To share use this link:


This reading list was collectively produced by a group of architectural historians, art historians, architects, and urbanists in reaction to the August 2017 events in Charlottesville, and revisited in 2020 after the murder of George Floyd. We have assembled a series of readings on how race and racism are constructed with spatial means, and on how in turn space can be shaped by racism. The list is meant primarily as a teaching resource and is open for viewing and sharing. A parallel archive collects the pdfs of some of these texts here.



Contributions to this list were made by Marta Gutman, Brian Goldstein, Ana María León, Olga Touloumi, Patrick Haughey, Dubravka Sekulić, Ayala Levin, Itohan Osayimwese, Irene Cheng, Irina Chernyakova, Rachel Lee, Ginger Nolan, Mechtild Widrich, Anooradha Iyer Siddiqi, Alla Vronskaya, Michael Abrahamson, Sara Stevens, Daniel Cardoso-Llach, Gabriel Fuentes, Armaghan Ziaee. Additional suggestions by Mimi Zeiger, Kazys Varnelis, Susanō Surface, Joy Knoblauch, Rebecca Uchill, Mary Lou Lobsinger, Will Galloway. After the document had been assembled, I reached out to Dianne Harris, Dell Upton, and Mabel O. Wilson, they all recommended additional texts.


Editors: Brian Goldstein, Marta Gutman, Ana María León, Dubravka Sekulić, Amber Wiley. If you would like to submit texts please email one of the editors. Contributions submitted by Armaghan Ziaee, Charlotte Malterre Barthes, Ana Miljački, Swati Chattopadhyay, Erica Allen-Kim, Irina Chernyakova, Emily Kutil, Patricia Morton, Ann Lui, Suha Babikir Hasan, Susanne Schindler, Anne Kockelkorn, Ayala Levin, Alexandra Staub, Azra Dawood, Danielle Willkens, Christina Crawford, Anette Freytag, Anita Bakshi, Kate-John Alder and Laura Lawson, Felecia Davis, María González Pendás, Nadine Fattaleh, Diana Martinez, Dexter Walcott, Meredith TenHoor, Jay Cephas, Antonio Pacheco, Victoria Ogoegbunam Okoye, Patty Heyda, Megan Holmes, Pat Simons, Tijana Vujosevic.


The list means to be a resource but does not aim to be comprehensive. When there are multiple versions of the same text, we try to select the best sources. We’re avoiding journalistic pieces and prioritizing BIPOC voices. We use CMOS bibliography format, alphabetized by section. Before submitting, please check if texts are not already in the list, and let us know which sections they best fit in.


3 September 2017

Dear all, Thanks so much for your participation in this crowdsourced reading list! As the Fall semester approaches, I can no longer keep track of it, and am closing further edits. It looks though like we’ve reached a good point at which to stop, or at least pause. I’ve changed settings so ongoing collaborators can comment. If you find you want to add something, please email me or add a comment. To be continued, I hope! AML

9 September 2017

Dear all, Dubravka has generated an archive of pdfs (still growing) for most of the texts below. If any of you would rather not have their personal work included, please just reach out and let us know. The archive can be found here. AML [3 June 2020: link updated!]

20 December 2018

Dear all, this project led to a parallel project on SPACE/GENDER which you can find here.

30 May 2020

For the SPACE/BODY list, related to the Covid-19 global pandemic, click here.

1 June 2020

Dear all, after the events of last week many folks have reached out about this list. It’s made me realize it could use some updating. If you have additional edits, please let me know.

4 June 2020

The list is currently being updated by Brian Goldstein, Armaghan Ziaee, Amber Wiley, Ana María León, Marta Gutman, Dubravka Sekulić. If you would like to submit texts please email one of the editors.

11 June 2020

For submissions, we appreciate it if you can check if texts are not already in the list, and let us know which sections they best fit in. We’re trying to move everything to CMOS bibliography format, alphabetized by section. However, if you’re not able to send formatted texts, we still appreciate your suggestions! Thanks, AML

14 June 2020

Please keep in mind the list means to be a resource but does not aim to be comprehensive. When multiple items are submitted (for instance multiple versions of the same text) we try to select best sources. We’re avoiding journalistic pieces and prioritizing BIPOC voices.

29 June 2020

Thanks to Susanō Surface we now have an easy-to-share link:

25 August 2020

I brought all contributors to the first page and added a brief explanation on the two stages of the list. AML

Please note this list has been shared by several organizations and institutions but it was put together outside of these institutions and has no links to them beyond those of specific individuals.



“Accomplices Not Allies: Abolishing the Ally Industrial Complex.” Indigenous Action Media, May 4, 2014.

Anzaldúa, Gloria. Borderlands/La Frontera: The New Mestiza, San Francisco: Aunt Lute Books, 1987, 77-98.

Césaire, Aimé. Discourse on Colonialism. New York: MR, 1972.

Fanon, Frantz. The Wretched of the Earth. New York: Grove Press, 1963.

Gilroy, Paul. The Black Atlantic: Modernity and Double Consciousness (Cambridge: Harvard University Press, 1993).

Lorde, Audre. “The Master’s Tools Will Never Dismantle the Master’s House” and “The Transformation of Silence into Language and Action” from Sister Outsider: Speeches and Essays. Ed. Berkeley, CA: Crossing Press, 40-44, 110-114.

Mbembe, Achille, “Decolonizing Knowledge and the Question of the Archive” (2015).

Mignolo, Walter D. “Epistemic Disobedience, Independent Thought and De-Colonial Freedom,” Theory, Culture and Society 26, n. 7-8 (2009): 1-23.

Rivera Cusicanqui, Silvia. “Ch'ixinakax utxiwa: A Reflection on the Practices and Discourses of Decolonization,” South Atlantic Quarterly (2011), 111(1): 95-109.

Tuck, Eve (Aleut) and K. Wayne Yang. 2012. “Decolonization is Not a Metaphor.” Decolonization: Indigeneity, Education, Society 1, no. 1: 1-40.

Vimalassery, Manu, Juliana Hu Pegues, and Alyosha Goldstein. "Introduction: On Colonial Unknowing." Theory & Event 19, no. 4 (2016)

See Additional Resources, Standing Rock Syllabus,“Basics of Settler Colonialism.”

Anti-Racism, Race, Racism, and Racial Capitalism

Allen, Theodore. Class Struggle and the Origin of Racial Slavery: The Invention of the White Race. London and New York: Verso, 1975.

Anderson, Benedict R., “Patriotism and Racism,” in  Imagined Communities: Reflections on the Origin and Spread of Nationalism. London; New York: Verso, 1991, 141-154.

Ahsan, Hamja Shy Radicals: The Antisystemic Politics of the Militant Introvert. London: Bookworks, 2019.

Baldwin, James, “A Letter to my Nephew,” The Progressive (1962),

Kimberlé Crenshaw, Neil T. Gotanda, Gary Peller, and Kendall Thomas. "Critical Race Theory: The Key Writings That Formed the Movement,"  (New York, NY: The New Press, 1996).

Ferreira da Silva, Denise. Toward a Global Idea of Race. Minneapolis: University of Minnesota Press, 2007.

Gordon-Reed, Annette. Racism in America: A Reader. Cambridge: Harvard University Press, 2020.

Harris, Cheryl I., “Whiteness as Property” Harvard Law Review, Vol. 106, No. 8, p. 1707, 1993; UCLA School of Law Research Paper No. 06-35. Available at SSRN: 

Haney-Lopéz, Ian. White by Law: The Legal Construction of Race. New York, NY: NYU Press, 2006.

Kendi, Ibram X. How to be an Antiracist. One World, 2019

Margonis, Frank. “John Dewey, W.E.B. Du Bois and Alain Locke: A Case Study in White Ignorance and Intellectual Segregation,” in Race and the Epistemologies of Ignorance, edited by Shannon Sullivan and Nancy Tuana, 173-195. Albany: SUNY Press, 2007.

Mbembe, Achille and Libby Meintjes, “Necropolitics,” Public Culture 15, no. 1 (March 25, 2003): 11–40.

Geographies of Racial Capitalism with Ruth Wilson Gilmore, 

Robinson, Cedric J. Black Marxism: The Making of the Black Radical Tradition. (London: Zed Press, 1983). 

Rodney, Walter. How Europe Underdeveloped Africa. London: Verso, 2018 [1972]

Wekker, Gloria. White Innocence: Paradoxes of Colonialism and Race. Durham: Combined Academic Publ., 2016.

Subaltern Studies/Postcolonial

Banerjee, Prathama. The Politics of Time: Primitives and History Writing in a Colonial Society. Delhi: Oxford University Press, 2006.

Chakrabarty, Dipesh. Provincializing Europe: Postcolonial Thought and Historical Difference. Princeton: Princeton University Press, 2000.

Gramsci, Antonio. Selections from the Prison Notebooks, ed and trans. by Quintin Hoare and Geoffrey Nowell Smith (1971; New York: International Publishers, 1991).

Lloyd, David. “Representation’s coup,” Interventions: International Journal of Postcolonial Studies 16, no 1 (Sep 2012): 1-29.

Mignolo, Walter “Subalterns and other agencies,” in Swati Chattopadhyay and Bhaskar Sarkar, (eds), PostColonial Studies 8, no 4 (2005), 381-408.

Mmembe, Achille. On the Postcolony (Berkeley: University of California Press, 2001).

Rabasa, José Without History: Subaltern Studies, the Zapatista Insurgency, and the Specter of History (University of Pittsburgh Press, 2010).

Spivak, Gayatri Chakravorty “Can the Subaltern Speak?” in Marxism and the Interpretation of Culture, ed. Cary Nelson and Lawrence Grossberg (University of Illinois Press, 1988).


Azouley, Ariella Aïsha.  Potential Histories: Unlearning Imperialism. London: Verso, 2019.

Balibar, Ètienne and Immanuel Wallerstein, Race, Nation, Class: Ambiguous Identities, trans. Chris Turner (London; New York: Verso, 1991).

Blaut, J. M. The Colonizer’s Model of the World: Geographical Diffusionism and Eurocentric History. Guilford Press, 2012.

Bhabha, Homi K. “Of Mimicry and Man: The Ambivalence of Colonial Discourse,” October 28 (Spring 1984): 125-133

Bhabha, Homi K. Location of Culture (New York, Routledge, 1992).

Bhandar, Brenna. Colonial Lives of Property: Land, Law, and Racial Regimes of Ownership (Raleigh: Duke University press, 2018).

Berger, Stephen  and Alexei Miller, eds. Nationalizing Empires (Budapest: Central European University Press, 2015).

Buck-Morss, Susan. Hegel, Haiti and Universal History. Pittsburgh: University of Pittsburgh Press, 2009.

Chakrabarty, Dipesh Provincializing Europe: Postcolonial Thought and Historical Difference (Princeton: Princeton University Press, 2000).

Chatterjee, Partha The Nation and Its Fragments: Colonial and Postcolonial Histories (Princeton: Princeton University Press, 1993).

Dussel, Enrique Invention of the Americas: Eclipse of "the Other" and the Myth of Modernity (New York: Continuum, 1995).

Duncan, Bell. The Idea of Greater Britain: Empire and the Future of World Order Princeton: Princeton University Press, 2007.

Gilroy, Paul The Black Atlantic: Modernity and Double Consciousness. Cambridge: Harvard University Press, 1993.

Glissant, Édouard. One World in Relation, Manthia Diawara, dir. (K’a Yéléma Productions, 2009)

Henni, Samia “Colonial Ramifications,” in History/Theory, e-flux architecture (31 October 2018),

Hobsbawm, Eric. The Age of Empire 1875-1914 New York: Pantheon Books, 1987.

Linebaugh, Peter and Marcus Rediker. The Many-Headed Hydra. Sailors, Slaves, Commoners, and the Hidden History of the Revolutionary Atlantic. Boston: Beacon Press, 2013.

Lowe, Lisa. The Intimacies of Four Continents. Durham: Duke University Press, 2015.

McClintok, Anne  Imperial Leather: Race, Gender and Sexuality in the Colonial Contest Routledge, 1995.

Mitchell, W. J. T., ed. “Imperial Landscape,” in Landscape and Power. 2nd edition. Chicago: University Of Chicago Press, 2002, pp. 5-30.

Quijano, Aníbal “Coloniality of Power, Eurocentrism, and Latin America,” in Nepantla: views from South 1, no. 3 (2000): 533-580.

Said, Edward. Ch 1/Section 1: “Empire, Geography, and Culture,” in Culture and Imperialism (1993), 3-14.

Stoler, Laura Ann, eds. Imperial Debris: On Ruins and Ruination. Durham: Duke University Press, 2013.

Stone, Jeffrey C. “Imperialism, Colonialism and Cartography,” Transactions of the Institute of British Geographers 13, no. 1 (1988): 57-64.

Yusoff, Kathryn. A Billion Black Anthropocenes or None. Minnesota Press, 2019.

Blackness, Reparations, and Black Resistance

Coates, Ta-Nehisi, “The Case for Reparations." The Atlantic 313, no. 5 (2014): 54-71.

Coates, Ta-Nehisi Between the World and Me (New York: Spiegel & Grau, 2015).

Cohen-Aponte, Ananda. “Reimagining Lost Visual Archives of Black and Indigenous Resistance.” Selva: A Journal of the History of Art, 3 (Fall 2021): 157-174.

Hartman, Saidiya. Wayward Lives, Beautiful Experiments: Intimate Histories of Riotous Black Girls, Troublesome Women, and Queer Radicals. New York: W.W. Norton and Co., 2019.

Harney, Stefano and Fred Moten, The Undercommons: Fugitive Planning & Black Study (New York: Minor Compositions, 2013).

Human Rights Watch, The Case for Reparations in Tulsa, Oklahoma: A Human Rights Argument, May 2020.

McKittrick, Katherine. Dear Science and Other Stories. Durham: Duke University Press, 2021.

Sharpe, Christina. In the Wake: On Blackness and Being. Duke University Press, 2016.

Pedagogy and Resistance

Freire, Paulo. Pedagogy of the Oppressed (New York: Continuum, 1970).

hooks, bell. Teaching to Transgress: Education as the Practice of Freedom. New York: Routledge, 1994).

la paperson, A Third University is Possible. University of Minnesota Press, 2017.  

Kovach, Margaret. Indigenous Methodologies: Characteristics, Conversations and Contexts. Toronto: University of Toronto Press, 2009

Smith, Linda Tuhiwai. Decolonizing Methodologies: Research and Indigenous Peoples. 2 edition. London: Zed Books, 2012.

Sutton, Sharon E. Weaving a Tapestry of Resistance: The Places, Power, and Poetry of a Sustainable Society (Westport, CT: Bergin & Garvey, 1996)

Tuck and Yang, eds. Toward What Justice?: Describing Diverse Dreams of Justice in Education (Routledge 2018).


