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Everything There Is To Know About MKWii TAS
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Everything there is to know about Mario Kart Wii Techniques, Glitches, and Exploits in TAS

Written by Kierio04, with help from CampbellMop, dm248, cf, Jellopuff, LuigiM, Malleo, DwainiumB, RS, Blaze, mkwLuke, TASPlasma, Citrinitas, Apex, and Reo

Basics on how to play the game, controls, characters, vehicles, etc. visit this site: https://strategywiki.org/wiki/Mario_Kart_Wii

TABLE OF CONTENTS

TABLE OF CONTENTS

TO UNDERSTAND THIS DOCUMENT

Track, Vehicle, And Character Abbreviations/Shorthand Names

ACCELERATION AND BOOSTS

Slow Fall & Start Slides

Acceleration Bounces, Double Wheelies, Start Slips

Complete Guide To Acceleration (Abridged Version)

Acceleration Stacking, Deceleration Stacking

Boosts (Miniturbo, Start, Mushroom, Panel, Trick, Zipper)

Boost Priorities

Trick Boost Spacing

Trick Ramp Speed Locks

Start Boost Charge

Start Boosts & Speeds

WHEELIES

Wheelie Turns, Wheelie Turns In Boost

Wheelie Chains, Twist Wheelies, Wheelie Drops, Wheelie Drop Delay

Slip Chains, Rewheelies, 98 Landing

DRIFTING AND MINITURBOS

Miniturbo Charge Rate, Direction Input Ranges, Luke’s Rule

Grounded Hops, Quick Hops, Chain Drifts, Chain Drifts With Wheelie

Slip Drifts, Reo Drifts

Tf Physics, Spin Drifts

Terrain Drifts, Edge-riding Drifts

Angle Hop, Drift Committing, Slip Drift Committing

08 Drifts, Delay Drifts

RFH AND MOMENTUM

Hop Angle Lock, Rapid-Fire Hop Abuse

Supergrinds, Supergrind Ejections

Softgrinds, RFH Rotation Limit

RFH Low Trick, RFH High Trick

Momentum Hops, Wall Momentum Hops

Conveyor Wheelie Turns, Conveyor Momentum Hops

WALLS

Wall Bounce Rules, Wall Clips

Standstill Miniturbos, Ssmt With Wall Bounce

Low Clip, Clip Drift, Wall Trick

Hop Clip, Drift Clip, High Clip

Floor Clip, Delay Clip

Mid-air Movement, Redacted Glide

TRICKS AND MUSHROOMS

Delay Tricks, Hop Trick

Drift Trick, Side Trick Abuse

Mushroom Speed Locks, Wall Rides

Mushroom Abuse, Boostless Mushroom Abuse

Jammed Tricks (Handling, Hop, Drift, Wheelie)

Zipper Tricks And Rotation Axes

CHECKPOINTS AND RESPAWNS

The Checkpoint System

Regular Checkpoints, Respawn Points, Respawn Boosts

OOB AND WHEELIES

Out-of-bounds, Oob Seams, Offroad Bounces, Slow Wheelie Glitch

Nosedives, Taildives, Nosedive Bounces, Quarterpipe Reverse Drifts

Broken Wheelies, Broken Wheelie Hops (Reverse Hops), Broken Wheelie Rotation

Barrel Rolls, Barrel Roll Clips, Barrel Roll Oob Driving, Bean Corners

MISCELLANEOUS STRATS, GLITCHES, AND EXPLANATIONS

Wall Boosts

Horizontal Wall Glitch

Bat Clip

Bonkless Wall Tricks

Water Speed And Physics

Wall Wraps, Zipper Double Tricks

Sticks, Bounces, Quantised Movement

Wave Upwarp

Backwards Wheelies/Drifts, Reverse Momentum

Zipper Bypasses (RFH, Seam, Edge Trick)

BC3 Ramp Physics, Speed Caps, Ramp Abuse

Rotating Wheelies On Jagged Ground

Lap Time Discrepancies

Character-vehicle Combos And Stats

MC Vs KC Low Ramps

Misconceptions/Common Mistakes

CATEGORY SPECIFIC MECHANICS

Auto Mechanics

Outside Drift Mechanics

Kart Mechanics - Dylan Pls Help

300cc Mechanics

GRAND PRIX MECHANICS

Speed Limits

Item Speeds

Tc Glitch

Rng, Function, Manipulation

ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS:

Responsible for writing and/or collecting information in here:

Responsible for teaching me the things I wrote on my own:

Responsible for supporting me through the creation of this document

Websites and videos used to learn and confirm things written:

TO UNDERSTAND THIS DOCUMENT

TRACK, VEHICLE, AND CHARACTER ABBREVIATIONS/SHORTHAND NAMES

Koopa Troopa - Koopa

Donkey Kong - DK

King Boo - KB

Rosalina - Rosa

Funky Kong - Funky, FK

Dry Bowser - DB

Bullet Bike - Bullet, BB

Mach Bike - Mach, MB

Flame Runner/Bowser Bike - Flame, FR, BB

(beginner_course) Luigi Circuit - LC

(farm_course) Moo Moo Meadows - MMM

(kinoko_course) Mushroom Gorge - MG
(factory_course) Toad’s Factory - TF

(castle_course) Mario Circuit - MC

(shopping_course) Coconut Mall - CM

(boardcross_course) DK Summit / DK’s Snowboard Cross - DKS, DKSC

(truck_course) Wario’s Gold Mine - Goldmine, WGM

(senior_course) Daisy Circuit - DC

(water_course) Koopa Cape - KC

(treehouse_course) Maple Treeway - MT

(volcano_course) Grumble Volcano - GV

(desert_course) Dry Dry Ruins - DDR

(ridgehighway_course) Moonview Highway - MH

(koopa_course) Bowser’s Castle - BC, BCWii

(rainbow_course) Rainbow Road - RR

(old_peach_gc) GCN Peach Beach - Peach Beach, rPB, PB

(old_falls_ds) DS Yoshi Falls - Yoshi Falls, rYF, YF

(old_obake_sfc) SNES Ghost Valley 2 - Ghost Valley 2, rGV2, GV2

(old_mario_64) N64 Mario Raceway - Mario Raceway, rMR, MR

(old_sherbet_64) N64 Sherbet Land - Sherbet Land, rSL, SL

(old_heyho_gba) GBA Shy Guy Beach - Shy Guy Beach, rSGB, SGB

(old_town_ds) DS Delfino Square - Delfino Square, rDS, DS, DS DS

(old_waluigi_gc) GCN Waluigi Stadium - Waluigi Stadium, rWS, WS

(old_desert_ds) DS Desert Hills - Desert Hills, rDH, DH

(old_koopa_gba) GBA Bowser Castle 3 - Bowser Castle 3, rBC3, BC3

(old_donkey_64) N64 DK’s Jungle Parkway - DK’s Jungle Parkway, Jungle Parkway, Parkway, rDKJP, DKJP

(old_mario_gc) GCN Mario Circuit - rMC, GCN MC

(old_mario_sfc) SNES Mario Circuit 3 - Mario Circuit 3, rMC3, MC3

(old_garden_ds) DS Peach Gardens - Peach Gardens, rPG, PG

(old_donkey_gc) GCN DK Mountain - DK Mountain, rDKM, DKM

(old_koopa_64) N64 Bowser’s Castle - rBC, BC64

Add file names forum page: TBD

ACCELERATION AND BOOSTS

SLOW FALL & START SLIDES

As the race is starting, your vehicle is put into a slow fall, which puts you in a kind of airborne state. This allows for some of the following things:

  1. sliding the vehicle sideways (Spear, Sneakster, Wario Bike, Phantom) by wheelieing and holding a direction as the wheelie drops down
  2. rotating the vehicle left or right (all bikes) by wheelieing and holding a direction during the entire wheelie
  3. nudging the vehicle left or right (all bikes) by tapping left or right repeatedly without wheelieing

Doing these in combination can actually allow you to move yourself forward and save time before the race even starts. Currently only start slides for the flame runner and spear have been extensively tested to get the player as far forward as possible, however the general idea for the old start slides was quite a simple idea, example below.

  1. Rotate your bike anti-clockwise
  2. Slide your vehicle to the right
  3. Rotate your vehicle clockwise to realign with the track

What they do here is by rotating anti-clockwise, their sideways slide will actually move the vehicle slightly forward relative to the track, and the final clockwise rotations are just to not lose time when you start by facing you in the right way. A sequence of movements before the race begins is known as a start slide.

ACCELERATION BOUNCES, DOUBLE WHEELIES, START SLIPS

When your vehicle actually starts moving, depending on how far through the stationary wheelie your vehicle is, you may or may not bounce upon trying to start moving. If your vehicle is at the peak of the wheelie, when your boost pushes you forward, it will try to pull the wheelie down faster than it is programmed to and will give you a small pocket of airtime. If you time it so that you are only a few frames before the end of the wheelie when your boost starts, you will still gain speed at the regular rate however you will get varying amounts of bounces as you accelerate, which in certain cases can actually help you.

