TOEFL Reading Test 2
Nama / NPM
1. The main point of the passage is that the eighteenth and nineteenth centuries were a time when
(A) the European textile industry increased its demand for American export products
(B) mechanization of spinning and weaving dramatically changed the textile industry
(C) cotton became a profitable crop but was still time-consuming to process
(D) cotton became the most important American export product
2. The word "favored" in line 2 is closest in meaning to
3. All of the following are mentioned in the passage as reasons for the increased demand for cotton EXCEPT
(A) cotton's softness
(B) cotton's ease of processing
(C) a shortage of flax and wool
(D) the growth that occurred in the textile industry.
4. The word "laborious" in line 8 is closest in meaning to
5. According to the passage, one advantage of sea island cotton was its
(A) abundance of seeds
(B) long fibers
(C) long growing season
(D) adaptability to different climates
6. Which of the following can be inferred from the passage about cotton production in the United States after the introduction of Whitney's cotton gin?
(A) More cotton came from sea island cotton plants than before.
(B) More cotton came from short-staple cotton plants than before.
(C) Most cotton produced was sold domestically.
(D) Most cotton produced was exported to England.
7. The word "surge" in line 18 is closest in meaning to
(A) sharp increase
(B) sudden stop
(C) important change
(D) excess amount
8. The author mentions "wheat and wheat flour" in line 22 in order to
(A) show that Americans exported more agricultural products than they imported.
(B) show the increase in the amount of wheat products exported
(C) demonstrate the importance of cotton among American export products.
(D) demonstrate that wheat farming was becoming more profitable.
9. The word "unprecedented" in line 25 is closest in meaning to
(C) not seen before
(D) never explained
10. According to the passage, the Mississippi River was
(A) one of the boundaries of a region where new agricultural settlement took place
(B) a major source of water for agricultural crops
(C) the primary route by which agricultural crops were transported
(D) a main source of power for most agricultural machinery
11. The word "obscure" in line 1 is closest in meaning to
12. According to the passage, which of the following activities is characteristic of the early part of the reproductive cycle of birds?