Architectural History

Bates, Niya. "Race & Architectural History: An Appeal." Arris: The Journal of the Southeast Chapter of Architectural Historians 27 (2016): 53.

Baydar, G. "Toward Postcolonial Openings: Rereading Sir Banister Fletcher's "History of Architecture"." Assemblage, no. 35 (1998): 7-17.

Baydar, Gülsüm, “The Cultural Burden of Architecture,” Journal of Architectural Education 57:4 (2004): 19-27.

Bozdogan, Sibel, “Orientalism and Architectural Culture,” Social Scientist 14:7 (1986): 46-58

Cheng, Irene, Charles L. Davis II, and Mabel O. Wilson, “Racial Evidence,” in JSAH (2017), 76(4): 440-442.

Tarrido-Picart, Héctor. “Valuing Black Lives Means Changing the Curricula.” Aggregate, Vol. 2 (March 2015).


Brown, Adrienne. The Black Skyscraper: Architecture and the Perception of Race. John Hopkins University Press, 2017.

Brown, David and William Williams. Row: Trajectories Through the Shotgun House. Rice School of Architecture, 2004.

Cheng, Irene, Charles L. Davis II and Mable O. Wilson, ed. Race and Modern Architecture: A Critical History from the Enlightenment to the Present. Pittsburgh: University of Pittsburgh Press, 2020.

Cheng, Irene. “Race and Architectural Geometry: Thomas Jefferson’s Octagons.” J19: The Journal of Nineteenth-Century Americanists, 2015.

Curry, Milton, “Spatializing Blackness” CNN: Definitive Design (8 December 2017), 

Davis, Charles. Building Character: The Racial Politics of Modern Architectural Style, 1860-1945. University of Pittsburgh, 2019.

Fields, Darell Wayne. Architecture in Black. London: Bloomsbury Academic, 2000.

Golden, Thelma, ed. Harlemworld: Metropolis as Metaphor. The Studio Museum in Harlem, 2004.

Gooden, Mario. Dark Space: Architecture, Representation, Black Identity (New York: Columbia Books on Architecture and the City, 2016).

hooks, bell, “Black Vernacular: Architecture as Cultural Practice,” in hooks, Art on My Mind: Visual Politics. New York: W.W. Norton, 1995, 145-151.

Lokko, Lesley Naa Norle. White Papers, Black Marks: Architecture, Race, Culture. University of Minnesota Press, 2000.

​​Neylan, Susan. “Longhouses, Schoolrooms, and Workers’ Cottages: Nineteenth-Century Protestant Missions to the Tsimshian and the Transformation of Class Through Religion”, Journal of the Canadian Historical Association, Vol. 11, Issue 1 (2000), 51-86.

Teyssot, Georges, “The Story of an Idea.” In A Topology of Everyday Constellations (Cambridge, MA: MIT Press, 2013).

Van Slyck, Abigail A., “Mañana, Mañana: Racial Stereotypes and the Anglo Rediscovery of the Southwest's Vernacular Architecture, 1890-1920,” Perspectives in Vernacular Architecture 5 (1995), 95-108.

Varnelis, Kazys. “‘We Cannot Not Know History’: Philip Johnson’s Politics and Cynical Survival.” Journal of Architectural Education 49, no. 2 (November 1, 1995): 92–104. Also available here.

West, Cornel, “Race and Architecture,” in The Cornel West Reader (New York: Basic Books, 1999), 220-238. [See also West, Cornel, “A Note on Race and Architecture,” in Keeping Faith: Philosophy and Race in America (New York: Routledge, 1993).]

Wilkins, Craig. “Bi-space: the Original Social Networking Site,” Swati Chattopadhyay and Jeremy White (eds.) Critical Approaches to Contemporary Architecture (London: Routledge, 2019), pp. 337-350.

Wilkins, Craig. The Aesthetics of Equity: Notes on Race, Space, Architecture, and Music. Minneapolis: University of Minnesota Press, 2007.

Wilson, Mabel O., “Changing the Subject: Mabel O. Wilson on Race and Public Space” Artforum (Summer 2017) 

Younés, Samir, “The Empire of Masks: Pluralism and Monism in Politics and Architecture,” Philosophy 79:310 (2004): 533-551.


Arabindan-Kesson, Anna. White Gold: Art, Cotton, and Commerce in the Atlantic World (Durham: Duke University Press, 2021).

Azoulay, Ariella. The Civil Contract of Photography. New York: Zone Books, 2008.

Bindman, David, Ape to Apollo: Aesthetics and the Idea of Race in the 18th Century. London: Reaktion, 2002.

Boime, Albert. The Art of Exclusion: Representing Blacks in the Nineteenth Century. Washington: Smithsonian, 1992.

Chattopadhyay, Swati. Unlearning the City: Infrastructure in a New Optical Field. Minneapolis: Minnesota University Press, 2012).

Cheng, Anne Anlin, Second Skin: Josephine Baker & the Modern Surface. Oxford University Press, 2010.

Dutta, Arindam. “Strangers within the Gate”: Public Works and Industrial Reform,” in Peter Scriver and Vikramaditya Prakash (eds), Colonial Modernities: Building, Dwelling and Architecture in British India and Ceylon. London: Routledge, 2007: 93-114.

Frazier, E. Franklin, “Racial Self-Expression,” Ebony and Topaz: A Collectanea, ed. Charles S. Johnson, National Urban League, 1927

Holloway, Camara Dia, “Critical Race Art History,” Art Journal 75 no. 1 (2016): 89-92

Hughes, Langston, “The Negro Artist and the Racial Mountain,” Nation June 23, 1926

James, C.L.R. Beyond a Boundary. Durham: Duke University Press, 1993.

Lloyd, David. Under Representation: The Racial Regime of Aesthetics. Fordham University Press,  2018).

Morrison, Toni. Playing in the Dark: Whiteness and the Literary Imagination. Harvard University Press, 1992.

Natanson, Nicholas. The Black Image in the New Deal: The Politics of FSA Photography. Knoxville: University of Tennessee Press, 1992.

Peteet, Julie. “The Writings on the Walls: The Graffiti of the Intifada,” Cultural Anthropology 11, no 2 (1996): 139-59.

Schuyler, George S., “The Negro-Art Hokum,” Nation June 16, 1926

Summers, Brandi Thompson, Black in Place: The Spatial Aesthetics of Race in a Post-Chocolate City (Chapel Hill: University of North Carolina Press, 2019).

Taylor, Diana. The Archive and the Repertoire: Performing Cultural Memory in the Americas. Durham: Duke University Press, 2003.

 Thompson, Krista. “The evidence of things not photographed,” Representations 113 (Winter 2011): 39- 71.



Benton, Lauren. A Search for Sovereignty: Law and Geography in European Empires, 1400-1900 (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2010).

Blomley, Nicholas. “Law, Property, and the Geography of Violence: The Frontier, the Survey, and the Grid,” Annals of the Association of American Geographers 92, no. 1 (Mar., 2003): 121-141.

Chattopadhyay, Swati. “Urbanism, Colonialism, and Subalternity,” in Tim Edensor and Mark Jayne, eds. Urban Theory Beyond the West (Routledge, 2012): 75-92.

Gott, Richard. Britain’s Empire: Resistance, Repression and Revolt (London: Verso, 2011).

Gowans, Georgina.  “Imperial Geographies of Home: Memsahibs and Miss-Sahibs in India and Britain, 1915-1947, Cultural Geographies 10, no 4 (Oct 2003): 424-441.

Hou, Jeffrey, ed. Guerilla Urbanism and the Remaking of Contemporary Cities (New York: Taylor and Francis, 2010).

Jacobs, Jane. Edge of Empire: Postcolonialism and the City (London: Routledge, 1996).

Lange, Matthew James Mahoney, and Matthias vom Hau, “Colonialism and Development: A Comparative Analysis of Spanish and British Colonies,” American Journal of Sociology 111, no. 5 (2006): 1412-1462.

Lloyd, David and Peter D. O’Neil, eds, The Black and Green Atlantic: Cross-Currents of the African and Irish Diasporas. Palgrave Macmillan, 2009.

Mehta, Uday. S. Liberalism and Empire: A Study in Nineteenth-century British Liberal Thought (Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1999).

Sen, Arijit. “Discarding Corb’s Shoes: Marginal Voices and Local Histories from the Urban Edge,” in Chandigarh Rethink: Transforming Ruralities & Edge(ness) in Global Urbanities, ed. Manu Sobti (San Francisco, ORA Editions, 2017), 65-75.

Sheppard, Eric and Vinay Gidwani, Michael Goldman, Helga Leitner, Ananya Roy, and Anant Maringanti, “Introduction: Urban revolutions in the age of global urbanism,” Urban Studies 52, no. 11 (2015): 1947-1961.

Simone, AbdouMaliq. Improvised Lives: Rhythms of Endurance in an Urban South (Cambridge: Polity Press, 2019).

Simone, AbdouMaliq. City Life from Jakarta to Dakar: Movements at the Crossroads (London: Taylor and Francis, 2009).

Stewart,  Pamela J.and Andrew Strathern, eds. Landscape, Memory and History: Anthropological Perspectives (London: Pluto Press, 2003).

Zeleza, Paul Tiyambe, “African Diasporas: Toward a Global History,” African Studies Review 53 no. 1 (April 2010): 1-19.


Boonen, Sofie and Johan Lagae, “A city constructed by 'des gens d’ailleurs': urban development and migration policies in colonial Lubumbashi, 1910-1930,” (2015) Comparative: Zeitschrift für Globalgeschichte und vergleichende Gesellschaftsforschung, 25(4), 51-69.

Cell, John W.“Anglo-Indian Medical Theory and the Origins of Segregation in West Africa,” The American Historical Review 91, no 3, (April, 1986).

Myers, Garth A.  Verandahs of Power: Colonialism and Space in Urban Africa New York: Syracuse University Press, 2003).

Myers,Garth A.  “Intellectual of Empire: Eric Dutton and Hegemony in British Africa,” Annals of  the Association of American Geographers 88, no 1 (Mar., 1998): 1-27.

Osborn, Emily Lynn. 'Rubber Fever', Commerce and French Colonial Rule in Upper Guinée, 1890-1913,” The Journal of African History 45, no. 3 (2004): 445-465.

Schumaker, Lynette. “A tent with a view: colonial officers, anthropologists, and the making of the field in Northern Rhodesia, 1937-1960,” Osiris 11 (1996):  237-258.

Silverman, Debora L. “Art Nouveau, Art of Darkness: African Lineages of Belgian Modernism.” West 86th: A Journal of Decorative Arts, Design History, and Material Culture 18, no. 2 (2011): 139-181.

Simone, AbdouMaliq. For a City Yet to Come: Changing African Lives in Four African Cities. Durham: Duke University Press, 2004.

Van den Braembussche, Antoon “The Silence of Belgium: Taboo and Trauma in Belgian Memory,” Yale French Studies 102 (2002): 34-52.

VanderKnyff, Rick “Parlor Illusions: Stereoscopic Views of Sub-Saharan Africa,” African Arts 40: 3 (2007): 50-63.

Wright, Gwendolyn. “Colonial Opportunities,” in The Politics of Design in French Colonial Urbanism. Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1991, pp. 53-84.

South Africa

Christopher, A.J. “From Flint to Soweto: Reflections on the Colonial Origins of the Apartheid City,” Area 15, no 2 (1983): 145-149.

Keegan, Timothy J. Colonial South Africa and the Origins of the Racial Order. Reconsiderations in Southern African History, x, 368 p. Charlottesville: University Press of Virginia, 1996. [organization and reorganization of Cape Town during and after slavery]

Maylam, Paul. “Explaining the Apartheid City: 20 Years of South African Urban Historiography,” Journal of Southern African Studies 21, no 1 (Mar.c, 1995): 19038.

Northern Africa

Çelik, Zeynep. Urban Forms and Colonial Confrontations: Algiers under French Rule. Berkeley, CA: University of California Press, 1997.

Çelik, Zeynep. “Le Corbusier, Orientalism, Colonialism,” Assemblage (1992).

Çelik, Zeynep. Empire, Architecture, and the City: French-Ottoman Encounters. Seattle: University of Washington, Press, 2008.

Crane, Sheila “The Shantytown in Algiers and the Colonization of Everyday Life,” in Kenny Cupers (ed.) Use Matters: An Alternative History of Architecture, London; New York: Routledge, 2013, p. 103-119.

Henni, Samia Architecture of Counterrevolution: The French Army in Northern Algeria. ETH/gtaVerlag, 2017.

Mitchell, Timothy. Colonising Egypt. Berkeley: University of California Press, 1992.

Rabinow, Paul. “Techno-Cosmopolitanism: Governing Morocco,” in French modern: norms and forms of the social environment. Cambridge Mass.: MIT Press, 1989, pp. 277-319.

South Asia

Adams, Julia. “Principals and Agents, Colonialists and Company Men: The Decay of Colonial Control in the Dutch East Indies.” American Sociological Review 61, no. 1 (February 1, 1996): 12–28.

Arnold, David. Colonizing the Body: State Medicine and Epidemic Disease in Nineteenth-Century India (Berkeley: University of California, Press, 1993).

Axelrod, Paul and Mishelle Fuerch, “Flight of the Deities: Hindu Resistance in Portuguese Goa,” Modern Asian Studies 30, no. 2 (1996): 387-421.

Banerjee, Prathama.  The Politics of Time: Primitives and History Writing in a Colonial Society Delhi: Oxford University Press, 2006.

Blunt, Alison. “Imperial Geographies of Home: British Domesticity in India, 1886-1925,”

                 Transactions of the Institute of British Geographers 24, no. 4 (1999): 421-440.

Bremner, G. Alex. “Nation and Empire in the Government Architecture of Mid-Victorian London: The Foreign and India Office Reconsidered,” The Historical Journal 48, no. 3 (2005): 703-742.

Chhabria, Sheetal. Making the Modern Slum: The Power of Capital in Colonial Bombay (Seattle: University of Washington Press, 2019).

Chattopadhyay, Swati. "Blurring Boundaries: The Limits of "White Town" in Colonial Calcutta." Journal of the Society of Architectural Historians 59, no. 2 (2000): 154-79.

———. “Cities of power and protest: spatial legibility and the colonial state in

early twentieth-century India,” in Cities of Power, Göran Therborn (ed), International Journal of Urban Science (Fall 2014), 1-13.

———.  “Colonial sovereignty and territorial affect,” Western Humanities Review (Fall

 2018): 124-155.

———. "'Goods, Chattels and Sundry Items': Constructing Nineteenth-Century Anglo-Indian Domestic Life." Journal of Material Culture 7, no. 3 (November 2002): 243-71.

———. Representing Calcutta: Modernity, Nationalism, and the Colonial Uncanny.  London and New York: Routledge, 2005.

Glover, Will. Making Lahore Modern: Constructing and Imagining a Colonial City. Minneapolis: University of Minnesota Press, 2007.

