A 70 year old male with a past medical history of heart failure presents with shortness of breath for the past two days. To better tailor his treatment, you perform a bedside echo to assess his ejection fraction. Which of the following is NOT a valid measure for estimating Left Ventricular Ejection Fraction?
A. Aortic Jet Velocity
B. E-Point Septal Separation
C. “Eyeball” Technique
D. Simpson’s Method of Discs
A 78 year old male with an unknown past medical history presents with shortness of breath for three days. You suspect heart failure, but his ejection fraction is normal. Which of the following scenarios suggests that he also has normal diastolic relaxation (i.e. no diastolic dysfunction)?
A. Mitral Inflow: E wave > A wave; Tissue Doppler: e’ wave < a’ wave
B. Mitral Inflow: E wave > A wave; Tissue Doppler: e’ wave > a’ wave
C. Mitral Inflow: E wave < A wave; Tissue Doppler: e’ wave < a’ wave
D. Mitral Inflow: E wave < A wave; Tissue Doppler: e’ wave > a’ wave
A 42 year old female with a history of breast cancer presents with fever, tachycardia, tachypnea, and hypoxia. As part of your bedside exam, you perform an echocardiogram assessing for right ventricular dysfunction. A normal right ventricle to left ventricle ratio is:
A 64 year old female presents to the Emergency Department with a red and painful eye. Which of the following can not be assessed using ocular ultrasound?
B. Globe Rupture
C. Retinal Detachment
D. Vitreous Detachment
A 67 yo male presents to the ED with acute vision loss of the left eye. You perform an ocular US which demonstrates a serpentine structure within the vitreous body but remains attached to the choroid. These findings are consistent with which of the following abnormalities?
B. Globe Rupture
C. Lens Dislocation
D. Retinal Detachment
Which statement is true when using ultrasounded assisted technique for lumbar puncture in the obese patient?
A. In multiple randomized controlled trials, ultrasound demonstrated a 100% success rate in obese patients.
B. The linear probe is ideal for obese patients because it uses lower frequencies and has improved penetration.
C. The use of ultrasound assisted technique allows obese patients to change positions after the site has been localized.
D. There is an inverse relationship between obesity and the ability to successfully ultrasound landmarks.
Which statement is true when performing a ultrasound guided thoracentesis?
A. Patient should be placed in the lateral decubitus position.
B. Lung is seen as a mobile, hyperechoic structure within the pleural fluid that does not vary with respiratory cycle.
C. The curvilinear probe should be used to locate and avoid accidental injury to important anatomy.
D. The pleural effusion will appear as hyperechoic fluid above the echogenic diaphragm.
A 53-year-old male presents to the ER with abdominal pain that has been worsening for 4 days. He recalls that the last time he felt like this, he was diagnosed with a small bowel obstruction and had to undergo surgery to lyse adhesions in his abdomen from prior surgeries. Which of the following is a LATE finding of Small bowel obstruction on Bedside ultrasound and therefore likely not helpful to search for on exam?
B. Decreased back and forth peristalsis
C. Dilated loops of bowel
D. Stool filled bowel
77-year-old female with a history of multiple abdominal surgeries including hysterectomy, open cholecystectomy presents to the ER with nausea, vomiting, and vague abdominal pain. Given her surgical history, you consider that she may have a small bowel obstruction. Which of the following findings is most consistent with a small bowel obstruction on bedside ultrasound?
A. Air in bowel wall
C. Fluid filled or dilated bowel
D. Non-compressible bowel
An 11 year old male presents to your emergency department with complaints of abdominal pain, fever, anorexia and vomiting for 2 days. On exam you note he appears to be in pain and has maximal abdominal tenderness in the right lower quadrant without rebound or guarding. You order an IV and pain medication while preparing your bedside ultrasound exam. When you begin the exam after adequate pain control, you first identify the following structures in order to begin your exam sweep:
A. Iliac vessels, psoas muscle and bladder
B. Inferior vena cava, right kidney, and liver
C. Psoas muscle, iliac crest, and cecum
D. Right kidney, renal vein, and diaphragm
A 23 month old male presents to your emergency department with complaints of episodic crying at home. Parents note that he appears uncomfortable and will draw his legs up to his abdomen. He has been crying today and has had no fever, diarrhea, or bloody stools. He has vomited once today, nonbilious. After obtaining an IV and labs, you begin your bedside ultrasound exam. You are looking for multiple hypoechoic layers of bowel that closely resemble the ultrasound appearance of a _________ in order to confirm your suspected diagnosis.
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