(A) Selecting a mate
(B) Collecting nest-building materials
(C) Playing with nest-building materials
(D) Building a nest
13. The word "display" in line 17 is closest in meaning to
14. The novelist John Steinbeck is mentioned in line 14 because he
(A) conducted a scientific study on the behavior of ospreys
(B) was the first to describe where ospreys built their nests
C) described the materials ospreys can use to build their nests
(D) compared the size of osprey nests with the nests of other species
15. Which of the following birds are mentioned as those that build nests that include unusual objects?
16. According to the passage, when gathering materials to build their nests, sparrowhawks do which of the following?
(A) Hang upside down
(B) Select only green twigs
(C) Use objects blowing in the wind
(D) Collect more branches than necessary
17. The word "these" in line 20 refers to
(A) golden eagles
18. The word "load" in line 23 is closest in meaning to
19. The author mentions twenty percent in line 23 to indicate that
(A) eagles are twenty percent bigger than most birds
(B) twenty percent of all nests include foundation branches
(C) the nests of eagles are twenty percent of larger than those of other birds
(D) birds can carry twenty percent of their own weight
20. What does the passage mainly discuss?
(A) The history of surveys in North America
(B) The principles of conducting surveys
(C) Problems associated with interpreting surveys
(D) The importance of polls in American political life
21. The word "they" in line 8 refers to
(A) North Americans
(B) news shows
22. According to the passage, the main disadvantage of person-on-the-street interviews is that they
(A) are not based on a representative sampling
(B) are used only on television
(C) are not carefully worded
(D) reflect political opinions
23. The word "precise" in line 13 is closest in meaning to
24. According to paragraph 3, which of the following is most important for an effective survey?
(A) A high number of respondents
(B) Carefully worded questions
(C) An interviewer's ability to measure respondents' feelings
(D) A sociologist who is able to interpret the results
25. The word "exercise" in line 15 is closest in meaning to
26. The word "elicit" in line 18 is closest in meaning to
(B) rule out
(D) bring out
27. It can be inferred from the passage that one reason that sociologists may become frustrated with questionnaires is that
(A) respondents often do not complete and return questionnaires
(B) questionnaires are often difficult to read
(C) questionnaires are expensive and difficult to distribute
(D) respondents are too eager to supplement questions with their own opinions
28. According to the passage, one advantage of live interviews over questionnaires is that live interviews
(A) cost less
(B) can produce more information
(C) are easier to interpret
(D) minimize the influence of the researcher
29. The word "probe" in line 25 is closest in meaning to
30. Which of the following terms is defined in the passage?
(A) Survey (line 1)
(B) Public opinion (line 8)
(C) Representative sampling (line 13)
(D) Response rate (line 22)
31. What does the passage mainly discuss?
(A) How sediments were built up in oceans during the Cretaceous period
(B) How petroleum was formed in the Mesozoic era
(C) The impact of changes in oceanic animal and plant life in the Mesozoic era
(D) The differences between plankton found in the present era and Cretaceous plankton
32. The passage indicates that the Cretaceous period occurred
(A) in the early part of the Mesozoic era
(B) in the middle part of the Mesozoic era
(C) in the later part of the Mesozoic era
(D) after the Mesozoic era
33. The passage mentions all of the following aspects of plankton EXCEPT
(A) the length of their lives
(B) the level of the ocean at which they are found
(C) their movement
(D) their size
34. The word "accumulated" in line 8 is closest in meaning to
35. According to the passage, the most dramatic change to the oceans caused by plankton during the Cretaceous period concerned
(A) the depth of the water
(B) the makeup of the sediment on the ocean floor
(C) the decrease in petroleum-producing sediment
(D) a decline in the quantity of calcareous ooze on the seafloor
36. The "white chalk cliffs of Dover" are mentioned in line 14 of the passage to
(A) show where the plankton sediment first began to build up
(B) provide an example of a plankton buildup that scientists cannot explain
(C) provide an example of the buildup of plankton sediment
(D) indicate the largest single plankton buildup on Earth
37. The word "prolific" in line 16 is closest in meaning to
38. The word "ideal" in line 19 is closest in meaning to
39. The word "it" in line 21 refers to
(A) biological productivity
(C) organic material
40. The word "standard" in line 12 is closest in meaning to
41. "The King’s 24 Violins" is mentioned in line 15 to illustrate
(A) how the violin became a renowned instrument
(B) the competition in the 1600's between French and Italian orchestras
(C) the superiority of French violins
(D) why the violin was considered the only instrument suitable to be played by royalty
42. What is the main idea presented in paragraph 3?
(A) The violin has been modified to fit its evolving musical functions.
(B) The violin is probably the best known and most widely distributed musical instrument in the world.
(C) The violin had reached the height of its popularity by the middle of the eighteenth century.
(D) The technique of playing the violin has remained essentially the same since the 1600's.
43. The author mentions Vivaldi and Tartini in line 20 as examples of composers whose music
(A) inspired more people to play the violin
(B) had to be adapted to the violin
(C) demanded more sophisticated violins
(D) could be played only by their students
44. The word "they" in line 23 refers to
(A) Civaldi and Tartini
(B) thinner strings and a higher string tension
(C) small changes
(D) internal structure and fingerboard
45. The word "strain" in line 23 is closest in meaning to
46. The word "Accordingly" in line 24 is closest in meaning to
47. According to the passage, early violins were different from modern violins in that early violins
(A) were heavier
(B) broke down more easily
(C) produced softer tones
(D) were easier to play
48. According to the passage, which of the following contributes to a dull sound being produced by a violin?
(A) A long fingerboard
(B) A small body
(C) High string tension
(D) Thick strings
49. Which of the following terms is defined in the passage?
(A) resonator (line 2)
(B) solo (line 7)
(C) left-hand technique (line 25)
(D) fingering patterns (lines 25-26)
50. All of the following are mentioned in the passage as contributing to the ability to play modern violin music EXCEPT
(A) more complicated techniques for the left hand
(B) different ways to use the fingers to play very high notes
(C) use of rare wood for the fingerboard and neck
(D) minor alterations to the structure of the instrument
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