Guha, Ranajit. Elementary Aspects of Peasant Insurgency in Colonial India (1983; Durham: Duke University Press, 1991).

Guha, Ranajit. Dominance Without Hegemony. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press, 1998.

Hosagrahar, Jyoti, Indigenous Modernities: Negotiating Architecture and Urbanism, London and New York: Routledge Press, 2005.

Jack-Hinton, Colin “Malacca and Goa and the Question of Race Relations in the Portuguese Overseas Provinces.” Journal of Southeast Asian History 10, no. 3 (December 1, 1969): 513–39.

Kenny, Judith. “Climate, Race, and Imperial Authority: The Symbolic Landscape of the British Hill Station in India,” Annals of the Association of American Geographers 85:4 (1995), 694-714.

Kidambi, Prashant. The Making of an Indian Metropolis: Colonial Governance and Public Culture in Bombay, 1890-1920 (Ashgate: Aldershot, 2007).

Legg, Stephen. Spaces of Colonialism: Delhi’s Urban Governmentalities (Oxford: Blackwell, 2007).

———.  Prostitution and the Ends of Empire: Scale, Governmentalities, and Interwar India. Durham: Duke University Press, 2011.

Metcalf, Thomas. “Architecture and Representation of Empire: India, 1860-1910,” Representations 6 (1986): 37-65.

Prakash, Om.  “From Negotiation to Coercion: Textile Manufacturing in India in the Eighteenth Century,” Modern Asian Studies 41, no. 6 (2007): 1331-1368.

Taylor, Jeremy E. “The Bund: Littoral Space of Empire in the Treaty Ports of East Asia,” Social History 27:2 (2002): 125-142.

Wherritt, Irene. “Portuguese Language Shift: About Town in Goa, India.” Hispania 72, no. 2 (May 1, 1989): 385–91.

Southeast Asia

Brody, David. Visualizing American Empire: Orientalism and Imperialism in the Philippines (University of Chicago Press, 2010)

Kusno, Abidin. Behind the Postcolonial: Architecture, Urban Space and Political Cultures in Indonesia (London: Routledge 2000).

Pieris, Anoma.  “Defensive Alterity on Contemporary Sri Lankan Architecture,” in Swati Chattopadhyay and Jeremy White (eds.) Critical Approaches to Contemporary

 Architecture (London: Routledge, 2019), pp. 200-214.

Scott, James C. Domination and the Arts of Resistance: Hidden Transcripts (New Haven: Yale University Press, 1991).

Central Asia

Farris, Jonathan A. “Thirteen Factories of Canton,” Buildings & Landscapes 14, no. 2 (2007): 66-83.

Guha, Ramachandra. The Unquiet Woods: Ecological Change and Peasant Resistance in the Himalayas (Berkeley: University of California Press, 2000).

Roskam, Cole. Improvised City: Architecture and Governance in Shanghai, 1843-1937 (Seattle: University of Washington Press, 2019).


Carter, Paul  The Road to Botany Bay (Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1987).

De Lorenzo, Catherine. “Confronting Amnesia: Aboriginality and Public Space”, Visual Studies 20, no. 2 (2005), 105-123.

Ford Cozens, Erin., “’With a Pretty Little Garden in the Back’: Domesticity and the Construction of ‘Civilized’ Colonial spaces in Nineteenth Century Aotearoa/New Zealand”, Journal of World History Vol. 25, No. 4 (December 2014), 515-534

Gammage, Bill. The Biggest Estate on Earth: How Aborigines Made Australia. Reprint edition. Sydney: Allen & Unwin, 2013.

Gelder, Ken. “‘Talking out of Place: Authorizing the Aboriginal Sacred in Postcolonial Australia”, Cultural Studies 9, no. 1 (1995), 150-160.

Gelder, Ken and Jane Jacobs, “Uncanny Australia”, Cultural Geographies 2, no. 2 (1995), 171-183.

Jacobs, Jane M. Edge of Empire : Postcolonialism and the City. London ; New York: Routledge, 1996.

Krichauff, Skye. Memory, Place and Aboriginal-Settler History (Anthem, 2017).

Ireland, Tracy. “‘The Absence of Ghosts’: Landscape and Identity in the Archeology of Australia’s Settler Culture,” Historical Archeology 37, no 1 (2003): 56-72.

Liebelt, Belinda and Amy Roberts, Clem O’Loughlin and Doug Milera, “We had to be off by sundown’: Narungga contributions to farming industries on Yorke Peninsula (Guuranda), South Australia,” Aboriginal History 40 (Jan., 2016): 89-117.

Milroy, Jill and Grant Revel, “Aboriginal Story Systems: Remapping the West, Knowing Country, Sharing Space”, Occasion 5 (2013), 20-42.

Moreton-Robinson, Aileen. The White Possessive: Property, Power and Indigenous Sovereignty. Minneapolis: University of Minnesota Press, 2015.

Munn, Nancy.  “Excluded Spaces: The Figure in the Australian Aboriginal Landscape,” Critical  Inquiry  22, No. 3 (Spring, 1996): 446-465.

Pascoe, Bruce. Dark Emu: Aboriginal Australia and the Birth of Agriculture. US edition edition. Scribe US, 2018.

Read, Peter, Belonging: Australians, Place and Aboriginal Ownership. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2000.

Read, Peter. Returning to Nothing: The Meaning of Lost Places Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1996.

Latin America/Spanish Empire

Cohen-Aponte, Ananda. “Decolonizing the Global Renaissance: A View from the Andes,” in The Globalization of Renaissance Art, Daniel Savoy, ed. (Leiden: Brill, 2017), 67-94.

Cummins, Thomas. “Three Gentlemen from Esmeraldas: A Portrait Fit for a King,” in Slave Portraiture in the Atlantic World, Agnes Lugo-Ortiz and Angela Rosenthal, eds. (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2013), 119-145.

Deagan, Kathleen “Reconsidering Taino Social Dynamics after Spanish Conquest: Gender and Class in Culture Contact Studies,” American Antiquity Vol. 69, No. 4 (October 2004).

Lejeune, Jean-François, “Dreams of Order: Utopia, Cruelty, and Modernity,” in Cruelty & Utopia: Cities and Landscapes of Latin America, edited by Jean-François Lejeune. New York: Princeton Architectural Press, 2005, 31-42. [good intro reading for Law of Indies, also book has great images of early layouts]

Lowe, Setha M. “Indigenous Architecture and the Spanish American Plaza in Mesoamerica and the Caribbean,” American Anthropologist Vol. 97, No. 4 (December 1995).

Mariátegui, José Carlos “The Indigenous Question” [1928] in the Heroic and Creative Meaning of Socialism: Selected Essays of José Carlos Mariátegui (Atlantic Highlands, NJ: Humanities Press, 1996), 94-109.

Mariátegui, José Carlos “The Problem of the Indian” in Seven Interpretative Essays on Peruvian Reality. UT Press, 1971.

Mundy, Barbara E. The Death of Aztec Tenochtitlan, the Life of Mexico City. Austin: University of Texas Press, 2015.

Nair, Stella. “Witnessing the In-visibility of Inca Architecture in Colonial Peru,” Buildings & Landscapes: Journal of the Vernacular Architecture Forum 14, (2007): 50-65.

Nemser, Daniel. Infrastructures of Race: Concentration and Biopolitics in Colonial Mexico. Austin: University of Texas Press, 2017.

Prem, Hanns "Colonization and Indian Property in Central Mexico," Annals of the Association of American Geographers 82:3 (1992): 444-449.

Smith, Robert “Colonial Towns of Spanish and Portuguese America,” JSAH 14:4 (1955): 2-13.

Stern, Steven J. “The Tricks of Time: Colonial Legacies and Historical Sensibilities in Latin America,” in Jeremy Adelman, ed. Colonial Legacies: The Problem of Persistence in Latin American History (New York: Routledge, 1999): 135-150, 264-266. 


Baker, C. Race and the Yugoslav Region: Postsocialist, Post-Conflict, Postcolonial?, Manchester: Manchester University Press, 2018.

Bernhard, Patrick. “Hitler’s Africa in the East: Italian Colonialism as a Model for German Planning in  Eastern Europe,” Journal of Contemporary History 51, no 1 (Jan 2016): 61-90.

Boal Frederick W. and David N. Livingstone, “The Frontier in the City: Ethnonationalism in Belfast,” International Political Science Review 5, no 2 (1984): 161-179.

Boittin, Jennifer Anne. Colonial Metropolis, the Urban Grounds of Anti-Imperialism and Feminism in Interwar Paris. Lincoln, NE: University of Nebraska Press, 2010.

Bruck, Joanna. “Landscapes of Desire: Parks, Colonialism, and Identity in Victorian and Edwardian Ireland,” International Journal of Historical Archeology 17, no 1 (March 2013): 196-223.

​​Chang, Felix B., and Rucker-Chang. S.T. Roma Rights and Civil Rights: A Transatlantic Comparison, Cambridge University Press, 2020.

Clarke, Simon and Steve Garner, “Whiteness in Post-Imperial Britain,” White Identities (London: Pluto Press, 2009), pp 85-109.

Davis, Diana K. Resurrecting the Granary of Rome : Environmental History and French Colonial Expansion in North Africa. Athens: Ohio University Press, 2007

Gilbert, David and Felix Driver, “Capital and Empire: Geographies of Imperial London,” GeoJournal 51, no 1/2(2000): 23-32.

Gott, Richard. Britain’s Empire: Resistance, Repression and Revolt (London: Verso, 2011).

Kopp, Kristin. Germany’s Wild East: Constructing Poland as Colonial Space. Ann Arbor: University of Michigan Press, 2012.

Mark, James and Quinn Slobodian. Eastern Europe in the Global History of Decolonization.

Mehta, Uday S. Liberalism and Empire: A Study in Nineteenth-century British Liberal Thought. Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1999.

Montaño, John Patrick. “Cultural Conflict and the Landscape of Conquest in Early Modern Ireland,” The Canadian Journal of Irish Studies 40 (2017): 120-141.

Nash, Catherine. “Remapping and Renaming: New Cartographies of Identity, Gender and Landscape in  Ireland,” Feminist Review 44 (Summer 1993): 39-57.

Nash, Catherine. “Irish Placenames: Post-colonial Locations,” Transactions of the Institute of British Geographers 24, no 4 (1999): 457-580.

Nelson, Robert. Germans, Poland, and Colonial Expansion to the East 1850 through the Present. London: Palgrave McMillan, 2009.

Newman, Andrew.  Landscape of Discontent: Urban Sustainability in Immigrant Paris. Minneapolis: University of Minnesota Press, 2015.

O’Leary, Brendan. “The Shackles of the State & Hereditary Animosities: Colonialism in the Interpretation of Irish History,” Field Day Review 10 (2014): 148-185.

Widrich, Mechtild. “After the Counter-Monument: Commemoration in the Expanded Field,” in  Swati Chattopadhyay and Jeremy White (eds.) Critical Approaches to Contemporary Architecture. London: Routledge, 2019, pp. 57-67.

North America/British Empire

Black, Jeremey. The English Atlantic 1675-1740: An Exploration of Communication and Community. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1986.

Edmonds, Penelope.  “Unpacking Settler Colonialism's Urban Strategies: Indigenous Peoples in Victoria, British Columbia, and the Transition to a Settler-Colonial City,” Urban History Review 48, no 2 (Spring 2010): 4-20.

Edmonds, Penelope. Urbanizing Frontiers: Indigenous People and Settlers in 19th-century  Pacific RimCities (Vancouver: University of British Columbia Press).

Knight, Rolf. Indians at work: an informal history of native labour in British Columbia, 1848-1930. New Star Books, 1996.

Perry, Adelle. On the Edge of Empire: Gender, Race, and the Making of British Columbia, 1849–1871. Toronto: University of Toronto Press, 2001.

Perry, Adelle. “From ‘the Hot-Bed of Vice’ to the ‘Good and Well-Ordered Christian Home’: First Nations Housing and Reform in Nineteenth-Century British Columbia.” Ethnohistory  50, 4 (2003): 587–610

Perry, Adelle. “Hardy Backwoodsmen, Wholesome Women, and Steady Families: Immigration  and the Construction of a White Society in Colonial British Columbia, 1849–1871.” Histoire Sociale 33, 66 (November 2000): 343–60.

Settler Colonialism, a Long History

Benally, Malcolm D, Bitter Water: Diné Oral Histories of the Navajo-Hopi Land Dispute, University of Arizona Press, 2011.

Chávez, John R. “Aliens in their Native Lands: the Persistence of Internal Colonial Theory,” Journal of World History 22, no 4 (Dec 2011): 785-809.

Dunbar-Ortiz, Roxanne An Indigenous Peoples’ History of the United States (Boston: Beacon Press, 2014)

Edmonds, Penelope  and Amanda Nettleback (eds), Intimacies of Violence in the Settler Colony:  Economies of Dispossession around the Pacific Rim (Palgrave MacMillan, 2018).

Estes, Nick Our History Is the Future Standing Rock Versus the Dakota Access Pipeline, and the Long Tradition of Indigenous Resistance (London: Verso, 2019).

Goeman, Mishuana. Mark My Words: Native Women Mapping Our Nations. Minneapolis, Minn.; London: University of Minnesota Press, 2013.

Herscher, Andrew and Ana María León. “At the Border of Decolonization” in At The Border e-flux architecture, 2020

Leroy, Justin. "Black History in Occupied Territory: On the Entanglements of Slavery and Settler Colonialism." Theory & Event 19, no. 4 (2016)

Manktelow, Emily Missionary Families: Race, Gender and Generation on the Spiritual Frontier. Manchester: Manchester University Press, 2013.

Mamdani, Mahmoud “Settler Colonialism: Then and Now” Critical Inquiry 41 (Spring 2015) 596-614.

Mar, Banivanua and Tracey Edmonds, eds., Making Settler Colonial Space (London: Palgrave Macmillan, 2010).

Raibmon, Paige, Authentic Indians: Episodes of Encounter from the Late Nineteenth Century Northwest Coast. Duke University Press, 2005.

Slotkin, Richard “The Frontier Myth as a Theory of Development,” The Fatal Environment (1985), 33-48.

Warrior, Robert.  “Indian” from Burgett and Hendler, Keywords for American Cultural Studies  (NY: NYU Press 2007), 132-35.

Zastoupil, Lynn. “Intimacy and Colonial Knowledge.” Journal of Colonialism and Colonial History 3, 2 (Fall 2002).

See Additional Resources, Standing Rock Syllabus,“Indigenous History of North America” and “United States Indian Policy, Sovereignty, and Treaty Making.”

Museums and Expositions

Andermann, Jens. The Optic of the State: Visuality and Power in Argentina and Brazil (Pittsburgh: University of Pittsburgh Press, 2007).

