RDF/OWL Ontologies
This is a small diagnostics test to help figure out the level of background knowledge of students wanting to attempt a master thesis in the Semantic Web area. Please fill it out as best you can (based on reading about Semantic Web technologies and languages), and leave anything you do not understand blank. Feel free to find any information you need online, e.g. research papers or books. To study the ontology you can use any tool you like, e.g. Protégé, TopBraid Composer SE etc. However, please note that rules of plagiarism apply: do NOT copy any text or answers from anybody else, these have to be your own answers!

For the first part of the questions, i.e. looking at and answering questions about an ontology, download the following ontology file and use it to answer the questions: http://www.ida.liu.se/~evabl45/people.owl

Name and e-mail
Please enter your name and e-mail address here, so that your answers can be connected to you.
Your answer
What is the namespace URI of the ontology?
Your answer
What is the formal definition of the dog_liker class in the ontology?
Your answer
Language elements
What are the types of the following elements of the ontology?
How many direct subclasses of adult exists in the ontology, a) before and b) after running the Pellet reasoner?
Your answer
Write a SPARQL query that retrieves all instances of the ontology that are ducks.
Your answer
Reasoning 1
Why is an old_lady a cat_liker? Explain it by means of the formalized axioms in the ontology that enable this inference.
Your answer
Reasoning 2
Why is Fido a pet? Explain it by means of the formalized axioms in the ontology that enable this inference.
Your answer
Explain the difference between the three languages RDF, RDFS and OWL. What are they for? What can be expressed? How do they relate to each other?
Your answer
Ontology Construction
Build an OWL ontology that represents the following natural language sentences:
1) A doll is a kind of toy
2) Young women are defined as young persons that are also female
3) A young person cannot be both a young man and a young woman
4) Young persons are either young men or young women
5) All young women play with some doll
6) Young women play only with famous dolls
7) Young men play with at least one toy
8) Clara is a young woman
9) Clara and Laura are different individuals
10) Lalu is the same person as Laura
11) To dress a toy is a special case of playing, where the toy is a doll
12) To be dressed by a young person is the inverse relation of a young person dressing a doll
13) To be ancestor of a person is a transitive relation that holds between persons

Submit your ontology file (.owl file saved in RDF/XML syntax) by e-mail to eva.blomqvist@liu.se once you have also completed the above form.

Programming using the OWL API
Use the ontology you downloaded for the first part of this test, i.e. to answer the basic questions above, and create a small Java program that loads the ontology, modifies it, prints out parts of it on the screen, and saves it back to disk again. You should use the OWL API (https://github.com/owlcs/owlapi/wiki/Documentation) to load, access, modify, and save the ontology. It is not so important how you set up your little Java program, it is fine if it consists of only one Java class with a main method, and if you "hardcode" filenames and paths for the file to load for instance. The point of this part of the test is to make sure you can quickly and easily get a hang of a few basic functions provided by the OWL API, not to test your object oriented programming skills.

Once you have loaded the ontology into you small program, you should add the following RDF-triple to the ontology:

Minnie has_pet Rex

Next you should recursively print out all the asserted subclasses of the class "publication" on the screen/in the terminal window. Your implementation is probably correct when it prints out the following list: magazine, newspaper, broadsheet, tabloid, quality_broadsheet, red_top (in any order).

Finally, you should save the OWL file with the added triple from your code.

Once you are done, send both the Java source file of your class and the resulting OWL-file that was saved when running the code, by e-mail to eva.blomqvist@liu.se

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