Collection of best practices of Biomedical Engineering in low- and middle-income settings: identifying key drivers of change for a prioritized action plan
Collecting and supporting the expansion of best practices in the Biomedical Engineering (BME) field can constitute a truly transformative strategy towards better healthcare, aiming at universal health coverage and more equitable and accessible healthcare technologies, especially in low- and middle-income (LMI) settings.

Best practices can be drivers of change and may involve scientific-technological issues, human interactions during technology development, educational aspects, social performance management for improved interactions along the medical technology life-cycle, methods for managing resources and approaches to the establishment of regulatory frameworks.

This questionnaire aims at analysing the current state-of-the-art of BME in LMI resource settings and identifying its key drivers of change, toward the definition of priorities in the action plan for their promotion. These key drivers of change are organized in groups including: 1) relevant and 2) emergent technologies, 3) new paradigms in medical technology development, 4) innovative BME education, 5) regulation and standardization for novel approaches, and 6) policy making.

In order to comparatively evaluate the potential impact, maturity and implementation challenges connected to the drivers of change, each driver is assessed in terms of:
- relevance (how important is the driver of change in terms of potential for transforming healthcare),
- maturity (how mature is the driver of change or how well implemented it is nowadays),
- difficulty (how challenging is the implementation and sustainable promotion of the driver of change).

A 7-point scale, for assessing relevance, maturity and implementation difficulty, is proposed. A value of 1 corresponds to an extremely irrelevant, immature or easy to implement driver of change; while a value of 7 corresponds to an extremely relevant, mature or difficult to implement driver of change.

It will take 10 minutes to complete the 6 sections: thanks in advance for your valuable contribution.
Results will be shared through open access publications and with relevant stakeholders such as the World Health Organization and the International Federation of Medical and Biological Engineering (IFMBE).

The questionnaire was prepared by Prof. Andrés Díaz Lantada (Universidad Politecnica de Madrid, Spain), Dr. Carmelo De Maria and Prof. Arti Ahluwalia (University of Pisa, Italy), with the support of IFMBE.
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