Any time you are in the air, you can tell the game that you want to start a drift upon landing by holding the drift button as you land. Usually, you’re meant to get this air by hopping, but when you do it without hopping it is known as a slip drift. At the beginning of a race, if you get bounces at the right time, you can potentially get a slip drift into the first turn. This is known as a start slip.

The other way you can intentionally get bounces is if you are in a standstill state and do a double wheelie. Similar to the start slip, it is down to how you interrupt the wheelie animation with the boost. By adding the extra wheelie you give yourself the instant bounce before you even use your boost.

COMPLETE GUIDE TO ACCELERATION (ABRIDGED VERSION)

Scenario

Acceleration

Mushroom Boosts

7kmh/frame

Trick Boosts

6kmh/frame

Zipper Surface Acceleration

5kmh/frame

Miniturbo Boosts & Item Boosts

3kmh/frame

Reverse Deceleration

1kmh/frame

Drafts

0.7kmh/frame

Braking

-1.5kmh/frame

Reversing

-2kmh/frame

Offroad & All Other Situations

-3kmh/frame

There are many ways in which you can accelerate. Boost acceleration is always a constant value, differing between each type, however the others are not.

Drift acceleration is obviously only possible when you are drifting, so you can only apply it at higher than 55% base speed. Drift acceleration is a constantly decreasing value (aside from the short second stage at the very end), which is proportional to the “drift” stat bar as seen in the game. It is only faster to use drift acceleration when the acceleration value exceeds that of the other two remaining options.

Handling acceleration (or Normal Acceleration) is the main type of acceleration out of a boost, which is determined by the multiple acceleration stats stored in game (not well represented by any particular stat bar). Instead of being two linear stages (like drift acceleration), it has four linear stages which are determined by their location (T values - which are percentages of base speed) and their rate (A values - simply just numbers).

Wheelie and offroad acceleration are exactly the same as handling acceleration, just using a different base speed to calculate the percentages for the T values. This makes wheelie and offroad acceleration sometimes a faster acceleration option than regular handling acceleration. When the acceleration rate is decreasing, the faster speed option is the faster acceleration option (and vise versa), and when the acceleration rate is increasing, the slower speed option is the faster acceleration option (and vise versa).


ACCELERATION STACKING, DECELERATION STACKING

In Mario Kart Wii, acceleration and deceleration don’t stack. Meaning, if you’re decelerating from a boost and decelerating from hitting offroad, they won’t combine and make you decelerate twice as fast. First the deceleration from the boost will take you from boost speed to non-boost speed, then the offroad will take you from regular speed to offroad speed. Similarly, if you are accelerating with a trick boost and using a mushroom at the same time, you won’t accelerate twice as fast.

BOOSTS (MINITURBO, START, MUSHROOM, PANEL, TRICK, ZIPPER)

Whenever you gain speed over regular driving, it’s usually in a boost. Each boost is slightly different to the others in their own ways, here is a summary of how each boost works:

Absolute speed limit is 120

Miniturbo Boosts

Trick Boosts

Mushroom Boosts

(minimum is 115)

Boost

Type

Standstill Miniturbo boost

Miniturbo boost

Start boost

Respawn boost

Stunt trick boost

1 Flip trick boost

2 Flip trick boost

Zipper boost

Zipper trick boost

Mushroom boost

Boost panel boost

Regular Speed

1.2x

1.2x

1.2x

1.2x

1.3x

1.3x

1.3x

1.3x

1.3x

1.4x

1.4x

Wheelie Speed (+0.15)

1.35x

1.35x

1.35x

1.35x

1.45x

1.45x

1.45x

1.45x

1.45x

1.55x

1.55x

Length in frames for bikes (karts)

30 (30)

Depends on character and vehicle

Depends on start boost charge

30 (30)

45 (40)

80 (70)

95 (85)

50 (50)

100 (100)

90 (90)

60 (60)

Offroad immunity

No

No

No

No

No

No

No

Yes

Yes

Yes

Yes

BOOST PRIORITIES

In some cases you will want to intentionally not trick as it will give you a lower speed than tricking. Normally, the faster of multiple boosts is prioritised, however trick boosts are always prioritised over anything else. This results in you losing speed if you are using a mushroom and drifting, then trick, which lowers your speed as the boost priority changes.

TRICK BOOST SPACING

When performing many tricks in succession, you want to maximise the amount of boost you get for that lengthened period of time. The way you do this is by trying to space out the boosts such that the previous one ends when the next one begins. This is not always possible to perform but it is a huge importance (especially on tracks like BC, DKSC, and rMC).

TRICK RAMP SPEED LOCKS (*if >100, refer to above sheet, otherwise 100)

Ramp Type

Regular Speed

Speed with Wheelie

Speed with Trick Boost

Speed with Wheelie + Trick Boost

Speed with Mushroom Boost

Speed with Wheelie + Mushroom Boost

Single/Double Flip Trick Ramps

100

100

Trick boost speed*

Trick boost + Wheelie speed*

Mushroom boost speed*

Mushroom boost + Wheelie speed*

MG Ramps/Mushrooms

73

73

73

73

100

100

BC3 Ramps / MH car tops

50

57.5

65

72.5

70

77.5

SGB Ramps

59

67.85

76.7

85.55

82.6

91.45

START BOOST CHARGE

Start boost charge is a value that starts at 0 and is always clamped between 0 and 1. On every frame of the countdown, the game updates it based on if A is pressed or not.

A is pressed: lastCharge + (0.02 - (0.02 - 0.002) * lastCharge)

A is not pressed: 0.96 * lastCharge.

This explains how the charge goes up when you are holding A, but slowly depletes when you release it.

START BOOSTS & SPEEDS

Below is a summary of all the situations that can happen once the race begins:

(Note: the slowest base speed is 75 km/h and the fastest is 86.13 km/h)

Min Charge

Max Charge

Boost Length

Max Speed (end of boost)

Lowest Base Speed to Reach Without Wheelie

Lowest Base Speed to Reach With Wheelie

0.000

0.850

0 frames

0 km/h

(No boost)

0.850

0.880

10 frames

30 km/h

25 km/h

22.22 km/h

0.880

0.905

20 frames

60 km/h

50 km/h

44.44 km/h

0.905

0.925

30 frames

90 km/h

75 km/h

66.67 km/h

0.925

0.940

45 frames

120 km/h

(would be able to reach 135)

100 km/h

88.89 km/h

0.940

0.950

70 frames

120 km/h (would be able to reach 210)

100 km/h

88.89 km/h

0.950

1.000

0 frames

0 km/h

(Burnout)

WHEELIES


WHEELIE TURNS, WHEELIE TURNS IN BOOST

When wheelieing, it is much harder to turn than when you’re not wheelieing. If you try to turn in your wheelie, you will actually lose increasing amounts of speed until you get all the way down to your regular speed. If you have a boost, this speed loss will not occur and you will be free to change your angle slightly for that short boost time. If you alternate 1 and 0 horizontal inputs every 2nd (or more) frame, you can turn without losing much speed. If you have a long enough time to turn in your wheelie then every 4th frame is the most optimal. This is currently most useful manipulating QM and alignments (such as on DC).

OPTIMAL WHEELIE TURNING PATTERNS

Funky Kong + Flame Runner

±1 every 3rd frame

Daisy + Mach Bike

±1 every 2nd frame

Baby Daisy + Bullet Bike

±1 for 2 frames, neutral for 1 frame

Funky Kong + Spear

±1 every 5th frame OR ±1 every 4th frame until the 5th repetition where it’s on the 6th frame

Toadette + Magikruiser

±1 every frame OR
±2 for 4 frames, ±1 for 1 frame

Baby Mario Quacker:

±1 every 2nd frame


WHEELIE CHAINS, TWIST WHEELIES, WHEELIE DROPS, WHEELIE DROP DELAY

On long straightaways, the most optimal means of travel is in a wheelie, as it gives you 15% more speed immediately. You can only wheelie if you have 30% of your maximum regular speed and are facing no higher than 45 degrees in pitch. Any wheelie will last a maximum of 180 frames (3 seconds) until it starts to drop. When it starts dropping, you are able to start another wheelie to last another 3 seconds. The act of repeating wheelies while aiming to lose the smallest amount of speed is called chaining wheelies. There are four levels of speed loss, shown in the table below; full chains, half chains, weak chains, and fail/drop chains. Of course, in TASes you would want to only be getting full chains as they are the fastest. Because deceleration doesn’t stack, you have one frame where you can turn in your wheelie when the chain decelerates 3kmh.