Bennett, Tony “The Exhibitionary Complex” New Formations 4 (Spring 1988). See also: Bennett, “Exhibition, Truth, Power: Reconsidering ‘The Exhibitionary Complex’,” in Quinn Latimer & Adam Szymczyk (ed.), documenta 14 - Reader (Prestel, 2017), 340-352.

Berger, Martin A., “Museum Architecture and the Imperialism of Whiteness,” in Sight Unseen: Whiteness and American Visual Culture (Berkeley: University of California Press, 2005), 81-121.

Çelik, Zeynep. Displaying the Orient: Architecture of Islam at Nineteenth-Century World's Fairs.  Berkeley: University of California Press, 1992.

Douglass, Frederick “Introduction to The Reason Why the Colored American Is Not in the World's Columbian Exposition”

Flour, Isabelle “Orientalism and the Reality Effect: Angkor at the Universal Expositions, 1867–1937,” Getty Research Journal (2014): 63-82.

Hicks, Dan. The Brutish Museums: The Benin Bronzes, Colonial Violence and Cultural Restitution. Pluto Press, 2020.

Lonetree, Amy. Decolonizing Museums: Representing Native Americans in National and Tribal Museums (Chapel Hill: University of North Carolina Press, 2012).

Morton, Patricia A. “National and Colonial: The Musée des Colonies at the Colonial Exposition, Paris, 1931,” The Art Bulletin 80:2 (1998):357-377.

Morton, Patricia A. Hybrid Modernities: Representation and Architecture at the 1931 International Colonial Exposition in Paris. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press, 2000.

Nelson, Steven. From Cameroon to Paris: Mousgoum Architecture in and out of Africa. Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 2007.

Osayimwese, Itohan I. Colonialism at the Center: German Colonial Architecture and the Design Reform Movement, 1828-1914. 1 v., 2008.

Osayimwese, Itohan. Colonialism and Modern Architecture in Germany. Pittsburgh: University of Pittsburgh Press, 2017.

Parti communiste français (PCF) assisted by Louis Aragon, Paul Éluard, and Yves Tanguy, “La verité sur les Colonies” (May 1931) in the context of the Paris Colonial Exhibition, 1931. Images featured in André Breton, “Ne Visitez Pas L’Exposition Coloniale,” in Le Surréalisme au service de la révolution 4 

Raibmon, Page. “Living on Display: Colonial Visions of Aboriginal Domestic Spaces.” BC Studies 140 (2003): 69–89.

Rydell, Robert. All the World’s a Fair: Visions of Empire at the American International Expositions, 1876-1916. Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1984.

Rydell, Robert W. "A Cultural Frankenstein? The Chicago’s World’s Columbian Exposition of 1893." In Grand Illusions: Chicago’s World Fair of 1893 edited by Wim De Wit, James Gilbert, Robert W. Rydell and Neil Harris, 143-70. Chicago: Chicago Historical Society, 1993.

Wilson, Mabel. Negro Building: Black Americans in the World of Fairs and Museums. xvi, 442 p. Berkeley: University of California Press, 2012.

Wilson, Mabel O. “White by Design,” in Among Others: MoMA and Blackness, Darby English and Charlotte Barat, eds. New York: MoMA Publications, 2019.

Wilson, Mabel O. and Lonnie G. Bunch, Begin with the Past: Building the National Museum of African American History and Culture. Smithsonian Books, 2016.

Wright, Gwendolyn “Indochina and the Folly of Grandeur,” The Politics of Design in French Colonial Urbanism (1991),161-233.


See Additional Resources, Slavery Race Capitalism syllabus.

Online Resources

Peoples of the Historical Slave Trade

Zamani Project, Slave Trade Consolidated

Slave Voyages, including timelapse of slave ships across the Atlantic.

Global Dimension

Beckert, Sven Empire of Cotton: A Global History (London: Allen Lane, 2014).

Black, Jeremy. The Atlantic Slave Trade in World History. New York, NY: Routledge, 2015.

Eisenstadt, Shmuel Noah. "Multiple modernities." Daedalus 129, no. 1 (2000): 1-29.

Kelley, Robin D. G. “‘But A Local Phase of a World Problem’: Black History’s Global Vision, 1883-1950,” Journal of American History 86, no. 3, The Nation and Beyond: Transnational Perspectives on United States History (December 1999): 1045-77.

McKittrick, Katherine. Demonic Grounds: Black Women and the Cartographies of Struggle. Minneapolis: University of Minnesota Press, 2006.

Mintz, Sidney W. “Plantations and the Rise of a World Food Economy: Some Preliminary Ideas.” Review (Fernand Braudel Center) 34, no. 1/2 (2011): 3–14.

Mintz, Sidney Wilfred Sweetness and Power: The Place of Sugar in Modern History. New York, N.Y: Viking, 1985.

Walker, Timothy “Slave Labor and Chocolate in Brazil: The Culture of Cacao Plantations in Amazonia and Bahia (17th–19th Centuries),” Food and Foodways 15, no. 1–2 (June 6, 2007): 75-106.

Plantation as System

Baptist, Edward E. The Half Has Never Been Told: Slavery and the Making of American Capitalism, (New York: Basic Books, 2016).

Du Bois, W. E. B. "The Black Worker," "The White Worker," and "The Planter," in Black Reconstruction: An Essay Toward a History of the Part Which Black Folk Played in the Attempt to Reconstruct Democracy in America, 1860-1880 (New York: Harcourt, Brace and Company, 1935), pp. 3-54.

Hannah-Jones, Nikole, and Mary N. Elliott, eds. The 1619 Project. The New York Times, 2019 [paywalled].

Hartman, Saidiya V. Scenes of Subjection: Terror, Slavery, and Self-Making in Nineteenth-Century America (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1997).

Johnson, Walter River of Dark Dreams: Slavery and Empire in the Cotton Kingdom. Belknap Press, 2013.

McKittrick, Katherine “Plantation futures,” Small Axe: Caribbean Journal of Criticism 17, no. 3 (2013): 1–15.

Slotkin, Richard “The Plantation as Factory, the Factory as Plantation,” The Fatal Environment (1994), 141-150

Wynter, Sylvia “Novel and history, plot and plantation,” Savacou 5, no. 1 (1971): 95–102.

Plantation as Landscape

Andrade Lima, Tania “Keeping a Tight Lid: The Architecture and Landscape Design of Coffee Plantations in Nineteenth-Century Rio de Janeiro, Brazil,” Review (Fernand Braudel Center) 34: ½ (2011): 193-215.

Bluestone, Daniel “A. J. Davis’s Belmead: Picturesque Aesthetics in the Land of Slavery,” Journal of the Society of Architectural Historians 71, no. 2 (June 2012): 145-167.

Ellis, Clifton and Rebecca Ginsburg, ed. Cabin, Quarter, Plantation: Architecture and Landscapes of North American Slavery. New Haven: Yale University Press, 2010.

hooks, bell: “Diasporic Landscapes of Longing,” “Architecture in Black Life: Talking Space with LaVerne Wells-Bowie,” from Art on My Mind; Visual Politics. New York: The New Press, 1995.

Lipsitz, George “The Racialization of Space and the Spatialization of Race: Theorizing the Hidden Architecture of Landscape,” Landscape Journal 26, no. 1 (2007): 10-23.

Vlach, John Michael. “The Plantation Landscape,” in American Architectural History: A Reader, 92-110.

Slave Trade and Plantation Buildings

Anthony, Carl. "The Big House and the Slave Quarters: Part I, Prelude to New World Architecture." Landscape 20, no. 3 (Spring 1976): 8-19.

Anthony, Carl. "The Big House and the Slave Quarters: Part II, African Contributions to the New World." Landscape 21, no. 1 (Autumn 1976): 9-15.

Finley, Cheryl. “Authenticating Dungeons, Whitewashing Castles: the Former Sites of the Slave Trade on the Ghanaian Coast” in Brian McLaren and D. Medina Lasansky, eds. Architecture and Tourism: Perception, Performance and Place (Berg, 2004).

Freyre, Gilberto. The Masters and the Slaves (Casa-Grande & Senzala): A Study in the Development of Brazilian Civilization. New York: Knopf, 1956. [I recommend not assigning  as reading, but using his drawings of the fazenda--careful reading of these reveals Freyre’s political project of fantasy post-racial society--AML]

Nelson, Louis. “The Architectures of Black Identity: Buildings, Slavery and Freedom in the Caribbean and the American South,” Winterthur Portfolio 45, no. 2/3 (2011): 177-93.

Nelson, Louis. “Architectures of West African Enslavement,” Buildings & Landscapes 21, no. 1 (Spring 2014): 88-124.

Nelson, Louis Architecture and Empire in Jamaica. New Haven: Yale University Press, 2016.

Pogue, Dennis J.  “The Domestic Architecture of Slavery at George Washington’s Mount Vernon,” Winterthur Portfolio 37, no. 1 (March 1, 2002): 3–22.

Rhys Isaac, The Transformation of Virginia, 1740-1790 . Durham: University of North Carolina Press, 1982.

Stanton, Lucia C. Those Who Labor for My Happiness: Slavery at Thomas Jefferson's Monticello. Charlottesville, VA: University of Virginia Press, 2012.

Upton, Dell. "White and Black Landscapes in Eighteenth-Century Virginia," Places 2, no. 2 (1985), pp. 59-72.

Vlach, John Michael. Back of the Big House: The Architecture of Plantation Slavery. Chapel Hill: University of North Carolina Press, 1993.

Wright, Gwendolyn. “The ‘Big House’ and the Slave Quarters,” in Building the Dream: A Social History of Housing in America. New York: Pantheon Books, 1981.

Urban Slavery

Bishir, Catherine W. "Research Notes: Searching for Donum Montford." Buildings & Landscapes: Journal of the Vernacular Architecture Forum  21, no. 1 (Spring 2014): 126-50.

Bishir, Catherine W. “Urban Slavery at Work: The Bellamy Mansion Compound, Wilmington, North Carolina.” Buildings & Landscapes: Journal of the Vernacular Architecture Forum 17, no. 2 (November 11, 2010): 13–32.

Bluestone, Daniel. "Charlottesville's Landscape of Prostitution, 1880-1950." Buildings & Landscapes: Journal of the Vernacular Architecture Forum  22, no. 2 (Fall 2015): 36-61.

Curtis, James R. Praças, “Place, and Public Life in Urban Brazil,” Geographical Review 90:4 (2000): 475-492.

Davis, John. “Eastman Johnson’s Negro Life at the South, and Urban Slavery in Washington, D.C.,” Art Bulletin 80, no. 1 (March 1998): 67-92.

Douglass, Frederick. “Our National Capital,” in The Frederick Douglass Papers, Series One: Speeches, Debates, and Interviews, eds. John W. Blassingame and John R. McKivigan, Volume IV (New Haven: Yale University Press: 1991)

Ellis, Clifton and Rebecca Ginsburg, eds., Slavery in the City: Architecture and Landscapes of Urban Slavery in North America (Charlottesville: University of Virginia Press, 2017).

Frank, Zephyr, and Whitney Berry. “The Slave Market in Rio de Janeiro circa 1869: Context, Movement and Social Experience.” Journal of Latin American Geography 9, no. 3 (October 6, 2010): 85–110.

Herman, Bernard L. "The Embedded Landscapes of the Charleston Single House, 1780-1820." Perspectives in Vernacular Architecture 7 (1997): 41-57.

McGinnis, Maurie D. and Louis Nelson, ed. Educated in Tyranny: Slavery at Thomas Jefferson’s University. University of Virginia Press, 2017.

McInnis, Maurie D. "Mapping the Slave Trade in Richmond and New Orleans." Buildings & Landscapes: Journal of the Vernacular Architecture Forum  20, no. 2 (Fall  2013): 102-25.

Schavelzon, Daniel. “On Slaves and Beer: The First Images of the South Sea Company Slave Market in Buenos Aires.” African and Black Diaspora: An International Journal 7, no. 2 (July 3, 2014): 119–28.

Vlach, John Michael "Without Recourse to Owners": The Architecture of Urban Slavery in the Antebellum South,” Perspectives in Vernacular Architecture 6 (1997): 150-160.

Spaces of Resistance

Camp, Stephanie M. H. Closer to Freedom: Enslaved Women and Everyday Resistance in the Plantation South (Chapel Hill: University of North Carolina Press, 2006).

Dudley, Tara. Building Antebellum New Orleans: Free People of Color and Their Influence (forthcoming University of Texas Press, 2021)

James, C.L.R. “Revolution and the Negro,” in “The Revolution and the Negro,” New International, Volume V, December 1939, pp. 339-343. Published under the name J.R Johnson;

James, C.L.R. The Black Jacobins Toussaint L'Ouverture and the San Domingo Revolution. Secker & Warburg Ltd., 1938.

Flory, Thomas “Fugitive Slaves and Free Society: The Case of Brazil.” The Journal of Negro History 64, no. 2 (1979): 116–30.

Roberts, Andrea et al, The Texas Freedom Colonies Project, 

Roberts, Andrea and Mohammad Javad Biazar. "Black Placemaking in Texas: Sonic and Social Histories of Newton and Jasper County Freedom Colonies" in Current Research in Digital History, vol. 2 (2019),


Global or Comparative Studies

Cadava, Eduardo and Aaron Levy, ed. Cities without Citizens (Philadelphia: Slought Books, 2004).

Oliveira, Ney dos Santos. “Favelas and Ghettos: Race and Class in Rio de Janeiro and New York City” in Latin American Perspectives, Vol. 23, No. 4, The “Urban Question” in Latin America (Autumn, 1996), 71-89.

Roy, Ananya. “Urban Informality: The Production of Space and Practice of Planning,” in The Oxford Handbook of Urban Planning, Randall Crane and Rachel Weber, eds (April 2012). [good short summary of main positions in slum discussions]

Nightingale, Carl H. Segregation: A Global History of Divided Cities. Chicago: Chicago University Press, 2012.

Williams, Raymond. The Country and the City. New York: Oxford University Press, 1973, chapter 24. [nb.: this chapter was added because it argues English city-country labor division was projected onto third world]

US Jim Crow

Abel, Elizabeth, Signs of the Times: The Visual Politics of Jim Crow, University of California Press, 2010.

Bluestone, Daniel “Chicago’s Mecca Flat Blues,” Journal of the Society of Architectural Historians 57, no. 4 (Dec. 1998): 382-403. See also Daniel M. Bluestone, Buildings, Landscapes, and Memory: Case Studies in Historic Preservation (New York: W.W. Norton & Co., 2011).

Brown, Elsa Barkley, and Gregg D. Kimball. "Mapping the Terrain of Black Richmond." Chap. 3 In The New African American Urban History, edited by Kenneth W. Goings and Raymond Mohl. Thousand Oaks, London, New Delhi, 1996.

Connolly, N. D. B. A World More Concrete: Real Estate and the Remaking of Jim Crow South Florida.  Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 2014.

