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6. Theories of Language and Learning
1- According to the Cognitivism theory, ………………………..
a. Learners construct their knowledge through a process of active enquiry.
b. Learning is the establishment of habits as a result of reinforcement and reward.
c. Learners should be encouraged to work out rules deductively for themselves.
d. Learning, due to its socially-conditioned nature, can be the same for each individual.
2- One of the following principles illustrates the operating principles of behaviourism.
a) Dwelling on spoken language and having a priority in language teaching.
b) Involving reasoning and mental processes rather than habit formation.
c) Adding cognitive apprenticeship to the learning process.
d) Emphasizing on learning through social interaction.
3- The role of a student within a constructivist learning environment is …………
a) Supporting collaboration in constructing knowledge, not competition.
b) Creating safe situations for questioning and reflecting on their own processes.
c) Providing the necessary resources.
d) Using and testing ideas, skills, and information through relevant activities.
4- According to the Behaviourist theory, ……………..…………………... Page 94
a) the listening skill must have a priority in language teaching.
b) the speaking skill must have a priority in language teaching.
c) the writing skill must have a priority in language teaching.
d) the reading skill must have a priority in language teaching.
5- Behaviourist theory sees language learning as:
a- a mechanical process leading the learners to habit formation
b- a cognitive activity, involving reasoning and mental processes
c- an active and constructive process
d- an inquiry and discovery learning
6- In the Constructivist theory the teacher plays the role of…..
a- sage on the stage
b- guide on the side
c- knowledge provider
d- habit former
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