Amount of frames through drop animation

1

2

3

4, 5+

Name

Full Chain

Half Chain

Weak Chain

Fail/Drop

Chain

Speed loss (km/h)

-3

-6

-9

-12, -15

Absolute lowest speed is the vehicle’s base speed so the 5th frame will vary depending on the vehicle. If the vehicle’s regular speed is over 80, it will take 5 frames to fully drop, if it’s 80 or less it will take 4.

There are also many ways you can voluntarily stop your wheelie mid-way through. You can either cancel the wheelie with the game’s built-in wheelie cancel (d-pad down, flick wiimote down) or you can start a drift mid-air. When using the game’s wheelie cancel, you will be unable to start another wheelie for 20 frames, however with a drift you can start another only a frame after you trigger the drift. Wheelie cancels are usually only useful in deceleration as they help drop the vehicle’s speed from wheelie speed to regular speed quickly, on tracks such as rPB, rSL, and rBC.

SLIP CHAINS, REWHEELIES, 98 LANDING

If you’re in the air, you’re unable to chain a wheelie. This means if your wheelie runs out mid-air, you will lose significant amounts of speed. The way you can counter this is by forcing another wheelie to start early using a pocket of air. This is known as a slip chain. Slip chains are performed by cancelling your wheelie with a drift on the frame before you land so that you can wheelie on the next frame and lose barely any speed. The situation on MG where you do the exact same thing is known as the 98 landing but is really just a slip chain that’s slightly more precise because of the more complex terrain. Although, because wheelie chains still drop your speed, it is crucial to only have to do them when you need to. If you have a pocket of air during a boost, there is a chance that you can eliminate a chain by rewheelieing during that boost. This is done with a drift after a pocket of air or a hop depending on which boost you have and the situation you’re in. When landing from a good height, whether you slip chain or not, it is crucial that you regain your speed as fast as possible. This is because airtime is constantly slowing you down and you will be returning to the ground at a lower speed than your regular maximum.

DRIFTING AND MINITURBOS


MINITURBO CHARGE RATE, DIRECTION INPUT RANGES, LUKE’S RULE

When performing a drift, assuming you are using manual transmission, a miniturbo will charge up after a certain period of time, and when you release the drift, you will get a boost from this miniturbo. Miniturbos charge at different rates depending on which direction you hold during that drift.

In Mario Kart Wii, although the GCN joystick has an input range from 0 to 255 on both axes, all inputs are simplified down to an input range from 0 to 14 on both axes. These are also referred to as -7 to +7 to ease understanding even more.

CONTROLLER DRIFT RANGES

Gamecube Controller (GC)

Wii Wheel (Wheel)

Classic Controller (Classic)

Wiimote + Nunchuck (Wiichuck)

(14) 205-255 (+7) Full Right
(13) 197-204 (+6)
(12) 188-196 (+5)
(11) 179-187 (+4)
(10) 170-178 (+3) Soft Right
(9) 161-169 (+2)
(8) 152-160 (+1)
(7) 113-151 (+0) Neutral
(6) 105-112 (-1)
(5) 96-104 (-2)
(4) 87-95 (-3) Soft Left
(3) 78-86 (-4)
(2) 69-77 (-5)
(1) 60-68(-6)
(0) 0-59 (-7) Full Left

(14) 473-0 (+7) Full Right
(13) 479-474 (+6)
(12) 485-480 (+5)
(11) 491-486 (+4)
(10) 497-492 (+3) Soft Right
(9) 501-498 (+2)
(8) 507-502 (+1)
(7) 517-508 (0) Neutral
(6) 518-523 (-1)
(5) 524-527 (-2)
(4) 528-533 (-3) Soft Left
(3) 534-539 (-4)
(2) 540-545 (-5)
(1) 546-551 (-6)
(0) 552-1023 (-7) Full Left

(14) 52-63 (+7) Full Right
(13) 50-51 (+6)
(12) 48-49 (+5)
(11) 45-47 (+4)
(10) 43-44 (+3) Soft Right
(9) 41-42 (+2)
(8) 39-40 (+1)
(7) 29-38 (0) Neutral
(6) 26-28 (-1)
(5) 24-25 (-2)
(4) 22-23 (-3) Soft Left
(3) 20-21 (-4)
(2) 17-19 (-5)
(1) 15-16 (-6)
(0) 0-14 (-7) Full Left

(14) 211-255 (+7) Full Right

(13) 201-210 (+6)

(12) 191-200 (+5)

(11) 180-190 (+4)

(10) 170-179 (+3) Soft Right

(9) 160-169 (+2)

(8) 150-159 (+1)

(7) 107-149 (0) Neutral

(6) 97-106 (-1)

(5) 87-96 (-2)

(4) 77-86 (-3) Soft Left

(3) 66-76 (-4)

(2) 56-65 (-5)

(1) 46-55 (-6)

(0) 0-45 (-7) Full Left

Miniturbo charge is a value that counts up to 270. If you are performing a right drift, any input from +3 to +7 will increase that value an increment of 5 every frame, and any input from -7 to +2 will increase that value an increment of 2 every frame. However, when this value reaches 270, the miniturbo boost itself can only be used one frame later. Because of this, you can hold ANY direction, regardless of the direction you’re drifting in, on the last frame of the drift and the boost will still be available on the next frame. This is known as Luke’s rule and is useful in any situation for alignments (on tracks like rDS, BC, and LC).