Drake, St. Clair., and Horace R. Cayton. Black Metropolis: A Study of Negro Life in a Northern City. Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1993.

Du Bois, W.E.B. “The Negro Problems of Philadelphia,” “The Question of Earning a Living,” and “Color Prejudice,” in The City Reader, ed. Richard T. LeGates and Frederic Stout, London: Routledge, 2003, pp. 119-125.

Edwards, Jay D. "Shotgun: The Most Contested House in America." Buildings & Landscapes: Journal of the Vernacular Architecture Forum 16, no. 1 (Spring 2009): 62-96. 

Feagin, Joe R. Racist America: Roots, Current Realities, and Future Reparations, 3rd ed. New York and London: Routledge, 2014.

Ferguson, Karen. “Introduction,” “A Jungle World,” and “A Laboratory for Citizenship,” in Black Politics in New Deal Atlanta. Chapel Hill: University of North Carolina Press, 2002, 1-15; 165-218.

Grandison, Kenrick Ian "From Plantation to Campus: Progress, Community, and the Lay of the Land in Shaping the Early Tuskegee," Landscape Journal 15.1 (1996): 6-32. (See also Grandison, “Negotiated Space: The Black College Campus as a Cultural Record of Postbellum America,” American Quarterly 51, no. 3 (Sept. 1999): 529-579.)

Hall, Michael Ra-Shon, “The Negro Traveller’s Guide to a Jim Crow South: Negotiating Racialized Landscapes During a Dark Period in United States Cultural History, 1936–1967” Postcolonial Studies 17 no. 3 (2014): 307–319

US Ghettoization and its Effects

Adelman, Robert M. and Christopher Mele, eds. Race, Space, and Exclusion: Segregation and Beyond in Metropolitan America. New York: Routledge, 2015.

Bayor, Ronald H. “City Building and Racial Patterns”, in Race and the Shaping of Twentieth-Century Atlanta. Chapel Hill: University of North Carolina Press, 1996, 53-92.

Baker, Andrew C., Bulldozer Revolutions: A Rural History of the Metropolitan South, University of Georgia Press, 2018.

DuBois, W.E.B. et al. Mortality among Negroes in Cities: Proceedings of the Conference for Investigations of City Problems Held at Atlanta University, May 26-27, 1896. Edited by Thomas N. Chase. Atlanta, Ga.: Atlanta University Press, 1903. Online:

Duneier, Mitchell, Ghetto: The Invention of a Place, the History of an Idea (New York: Farrar, Strauss and Garar, 2016.

Friedrichs, Chad. The Pruitt-Igoe Myth. Unicorn Stencil Films, 2011.

Freund, David M. P. Colored Property: State Policy and White Racial Politics in Suburban America. Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 2007.

Fullilove, Mindi. Root Shock: How Tearing Up City Neighborhoods Hurts America, And What We Can Do About It. New Village Press, 2016.

Goffman, Alice. On the Run: Fugitive Life in an American City. Chicago ; London: University Of Chicago Press, 2014.

Herscher, Andrew “‘Blight.’ Spatial Racism, and the Demolition of the Housing Question in Detroit” in Housing After the Neoliberal Turn, ed. Stefan Aue, Jesko Fezer, Martin Hager, Christian Hiller, Nikolaus Hirsch, Anne Kockelkorn, and Reinhold Martin (Leipzig: Spector Books, 2015).

Harris, Dianne. Little White Houses: How the Postwar Home Constructed Race in America. University Of Minnesota Press, 2013.

Hirsch, Arnold. “Containment on the Home Front: Race and Federal Housing Policy from the New Deal to the Cold War,” Journal of Urban History 26, 2000, 158-189.

Hirsch, Arnold. "With or Without Jim Crow: Black Residential Segregation in the United States." In Urban Policy in Twentieth-Century America, eds. Arnold Hirsch and Raymond A. Mohl. New Brunswick, NJ: Rutgers University Press, 1993, 65-99.

Hirsch, Arnold R. Making the Second Ghetto: Race and Housing in Chicago, 1940-1960. Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1983.

House, Gloria. Tower and Dungeon: A Study of Place and Power in American Culture (Detroit: Casa de Unidad Press, 1991).

Hunter, Marcus Anthony and Zandria F. Robinson. Chocolate Cities: The Black Map of American Life (Oakland: University of California Press, 2018)

Kruse, Kevin Michael and Thomas J. Sugrue. The New Suburban History. Historical Studies of Urban America, Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 2006.

Kwak, Nancy H. "Homeownership in an Era of Decolonization" in A World of Homeowners: American Power and the Politics of Housing Aid (Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 2015).

Martin, Reinhold, Jacob Moore and Susanne Schindler. The Art of Inequality: Architecture, Housing, and Real Estate (New York: The Temple Hoyne Buell Center for the Study of American Architecture, 2015).

Lasner, Matthew Gordon “Segregation by Design: Race, Architecture, and the Enclosure of the Atlanta Apartment,” Journal of Urban History, online first, May 2017.

Low, Setha. “Incorporation and gated communities in the greater metro-Los Angeles region as a model of privatization of residential communities.” Home Cultures vol. 5 no. 1 (2008), pp. 85-108.

Massey, Douglas S. and Nancy A. Denton. American Apartheid: Segregation and the Making of the Underclass. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press, 1993.

Pritchett, Wendell E., “The "Public Menace" of Blight: Urban Renewal and the Private Uses of Eminent Domain,” Yale Law & Policy Review 21 no. 2 (2003): 1-52.

Rothstein, Richard. “The Making of Ferguson: Public Policies at the Root of its Troubles,” Economic Policy Institute Report, 15 October 2014,

Rothstein, Richard. The Color of Law: A Forgotten History of How Our Government Segregated America.  New York: Liveright Publishing Company, 2017. See also:

Sugrue, Thomas J. The Origins of the Urban Crisis: Race and Inequality in Postwar Detroit. Princeton, N.J.: Princeton University Press, 1996.

Taylor, Dorceta E. “Class, Race, Space, and Zoning in America,” in The Environment and the People in American Cities, 1600s-1900s (Durham, NC: Duke University Press, 2009), pp. 367-379.

Taylor, Keeanga-Yamahtta. “Back Story to the Neoliberal Moment.” Souls 14, no. 3–4 (July 1, 2012): 185–206.

Taylor, Keeanga-Yamahtta. Race for Profit: How Banks and the Real Estate Industry Undermined Black Homeownership (Chapel Hill: The University of North Carolina Press, 2019).

Wacquant, Loïc. “Designing Urban Seclusion in the Twenty-First Century: The 2009 Roth-Symonds Lecture,” Perspecta 43, Taboo (2010): 164-175.

Wacquant, Loïc. “Black Belt, Red Belt,“ in: Urban outcasts: a comparative sociology of advanced marginality, Cambridge: Polity Press, 2008, 133–226.

Wacquant, Loïc. 'Deadly symbiosis: When ghetto and prison meet and mesh'. Punishment & Society  3, no. 1 (2001): 95-133.

Wallace, Michele, "Whose Town? Questioning Community and Identity." Aperture, 1992.

Wilkerson, Isabel. The Warmth of Other Suns: The Epic Story of America’s Great Migration. New York: Penguin Random House, 2010.

Wiltse, Jeff. Contested waters: A social history of swimming pools in America. Univ of North Carolina Press, 2007.

Mapping Inequality: Redlining in New Deal America (University of Richmond)

US Cities


Bayor, Ronald H., Race and the Shaping of Twentieth-Century Atlanta. University of North Carolina Press, 1996.

Keating, Larry. Atlanta: Race, Class, and Urban Expansion. Philadelphia, Pa.: Temple University Press, 2001.

Kruse, Kevin M. White Flight: Atlanta and the Making of Modern Conservatism (Princeton: Princeton University Press, 2013).

Lands, Leeann. “Introduction,” and “Exclusion and Park-Neighborhood Building, 1922-1929,” in The Culture of Property: Race, Class, and Housing Landscapes in Atlanta, 1880-1950. Athens: University of Georgia Press, 2011, 1-12; 135-158.


Satter, Beryl. Family Properties: How the Struggle Over Race and Real Estate Transformed Chicago and Urban America (New York, N.Y.: Picador, 2010).


Mapping Prejudice: Visualizing the hidden histories of race and privilege in the urban landscape (University of Minneapolis)

New York

Pritchett, Wendell.  Brownsville, Brooklyn: Blacks, Jews, and the Changing Face of the Ghetto (Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 2002).

Wilder, Craig Steven. A Covenant with Color : Race and Social Power in Brooklyn. New York: Columbia University Press, 2000.

Woo, Rosten and Meredith TenHoor with Damon Rich. Street Value: Shopping, Planning, and Politics at Fulton Mall. New York: Princeton Architectural Press, 2010.

St. Louis

Heyda, Patty. “Erasure Urbanism,” in Architecture is All Over, edited by Esther Choi and Marrikka Trotter. New York: Columbia Books on Architecture and the City, 2017.

Johnson, Walter. The Broken Heart of America: St. Louis and the Violent History of the United States (Basic Books, 2020).


Segregated Seattle (University of Washington)

Washington D.C.

Bird, Betty. “Building Community: Housing for Middle-Class African Americans in Washington, D.C., and Prince George’s County, Maryland, 1900–1955,” in Housing Washington: Two Centuries of Residential Development and Planning in the National Capitol Area, ed. Richard Longstreth (Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 2010), 61-84.

Borchert, James. Alley Life in Washington: Family, Community, Religion, and Folklife in the City, 1850-1970. Urbana: University of Illinois Press, 1982.

Clark-Lewis, Elizabeth. Living In, Living Out: African American Domestics in Washington, D.C., 1910–1940 (Washington: Smithsonian Institution Press, 1994).

Gillette, Howard. Between Justice and Beauty: Race, Planning, and the Failure of Urban Policy in Washington, D.C. Baltimore: Johns Hopkins Press, 1995.

Green, Constant McLaughlin. Secret City: A History of Race Relations in the Nation’s Capital. Princeton: Princeton University Press, 1967.

Heard, Sandra R. “Making Slums and Suburbia in Black Washington During the Great Depression,” American Studies, 57 no. 4 (2012): 5-22.

Hopkinson, Natalie.  Go-Go Live: The Musical LIfe and Death of a Chocolate City. Durham: Duke University Press, 2012.

Johnson, Valerie C., Black Power in the Suburbs: The Myth or Reality

of African-American Suburban Political Incorporation (Albany: State University of New York Press, 2002)

Johnson, Ronald M. “From Romantic Suburb to Racial Enclave: LeDroit Park, Washington, D.C., 1880-1920,” Phylon 45 no. 4 (1984): 264-270.

Lesko, Kathleen Menzie, Valerie Babb, and Carroll R. Gibbs, Black Georgetown Remembered: A History of Its Black Community from the Founding of “The Town of George” in 1751 to the Present Day (Washington, D.C.: Georgetown University Press, 2016)

Logan, Cameron. Historic Capital: Preservation, Race and Real Estate in Washington D.C. (Minneapolis: University of Minnesota Press, 2017)



Anderson, Kay “The Idea of Chinatown: The Power of Place and Institutional Practice in the Making of a Racial Category,” Annals of the Association of American Geographers 77, no. 4 (1987): 580-98.

-----, “Engendering Race Research: Unsettling the Self-Other Dichotomy,” chap. 12 in BodySpace: Destabilizing Geographies of Gender and Sexuality, ed. Nancy Duncan. New York and London: Routledge, 1996.

Caldeira, Teresa P. R. “Fortified Enclaves: The New Urban Segregation,” in Setha Low, ed., Theorizing the City, 1999, pp. 83-110.

Carpio, Genevieve. Collisions and the Crossroads: How Place and Mobility Make Race. University of California Press, 2019.

Herscher, Andrew. “Designs on Disaster: Humanitarianism and Contemporary Architecture,” in Swati Chattopadhyay and Jeremy White (eds.) Critical Approaches to Contemporary Architecture (London: Routledge, 2019), pp. 25-35.

Hise, Greg “Identity and Social Distance in Los Angeles,” Landscape Journal 26, no. 1 (2007): 45-60.

Kwo Wei Tchen, Jack and Dylan Yeats, ed., Yellow Peril: An Archive of Anti-Asian Fear. London and New York: Verso, 2014, esp. introduction, chap. 5, “Yellow Peril Incarnate: The Enemy Within.”

Kwo Wei Tchen, Jack “Quimbo Appo’s Fear of the Fenians: Chinese-Irish-Anglo Relations in New York City,” chap. 5 in The New York Irish, ed. Ronald H. Bayor and Timothy Meagher (1997), 125-152.

Lee, Anthony. “The place of Chinatown.” In Picturing Chinatown: Art and Orientalism in San Francisco (Berkeley: University of California Press, 2001), 9-58.

Mitchell, Don. The Lie of the Land: Migrant Workers and the California Landscape. Minneapolis: University of Minnesota Press, 1996.

Shah, Nayan. Contagious Divides: Epidemics of Race in San Francisco’s Chinatown. Berkeley: University of California Press, 2001.

Ward, Josi “‘Dreams of Oriental Romance’: Reinventing Chinatown in 1930s Los Angeles,” Buildings & Landscapes 20, no. 1 (Spring 2013): 19-42.

Yip, Christopher L. “A Chinatown of Gold Mountain: The Chinese in Locke, California,” in Images of an American Land: Vernacular Architecture in the Western United States, ed. Thomas Carter,153-72. Albuquerque: University of New Mexico Press, 1997.

-----, “Association, Residence, and Shop: An Appropriation of Commercial Blocks in North American Chinatowns, in Gender, Class and Shelter: Perspectives in Vernacular Architecture, V, edited by Elizabeth Collins Cromley and Carter L. Hudgins (1995), 109-17.


Anderson, K. J., Vancouver’s Chinatown: Racial discourse in Canada, 1875-1980, McGill-Queen’s University Press, 1991.


Matsipa, Mpho. “Woza! Sweetheart! On braiding epistemologies on Bree Street,” Thesis Eleven 141 no. 1 (2017): 31–48.

Moshood, Hamza. “Colonialism Walks Into a Chop Bar,” in Popula (September 27, 2019), 

Ochonu, Moses E. “Racism or Classism? Africa’s Hidden Race Problem,” The Republic 3 no. 1 (2019), 

Pierre, Jemima. The Predicament of Blackness: Postcolonial Ghana and the Politics of Race. Chicago and London: The University of Chicago Press, 2013.

South Africa

Beningfield, Jennifer. The Frightened Land Land, Landscape, and Politics in South Africa in the Twentieth Century. New York: Routledge, 2006.

Christopher, A. J. “The Atlas of Apartheid.” New York ; London : Johannesburg, South Africa: Routledge ; Witwatersrand University Press, 1994.

Coetzer, Nicholas. Building Apartheid : On Architecture and Order in Imperial Cape Town. Ashgate, 2013.

