazard.
Noise at 100 decibels has twice the energy of noise at 50 decibels.
Hearing damage occurs most quickly when the intensity level of the sound is low.
In urban areas, few individuals are exposed to noise pollution.
Sudden or persistent noise may lead to permanent hearing loss.
If a country has a crude birth rate of 24 per 1,000 and a crude death rate of 8 per 1,000, the natural annual percent increase of its population is
Which of the following best illustrates an abiotic component of the environment affecting a biotic component of the environment?
Composted manure is added to agricultural soil during spring tilling.
Coral reefs modify the direction of an ocean current.
Plants release oxygen into the atmosphere during photosynthesis.
Low phosphorus content in soil limits the growth of vegetation.
A thick planting of ground cover reduces soil erosion.
Of the following cities, which regularly experiences the worst levels of photochemical smog that is enhanced by thermal inversions?
New York City, New York
Los Angeles, California
Which of the following best describes the first law of thermodynamics?
Energy always changes from a more useful, more concentrated form to a less useful, less concentrated form.
In a closed system of constant mass, the energy involved in any physical or chemical change is neither created nor destroyed, but merely changed from one form to another.
Heat always flows from a hot body to a cold body.
Entropy of a system increases as the state of disorganization in the system increases.
In a reversible process, the entropy of the system is constant, whereas in an irreversible process, the entropy of the system increases.
What are two main factors would best indicate the quality of life of a country's population?
The total fertility rate and the death rate
The crude birth rate and crude death rate
The birth rate and the infant mortality rate
The replacement level fertility rate and the total fertility rate
The life expectancy and the infant mortality rate
Rachel Carson's contributions to the environmental movement include which of the following?
Alerting the public to the hazardous waste problem at Love Canal
Increasing public awareness of the risks of using pesticides
Starting the first Earth Day in 1970
Discovering the thinning of the ozone layer in polar regions
Being the first female administrator of the EPA
In a typical forest ecosystem, dead trees and fallen trees are most important because of their role in which of the following?
Providing a valuable source of timber
Providing habitats for wildlife
Contributing to soil erosion
Increasing water runoff
Removing carbon dioxide from the air
When a rainforest is slashed and burned, the local concentration of carbon dioxide in the atmosphere increases. This is primarily due to
changes in the local climate
oxidation of carbon compounds
cellular respiration of rainforest plants
erosion of exposed soil
carbon dioxide being released by anaerobic organisms
Pollution is considered an external cost when
it has harmful effects borne only by the people who purchase the products that cause the pollution
the cost to the environment is not reflected in the price of the products that produce the pollution
it has a significant impact on the consumer's decision to buy a product that pollutes
it is a hidden cost that would result in a greater demand for the product if the consumer were aware of the hidden cost
it is produced in the external environment by a malfunction in the operation of the product
A large forested area is fragmented into small forest tracts separated by agricultural areas. This change will most likely lead to
an increase in the population of top carnivores
an improvement in the dispersal mechanisms of forest species
a more stable regional climate
a decrease in the amount of edge habitat
a decrease in the gene flow within species of the original forest
The three main anthropogenic sources of gaseous air pollutants in the United States are
soil erosion, volcanoes, and forest fires
soil erosion, volcanoes, and energy production
industry, construction, and agriculture
industry, transportation, and energy production
industry, transportation, and agriculture
Which of the following is a measure of the amount of suspended material in water?
Acid deposition would most likely result in which of the following?
the release of aluminum ions from soil
an increase in populations of mollusks
the death of species tolerant to low pH levels
an increase in buffering of lake water by sulfates
an increase in the pH of unbuffered water
Which of the following are the three major sources of nutrients and calories for the global human population?
potatoes, fish, and barley
wheat, beff, and potatoes
oats, soybeans, and poultry
corn (maize), wheat, and rice
rye, beef, and eggs
If Earth had no atmosphere, the mean surface temperature would be approximately negative 15 degrees Celsius. With our present atmosphere, Earth's mean surface temperature is approximate 15 degrees Celsius. Which of the following is the best explanation for this difference?
Reflection of incident solar radiation by clouds
Scattering of visible radiation by aerosols
Absorption of ultraviolet radiation by the ozone layer
Absorption of infrared radiation by atmospheric gases
The breakdown of oxygen molecules in the thermosphere
Which of the following can be used to assess the biological diversity of an area?
Population size of each species and area occupied by each population
Minimum population area and minimum viable population size
Ratio of r-strategists to K-strategists and life expectancy of K-strategists
Number of individuals under fifteen years old and number of individuals over sixty-five years old
Genetic variation within each species and number of species present
Which of the following is a way for the government to encourage efficient energy use?
Requiring higher fuel economy standards for new cars
Implementing government subsidies to keep gasoline prices low
Raising the speed limit from 55 to 70 miles per hour
Limiting the development of public transportation systems
Removing all taxes from gasoline at the fuel pump
Tropospheric ozone is most major United States cities results primarily from
burning fuel for cooking
producing electric power
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