CONTROLLER VALID INPUTS AND INPUT CIRCLES

Visualisation of GCN Input Circle - by dm248

Visualisation of Wiichuck Input Circle - by dm248

Valid for GC/Classic
Valid for Wiichuck

Valid for Wheel

Invalid for GC/Classic
Valid for Wiichuck

Valid for Wheel

Invalid for GC/Classic
Invalid for Wiichuck

Valid for Wheel

{0, 3}, {0, 4}, {0, 5}, {0, 6}, {0, 7}, {0, 8}, {0, 9}, {0, 10},

{1, 10}, {1, 11}, {1, 2}, {1, 3}, {1, 4}, {1, 5}, {1, 6}, {1, 7},

{1, 8}, {1, 9}, {1, 10}, {1, 11}, {2, 1}, {2, 2}, {2, 3}, {2, 4},

{2, 5}, {2, 6}, {2, 7}, {2, 8}, {2, 9}, {2, 10}, {2, 11}, {2, 12},

{3, 0}, {3, 1}, {3, 2}, {3, 3}, {3, 4}, {3, 5}, {3, 6}, {3, 7}, {3, 8},

{3, 9}, {3, 10}, {3, 11}, {3, 12}, {3, 13}, {4, 0}, {4, 1}, {4, 2},

{4, 3}, {4, 4}, {4, 5}, {4, 6}, {4, 7}, {4, 8}, {4, 9}, {4, 10},

{4, 11}, {4, 12}, {4, 13}, {5, 0}, {5, 1}, {5, 2}, {5, 3}, {5, 4},

{5, 5}, {5, 6}, {5, 7}, {5, 8}, {5, 9}, {5, 10}, {5, 11}, {5, 12},

{5, 13}, {5, 14}, {6, 0}, {6, 1}, {6, 2}, {6, 3}, {6, 4}, {6, 5},

{6, 6}, {6, 7}, {6, 8}, {6, 9}, {6, 10}, {6, 11}, {6, 12}, {6, 13},

{6, 14}, {7, 0}, {7, 1}, {7, 2}, {7, 3}, {7, 4}, {7, 5}, {7, 6}, {7, 7},

{7, 8}, {7, 9}, {7, 10}, {7, 11}, {7, 12}, {7, 13}, {7, 14}, {8, 0},

{8, 1}, {8, 2}, {8, 3}, {8, 4}, {8, 5}, {8, 6}, {8, 7}, {8, 8}, {8, 9},

{8, 10}, {8, 11}, {8, 12}, {8, 13}, {8, 14}, {9, 0}, {9, 1}, {9, 2},

{9, 3}, {9, 4}, {9, 5}, {9, 6}, {9, 7}, {9, 8}, {9, 9}, {9, 10},

{9, 11}, {9, 12}, {9, 13}, {10, 0}, {10, 1}, {10, 2}, {10, 3},

{10, 4}, {10, 5}, {10, 6}, {10, 7}, {10, 8}, {10, 9}, {10, 10},

{10, 11}, {10, 12}, {10, 13}, {11, 1}, {11, 2}, {11, 3}, {11, 4},

{11, 5}, {11, 6}, {11, 7}, {11, 8}, {11, 9}, {11, 10}, {11, 11},

{11, 12}, {12, 2}, {12, 3}, {12, 4}, {12, 5}, {12, 6}, {12, 7},

{12, 8}, {12, 9}, {12, 10}, {12, 11}, {13, 3}, {13, 4}, {13, 5},

{13, 6}, {13, 7}, {13, 8}, {13, 9}, {13, 10}, {14, 5}, {14, 6},

{14, 7}, {14, 8}

{0, 11}, {1, 12}, {2, 13},

{3, 14}, {4, 14}, {9, 14},

{10, 14}, {11, 0}, {11, 13},

{11, 14}, {12, 1}, {12, 12},

{12, 13}, {13, 2}, {13, 11},

{13, 12}, {14, 3}, {14, 4},

{14, 9}, {14, 10}, {14, 11},

{0, 0}, {0, 1}, {0, 2}, {0, 12},

{0, 13}, {0, 14}, {1, 0}, {1, 1},

{1, 13}, {1, 14}, {2, 0}, {2, 14},

{12, 0},  {12, 14}, {13, 0},

{13, 1}, {13, 13}, {13, 14},

{14, 0}, {14, 1}, {14, 2},

{14, 12}, {14, 13}, {14, 14},

GROUNDED HOPS, QUICK HOPS, CHAIN DRIFTS, CHAIN DRIFTS WITH WHEELIE

Whenever your vehicle hops, three things happen over the first three frames. First, your hop is registered and will happen. Second, the hop animation begins. Third, your angle relative to the ground is updated. Whenever you are in a drift, your angle compared to the ground is quite different. In fact you’re leaning quite a bit to one side. When you release your miniturbo, if you hop within the first 5 frames, your angle will be far enough towards the ground that the hop doesn’t gain any airtime and will stick in the ground. This is known as a grounded hop. Grounded hops are one of the most useful things in MKWii TAS. As long as the vehicle is going at least 55% of its maximum regular speed it will start a drift.

If you do a grounded hop out of a miniturbo boost (known as a quick hop) you will be able to instantly change your alignment out of a drift without losing time and allowing for full acceleration to wheelie speed instantly. Quick hops can allow for another drift, a wheelie, or even another hop. If you do another drift, this is called a chain drift. Chain drifts allow you to start another drift immediately without losing speed in the air when you don’t have a boost and allowing you to charge the miniturbo faster. If you wheelie before doing a chain drift, you will have a longer window in which you can get a grounded hop. Chain drifts with wheelies are the most useful as they allow for maximum variety in the way you perform the next drift. Quick hops that don’t aim to start another drift are known as TAS turbos, which help align for the next turn better.

SLIP DRIFTS, REO DRIFTS

Whenever you are in the air, you have the ability to start a drift the instant you touch the ground. Starting drifts mid-air are known as slip drifts. Slip drifts are useful because they eliminate the hop aspect of the drift (which is usually slower since you lose speed in the air). Sometimes, if you perform a drift, you will get a bounce upon landing. In that pocket of air, you have the chance of reversing the direction of your drift. This is known as a Reo Drift (or Reverse Drift). Reo Drifts are rarely useful (only currently helpful in places like rPG hedge section and WGM first turn).


TF PHYSICS, SPIN DRIFTS

Whenever you are in a drift, if you go airborne, holding the opposite direction to your drift will give you increased height. This is the most useful and notable on Toad’s Factory as it is used to perform the lake cut at the end of each lap. This can also be useful in the hop itself as holding a direction and then switching to the other will give you extra height too. This switch hop is known as a spin drift and is useful when trying to take the initial part of your drift tighter. It is also the easiest way to set up a Reo Drift.

TERRAIN DRIFTS, EDGE-RIDING DRIFTS

When you leave the ground, your miniturbo will still charge for 4 more frames, so if you get a bounce at the right time, you can potentially start your drift one frame after you release your boost. This is known as a terrain drift, as it depends on the terrain whether you can actually pull it off. If you drift while starting to fall off the track, your drift will actually start going wider to the point where if you are perpendicular with the track you can stay perpendicular with it and gain sideways momentum. This is only possible on edges where it is possible to barrel roll, and the sideways momentum is only possible on sticky road.

ANGLE HOP, DRIFT COMMITTING, SLIP DRIFT COMMITTING

When hopping, the first direction you hold will be the direction of your drift. This is called committing to a direction. The first frame that you can commit to a direction is the frame after you hop, so there’s one frame where you can hold a direction and it won’t affect the drifting direction. This is known as an angle hop. However, when doing a slip drift, you commit on the very first frame of the drift since there’s no hop involved.

08 DRIFTS, DELAY DRIFTS

The fastest way to charge a miniturbo is to hop and commit to a direction on the very last frame of that hop. This is known as a delay drift. If you plan on holding the miniturbo for a while before it’s charged then the best way to take the turn is to commit to a direction immediately. This is known as an 08 drift as it was the way people used to take drifts when the game was first released. Depending on the way that turns are laid out it is sometimes best to delay less or more frames however that can just be figured out through raw optimisation (rBC and BC3 are two very good examples of this).

RFH AND MOMENTUM


HOP ANGLE LOCK, RAPID-FIRE HOP ABUSE

If you approach a change in slope, and perform a hop, your angle relative to the ground won’t be updated until the 3rd frame of the hop. Because two consecutive frames having the same button press results in the button being held, the earliest you can hop is 2 frames later, which is still before the angle is updated. This means if you can continue to hop every 2nd frame, your angle relative to the ground will stay the same as when you first started the chain of grounded hops. This technique is known as rapid-fire hop abuse (RFH or RFHA for short).

SUPERGRINDS, SUPERGRIND EJECTIONS

Supergrinding is the act of gaining sideways momentum from rapid-fire hops. This is done by repeatedly doing grounded angle hops that never commit to a direction and therefore move you sideways. They are performed by alternating the analog stick from 7 to 0 on the respective B and no B frames of RFH. Supergrinds can’t be done everywhere and can’t always save time but are the most useful on straightaways. Most of the time they are only useful in flaps since they can be set up from far away and lose heaps of time in that setup but gain enough speed going into the lap that it saves time for that lap. If you are in a supergrind, you will be able to stop it at any point by stopping hopping. This will usually result in a tremendous amount of airtime in which you are still travelling at the speed you were moving. If you end up rotating too much to the direction you were moving in during your “ejection” you will slow down, which is why the best ejections are done on turns where you drift in the opposite direction as your sideways momentum.

SOFTGRINDS, RFH ROTATION LIMIT

If you’re on a long straightaway and trying to maximise the sideways speed you have without turning a lot, you will want to use soft inputs. Although the softest input for drifting is a value of 3, the softest input for supergrinding is a value of 2 (it isn’t a 1 because that doesn’t push enough to maintain momentum). Alternating 2 and 0 will maintain maximum sideways acceleration and speed while barely rotating. To take it a step further, if you still are turning too much, you can do a 2-0-0-0-2-0-0-0… pattern which drops down to below maximum sideways speed but still picks it back up with the 2 input (this is useful on most supergrinds but not completely necessary). The furthest you can take it is by only holding a 2 input if you are about to hit an obstacle such as offroad, a wall, etc. (which is currently only useful on DKSC). You also can’t supergrind for an unlimited amount of distance in practice (theoretically you could continue down a straight line with 120 speed forever but that isn’t available in any of the regular 32 tracks) because as soon as your bike is moving in the opposite direction as the direction you were moving when you started the RFH, or in other words, as soon as you’ve turned 180 degrees, the RFH will eject from the ground.

RFH LOW TRICK, RFH HIGH TRICK

Because RFH locks your angle, if you go off a ramp in RFH, you will still be facing forward instead of up and will have extremely decreased airtime, which results in lower tricks. In contrast, you can get an ejection at the very edge of the ramp to maximise the airtime and get an abnormally high trick.

MOMENTUM HOPS, WALL MOMENTUM HOPS

During a supergrind ejection, your speed will stay unchanged as long as you don’t make contact with any surface (ground, walls, objects) and when you hop this sideways momentum will be maintained. These kinds of hops are known as momentum hops. You can also perform momentum hops when hitting a wall. At the right angle, if you hop on the frame you hit the wall, you will both be pushed through the wall and hop and will therefore hop sideways (this can be used on rPB and MC)

CONVEYOR WHEELIE TURNS, CONVEYOR MOMENTUM HOPS

On Toad’s Factory, the conveyors have the special property in which they give you maximum speed. However, unlike boost panels, this speed is not fixed. If you turn in your wheelie, your speed will drop very slightly. It drops less than if you were to be on regular road and is used to its advantage for alignments. When hopping while you are on a conveyor, your momentum on it is maintained (however you still go at a lower speed due to triggering a hop). So, when you exit off the end of the conveyor and hop, the maximum speed is maintained (again minus the 15% speed from triggering the hop). With each hop you lose 15% of your speed until you reach regular speed and should start drifting.

WALLS

WALL BOUNCE RULES, WALL CLIPS

When you hit a wall, two things happen. One of them is the obvious thing, your forward speed is reduced. Depending on the angle you have against the wall, this speed reduction will change. The other thing that happens when you hit the wall is you bounce up. Depending on how far up the front of your vehicle is pointed and the speed you hit the wall at, the height you are given will change.