Ginsburg, Rebecca. At Home with Apartheid: The Hidden Landscapes of Domestic Service in Johannesburg. UVA Press, 2011.

Judion, Hilton and Ivan Vladislavic. Blank--Architecture, Apartheid, and After. Rotterdam: NAi Publishers, 1999.

Levin, Ayala. “Basic Design and the Semiotics of Citizenship: Julian Beinart’s Educational Experiments and Research on Wall Decoration in Early 1960s Nigeria and South Africa,” ABE Journal [online] 9-10 (2016).

Mabin, Alan. “Comprehensive Segregation: The Origins of the Group Areas Act and Its Planning Apparatuses”. Journal of Southern African Studies 18, no. 2 (1992): 405-429.

Noble, Jonathan. African Identity in Post-apartheid Public Architecture: White Skin, Black Masks. Ashgate, 2011.

Middle East

Cole, Juan R. I. and Deniz Kandiyoti. “Nationalism and the Colonial Legacy in the Middle East and Central Asia: Introduction.” International Journal of Middle East Studies 34, no. 2 (2002): 189-203.

Elsheshtawy, Yasser. Planning Middle Eastern Cities: An Urban Kaleidoscope in a Globalizing World. London;New York;: Routledge, 2004.

Massad, Joseph Andoni. Colonial Effects: The Making of National Identity in Jordan. New York: Columbia University Press, 2001.


Abourahme, Nasser. "Assembling and spilling‐over: towards an ‘ethnography of cement'in a Palestinian refugee camp." International Journal of Urban and Regional Research 39, no. 2 (2015): 200-217.

Levin, Ayala. “South African ‘Know-How’ and Israeli ‘Facts of Life’: The Planning of Afridar, Ashkelon, 1949-56,” Planning Perspectives 34, no. 2 (2019): 285-309.

Nitzan-Shiftan, Alona. Seizing Jerusalem: The Architectures of Unilateral Unification. Minneapolis: University of Minnesota Press, 2017.

Quiquivix, Linda. "When the carob tree was the border: On autonomy and Palestinian practices of figuring it out." Capitalism Nature Socialism 24, no. 3 (2013): 170-189.

Ross, Andrew. Stone Men: The Palestinians who Built Israel. Verso Books, 2019.

Rotbard, Sharon. White City, Black City: Architecture and War in Tel Aviv and Jaffa, translated from Hebrew by Orit Gat. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press, 2015.

Salamanca, Omar Jabary, Mezna Qato, Kareem Rabie, and Sobhi Samour. "Past is present: Settler colonialism in Palestine." Settler Colonial Studies 2, no. 1 (2012): 1-8.

Shoshan, Malkit. Atlas of the Conflict: Israel-Palestine. Rotterdam: nai010 publishers, 2013.

Sorkin, Michael, ed. Against the Wall: Israel’s Barrier to Peace. Norton, 2005.

Stamatopoulou-Robbins, Sophia. Waste Siege: The Life of Infrastructure in Palestine. Stanford University Press, 2019.

Tawil-Souri, Helga, and Dina Matar. Gaza as metaphor. Hurst, 2016.

Weizman, Eyal, Hollow Land. Israel’s Architecture of Occupation (London / New York: Verso, 2012).

Yiftachel, Oren. “Between Colonialism and Ethnocracy: 'Creeping Apartheid in Israel/Palestine’”. In Pretending Democracy: Israel, an Ethnocratic State, edited by N. Jeenah, 95-116. Johannesburg: African Middle East Centre, 2012.

Latin America

Caldeira, Teresa. Chapter 6 (“São Paulo: Three Patterns of Spatial Segregation”) from City of Walls: Crime, Segregation, and Citizenship in Sao Paulo 2000.

Holston, James. Insurgent Citizenship: Disjunctions of Democracy and Modernity in Brazil (Princeton: Princeton University Press, 2008).

López-Durán, Fabiola. Eugenics in the Garden: Transatlantic Architecture and the Crafting of Modernity. Austin: University of Texas Press, 2017.

José Rabasa, Without History: Subaltern Studies, the Zapatista Insurgency, and the Specter of History (University of Pittsburgh Press, 2010).

José Rabasa, Tell me the Story of How I Conquered You: Elsewhere and Ethnosuicide in the Colonial Mesoamerican World (Austin: University of Texas Press, 2011).

Ileana Rodríguez (ed), The Latin American Subaltern Studies Reader (Durham: Duke University  Press, 2001).


Prison Histories

Anderson, Clare  (ed.) A Global History of Convicts and Penal Colonies (London: Bloomsbury, 2018).

Anderson, Clare. “The Andaman Islands Penal Colony: Race, Class, Criminality, and the British Empire,” IRSH 63 (2018): 25-43.

Blank, Trevor. “Contesting the Contested: Preservation Politics, Collective Memory, and the First Institution for the Criminally Insane in America. Material Culture, 41:1 (2009): 39-60.

Branch, Daniel. “Imprisonment and Colonialism in Kenya, c.1930-1952: Escaping the Carceral  Archipelago,” The International Journal of African Historical Studies 38, No. 2 (2005): 239-265.

Day, Joe. Corrections and Collections: Architectures for Art and Crime (2013).

Dikötter, Frank, and Ian Brown. Cultures of Confinement: A History of the Prison in Africa, Asia and Latin America. xi, 335 p. Ithaca, N.Y.: Cornell University Press, 2007.

Evans, Robin. The Fabrication of Virtue: English Prison Architecture, 1750-1840 (Cambridge; New  York: Cambridge University Press, 1982).

Evans, Robin ”From Correction to Reformation, From Dungeon to Cell,” The Fabrication of Virtue: English prison architecture, 1750-1840, 1982, pp. 47-93.

Foucault, Michel Discipline and Punish: The Birth of the Prison, trans. Alan Sheridan. New York: Vintage Books, 1979.

Herscher, Andrew and Anooradha Siddiqi. Spatial Violence. London: Routledge, 2017.

Scapegoat: Incarceration, a special issue, “Beyond Prisons: On Practices of Abolition and the Carceral Imaginary,” eds. Nasrin Himada and Chris Lee, v. 7, Fall/Winter, 2014.

Lambert, Léopold The Funambulist 12: Racialized Incarceration (July August 2017), 

Middleton, Robin. “Sickness, Madness and Crime as the Grounds of Form”, Parts 1 and 2 in AA Files, No. 24, Autumn 1992 and No. 25, Summer 1993.

Pieris, Anoma. Hidden Hands and Divided Landscapes: A Penal History of Singapore’s Plural Society. University of Hawaii Press, 2009.

Salvatore, Ricardo and Carlos Aguirre, “The Birth of the Penitentiary in Latin America: Toward an Interpretive Social History of Prisons,” in The Birth of the Penitentiary In Latin America: Essays On Criminology, Prison Reform, And Social Control, 1830-1940, Donato and Aguirre, eds., Austin: University of Texas Press, 1996, 1-43.

Waits, Mira Rai. “Imperial vision, colonial Prisons: British jails in Bengal, 1823-73,” Journal of the  Society of Architectural Historians 77, no 2 (June 2018): 146-167.


The Prison Industrial Complex, a Long History

Alexander, Michelle. “The Lockdown,” in The New Jim Crow: Mass Incarceration in the Age of Colorblindness. New York: The New Press, 2012, 59-96.

Alexander, Michelle. The New Jim Crow: (TED talk) and (University of Chicago 2013 George E. Kent lecture) --> this is excellent and summarizes her argument really well.

Amar, Paul. The Security Archipelago: Human-Security States, Sexuality Politics, and the End of Neoliberalism (Durham: Duke University Press, 2013).

Anderson, Sean and Jennifer Ferng. “The Detention-Industrial Complex in Australia.” Journal of the Society of Architectural Historians 73, no. 4 (December 2014): 469-474. Becherer, Richard “Bricks and Bones: Discovering Atlanta’s Forgotten Spaces of Neo-Slavery,” 100th ACSA Annual Meeting Proceedings, 2012, 436-444.

Brown, Simone. Dark Matters: On the Surveillance of Blackness. Duke University Press, 2015.

Camp, Jordan T. Incarcerating the Crisis: Freedom Struggles and the Rise of the Neoliberal State (Berkeley: University of California Press, 2016).

Carby, Hazel V., “Policing the Black Woman's Body in an Urban Context,” Critical Inquiry 18 no. 4 (Summer 1992): 738-755

Davis, Angela. “The Prison Industrial Complex,” Are Prisons Obsolete? (New York: Seven Stories Press, 2003), 84-104.

Davis, Angela. The Prison Industrial Complex: 

DuVernay, Ava. 13th. Netflix, 2016. YouTube open link 

Gilmore, Ruth. Golden Gulag: Prisons, Surplus, Crisis, and Opposition in Globalizing California. Berkeley: University of California Press, 2007.

Gonnerman, Jennifer. “Before the Law,” New Yorker, 6 October 2014, p. 26-32.

Hinton, Elizabeth. From the War on Poverty to the War on Crime: The Making of Mass Incarceration in America. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press, 2016.

Kurgan, Laura. “Million-Dollar Blocks.” In Close Up at a Distance: Mapping, Technology, and Politics. New York: Zone Books, 2013.

Mountz, Alison. Death of Asylum: Hidden Geographies of the Enforcement Archipelago. Minneapolis: Minnesota University Press, 2020.

Os Cangaceiros, A Crime called Freedom / 

Spatial Information Design Lab, Columbia University Graduate School of Architecture, Planning and Preservation, Architecture and Justice (2006).

Shabazz, Rashad. Spatializing Blackness: Architectures of Confinement And Black Masculinity In Chicago. Urbana, [Illinois]: University of Illinois Press, 2015.

States of Incarceration 

Story, Brett. Prison Land: Mapping Carceral Power across Neoliberal America. Minneapolis: University of Minnesota Press, 2019.

Thompson, Heather Ann “Why Mass Incarceration Matters: Rethinking Crisis, Decline, and Transformation in Postwar American History,” Journal of American History (Dec. 2010): 703-734.

Thompson, Heather Ann. Blood in the Water: The Attica Prison Uprising of 1971 and Its Legacy. New York: Pantheon, 2016.

Wang, Jackie. Carceral Capitalism. Los Angeles: Semiotext(e), 2018.

Wilson, Mabel O. “Carceral Architectures,” in Superhumanity, e-flux

Racial Justice

Alexander, William. Is William Martinez Not Our Brother? Twenty Years of the Prison Creative Arts Project (Ann Arbor: University of Michigan Press, 2010).

Chase, Robert T. “Cell Taught, Self-Taught: The Chicano Movement Behind Bars—Urban Chicanos, Rural Prisons, and the Prisoners’ Rights Movement,” Journal of Urban History 41, no 5 (2015): 831-61.

Chazkel, Amy and Monica Kim, Naomi Paik, eds., Policing, Justice, and the Radical Imagination: Special Issue of Radical History Review 20, no. 2 (May 2020).

Militarization, Architecture, and Urbanism

Graham, Steven. Cities Under Siege: The New Military Urbanism (London: Verso, 2010).

Greenberg, Allan. Architecture of Democracy (New York: Rizzoli, 2006).

Mancini, J.M., and Keith Bresnahan (eds.). Architecture and Armed Conflict: The Politics of Destruction (Oxon: Routledge, 2015)

Pugh, Emily. Architecture, Politics, and Identity in Divided Berlin (Pittsburgh: University of Pittsburgh Press, 2014).

Immigration and Detention

Agamben, Giorgio. ‘The Camp as biopolitical paradigm of the modern’ (available online:

Anderson, Sean and Jennifer Ferng. “No Boat: Christmas Island and the Architecture of Detention.” Architectural Theory Review, 18/2” 212-216.

Elleman, Bruce Japanese-American Civilian Prisoner Exchanges and Detention Camps, 1941-45 (New York: Routledge, 2006)

Global Detention Project: Mapping Immigrant Detention Around the World (

Hernández, Kelly Lytle. City of Inmates: Conquest, Rebellion, and the Rise of Human Caging in Los Angeles, 1771–1965. Chapel Hill: University of North Carolina Press, 2017. Accessed July 6, 2020.

Hernández, Kelly Lytle. Migra!: A History of the U.S. Border Patrol. University of California Press, 2010. Accessed July 6, 2020.

Hong, Sukjong. “The Problem With Designing Trump’s Border Wall.” The New Republic, March 29, 2016.

Horiuchi, Lynne. Dislocations and relocations: The built environments of Japanese American internment, PhD Diss. [book forthcoming].

Horiuchi, Lynne. “Dislocations : the built environments of Japanese American internment,” in Guilt by association: essays on Japanese settlement, internment, and relocation in the Rocky Mountain West (Powell, Wyo: Western History Pub., 2001), Chapter 11.

Lopez, Sarah. The Remittance Landscape: Spaces of Migration in Rural Mexico and Urban USA. Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 2015.

Mountz, Alison “Mapping Remote Detention: Dis/location through Isolation,” in Beyond Walls and Cages: Prisons, Borders, and Global Crisis, eds. Jenna M. Loyd, Matt Mitchelson, and Andrew Burridge (Athens, GA: University of Georgia Press, 2012), 91-104.

Osayimwese, Itohan. “Architecture, Migration, and Spaces of Exception in Europe.” ABE Journal (forthcoming, 2017).

Siddiqi, Anooradha. “Emergency or Development? Architecture as Industrial Humanitarianism,” Trialog, v. 112/113, n. 1-2 (2013), 28-31.


Schools and the Geography of Racial Segregation in the United States

Benjamin, Karen. "Suburbanizing Jim Crow: The Impact of School Policy on Residential Segregation in Raleigh." Journal of Urban History 38, no. 2 (2012): 225-46.

Clapper, Michael. “School Design, Site Selection, and the Political Geography of Race in Postwar Philadelphia.” Journal of American Planning History 5, no. 3 (2006): 241-263.

Erickson, Ansley T. "Desegregation's Architects: Education Parks and the Spatial Ideology of Schooling." History of Education Quarterly 56, no. 4 (November 2016): 560-89.

Erickson, Ansley T. Making the Unequal Metropolis: School Desegregation and Its Limits. Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 2016.

Erickson, Ansley T., and Andrew R. Highsmith. "The Neighborhood Unit: Schools, Segregation, and the Shaping of the Modern Metropolitan Landscape." Teachers College Record 120, no. 3 (2018): 1-36.

Glass, Michael R. "From Sword to Shield to Myth: Facing the Facts of De Facto School Segregation. Journal of Urban History. First published date: November 10, 2016, 10.1177/0096144216675473.

Graham, James D., and Michael Abrahamson. “*Designing the Great Migration[]*.” The Aggregate website 2 (March 2015)

Highsmith, Andrew R., and Ansley T. Erickson. "Segregation as Splitting, Segregation as Joining: Schools, Housing, and the Many Modes of Jim Crow." American Journal of Education 121 (August 2015): 563-95.

