APES AP EXAM Review 1
A random change in an organism's DNA is called
When scientists refer to "survival of the fittest," fitness refers to a species'
ability to lay thousands of eggs
Caitlyn sampled two different fields for wildflowers. The sample from the first field consists of 300 daisies, 335 dandelions and 365 buttercups. The sample from the second field comprises 20 daisies, 49 dandelions and 931 buttercups. Which field had more species evenness?
Some lichens (an "organism" composed of a fungus and an alga) are particularly sensitive to industrial pollutants, especially factory smoke. Scientists have been able to use lichens as a measure of pollution since greater lichen deaths mean higher pollution amounts. Because we can use lichens in this way, we say they are
a keystone species
an indicator species
a specialist species
a foundation species
an invasive species
While some landowners may consider beavers a pest, they are important to their ecosystem: the dams they build create wetland that many other species use. Because of the role they play, we call them ________ species.
AN ENSO is
is a large-scale weather pattern in the southern hemisphere that produces warmer Pacific Ocean water and disrupts normal world weather patterns.
is a device that measures ocean currents in the southern hemisphere.
is an ocean current that runs from the east side of South America up the coast of New England, affecting weather patterns throughout the region.
is the name of a weather pattern that occurs over tropical rainforests.
is the weather phenomenon which explains why deserts are located at 30 degrees North and 30 degrees South latitudes.
The two most important factors that distinguish biomes are precipitation and
Areas of permanently frozen soils in arctic tundra are called
Although tropical rainforests are very diverse and high in species richness, it is almost impossible to carry out sustainable agriculture on tropical rainforest soils. This is because
rainfall amounts are too great for most crops.
light intensity is too great for most crops.
decomposing organisms are in so great a number that they interfere with crop growth.
soils contain too few nutrients for most crops.
not enough hours of darkness to allow plants to refuel for photosynthesis.
Some prey are able to avoid predation by mimicry. An example of mimicry is when a
non-poisonous butterfly looks like a poisonous butterfly.
poison arrow frog has bright colors.
startled caterpillar inflates structures that pop out to look like horns.
caterpillar looks like a twig.
Eastern box turtle has a shell the color of leaves on the ground.
One way that species reduce competition for the same resources is by
exceeding the carrying capacity to drive out competition.
reducing niche overlap through resource partitioning.
stimulating mutations that make them more fit.
increasing niche overlap to drive out competing species.
developing weapons to use against the competitors
Which of the following is FALSE?
Species moved to regions where they are not native will still have the same environmental resistance pressures as native species.
Individuals in populations with high intrinsic rate of growth typically reproduce early, have short generation times, can reproduce many times, and have many offspring at each reproduction.
There are always limits to population growth in nature.
The growth rate of a population decreases as it nears its carrying capacity.
Exponential growth is represented by a "J-shaped" curve when plotting population numbers over time.
A volcanic eruption destroyed most of the population of a species of monkey living in the area. The few that survived will now reproduce and rebuild the population, however the resulting population will have a reduced genetic diversity. This scenario describes
Examples of density-dependent population limiting factors include all of the following except
Population controls are factors that limit population size for a given environment. Which of the following would be considered a human population control?
HIV leading to AIDS
all of the choices
The ability of a living system to be restored through secondary succession after a moderate disturbance is called
A forest fire destroys the majority of trees and plant species but leaves behind the seeds and roots. What occurs after the forest fire if soil is left behind?
Which of the following BEST describes coevolution?
The accumulation of differences between groups which can lead to the formation of new species.
The change inherited characteristics of a population from generation to generation.
The evolution of species from different taxonomic groups toward similar form; the development of similar characteristics by taxonomically different organisms.
Describes cases where two (or more) different species reciprocally affect each other's evolution.
The process through which new species evolve from a single ancestral species while inhabiting the same geographic region.
Which of the following is an example of primary succession?
A forest fire destroys the majority of the trees in Unicoi State Park.
A heavy flood during an El Nino year ruined the farmland and the crops have been destroyed.
A population of plants has been attacked by an invasive species and the area has been destroyed.
A hurricane has destroyed a large portion of the land and trees at Fort McAllister State Park but there is still some plant life left.
A volcanic eruption has occurred and the lava has flowed into the oceans and created new land.
Pollination of wildflowers by honeybees, wherein the honeybees obtain nutrients and wildflowers receive aid for reproduction, is an example of what type of symbiotic relationship?
There are fewer top predators in a food chain than producers. The loss of usable chemical energy from one trophic level to the next demonstrates the ___________.
First Law of Thermodynamics
Pauli Exclusion Principle
Tragedy of the Commons
Second Law of Thermodynamics
Which of the following is the GREATEST sink of phosphorus?
Temperate forest soil
Freshwater lakes and rivers
Which of the following is the BEST example of a temperate biome that is too dry for forests and too moist for deserts to occur?
Cichlid fishes have diversified in East African Lakes, such as Lake Victoria, into more than 600 species. This diversification may have been possible because different fish lineages evolved to take advantage of different foods (including insects, algae, mollusks, small fish, large fish, other fishes' scales and even other fishes' eyes. This phenomenon is known as
In a stretch of temperate rainforest in Oregon, a weasel is observed eating a vole. In this area, voles are particularly fond of eating crickets. The crickets in turn consumer various ferns and grasses that grow here. In this food chain, which organism(s) would represent the tertiary consumer?
Ferns and grasses
There is not tertiary consumer in this food chain
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