Now if you are parallel with the wall and wheelie with speed into it, you will not slow down very much and will get a huge bounce, except it will go forward. This bounce is called a wall clip.

STANDSTILL MINITURBOS, SSMT WITH WALL BOUNCE

Whenever you are moving at a speed between -10 and 10 km/h, if you attempt to hop, you will start charging a standstill miniturbo. After 75 frames the boost will be available to use and you will accelerate again. In most cases this is the fastest way to speed up. If you hop immediately before hitting a wall, provided you are close enough to being perpendicular with it, you will get a bounce as usual as well as extra height from your hop, and will also immediately get put into a standstill miniturbo. If there is a wall and you are not planning on using a mushroom to accelerate, this is the fastest way to turn around and is useful on tracks like WGM. The reason the wall bounces work is that you go from moving at a fast speed to very low or no speed. Because when you drive against a wall your speed is barely reduced when you are closer to parallel with it, when you attempt to start a SSMT bounce you will be unable to since you won’t have got down to the low enough speed. The -10 speed cap is also the reason why it’s possible to do a backwards hop if you’re moving backwards at more than 10 km/h. The angle you bonk against a wall at does not actually matter as long as you are going at a low enough speed.

LOW CLIP, CLIP DRIFT, WALL TRICK

When clipping a wall, sometimes you won’t actually gain any airtime, you’ll just avoid losing heaps of speed. This is known as a low clip. Low clips are used primarily in two places; to start slip drifts, and to reduce air on tricks. When they help perform slip drifts, they are known as clip drifts. Clip drifts are just as useful as slip drifts, but have an element of precision, since you’re also trying to lose the least amount of speed when hitting the wall. If you hop off of a ramp, trick, and then hit the wall in the middle of the trick animation, you will get propelled in many different directions based on which trick you did. The most useful is a down trick since that propels you downwards. Wall tricks can actually slow you down and propel you down at different levels and depending on the length of the boost and the distance you are from the ground, different levels can be more beneficial (e.g. on TF you want to maintain your boost to the bump to perform the lake cut so the highest possible wall trick is used, on CM you want to maintain speed but want to get down to the ground quickly so a lower wall trick is used).

HOP CLIP, DRIFT CLIP, HIGH CLIP

If you hop before hitting the edge of a wall, you will have extra airtime to begin with and will have access to changing your facing direction. Depending on the situation, hop clips may or may not be useful but generally these are used in situations where you want to hit a precise location with a specific angle (such as rDH glitch, BC3 last turn skip). If you get a small bounce before the clip and attempt to start a drift mid-air as you touch the wall, you will have more access to changing your position and angle than if you weren’t to do so and it also helps reduce airtime (this helps on SGB bomb clip to cover similar distance with less airtime). If you get exactly 5 frames of airtime before hitting the wall and are in the exact position, you will get the highest clip possible in normal circumstances, which is logically called a high clip. This is useful in any situation where you want to gain height or cover extreme distances (like on TF box clip, MC tree clip, rSL pole clip, etc.).

FLOOR CLIP, DELAY CLIP

If you are on a floor and there is a wall that extends below your elevation instead of above, then you can clip the wall from above it. This gives you a much higher chance at getting a wall clip since every situation you hit the wall in, you’ll be avoiding the speed loss. If you get 5 frames of airtime before hitting the wall, you will still get a high clip. If you get a low clip and then re-touch the wall within a short enough time, your airtime will actually be delayed to when you re-touch the floor. This phenomenon is known as a delay clip as the height is delayed from when you actually hit the wall initially. It is not only possible with floor clips. If you get a low clip off of a wall next to a slope that is going slightly downwards then you can potentially use the floor to bounce up (this is possible on rDS).

MID-AIR MOVEMENT, REDACTED GLIDE

When clipping off a wall, the direction you travel in is not fixed. You can still adjust your position and angle slightly. For example, if you are holding left on the analog stick, you are able to hold right and move right (this is useful on rSL to swerve around the checkpoint box and still land on the track). You can also slide yourself sideways with a small nudge by holding neutral for 2 frames, a direction for 1 frame, and neutral for another 2 frames, before continuing to hold the direction. This technique is called a redacted glide (this was useful on BC3 first kcp skip to get further left).

TRICKS AND MUSHROOMS

DELAY TRICKS, HOP TRICK

When tricking, you gain a small amount of airtime. Because airtime is bad, you want to trick as late as possible so that you get the lowest possible airtime. When leaving a trickable surface you have 10 frames until the trick will no longer register. Also, there are 12 frames before you leave a trickable surface that the trick will still register. So, to get the latest possible trick you want to delay tricking until the last possible frame it will register. However, sometimes this latest frame will coincide with the frames leading up to the next trick, which would result in a first frame trick on the next surface, which is bad, so sometimes you have to trick slightly earlier in order to allow for a delay trick on the second surface (this happens on DKSC, BC, MT, rMC, RR). If you hop, you are acting as if you have left the trickable surface and so the “trick timer” will count down from when you hop. You are only able to trick if you have 50% of your base speed.

DRIFT TRICK, SIDE TRICK ABUSE

When drifting, you will be able to fall faster off of a surface than if you don’t drift. So it is always useful to be in a drift when tricking so that you can get the smallest amount of airtime. Although sometimes it is impossible or slower to get a drift, and delay or hop tricks are faster. Whenever doing a side trick (left or right), depending on the direction you hold on the analog stick, your speed will actually vary. If you trick right and hold left, you will go at a faster speed than if you hold neutral, which in turn will be a faster speed than if you hold right. And vise versa, if you trick left and hold right you will go at a faster speed than neutral which is faster than left. Generally if you are tricking off a surface and are aiming to continue moving forward, you will benefit in releasing the drift mid-way through the trick, and if you are doing a quick lower trick, it is best to hold the drift. If you are performing a quicker low trick, side tricks have a great benefit due to the back wheel being able to touch the ground faster. All this in combination is called side trick abuse (STA).

MUSHROOM SPEED LOCKS, WALL RIDES

When using the bouncy mushrooms on MG, your speed will always lock to a certain value. Without a mushroom boost, this value is 73, and with a mushroom boost, this value is 100. This value is only reset when you hit the ground. This means that if you hit a wall, you still have this speed, and if the wall is at the correct angle (which the wall next to the finish line so happens to be), you can use that speed to ride along the wall. This technique is called wall riding and is responsible for the Ultra Shortcut and Wall Shortcut on the track. When hopping on the frame you hit a mushroom, you will rotate continuously in a direction that you commit to until you hit the ground.

MUSHROOM ABUSE, BOOSTLESS MUSHROOM ABUSE

The basics of mushroom abuse are as follows: When landing 2 times on a mushroom within the duration of a trick boost, the speed lock can raise to 79, which combined with side trick abuse can reach 86. If you land on the mushroom a third time (still within a trick boost), the speed lock can reach 100 without a mushroom. Sometimes you can get mushroom abuse without the trick boost, sometimes you can get it simply by hopping on the edge of the mushroom, sometimes you hit a wall on the edge, and all these factors sometimes will or won’t change your speed depending on situation but it’s mainly random and requires a LOT of trial and error to perfect and decide on the best approach.

JAMMED TRICKS (HANDLING, HOP, DRIFT, WHEELIE)

Jammed tricks are just tricks that have potential to be jammed. To be able to jam a trick it must land less than 7 frames after a trick is registered. Trick boosts can only be triggered at least 7 frames after the trick is registered so if you leave the ground on or before the 7th frame, the trick will be jammed. A trick can be jammed in four different ways; getting a bounce simply from using the vehicle’s handling, hopping (which is the typical jammed trick you see in TAFs), drifting (which is referred to as a drift trigger), or wheelieing (which is referred to as a wheelie trigger). Wheelie triggers are the most useful as

ZIPPER TRICKS AND ROTATION AXES

When dealing with the rotation of the vehicle - there are three important values to take into account; yaw, pitch, and roll. Yaw is your left-to-right facing direction and is referred to as Y rotation (or rotation about the XZ plane). Pitch is your top-to-bottom facing direction and is referred to as your X rotation (or rotation about the YZ plane). Roll is the amount your vehicle is leaning to the left or right (or even upside down) and is referred to as your Z rotation (or rotation about the XY plane). It is believed that the X rotation is responsible for zipper trick types and Z rotation for grounded hops.

CHECKPOINTS AND RESPAWNS

THE CHECKPOINT SYSTEM

Every track has regular checkpoints, key checkpoints, and a start/finish line. Contrary to popular knowledge, checkpoints aren’t lines, but boxes. In order for a lap to count, you’re intended to travel from the start, through all the key checkpoints in order, and then back through to the finish. To save memory, instead of keeping track of all regions at once, it tracks your location through a series of rules.