Hock, Jennifer. "Bulldozers, Busing, and Boycotts: Urban Renewal and the Integrationist Project." Journal of Urban History 39, no. 3 (May 2013): 433-53.

Erkin Ozay. Urban Renewal and School Reform in Baltimore: Rethinking the 21st Century Public School. New York: Routledge, 2020.

Vitiello, Domenic. "Re-Forming School and Cities: Placing Education on the Landscape of Planning History." Journal of American Planning History 5, no. 3 (2006): 183-95.

Architecture, Race, and Schools in the United States

Baughn, Jennifer V. Opager. “A Modern School Plant: Rural Consolidated Schools in Mississippi, 1910-1955.” Buildings & Landscapes 19, no. 1 (Spring 2012): 43-73.

Erickson, Ansley T., and Ernest Morrell, eds. Educating Harlem: A Century of Schooling and Resistance in a Black Community. New York: Columbia University Press, 2019.

Gutman, Marta. "Intermediate School 201: Race, Space, and Modern Architecture in Harlem." In Educating Harlem: A Century of Schooling and Resistance in a Black Community, edited by Ansley T. Erickson and Ernest Morrell, 183-209. New York: Columbia University Press, 2019.

Hale, John R. The Freedom Schools: Student Activists in the Mississippi Civil Rights Movement. New York: Columbia University Press, 2016.

Hoffschwelle, Mary S. The Rosenwald Schools of the American South. Tampa: University Press of Florida, 2006.

Nieves, Angel David. An Architecture of Education: African American Women Design the New South (Rochester: University of Rochester Press, 2017)

Weisser, Amy S. “Marking Brown v. Board of Education: Memorializing Separate and Unequal Spaces.” In Sites of Memory: Perspectives on Architecture and Race, ed. Craig E. Barton, 97-108. New York: Princeton Architectural Press, 2001.

White, Wendel A. “Schools for the Colored.” Buildings & Landscapes 22, no. 1 (Spring 2016): 63-89.

Wiley, Amber N. “The Dunbar High School Dilemma: Architecture, Power, and African American Cultural Heritage.” Buildings & Landscapes 20, no. 1 (Spring 2013): 95-128.

Wiley, Amber N. “A Model School for a Model City: Shaw Junior High School as a Monument to Planning Reform,” Designing Schools: Space, Place and Pedagogy, ed. Julie Willis and Kate Darian-Smith (London, New York, NY: Routledge, 2017): 158-174.

Wilson, Mabel O. "Rosenwald School: Lessons in Progressive Education." In Frank Lloyd Wright: Unpacking the Archive, ed. Barry Bergdoll and Jennifer Gray. 96-113. New York: Museum of Modern Art, 2017.

Elementary Schools and High Schools for Indigenous Peoples

Adams, David Wallace. Education for Extinction: American Indians and the Boarding School Experience, 1875-1928. Lawrence: University Press of Kansas, 1995.

Green, Christopher T. “A Stage Set for Assimilation: The Model Indian School at the World’s Columbian Exposition.” Winterthur Portfolio 51, no. 2/3 (2017): 95-133.

Herbert, J. “‘Ceaselessly Circling the Centre’: Historical Contextualization of Indigenous Education within Australia.” History of Education Review 41, no. 2 (2012): 91-103.

Margolis, Eric. “Looking at Discipline, Looking at Labour: Photographic Representations of Indian Boarding Schools.” Visual Studies 19, no. 1 (2004): 72–96.

McLeod, Julie, and Sianan Healy. “‘We Make No Discrimination’: Aboriginal Education and the Socio-spatial Arrangements of the Australian Classroom.” In Designing Schools: Space, Place, and Pedagogy, ed. Julie Willis and Kate Darian Smith, 144-57. London and New York: Routledge, 2017.

Rockwell, Elsie. “Walls, Fences, and Keys: The Enclosure of Rural Indigenous Schools.” In Materialities of Schooling: Design, Technology, Objects, Routines, ed. Martin Lawn, and Ian Grosvenor, 19-45.  London: Symposium Books, 2005.

Swentzell, Rina. "Conflicting Landscape Values: The Santa Clara Pueblo and Day School." In Understanding Ordinary Landscapes, ed. Paul Groth and Todd W. Bressi, 56-66. New Haven: Yale University Press, 1997.

Trennert, Robert A. "Educating Indian Girls at Nonreservation Boarding Schools, 1878-1920." Western Historical Quarterly 13, no. 3 (July 1982): 271-90.

Van Ingen, Cathy and Joannie Halas. "Claiming Space: Aboriginal Students within School Landscapes." Children's Geographies 4, no. 3 (December 2006): 379-98.

Valadares, Desirée “Indian Residential Schools – Carceral Classrooms in Canada,” The Funambulist 4 (March-April 2016)

Woolford, Andrew and James Gacek, “Genocidal Carcerality and Indian Residential Schools in Canada”, Punishment and Society, First Published April 1, 2016, DOI: 10.1177/146474516641375.



Ahmed, Nabil. “Earthly poison: arsenic in the Bengal delta,” in Ines Weizman, ed. Architecture and the Paradox of Dissidence (London and New York: Routledge, 2014), 194-205.

Alvarez, C.J. “Police and Waterworks on the Border: Aspirations to Control through Building.”Iin Border Land, Border Water: A History of Construction on the US-Mexico Divide (University of Texas Press, 2019)

Bullard, Robert D. “Environmental Justice for All” in edited by Robert D. Bullard, Unequal Protection: Environmental Justice and Communities of Color (San Francisco, CA: Sierra Club Books, 1994), pp. 3-22.

Bullard, Robert D. “Anatomy of Environmental Racism and the Environmental Justice Movement,” in edited by Robert D. Bullard, Confronting Environmental Racism: Voices from the Grassroots (Cambridge, MA: South End Press, 1993), pp. 15-40.

Commission for Racial Justice, United Church of Christ, Toxic Wastes and Race in the United States: A National Report on the Racial and Socio-Economic Characteristics of Communities with Hazardous Waste Sites (1987).

Derickson, Kate. The racial politics of neoliberal regulation in post-Katrina. Mississippi. Annals of the Association of American Geographers 104(4): 889–902.

Finney, Carolyn. Black Faces, White Spaces: Reimagining the Relationship of African Americans to the Great Outdoors. UNC Press, 2014.

Mckee, Yates. “Haunted Housing: Eco-Vanguardism, Eviction, and the Biopolitics of Sustainability in New Orleans” Grey Room, 30 (2008): 84-113.

Nixon, Rob. Slow Violence and the Environmentalism of the Poor. Cambridge, Mass.: Harvard University Press, 2011.

Pellow, David N. 2016. “Toward a Critical Environmental Studies: Black Lives Matter as an Environmental Justice Challenge.” DuBois Review: Social Science Research on Race.

Pulido, Laura (2016) “Flint Michigan, Environmental Racism and Racial Capitalism” Capitalism Nature Socialism 27 (3): 1-16.

Seamster, Louise, and Danielle Purifoy. “What Is Environmental Racism for? Place-Based Harm and Relational Development.” Environmental Sociology (July 22, 2020): 1–12.

Sze, Julie. Noxious New York: The Racial Politics of Urban Health and Environmental Justice. Cambridge: MIT Press, 2006

Taylor, Dorceta E. “Social Inequality and the Quest for Order in the City,” in The Environment and the People in American Cities, 1600s-1900s. Durham, NC: Duke University Press, 2009, pp. 131-180.

Tavares, Paulo. “Modern Frontiers: Beyond Brasilia, the Amazon,” in Patricio Del Real and Helen Gyger, eds. Latin American Modern Architectures: Ambiguous Territories (New York: Routledge, 2013): 191-212.

We The People of Detroit Research Collective, Mapping the Water Crisis 

Weizman, Eyal and Fazal Sheikh, The conflict shoreline : colonization as climate change in the Negev Desert. Göttingen, Germany : Steidl, in association with Cabinet Books, Brooklyn, 2015.

Weizman, Eyal. Forensic Architecture: Violence at the Threshold of Detectability. 1 edition. Brooklyn, NY: Zone Books, 2017.

Woods, Clyde (2017) Development Drowned and Reborn: The Blues and Bourbon Restoration in Post-Katrina New Orleans. Edited and posthumously completed by Laura Pulido and Jordan Camp. University of Georgia Press, Geographies of Justice series.

Environmental Sociology Vol 7, Issue 2 [Special Issue: Race and the Environment]

See Additional Resources, Standing Rock Syllabus “Environmental Racism and Dispossession”

Material Culture

Slota, Stephen C., and Geoffrey Bowker. “How Infrastructures Matter.” In The Handbook of Science and Technology Studies, Ulrike Felt, Rayvon Fouché, Clark A. Miller, And Laurel Smith-Doerr., 529–54. MIT Press, 2017.

Winner, Langdon. ‘Do Artifacts Have Politics?’ Daedalus (Winter 1980): 121–136.


Benjamin, Ruha. Race After Technology: Abolitionist Tools for the New Jim Code Medford, MA: Polity, 2019.

Noble, Safiya Umoja. Algorithms of Oppression: How Search Engines Reinforce Racism. NYU Press, 2018.


Anderson, Elijah. “The White Space,” Sociology of Race and Ethnicity 2015, Vol 1(1), 10-21. 

Browne, Simone. Dark Matters: On the Surveillance of Blackness. Duke University Press, 2015.

Cadogan, Garnette. “Walking While Black.” Literary Hub, July 8, 2016.

Harris, Dianne. “Race, Space, and Trayvon Martin,” Published on the blog of the Society of Architectural Historians, July, 2013: Published, 07/2013.

Minkley, Gary. “Corpses behind Screens: Native Space in the City”. In Blank ‒: Architecture, Apartheid and After, edited by H. Judin and I. Vladislavić, 203-219. Rotterdam: NAi Publishers, 1998.

Rankine, Claudia Citizen: An American Lyric (London: Penguin Press, 2014)

Sotomayor, Sonia dissent in Utah v. Strieff, United States Supreme Court (2016).

Third Wave Urbanism Podcast, “Black Joy in Public Space with Mariah Williams,”


Public Space and Resistance

Alkalimat, Abdul, Romi Crawford, Rebecca Zorach (eds.), The Wall of Respect. Public Art and Black Liberation in 1960s Chicago (Northwestern University Press, 2016).

Brenner, Neil, "Open city or the right to the city," in Topos 85 (2013): 42-45

-----, "What is critical urban theory?," in City 13, no. 2-3 (2009): 198-207.

Brown-Nagin, Tomiko. Courage to Dissent: Atlanta and the Long History of the Civil Rights Movement. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2011.

Crawford, Margaret “Contesting the Public Realm: Struggles Over Public Space in Los Angeles,” Journal of Architectural Education 49, no. 1 (1995): 4-9.

Haddow, Robert “The Unfinished Work Exhibition,” in Pavilions of Plenty: Exhibiting America in the Cold War. Washington: Smithsonian Institution Press, 1997.

Harvey, David “The Right to the City,” International Journal of Urban and Regional Research 27, no. 4 (2003): 939-941.

Jones, Amelia “‘Traitor prophets’: Asco's art as a politics of the in-between,” in ASCO: Elite of the Obscure: A Retrospective, 1972-1987 (Exh. cat., LACMA and Williams College) Ostfildern: Hatje, 2011, 106-141.

Kelley, Robin D. G. Race Rebels: Culture, Politics, and the Black Working Class. xiii, 351 p., [8] p. of plates. New York : Toronto: Free Press ; Maxwell Macmillan Canada ; Maxwell Macmillan International, 1994.

Le Roux, Hannah. “The Congress as Architecture: Modernism and Politics in Postwar Transvaal”. Architecture South Africa (Jan-Feb 2007): 72-76.

Mitchell, Don. The Right to the City: Social Justice and the Fight for Public Space. Guilford Press, 2003.

Mitchell, Don and Lynn Staeheli. “Permitting Protest: Parsing the Fine Geography of Dissent in America.” International Journal of Urban and Regional Research v. 29/4 (2005): 796-813.

Montgomery, Alesia. “Reappearance of the Public: Placemaking, Minoritization and Resistance in Detroit.” International Journal of Urban and Regional Research 40, no. 4 (July 1, 2016): 776–99.

Wiley, Amber N. “Geography, Planning, and Performing Mobility in New Orleans,” Walking in Cities: Quotidian Mobility as Urban Theory, Method, and Practice, ed. by Timothy Shortell and Evrick Brown (Philadelphia: Temple University Press, 2016): 177-196

Racialized Imaginaries and Self-Determined Futures

Bedoya, Roberto “Spatial Justice: Rasquachification, Race, and the City,” in Creative Time (15 September 2014), 

Carmichael, Stokely and Charles V. Hamilton, Black Power: The Politics of Liberation in America (New York: Vintage Books, 1967).

Dery, Mark “Black to the Future,” in Flame Wars: The Discourse of Cyberculture, ed. Mark Dery (Durham, NC: Duke University Press, 1994), 179-222.

Goldstein, Brian D. The Roots of Urban Renaissance: Gentrification and the Struggle Over Harlem (Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press, 2017).

Goldstein, Brian D. “‘The Search for New Forms’: Black Power and the Making of the Postmodern City,” Journal of American History 103, no. 2 (2016): 375-399.

Gutman, Marta. "Race, Place, and Play: Robert Moses and the Wpa Swimming Pools in New York City." Journal of the Society of Architectural Historians 67, no. 4 (December 2008): 532-61.

Hunter, Marcus Anthony, Mary Pattillo, Zandria F. Robinson, and Keeanga-Yamahtta Taylor. “Black Placemaking: Celebration, Play, and Poetry.” Theory, Culture & Society 33, no. 7–8 (December 1, 2016): 31–56.

Kelley, Robin D. G. Freedom Dreams: The Black Radical Imagination (Boston, Mass.: Beacon Press, 2008).

Lee, Tunney and Lawrence Vale, “Resurrection City: Washington DC, 1968,” thresholds 41:REVOLUTION! (Cambridge: SA+P Press, 2013): 112-121.

Lin, Jan. The Power of Urban Ethnic Places: Cultural heritage and community life (New York: Routledge, 2011)

McKee, Yates. Strike Art: Contemporary Art and the Post-Occupy Condition (London and New York: Verso, 2016).

Nieves, Angel David and Leslie M. Alexander, eds., “We Shall Independent Be”: African American Place Making and the Struggle to Claim Space in the United States (Louisville, CO: University Press of Colorado, 2008)

Pezzani, Lorenzo. “Mapping the Sea: thalassopolitics and disobedient spatial practices,” in Ines Weizman, ed. Architecture and the Paradox of Dissidence (London and New York: Routledge, 2014), 151-162.

