Key Concepts in Postcolonial Studies
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1. _________ peoples are those 'born in a place or region (OED). This term for these people was coined as early as 1667 to describe the inhabitants of places encountered by European explorers, adventurers or sea-men.
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2. It refers to the rejection by post-colonial writers of a normative concept of 'correct' or 'standard English used by certain classes or groups, and of the corresponding concepts of inferior 'dialects' or 'marginal variants'. It is usually employed in conjunction with the term 'appropriation'.
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3. It has long been a prominent feature of literary and mythic writing throughout the world, but it becomes particularly significant for post-colonial writers for the way in which it disrupts notions of orthodox history, classical realism and imperial representation in general. It has assumed an important function in imperial discourse, in which paintings and statues have often been created as allegories of imperial powers.
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4. It is an Afrikaans term meaning 'separation' used in South Africa for the policy initiated by the Nationalist Government after 1948 and usually rendered into English in the innocuous sounding phrase, 'policy for separate development'.
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5. A term used to describe the ways in which post-colonial societies take over those aspects of the imperial culture - language, forms of writing, film, theatre, even modes of thought and argument such as rationalism, logic and analysis - that may be of use to them in articulating their own social and cultural identities.
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6. This has been one of the most contentious ideas in post-colonial discourse, and yet it is at the heart of any attempt at defining what occurred in the representation and relationship of peoples as a result of the colonial period. Colonialism could only exist at all by postulating that there existed a binary opposition into which the world was divided. This is one of the central binaries of all.
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7. A term coined by RIchard Terdiman to characterize the theory and practice of symbolic resistance. He identifies the 'confrontation between constituted reality and its subversion' as 'the very 'locus' at which cultural and historical change occured'. This concept also raises the issue of the subversion of canonical texts and their inevitable reinscription in this process of subversion.
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8. It is the process of revealing and dismantling colonialist power in all its forms. This includes dismantling the hidden aspects of those institutional and cultural forces that had maintained the colonialist power and that remain even after political independence is achieved.
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9. The conscious or unconscious process by which Europe and European cultural assumptions are constructed as, or assumed to be the normal, the natural or the universal.
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10. It is the process whereby individual lives and local communities are affected by economic and cultural forces that operate world-wide. In effect it is the process of the world becoming a single place.
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11. In its most general sense, ________ refers to the formation of an empire, and, as such, has been an aspect of all periods of history in which one nation has extended its domination over one or several neighbouring nations, Edward Said uses this term in this general sense to mean 'the practice, theory, and the attitudes of a dominating metropolitan centre ruling a distant territory', a process distinct from 'colonialism', which is 'the implanting of settlements on a distant territory'.
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12. This term is used when colonial discourse encourages the colonized subjects to imitate / copy the colonizer, by adopting the colonizer's cultural habits, assumptions, institutions and values, the result is never a simple reproduction of those traits. Rather, the result is a 'blurred copy' of the colonizer that can be quite threatening.
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13. A way of reading and re-reading texts of both metropolitan and colonial cultures to draw deliberate attention to the profound and inescapable effects of colonization on literary production; anthropological accounts; historical records; administrative and scientific writing. It is a form of deconstructive reading most usually applied to works emanating from the colonizers which demonstrates the extent to which the text contradicts its underlying assumptions (civilization, justice, aesthetics, sensibilities, race) and reveals its colonialist ideologies and processes.
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14. In which work did the writer observes citing Joseph Conrad's Heart of Darkness, that Africa is used by the West to define and establish its own superiority as a 'civilized culture against the 'darkness' of a 'primitive' Africa?
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15. _____ meaning 'of inferior rank', is a term adopted by Antonio Gramsci to refer to those groups in society who are subject to the 'hegemony' of the ruling classes.
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16. The term ________ was first used in 1952 during the so-called Cold War period , by the politician and economist Alfred Sauvy, to designate those countries aligned with neither the United States nor the Soviet Union.
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17. The assumption that there are irreducible features of human life and experience that exist beyond the constitutive effects of local cultural conditions. It offers a hegemonic view of existence by which the experiences, values and expectations of a dominant culture are held to be true for all humanity.
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18. In contrast to imperialism, __________ establishes no territorial center of power and does not rely on fixed boundaries or barriers. It is decentered and deterritorializing apparatus of rule that progressively incorporates the entire global realm within its open, expanding frontiers.
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19. Who said it: "In contrast to imperialism, __________ establishes no territorial center of power and does not rely on fixed boundaries or barriers. It is decentered and deterritorializing apparatus of rule that progressively incorporates the entire global realm within its open, expanding frontiers."
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20. Who said it: "Market Fundamentalism destroys more human lives than any other simply because it cuts across all national, cultural geographic, religious and other boundaries. It is much at home in Moscow as in Mumbai or Minnesota. it sits as easily in Hindus, islamic or Christian societies. And it contributes angry, despairing recruits to the armies of all religious fundamentalisms. based on the premise that the 'market' is the solution of all the problems of the human race, it is too, a very religious fundamentalism. It has its own Gospel: The Gospel of St. Growth, of St. Choice . . ."
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21. Who said it: "Fate, or Divine Providence, has placed America at this time in the position of sole superpower, with the consequent duty to uphold global order and to punish, or prevent, the great crimes of the world . . . It must continue to engage the task imposed upon it, not in any spirit of hubris but in the full and certain knowledge that it is serving the best and widest interests of humanity."
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22. This (Q. 21) was precisely the rhetoric used by the George Bush, President USA administration in its invasion of _________ and _______ .
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23. Who said it: "If universities are to remain sites of dissent and free intellectual inquiry, if scholarship is 'not' to be at the service of America or any other power, critiques of past and ongoing empires are going to be more necessary than ever."
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