At any point in the race, the key checkpoint region you’re in and the key checkpoint region in front of you are loaded, and if you’re in the key checkpoint box then the region behind you will be loaded as well (this is probably because the game looks for the closest key checkpoint behind you meaning if you’re in a regular checkpoint the region you’re in is loaded and if you’re in a key checkpoint the region behind you is loaded). Any time you enter the finish line after visiting the last key checkpoint of a lap you will gain 1 lap.

This system works very well. You enter the region in front of you that’s loaded and the next one will load up until you reach the last key checkpoint and then reach the finish line. If you go from key checkpoint region 2 and jump across to key checkpoint region 4 the lap won’t count because region 4 isn’t loaded. However, if you’re in the finish line box itself, the last checkpoint of the lap will be loaded, meaning if you drove to the last KCP (key checkpoint) and then finished the lap it would count.

The game attempts to counter this situation by having a rule that it will subtract a lap if you cross over the finish line backwards (i.e. go from CP 0 to the last CP). It also has a failsafe for that rule - you can’t get a lap count if the lap completion value (a memory address the game stores) jumps up 95% at any point. The lap completion value is one of two values tracking your progress through the track. There is a race completion value, which updates on every frame and tracks which lap you are on as the whole number and lap completion as the decimal places. There is also a lap completion value, which is equal to the race completion value mod 1, but updates every time you cross into a new checkpoint. Most checkpoints near the end of tracks aren’t even close to 95% so this isn’t usually a problem and just finding a way to travel directly from kcp 0 to the last kcp box by avoiding crossing backwards over the finish line it is enough to suffice.

But, if you try to do the CM glitch, you’ll run into problems. If you regularly enter the finish line at 0% lap completion (you do this on lap 1 of every race), you won’t be able to enter the last kcp region anywhere past 95% lap completion, and the last kcp box is at 95.2%. So surely the ultra shortcut is impossible. Well, there are two workarounds which are now common knowledge for glitch hunters.

First, you can enter the finish line later (however when entering the side you can do it no later than 4.9% as the lap will not go up by 1) which will increase the 95% up relative to where you entered the lap - for example, say you enter at 2.5% lap completion, you won’t be able to enter the last kcp region any further forward than 97.5%. The delayed lap count trick can be done when entering the finish line from the front end of the box instead of behind, and there is no 4.9% limit when doing so, which is useful for flap TASes where it is possible and faster.

Second, you can travel from CP 0 to CP 1 (not KCP 1, just regular CP 1)  and back to CP 0 such that the 4.9% rule no longer matters because you already got the lap count and you enter the finish line from its higher lap completion end, then you can increase the 95% up relative to how high that lap completion is. The CP1 trick is useful for allowing rSL 3/3 to work.

CHECKPOINT MAPS

For a collection of checkpoint maps, see this Google Drive folder

REGULAR CHECKPOINTS, RESPAWN POINTS, RESPAWN BOOSTS

On every track, as well as having checkpoints, there are a number of respawn points (even on MC3 - just for backup). Every single checkpoint is assigned a respawn point, so when you are counted OOB, whichever the last checkpoint you were in, you respawn at its assigned respawn point. When you respawn, the game cancels your speed, removes your items, teleports you to the respawn point, and puts you in the air. Then, when you’re ready to drop, when you hit the ground, you can get a boost by starting to hold A. Similar to tricking, there is a short amount of time (4 frames) in which you can start the boost, you also have a short amount of time before the first possible frame in which the boost will register (4 frames).

OOB AND WHEELIES

OUT-OF-BOUNDS, OOB SEAMS, OFFROAD BOUNCES, SLOW WHEELIE GLITCH

The general definition for out of bounds (OOB) is actually anything out of the reaches of the track (such as the CM parking lot). Actions that allow you to enter these areas are generally referred to as exploration glitches.

However, the common definition for OOB is any surface that triggers a respawn, whether that be; solid OOB (dark sand on rDH, hilltop on rMR), fall barrier (falling off a course), fall barrier with an extra animation (water splash on DDR or KC or rPB or rSGB, lava splash on BC or GV or BC3 or rBC), solid fall barrier (LC), or death barrier (DKSC).

When a respawn is triggered from hitting an OOB plane it is called getting “counted OOB”. You will only be counted OOB if at least one of your tyres makes contact with the OOB plane. There are currently 4 ways to avoid getting counted OOB.

First, you can drive along the edge such that only the side of the vehicle (and not the tyres) are touching the ground. This works because as I just said you need to have at least one tyre touching and in this case none of them are.

Second, you can touch the seam between two pieces of OOB for one frame and hop such that the vehicle technically never touches either surface and therefore doesn’t lose speed or get counted OOB (this is known as an offroad bounce, which is misleading because there is no situation where two pieces of offroad meet at a seam). You can also perform an offroad bounce with a drift (not necessarily a slip drift but still a drift that is being held through the bounce) and it will have a chance at gaining much more height than a hop depending on the situation.

Third, you can use a technique known as the “slow wheelie glitch”. If an OOB plane is placed vertically, you can pass right through it if you’re travelling at a low enough speed. It is currently unknown exactly why this happens. The only situation in which this has been performed to save time is on a custom track and using the Phantom, due to its extremely low speed and high acceleration. The fourth way is by using barrel rolls, which will be explained below.

NOSEDIVES, TAILDIVES, NOSEDIVE BOUNCES, QUARTERPIPE REVERSE DRIFTS

Whenever you leave the ground, you have the ability to lean backwards or forwards by using down and up on the joystick respectively. Leaning back (taildiving) has the special effect that it will cause a slip drift to go “out” a little bit before turning inside. This is because the vehicle is still leaning forwards to its original pitch and leaning sideways for the drift, meaning some of the sideways is being pushed in the opposite direction. When you lean forward (nosediving) you run the risk of getting a huge speed-breaking bounce upon landing, this can be avoided by starting to taildive as you land or just getting lucky with your positioning such that it doesn’t happen. Based on your angle relative to the track, taildives can have different magnitudes of making the drift go out a little before going in. On a specific case of MT, after the cannon, you can position the vehicle just right that if you drift left, you don’t even need to taildive and the left drift will go so extremely far to the outside that it will go completely right, which ends up being much tighter than the regular right drift and saves time.

BROKEN WHEELIES, BROKEN WHEELIE HOPS (REVERSE HOPS), BROKEN WHEELIE ROTATION

Whenever a wheelie leaves the ground, you will automatically be leaning backwards a little more and therefore cannot lean forward as much as you can without a wheelie, however you have the ability to lean backwards to the point that your vehicle is pointing straight up. This has a couple quirks to it.

One of them is what happens when you attempt to hop on a surface that is angled further down than your bike. The game will attempt to give the hop the correct angle relative to the ground however when you’re leaning back this relative angle is much further backwards and since the ground is angled considerably more forwards than the bike, you will actually get a hop that moves you backwards. This is most notably done on RR, rDKM, and even saving time on GV.

The other thing is what happens when your bike is leaning to one side because of the ground it’s moving on. If this is the case, some of your sideways lean is added to the rotation for leaning back and causes your vehicle to also rotate laterally, which makes for a nice 360° turn on the rDKM downhill section if done right.

BARREL ROLLS, BARREL ROLL CLIPS, BARREL ROLL OOB DRIVING, BEAN CORNERS

Whenever you fall off a surface, the amount of forward or backwards lean you have is amplified until you hit OOB. If the surface has no wall beside it (i.e. it’s isn’t clippable), and has no terrain beside it, then you have the ability to perform what is known as a barrel roll. Barrel rolls are just standstill wheelies that have no limit to how high (or low) that they lean. The most frequently used application for a barrel roll is a wall clip. Because walls give you a bounce relative to how high you’re leaning, a barrel roll (being the highest possible lean) will give the highest possible bounce and therefore the biggest possible wallclip.

The more recent use for barrel rolls is the fourth way to avoid getting counted OOB. Recall how I stated that when your tyres don’t touch OOB you won’t be counted OOB. This can be performed by staying in a barrel roll that has put you completely upside down. The most stable way to perform this is actually without using a wheelie and without even using a bike. If you use a kart and use the side edge of a surface, you can perform a sideways barrel roll and if you can keep all four of the kart’s tyres off the ground then OOB will not affect you and you will have the ability to drive on OOB (although the movement will be extremely slow since OOB is just heavy offroad that causes a respawn). The most stable vehicle found to be able to perform this and benefit from it is the Tiny Titan, although again on a custom track. The maximum speed you can travel at in this upside down state is 15, otherwise you will immediately snap out of the barrel roll. Due to there being no tyres on the ground you are unable to steer and there is no friction. If you are in the air for more than 20 frames you will also snap out of the barrel roll instantly.

