Performance of Hydrocarbon Production Systems – Basic Course
Outline: This short introductory course covers basic topics on hydrocarbon production engineering. It introduces some fundamental concepts such as fluid behavior, the hydraulic and thermal characteristics of single and multiphase flow in pipes, material balance, architecture of wells and production systems. It will address the steady state and transient behavior of individual oil and gas wells and the integrated production system. It discusses the reservoir inflow to the wellbore and its changes with depletion. It describes the effect of artificial lift and pressure boosting on the production performance.

Lecturer: Prof. Milan Stanko is an associate professor in production engineering at the Department of Petroleum Engineering and Applied Geophysics at NTNU, Norway. His professional interests are numerical modeling of hydrocarbon production systems, Integrated Asset Modeling, model-based optimization, Inline separation and computational fluid dynamics. Prof. Stanko has performed industrial consultancy activities for Statoil, Pacific Rubiales, Saudi Aramco and Corpoelec and has participated as instructor in training courses for B&P. He holds a PhD from NTNU (Norway) and a MSc. From USB (Venezuela).

Duration: 26th to 28th of September. 4 hours of lecture+exercises per day.
Day 1 (Monday) - 08h às 12h
Day 2 (Tuesday) - 08h às 12h
Day 3 (Wednesday) - 14h às 18h

Location: Anfiteatro A - Eng. de Produção, UFSC, Florianópolis, Brazil.
Number of places: 50

Course Topics:
1. The scope of the E&P industry
2. The role of production engineering in offshore field development and in offshore field operation
3. The layout of a simple production system-the main elements and valves
4. The role of the production manifold and the various control, diverting and block valves in the system (Short class exercise using pen and paper)
5. Subsea manifolds
6. Pigging and pig launchers/receivers
7. Equation of state for ideal and real gas, Z factor, the cubic EOS equation in engineering calculations, calculation of oil and gas expansion to standard conditions with and without condensate removal, Black Oil model. Introduction to UDF in Excel. (Class exercise using Excel and DWSIM)
8. Phase diagrams of reservoir gas, PV diagrams, PT diagrams, production process on phase diagrams,
9. Initial gas in place; Rock volume, porosity and pore volume, water saturation, hydrocarbon reservoir volume, uncertainties in reservoir volume predictions and reserve reporting
10. Reservoir off-take calculations-material balance. Simple gas material balance. (Class exercise using excel)
11. Flow in porous rock, Darcy law and permeability concept. Forscheimer observations and corrections
12. Wells; exterior architecture (Structural), interior (flow conduit), interface with the payzone (completion types, productivity impairments and productivity enhancement),
13. Well construction procedures (drilling, casing setting depth, cementing, wellheads, installation of completion strings)
14. Empirical equations of well deliverability, ideal liquid, back pressure equation gas, quadratic equation gas (IPR equations). (Excel exercise on tuning IPR equations).
15. Flow in conduits – Single phase liquid and gas. The tubing flow equation (Isothermal dry gas flow equation), the hydrostatic pressure of a gas column. How we calculated pressure profiles from pressure gradients in pipe flow analysis in cases of homogenous incompressible, homogeneous compressible and in complex/multiphase flows
16. Single well flow Down-hole equilibrium (Class exercise in Excel). Discussions; effect of wellhead pressure, effect of tubing size, effect of depletion, formation damage and stimulation.
17. Single well flow equilibrium - Choke or boosting design. (Class exercise in Excel)
18. Production scheduling. Constant rate and constant pressure decline (Short demonstration and hands-on experience using a web app)
19. Steady state flow equilibrium in a symmetrically converging network
20. Exercise-Reservoir pressure decline in the subsea Snow-White gas field
21. Flow equilibrium in gathering systems-network solving
22. Flow in conduits – Multiphase flow – Integration procedure
23. Artificial lift: Brief on Gas lift and Electric submersible pumps. (Short example on ESP design)

Bibliography:
Golan, M. and Whitson, C.H.: Well Performance, second edition, Prentice-Hall Inc., Englewood Cliffs, New Jersey (1986).
Jahn, Cook and Graham: Hydrocarbon Exploration and Production. Elsevier Science. (2008).
Whitson, C.H. and Brule, M.: Phase Behavior, SPE Monograph volume 20. Society of Petroleum Engineers Inc. Richardson, Texas, (2000).

Requirements: If possible students should bring a charged laptop to class (a laptop might be shared between 2-3 persons). Required software:
-MS Excel with the VBA module operative.
-DWSIM Process simulator. Download the latest standalone version (bin.zip) here:
https://sourceforge.net/projects/dwsim/files/DWSIM/DWSIM%204.0/

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