APES AP Exam Review #7
Very Important Review for AP Exam
Two major factors involved in the conversion of primary air pollutants into secondary air pollutants are
sulfur dioxide and sulfuric acid
nitrogen oxides and sulfates
sulfates and water
water and volatile organic compounds
sunlight and water
Ocean acidification is caused by
dissolving of the shells of marine invertebrates
increased oxygen content around coral reefs
wastes from the high marine biodiversity found in coral reef ecosystems
increased carbonate ion concentration resulting from increased carbon dioxide concentration in oceans
increased bicarbonate ion concentration resulting from increased carbon dioxide concentration in oceans
Red tides are most often caused by
increased ocean oxygen content
increased ocean carbon dioxide content
ocean acidification leading to red algal blooms
coastal nutrient pollution from non-point sources
coastal destruction of wetlands leaving red clays exposed to erosion
Worldwide, humans primarily use freshwater primarily for
mining and industrial processes
residential heating, cooking, and plumbing
global nuclear power energy production
The Sun's radiation provides the energy for all of the following EXCEPT
Catalytic converters reduce which of the following pairs of pollutants in car exhaust?
carbon dioxide and ozone
carbon monoxide and hydrocarbons
carbon dioxide and particulates
lead and mercury
methane and particulates
Red pine trees are currently found growing in only the cool northernmost areas of the central and eastern United States. Climate change is expected to have an impact on the distribution of the species. Which of the following describes the most likely change to the distribution of red pine over the next 200 years?
Red pine will grow in only the wetter areas of the southeastern United States
Red pine will spread to large areas of the Southwest
The total number of red pine trees will decrease, but red pine trees will continue to grow in the same locations as they grow currently.
Red pine distribution will shift northward into Canada.
Red pine distribution will expand southward to Caribbean nations.
Construction of a solar power plant is proposed for a desert area near a school. A student has hypothesized that the shade cast by the solar panels will increase the mortality of creosote bush, a native desert plant in the area. Before construction begins, what experimental data should the student collect in order to eventually test the hypothesis?
The rate of increase in atmospheric carbon dioxide worldwide (in ppm) that occurs in the 12-month period prior to the start of construction.
Average noise levels (in decibels) at a construction site, compared to average noise levels in the desert 20 km away from the construction site.
The rate of wind-caused soil erosion (in kg/yr) near solar panels at a similar desert location where creosote bush grows.
The direct sunlight received where creosote bush in the desert area (in kWh/square meter) during a 12-month period.
The changes in monthly precipitation (in mm/yr) at a similar desert location where creosote bush grows.
For which of the following reasons do small isolated islands have a greater rate of species extinction than larger, less isolated islands?
small isolated islands are more likely to receive more migrating species
small isolated islands provide opportunities for a greater diversity of species
because of their size, small isolated islands accumulate more species by chance
small isolated islands have a lower availability of resources
because they have fewer available niches, small isolated islands are targeted and colonized by species
Some studies have indicated that global amphibian populations are declining and that exposure to herbicides in agricultural runoff is implicated in the decline. Which of the following is the most likely explanation of how herbicides affect amphibians?
The herbicides are fat soluble and accumulate in groundwater
The herbicides act as a plant nutrient, causing algal blooms
The herbicides act as endocrine disruptors
The herbicides are ingested amphibians that mistake them for food
The herbicides contain heavy metals
The presence of which of the following in soil is most likely to neutralize acid rain?
Brown pelicans are fish-eating birds. As a result of an El Nino event, the population of brown pelicans in southern California declines. Which of the following best explains the relationship between the El Nino event and the population decline?
Warmer ocean temperatures can cause fish to move to colder water farther from pelican nest sites
lower sea surface heights can result in pelican nest sites being isolated too far from their food supply in the ocean
the female reproductive tract of birds does not function at the lower water temperatures of El Nino
male pelicans get disoriented due to lack of moisture and fail to return to the nest with food
predatory seal populations increase dramatically due to decreased rainfall
Open oceans produce the largest share of Earth's biomass because the net primary productivity (NPP) of the oceans is
high and thus can support a high proportion of producers
high as a result of the high concentration of nutrients in the open ocean
low, but the large expanse of the oceans supports enormous numbers of producers such as phytoplankton
low, but the individual producers found there are huge in size
low, but still higher than that of other ecosystems of the world
Which of the following is caused by microscopic fibers from a mineral?
Which biome has soil composed of litter and humus, but the soil is acidic due to accumulation of needles?
Tropical rain forest
Which of the following choices gives the geologic eras in the correct sequence, from oldest to the most recent?
An increase in the amount of UV light striking the Earth as a result of ozone loss will cause which of the following?
global climate change
increased skin cancer rates in humans
lowering of ocean water levels
an increase in carbon dioxide in the atmosphere
a change in the North Atlantic Current
Acid deposition most severely affects amphibian species because amphibians
do not care for their young
are not mammals
need to live in both terrestrial and aquatic habitats
eat only small insects
CITES has tried to protect endangered species by which of the following steps?
Making more countries keep these species in zoos
Paying the debts of member countries in order to relieve the pressure to sell endangered species
Developing a list of endangered species and prohibiting the trade of those species
Providing member countries with a police force to uphold the CITES treaty
restoring endangered habitats
Country A had a birth rate of 12 per 1000 in the year 2000 and a death rate of 9 per 1000 in the same year. Which of the following is the correct rate of growth for the year 2000?
The current trend where some species bacteria have become resistant to antibiotics is best described as
Which of the following is NOT considered a criteria pollutant regulated by the U.S. EPA?
Which is responsible for reducing global CFC production by half?
Pollution Prevention Act
Clean Water Act
Which of the following strengthened regulations pertaining to noise pollution?
Clean Air Act
Which of the following is NOT removed by wastewater treatment?
organic -oxygen demanding waste
pathogens like E. coli
ammonia and ammonium in the wastewater
Which of the following is NOT a way noise pollution impacts human health?
Which of the following is NOT a cause of the hypoxic zone in the Gulf of Mexico?
fertilizer runoff from agricultrual fields along the Mississippi River watershed
pesticide runoff from the agricultural fields along the Mississippi River watershed
organic waste from the aquaculture farms along the Mississippi River
organic waste from the cow pastures along the Mississippi River watershed
fertilizer runoff from residential neighborhoods along the Mississippi River watershed
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