The specific collision that you need to start a barrel roll is a type of wall that is put under the edge of most drivable surfaces. In any other case, where there is a regular wall below the edge, and attempting to cut the corner on this type of wall will result in you hitting the wall, which is called a bean corner. These regular walls are what allow floor clips and delayed clips to be possible. Bean corners are impossible locations to start a barrel roll on since you will hit the wall before being able to stay in a stable high wheelie lean.

MISCELLANEOUS STRATS, GLITCHES, AND EXPLANATIONS

WALL BOOSTS

When driving along the edge of a non-trickable half-pipe (MT, BC, RR), it will try to push you away back to the road by quickly changing your angle and shooting you away. This property can be used to gain speed. By approaching with a good angle, jumping when hitting the edge, and quickly wheelieing again when landing it is possible to preserve boost speed and gain extra momentum without getting forced to change your angle. The wheelie is a key feature as it prevents high handling from outside factors too. Normally the wheelie would be lost upon hitting the rail losing speed and a good angle, but a rewheelie works around that. You can keep a wheelie without rewheelieing but the jump is important to get the height and more time gaining momentum. With this technique you can actually gain up to 211 speed, although sometimes the setup for this increased speed ends up slower so somewhere around the 150 range is typical to see.

HORIZONTAL WALL GLITCH

Most walls in the game are placed vertically, however some are placed horizontally. For no exact known reason, when a certain part of your back tyre makes contact with horizontal walls, for 20 frames, you will have the ability to pass through vertical walls (This is useful on tracks like CM, DKJP, and rWS).

BAT CLIP

Specific to WGM, the bats will always push you in the direction they are going. Because that direction is against your driving direction this means they will always attempt to slow you down. If you manage to hit the bat in just the right way, you can actually land with extra speed gained from their movement. You can potentially get up to about 100 speed if done right but under normal circumstances you only can get 96 due to needing to take a good line. This is extremely precise and is one of the hardest things to perform in the game.

BONKLESS WALL TRICKS

When you hit an invisible wall, you can still perform a wall trick. It is much easier however varies in many ways more than regular walls as you can hit it from many different angles but can never get the exact same effect as a regular wall trick (being parallel). Currently this has only ever benefitted WGM and rWS.

WATER SPEED AND PHYSICS

Specific to KC, the water itself moves and adds to your movement. The speeds go from 15, 17, 20, 22, 25, 27, 30, 32, 35, 37, 40, 45, 50, 55, and 100 based on which part of the stream you’ve reached and which stream you’re on. At 22-25 km/h, wheelies start to lose the amount of extra speed they give you and at 35-37 km/h, wheelies no longer have any benefit over drifting. The reason why the water gets weird in the split section by the shroomless shortcut is because there are many different directions of flow that the game is trying to compute and it gets confused when you approach from the side. The extra speed is also why tricking on the big ramp before the river section is slower because you want to get to the river as quickly as possible to get its extra speed for the maximum amount of time and tricking has no extra advantage over landing normally.

First Stream (River)

Second Stream (Pipe)

Wheelies start to lose their maximum speed boost

Wheelies no longer have any speed boost

WALL WRAPS, ZIPPER DOUBLE TRICKS

Zippers are unusual when it comes to how they give you a boost. If you go off the zipper they give you a boost when you land but if you hop off the zipper anywhere and immediately land on ground it will also give you a boost. This means if you can hop from the lowest portion of it to the ground immediately below that, you will get an instant boost. You can take this further and get a bounce at the top which may give you a pocket of time where you can register a trick. This trick can give you a boost and allow for a second trick that has increased speed in the air, saving time. These techniques are utilised on DDR, rWS, and DKSC. Furthermore, if you go off a zipper at a convex corner, depending on your approach angle and the position on the corner, you can wrap right around it and cut the corner itself. Depending on the situation this is sometimes easier or harder. On DDR it is quite precise, however on rWS you are guaranteed to get it every time, given you have enough speed to pass the corner.

STICKS, BOUNCES, QUANTISED MOVEMENT

Any interaction with ground that is not perfectly flat, or with any object or wall, can change drastically depending on your sub-frame positioning. This is referred to as QM (which is commonly known as quantum mechanics but is more correctly known as quantised movement). Everything from getting a stick to getting an RFH low trick to getting a 1 frame bounce on a drift to getting a wall clip all fall under this. QM is the reason why it is sometimes better to lose time in order to save time. This is because sometimes it isn’t possible to perform a glitch (such as a DKSC zipper shortcut) if you are 0.001 ahead of a setup that performs it because your sub-frame positioning is ever so slightly different and your interaction with the ground and the zipper is different. So it is sometimes important to have to lose the 0.001 seconds in order to save the amount of time that the glitch saves. Sometimes there is no other way of performing a stick without intentionally losing time (such as the rehop required to get a stick on rYF). QM is one of the reasons why you can't just copy the inputs between every lap because if one turn changes ever so slightly due to QM, then the next turn will change due to the previous turn being different and so on causing a ripple effect to the end of the race. A good example of seeing this in practice is the comparison between the 2:12.524 and 2:12.523 TASes on BC.

WAVE UPWARP

On BC, RR, and MT, there is a wave section. This is not part of the collision of the track because it is an object. There is a very special feature to this kind of object. If you travel anywhere underneath it, you will be teleported relatively at it. This phenomenon was first found using 300cc to get underneath the BC wavy section, however nobody understood what caused it. The first (and as of now the only) place it was used to save time is on a custom track that also has a wavy section. First you go OOBand drive all the way to a part of a wall that’s underneath the wavy section and it will teleport you up to it. It is more obvious on rDKM because if you fall only a little bit down from the end bridge it will immediately pop you back up. It is still not completely understood why this happens but it is now known that it is the wavy section that is causing it.

BACKWARDS WHEELIES/DRIFTS, REVERSE MOMENTUM

On rPB, you can use the invisible wall next to the ramp to shoot you backwards with a wall trick and give you backwards speed. Attempting to hop will give you insane airtime and as soon as you hit a wall it will stop. Completely unrelated, on MG, if you hop on one of the boost ramps at the right time, you can stick to them instead of bouncing. It will cause you to be able to drift, miniturbo, and wheelie, all while continuing to move in only one direction.

ZIPPER BYPASSES (RFH, SEAM, EDGE TRICK)

The edges of zippers are known to be strange. However if you perform the correct thing at the right place, you can pass right through them and avoid being pushed back down to the track. There are three known ways to bypass zippers. First, you can use RFHA to be facing directly as the zipper when you reach the top such that you continue moving forward instead of up when you go off the zipper (this is used on rWS and DKSC). Second, if you clip through the seam between a wall and the zipper, you can pass right through (this is used on rDKM). Third, you can land on the very top of the zipper in a boost such that when you trick off of it you pass through instead of going up and moving back down to the track (this is also used on rWS). This is because when you hit the zipper for the first time it fails to correct your angle on the first frame. This is why if you approach a zipper from the side edge it will give you a glitchy trick that can result in you facing the wrong way when you land (this can be performed on many tracks such as KC or RR).

BC3 RAMP PHYSICS, SPEED CAPS, RAMP ABUSE

The BC3 ramps are constantly forcing you to decelerate and locking  your speed at 50 until you touch the ground. Because the BC3 ramps are placed right beside driveable banisters, if you land on these banisters immediately after you hit the ramp you won’t lose your speed and by hopping you can jam your trick to get higher speed in your low trick. This allows you to potentially get to 106 speed in the air (using the flame runner - which is the optimal vehicle on the track). There is not an actual name for this technique, however I tend to call it ramp abuse.

ROTATING WHEELIES ON JAGGED GROUND

If your wheelie maintains a stick on jagged ground, it will adjust its rotation to be flat on the ground. During this rotation, it actually cause the vehicle itself to change its trajectory and can allow for some strange things to happen. For example on MC, LC, and rMC, the terrain on the side edges of the track can be driven on in such a way that you alternate back and forth between the flat and slanted parts of the curb. On rYF you can take a turn tighter than you normally can even with a drift by getting a stick and holding a wheelie through the stick. On MC, you can hop while you’re on the slanted part of the curb and get sideways momentum that allows you to take the turn tighter than you could have without abusing the jagged ground.

LAP TIME DISCREPANCIES

Lap 1 will always tend to be slower than laps 2 and 3 because you have to accelerate from 0 km/h, and you start the lap from behind the finish line. Lap 3 tends to be faster than lap 2 because you don’t have to aim to set up for the first turn of the next lap, you’re just aiming for the finish line itself. Cycles can heavily affect this to the point of differing amounts of mushrooms being used on different laps (MH) or just a slower lap overall (RR).