Robinson, Harry and Hazel Ruth Edwards, The Long Walk: The Placemaking Legacy at Howard University (Washington, D.C.: Moorland-Spingarn Research Center, Howard University, 1996)

Rojas, James, “Latino Vernacular: Latino spatial and cultural values transform the American single-family house and street,” in Northern News (November 2014), 

Rojas, James. “The Cultural Landscape of a Latino Community,” Chapter 9 in Schein, Landscape and Race in the United States, 2006.

UCLA Abolitionist Planning Group, Abolitionist Planning for Resistance (2016), 

Villa, Raúl Homero. “Introduction” and Chapter 2 from Barrio Logos: Space and Place in Urban Chicano Literature and Culture, 2000.

Wiebenson, John. “Planning and Using Resurrection City.” Journal of the American Institute of Planners 35, no. 6 (November 1, 1969): 405–11.

Wiese, Andrew. Places of Their Own: African American Suburbanization in the Twentieth Century (Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 2004), 94-109.

Cultivating as Resistance

Armstead, Myra Young. “A Gardening Career,” or “Cultural Meanings of Gardening,” in Freedom’s Gardner: James F. Brown, Horticulture, and Antebellum in the Hudson Valley (New York, NY: NYU Press, 2012), pp. 54-87.

Bagchee, Nandini. Counter Institution: Activist Estates of the Lower East Side, Fordham University Press, 2017.

Cephas, J. “Agricultural Urbanism in Detroit,” in In the Life of Cities...: Parallel Narratives of the Urban, edited by Mohsen Mostafavi (Cambridge: Harvard Graduate School of Design, 2012).

Guha, Ramachandra. The Unquiet Woods: Ecological Change and Peasant Resistance in the Himalayas. Berkeley: University of California Press, 2000.

White, Monica M. Freedom Farmers: Agricultural Resistance and the Black Freedom Movement (Chapel Hill: University of North Carolina Press, 2018).

White, Monica M. “‘A Pig and a Garden’: Fannie Lou Hamer and the Freedom Farms Cooperative.” Food and Foodways 25, no. 1 (January 2, 2017): 20–39.


Blight, David W. Race and Reunion. Cambridge, MA: Harvard Univ Press, 2000.

Horton, James and Lois Horton. Slavery and Public History: the tough stuff of American memory (University of North Carolina Press, 2006).

Nelson, Louis P. and Chaudrena N. Harold, eds., Charlottesville 2017: The Legacy of Race and Inequality. Charlottesville: University of Virginia Press, 2018.

US Monuments

Arnebeck, Bob, Slave Labor in the Capital: Building Washington’s Iconic Federal Landmarks, The History Press, 2014.

Allen-Kim, Erica  “Exile on the Commercial Strip: Vietnam War Memorials in Little Saigon and the Politics of Commemoration,” Buildings and Landscapes 21, no. 2 (2014), 31-56.

Baldwin, James, I Heard it Through Grapevine, documentary, 1982, Produced by Pat Hartley, Dick Fontaine, James Baldwin.

Barton, Craig, ed. Sites of Memory: Perspectives on Architecture and Race. New York: Princeton Architecture Press, 2001.

Giliberti, Marco. "Rethinking the Memorial in a Black Belt Landscape Planning, Memory and Identity of African-Americans in Alabama." Urbani Izziv 24, no. 1 (2013): 144-59.

Hillyer, Reiko. Designing Dixie: Tourism, Memory, and Urban Space in the New South. American South Series: University of Virginia Press, 2015.

Meringolo, Denise Museums, Monuments, and National Parks: toward a new genealogy of public history (Amherst: University of Massachusetts Press, 2012).

Savage, Kirk. Standing Soldiers, Kneeling Slaves: Race, War, and Monument in Nineteenth-Century America (Princeton University Press, 1999).

Savage, Kirk, Introduction to Monument Wars. Washington, D.C., the National Mall, and the Transformation of the Memorial Landscape (2011).

Tagger, Barbara A. "Interpreting African American Women's History through Historic Landscapes, Structures, and Commemorative Sites." OAH Magazine of History 12, no. 1 (1997): 17-19.

Upton, Dell What Can and Can’t Be Said: Race, Uplift, and Monument Building in the Contemporary South. New Haven: Yale University Press, 2015.

Upton, Dell “Confederate Monuments and Civic Values in the Wake of Charlottesville” in SAH Blog (13 September 2017), 

Wilson, Mabel O. “A Questionnaire on Monuments [Response by Mabel O. Wilson],” October 165 (August 1, 2018): cover page & 174-176.

Zeller, Bob Fighting the Second Civil War:  A History of Battlefield Preservation and the Emergence of the Civil War Trust (Washington DC: Civil War Trust, 2017).

Outside the US

Çelik, Zeynep. “Colonial/Postcolonial Intersections: ‘Lieux de Mémoire’ in Algiers.” Historical Reflections / Réflexions Historiques 28, no. 2 (1 July 2002): 143–62.

Widrich, Mechtild "The Willed and the Unwilled Monument. Judenplatz Vienna and Riegl’s Denkmalpflege" Journal of the Society of Architectural Historians (September 2013), 382-398.

See Additional Resources, Charlottesville syllabus, “The Lost Cause, Memorialization, and Charlottesville’s Confederate Statues”

Historic Preservation

Hayden, Dolores. The Power of Place: Urban Landscapes as Public History. Cambridge, MA: The MIT Press, 1997.

Herzfeld, Michael "Engagement, Gentrification, and the Neoliberal Hijacking of History," Current Anthropology 51, no. S2 (October 2010): S259-S267.

Kaufman, Ned. Place, Race, and Story: Essays on the Past and Future of Historic Preservation. New York, N.Y.; London: Routledge, 2009.

Lee, Antoinette J. "The Social and Ethnic Dimensions of Historic Preservation." In A Richer Heritage: Historic Preservation in the Twenty-First Century. Edited by Robert E. Stipe. Chapel Hill, NC: University of North Carolina Press, 2003.

Lee, Antoinette J., “From Historic Architecture to Cultural Heritage: A Journey Through Diversity, Identity, and Community,” Future Anterior 1, no. 2 (Fall 2004): 15-23.

Roberts, Andrea. “‘Until the Lord Come Get Me, It Burn Down, Or the Next Storm Blow It Away’: The Aesthetics of Freedom in African American Vernacular Homestead Preservation,” Buildings & Landscapes: Journal of the Vernacular Architecture Forum 26, no. 2 (December 18, 2019): 73–97.

Verrey, Robert and Laura Henley. “Creation Myths and Zoning Boards: Local Uses of Historic Preservation.” In The Politics of Culture, edited by Brett Williams, 75-107. Washington: Smithsonian Institution Press, 1991. Discusses how histories are contested or changed in historical preservation debates.

History of “Black Broadway” in Washington, D.C. 1920-1950 (with many photos): 


Bell, Carla Jackson, ed. Space Unveiled: Invisible Cultures in the Design Studio. New York: Routledge, 2014.

Bond, Max. “Still Here: Three Architects of Afro-America, Julian Francis Abele, Hilyard Robinson, and Paul R. Williams.” Harvard Design Magazine 2 (Summer 1997).

Coles, Robert Traynham. “An Endangered Species.” Journal of Architectural Education 43, no. 1 (Autumn 1989): 60-62.

Cephas, Jay. The Black Architects Archive (in progress) 

Dozier, Richard.“The Black Architectural Experience in America,” AIA Journal (July 1976): 162-171,

Dozier, Richard. Tuskegee: Booker T. Washington's Contribution to the Education of Black Architects (PhD Diss. University of Michigan, 1990).

Dutton, Tom A. “Architectural Education and Society: An Interview with J. Max Bond, Jr.” In Voices in Architectural Education: Cultural Politics and Pedagogy, ed. Tom A. Dutton. New York: Bergin and Garvey, 1991, 83-95.

Goldstein, Brian. “Planning's End? Urban Renewal in New Haven, the Yale School of Art and Architecture, and the Fall of the New Deal Spatial Order.” Journal of Urban History 37, no. 3 (2011): 400-422.

Henderson, Wesley Howard. “Two Case Studies of Black Architects’ Careers in Los Angeles, 1890-1945: Paul R. Williams, FAIA and James Garrott, FAIA. Ph.D. diss., University of Michigan, 1992.

Hudson, Karen E. Paul R. Williams, Architect: A Legacy of Style. New York: Rizzoli, 1993.

Kaplan, Victoria. Structural Inequality: Black Architects in the United States. Lanham, MD: Rowman & Littlefield, 2006.

Mitchell, Melvin. The Crisis of the African-American Architect: Conflicting Cultures of Architecture and Black Power. New York: Writers Advantage, 2003.

Mitchell, Melvin. African American Architects: Embracing Culture and Building Urban Communities 2020.

Sutton, Sharon Egretta. When Ivory Towers Were Black: A Story About Race in America’s Cities and Universities. New York: Fordham University Press, 2017.

Tauke, Beth, Korydon Smith, and Charles Davis, eds. Diversity and Design: Understanding Hidden Consequences. London: Routledge, 2015.

Travis, Jack. African-American Architects in Current Practice. New York: Princeton Architectural Press, 1992.

Weiss, Ellen. Robert R. Taylor and Tuskegee: An African American Architect Designs for Booker T. Washington. Montgomery, AL: NewSouth Books, 2012.

Wellington, Paul A. Black Built: History and Architecture in the Black Community. Paul Wellington, 2019.

Wilkins, Craig L. The Aesthetics of Equity: Notes on Race, Space, Architecture, and Music. Minneapolis: University of Minnesota Press, 2007.

Wilkins. Craig. Diversity Among Architects: From Margin to Center. New York and London: Routledge, 2016.

Williams, Clarence G. Technology and the Dream: Reflections on the Black Experience at MIT, 1941-1999. Cambridge: MIT Press, 2003. 

Wilson, Dreck Spurlock, ed. African American Architects: A Biographical Dictionary, 1865-1945. New York: Routledge, 2004.



Agamben, Giorgio. Homo Sacer: Sovereign Power and Bare Life, trans. Daniel Heller-Roazen (Stanford, CA: Stanford University Press, 1998)

Aureli, Pier Vittorio. Project of Autonomy: Politics and Architecture Within and Against Capitalism (Princeton Architectural Press, 2012)

Gramsci, Antonio Selections from the Prison Notebooks, ed and trans. by Quintin Hoare and Geoffrey Nowell Smith (1971; New York: International Publishers, 1991).

Greenberg, Allan. Architecture of Democracy (New York: Rizzoli, 2006).

Dovey, Kim. Framing Places: Mediating Power in Built Form. 2nd edition. London ; New York: Routledge, 2008.

Federici, Silvia. Caliban and the Witch. New York: Autonomedia, 2004.

Foucault, Michel. Power/Knowledge: Selected Interviews and Other Writings, 1972-1977. New York: Pantheon Books, 1980.

Foucault, Michel. Discipline and Punish: The Birth of the Prison. New York: Pantheon Books, 1977.

Politics of Aesthetics / Aesthetics of Politics

Easterling, Keller, Extrastatecraft: The Power of Infrastructure Space, Verso Books, 2014.

Martin, Reinhold, Mediators: Aesthetics, Politics, and the City, University of Minnesota Press, 2015.

Panagia, Davide. Ten Theses for an Aesthetics of Politics, University of Minnesota Press, 2016.

Rancière, Jacques, Dissensus: On Politics and Aesthetics, Bloomsbury Publishing, 2015.

-----, The Politics of Aesthetics, Bloomsbury Publishing, 2004.


Collaborative or Institutionally Compiled Syllabi and Reading Lists

Association for Latin American Art (AALA), Afro-Latin American and Afro-Latinx Art Historical Resources, 

Huda Tayob, Suzi Hall, Thandi Loewenson, Race, Space & Architecture 

Cambridge University Press, Protesting, Policing, and Race 

NYC Stands with Standing Rock Collective. 2016. “#StandingRockSyllabus.”

Slavery, Race, Capitalism

Charleston Syllabus

Aggregate Black Lives Matter Dossier

Association for Critical Race Art History Bibliographies 

The Charlottesville Syllabus

theCommons, Black Spaces Matter

Trump 2.0 Syllabus

The Campus Antifascism Network (CAN) Syllabus 

JSTOR Charlottesville Syllabus: Readings on the History of Hate in America

All Monuments Must Fall: A Syllabus

Places Observer: Race, Space, and the Law

Suzanne Hall and Huda Tayob, Race, Space and Architecture 

Institutionalized Racism: A Syllabus

Reading Towards Abolition: A Reading List on Policing, Rebellion, and the Criminalization of Blackness

An Essential Anti-Racist Reading List

House Housing, A Reading List on Architecture, Real Estate, and Inequality

“Blackness, Immobility, & Visibility in Europe (1600-1800) - A Collaborative Timeline,” Journal18 (September 2020)

Decentering Whiteness in Design History Resources, Second Edition,

Individual Syllabi and Compiled Texts (we encourage you to credit these individuals for their input in your syllabus)

Ahmed Ansari, Modernity + Coloniality 

Cheng, Irene. Theories of Architecture and Race syllabus

Crawford, Christina, Atlanta Housing Interplay project

Charles Preston, Black History Month Library

Toni Griffin, Urban American City Resources

Tim Engles, Towards a Bibliography of Critical Whiteness Studies 

Alijah Webb, Repository of Black Revolutionary Texts

Chris Daemmrich, TU White School of Architecture Resources

Pat Simons, Race and Visual Representation in European Culture c. 1300-1700 



Study and Struggle Curriculum


Academics for Black Lives

Angela Davis Resource Guide, Cornell University Library 

Design as Protest Collective, Anti-Racism Design Resources, 

Southern Poverty Law Center, Report, Whose Heritage? Public Symbols of the Confederacy 

If You’re New to Abolition: Study Group Guide

Harvard Graduate School of Design, A Call to Explore: Design, Race, and the Built Environment

WAI Think Tank, A Manual of Anti-racist Architecture Education, 


A Vision for Black Lives: Policy Demands for Black Power, Freedom & Justice 

National Organization of Minority Architects

Equal Justice Initiative


Design as Activism

Design as Protest Collective 

Dark Matter University 

Black Reconstruction Collective

Unlearning Whiteness

Association for Critical Race Art History 



Rethinking the City Through Blackness, Design Miami 6 December 2017 

Critical Dialogues on Race and Modern Architecture at GSAPP February 2016 

Black in Design, Conference at Harvard GSD October 2015

Design Justice for Black Lives

Irene Cheng, Charles Davis II, Jia Yi Gu, Ana María León, Mabel O. Wilson, and participants, “What is an Antiracist Architectural History?” at GAHTC, 

Reconstructions: Architecture and Blackness in America at MoMA (27 Feb–31 May, 2021), Mabel O. Wilson and Sean Anderson, curators,


GAHTC, Results of the call for Antiracist and Global Architectural History Lectures, 

News items and References (subject to revision)

U.S. Customs and Border Protection, “CBP Requests Proposals for Border Wall Prototypes”