CHARACTER-VEHICLE COMBOS AND STATS

Every character and vehicle combination is slightly different. Each character has slight bonuses in stats over other characters and same applies for vehicles. Where possible, Funky Kong on the Spear is the best combination. However, its drift sometimes lowers its potential and Funky Kong on the Flame Runner becomes the best. Even still, the Flame Runner doesn’t have the perfect drift and its miniturbo and acceleration are poor as well so sometimes Daisy on the Mach Bike reigns supreme. Although sometimes due to new glitches being discovered, a clip must be possible and to cover the greatest distance and take tight turns at the same time you may need to use Baby Daisy on the Bullet Bike due to its extremely low weight and extremely high drift. However you may not want to cover distance, you may need to drive in extremely short circles and accelerate from lower speeds to higher speeds extremely quickly, which is where Toad and Baby Mario on the Quacker become useful. Sometimes you may only need to take one turn extremely tightly in which case acceleration means nothing so Baby Mario on the Bullet Bike is faster. Sometimes you need to lose the least amount of time on slippery offroad in which case Toadette on the Magikruiser is the fastest. Although if you are avoiding the offroad enough then you may want Baby Daisy on the Magikruiser. This is basically a summary of how every character vehicle combination has come to be.

Full character and vehicle stats simplified and expanded here:

https://docs.google.com/document/d/1GE-0pQUUs3j52t13EECg0ky3vMbSv0jCj_a_GKvGpGg/edit

MC vs KC LOW RAMPS

Why is it better to get the lowest possible airtime on the MC ramp but not the KC one? Well, KC has boost panels which sets your speed to 120, and because boost panels are a type of mushroom boost, when you hit the flip trick boost panel your speed stays at 120 instead of locking at 100. This allows you to have a boost mid-air and during your trick. However, as soon as the boost panels run out you will have 100 speed and when that boost runs out, so you want to time your trick such that its boost starts when the previous one finishes. Thanks to the SG spot you can get the ramp low enough for this to happen. You actually start losing time if you make the trick land earlier than when the ramp boosts end because that’s extra boost at the end you miss out on. For MC, the key thing is to make it to the curb bordering the sand and grass while you still have offroad immunity. The boost panel will give you this offroad immunity for the length of its boost and the trick boost will give you the rest of the speed after that. The fastest way to do this is by using RFH on the close side of the curb to get a low ramp that’s less than 7 frames of airtime, meaning you might have to avoid a jammed trick (but that isn’t a problem since you’re facing so far downwards). Then the boost panel boost will give you the ability to drive on the offroad until the boost runs out, which is timed perfectly to reach the curb with good speed and a perfect bounce to allow you to use a broken wheelie rotation and a slightly outside drifting rewheelie to aim for the shroomspot perfectly.

MISCONCEPTIONS/COMMON MISTAKES

WILL ADD SOMETHING SOMEDAY

CATEGORY SPECIFIC MECHANICS

AUTO MECHANICS

When turning in your wheelie with automatic, you lose no speed. However if you hold a 7 left/right input during a wheelie for any more than 16 frames you will immediately go into a drift. Drifts in auto have no miniturbo so their only benefit is on long straights with mandatory slight turns. Currently its only use is on rPG, where in the hedge maze you can continuously chain wheelies by just holding left and right to manoeuvre around the hedges (accounting for 1 frame of max +5 every time you have to avoid drifting). In auto soft drifts will happen on a 6 input and drifts will not start with a 5 input.

There is a mechanic known as an “artificial luck wheelie”, which involves cancelling the wheelie by holding a direction enough to start a drift and then wheelieing on the earliest possible frame — this is equivalent to a regular luck wheelie (full chain). There is also a mechanic known as an “auto hop”. While drifting with auto, smashing the stick in the opposite direction within 1 frame will bounce the bike in air comparable to a manual hop. Auto hops are possible without a full input change in 1 frame but that is the most optimal. This happens because auto hops will happen if your roll is at least 12 degrees and you will always maintain this angle if you change directions in 1 frame.

Auto hops are possible when drifting at least +-6 for 12 frames

Frames of drifting on flat ground

Amount of airtime (frames) in auto hop

Frames of drifting on flat ground

Amount of airtime (frames) in auto hop

12

2

19-20

17

13

8

21

18

14

9

22-26

19

15

11

27-30

20

16

13

31-58

21

17

15

59-73

20

18

16

74+

21

OUTSIDE DRIFT MECHANICS

NOT USEFUL AT THE MOMENT

KART MECHANICS - dylan pls help

ADD KART-SPECIFIC TECH HERE

300CC MECHANICS

In 300cc your maximum regular speed and the absolute speed limit are both set at 200km/h. This means wheelies have no use except for acceleration and their unique movement quirks. This also means that miniturbos are unnecessary except for acceleration and that mushroom boosts are unnecessary except for acceleration and offroad immunity.

Because the trickable mushroom speed on MG is a fixed value and the minimum speed required to be able to trick on any surface is proportional to your maximum regular speed, there are some issues. You require just under 100 speed in 300cc to be able to trick and the mushroom speed is 73. You can trick off of one mushroom, but if you hit a second one immediately after and try to trick, you won’t be able to get a trick unless you have used a mushroom before to allow you to have 100kmh. So, the only way to get this to work is to trick off of only ONE mushroom before landing on normal road or a green mushroom to get your trick boost.

GRAND PRIX MECHANICS

SPEED LIMITS

All the speed limit multipliers and percentages are the same except in Grand Prix you have to include a couple extra ones. 100cc is 90% of any speed value you would have in 150cc, 50cc is 80% of any speed value you would have in 150cc, and battle speed is 70% of any speed value you would have in 150cc.

ITEM SPEEDS

Getting shrunk by lightning (getting “shocked”) or from a thundercloud will reduce your speed to 70% of what it was without being small. Plus, getting squashed (by a car, thwomp, or mega mushroom) will reduce your speed to 70% of what it was without being in a squashed state. This means that if you get shrunk and squashed you will only have 49% of your original speed and therefore cannot drift.

TC GLITCH

An extremely unlikely scenario that occurs when your player interacts with a ground star and a CPU with a thundercloud. The way you perform it is; get a CPU to get a TC, then wait for the TC to run out without it being passed on even once. The same frame the TC runs out, have the cpu pass it to you and touch a ground star on the same frame. You then keep the speed boost, acceleration boost, and offroad immune properties of a TC without getting shrunk. It lasts until you fall off the map or enter a cannon. It also lasts through bullet bills, mega mushrooms, stars, and POWs.

RNG, FUNCTION, MANIPULATION - citri pls help once you’ve learned

It is currently not possible to write this section properly until TASing tools are better and the game is more understood

ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS:

Responsible for writing and/or collecting information in here:

Kierio04

dm248

CampbellMop

CF

Jellopuff

LuigiM

Malleo

DwainiumB

RS Extreme

BlazeMSX

mkwLuke

TASPlasma

Citrinitas

Responsible for teaching me the things I wrote on my own:

mkwLuke

Malleo

TASPlasma

cf

DwainiumB

Reo/pfmp721

ApeX TAS

Citrinitas

RS Extreme

Responsible for supporting me through the creation of this document

Ejay B, dm248, CampbellMop, Wade474, cf, Jellopuff

Websites and videos used to learn and confirm things written:

Mario Kart Wii Page on Custom Tracks Wiiki - Drift Speed

Malleo’s Soft Drifting Video - Illegal Inputs

ArcIntel’s Wheelie Chains Video - Wheelie Chains

LuigiM’s MG lap 1 TAS Video - Basic Mushroom Abuse

Jellopuff's MG 30.4 flap TAS video - Mushroom Abuse

Jellopuff's MG 30.0 flap TAS video - 92 km/h Mushroom Abuse

TASPlasma’s Drifting out of Offroad Video - Wheelie vs Drift Acceleration

RS Extreme’s RR 3lap TAS Video - Wall Boosts

Summoning Salt’s Ultra Shortcut Video - Checkpoint System

Malleo’s 95% Rule Video - Checkpoint System

BlazeMSX’s 10 CT Ultras Video - Avoiding OOB

CF’s Kalimari Desert Ultra Video - Avoiding OOB

Reo’s MT New Faster Strat Video - Taildive Reverse Drift

Jellopuff’s 1.466 GV Flap Video - Broken Wheelie Hop

TAS Snoop’s DK Mountain TAF Video - Broken Wheelie 360 degree Rotation

CF’s BC3 Barrel Roll Video - Barrel Roll Clips

TASPlasma’s Bat Clip Video - Bat Clip

Malleo’s MT 3lap TAS Video - QM

Luke’s MH 3lap TAS Video - Cycles Causing Different Shroomstrats

The Ancient Poop’s 300cc MG 3lap TAS Video - 300cc MG Mushrooms

(THESE CAN ALSO BE USED AS EXAMPLES FOR TOPICS THAT WERE TOO COMPLICATED AND NEEDED VISUAL EXPLANATION)

Originally completed 18 July 2020

The contents of this document, which was written and compiled majorly by myself, is my intellectual property