Scholarly articles related to standards-based grading principles

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Last Updated November 16, 2020


Amundson, L. (2011). How I overhauled grading as usual. Educational Leadership 69(3). [Available online]

Anderson, L. A. (2018). A critique of grading: Policies, practices, and technical matters. Education Policy Analysis Archives, 26(49), 1-25. Retrieved from

Andrews, C., Barnes, C., & Gibbs, J. (2016). Standards-based grading: Moving toward equality of opportunity and advancement of learning for all students. (Doctoral disquisition). Available from ProQuest Dissertations and Theses. (10103066).

Battistone, W. (2017). A Phenomenological Study on the Lived Experience of First and Second Year Teachers in Standards-Based Grading Districts. (Doctoral dissertation). Available from ProQuest Dissertations and Theses. (10621249).  

*Battistone, W., Buckmiller, T., & Peters, R. (2019). Assessing assessment literacy: Are new teachers prepared to assume jobs in school districts engaging in grading and assessment reform efforts? Studies in Educational Evaluation, 62, 10-17. doi:10.1016/j.stueduc.2019.04.009

*Beatty, I. (2013). Standards-based grading in introductory university physics. Journal of the Scholarship of Teaching and Learning, 13(2), 1-22.  [Available online]

*Blackstone, B., & Oldmixon, E. (2018). Specifications grading in political science. Journal of Political Science Education, doi:10.1080/15512169.2018.1447948.

Blynt, R. A. (1992). The sticking place: Another look at grades and grading. English Journal, 81(6), 66-71.

*Boesdorfer, S. B., Baldwin, E., & Lieberum, K. A. (2018). Emphasizing learning: Using standards-based grading in a large nonmajors’ general chemistry survey course. Journal of Chemical Education, 95, 1291-1300. doi:10.1021/acs.jchemed.8b00251

Bosanec, D. (2020) An impact program evaluation of traditional and standards-based grading practices in relation to ACT performance in a suburban high school (Doctoral dissertation). Available through ProQuest Dissertations and Theses. (27742225)

*Bostic, K. (2012). Standards based grading in the middle school, International Review of Social Sciences and Humanities, 3(1), 17-23. [Available online]

Bradburd-Bailey, M. (2011). A preliminary investigation into the effect of standards-based grading on the academic performance of african-american students. (Doctoral dissertation). Available from ProQuest Dissertations and Theses. (3511593). [Available online]

*Brilleslyper, M., Ghirst, M., Holcomb, T., Schaubroeck, B., Warner, B., & Williams, S. (2011). What’s the point? Benefits of grading without points. Problems, Resources, and Issues in Mathematics Undergraduate Studies, 22(5), 411-427. doi:10.1080/10511970.2011.571346

Brookhart, S.M. (2011). Starting the conversation about grading. Educational Leadership, 69(3), 10-14. [Available online]

Brookhart, S. M., Guskey, T. R., McTighe, J., & Wiliam, D. (2020). Eight essential principles for improving grading. Educational Leadership, 78(1). Online exclusive. [Available online]

*Brookhart, S.M., Guskey, T.R., Bowers, A.J., McMillan, J.H., Smith, J.K., Smith, L.F., Stevens, M.T., & Welsh, M.E. (2016). A century of grading research: Meaning and value in the most common educational measure. Review of Educational Research, 86(4), 803-848.

*Brophy, T.S. (1997). Reporting progress with developmental profiles. Music Educators Journal, 84, 24-27.

*Buckmiller, T., Peters, R., & Kruse, J. (2017). Questioning points and percentages: Standards-based grading in higher education. College Teaching, 65(1), 1-7. doi:10.1080/87567555.2017.1302919

Buckmiller, T., & Peters, R.. (2018). Getting a fair shot?. School Administrator, 75(2), 22-25. [Available online]

*Buckmiller, T., Townsley, M., & Cooper, R. (2020). Rural high school principals and the challenge of standards-based grading. Theory and Practice in Rural Education, 10(1), 92-102. [Available online]

Campbell, C. (2012). Learning-centered grading practices. Leadership, 41(5), 30-33. [Available online]

*Carey, T., & Carifio, J. (2012). The minimum grading controversy: Results of a quantitative study of seven years of grading data from an urban high school. Educational Researcher, 41(6), 201-208. [Available online]

Christopher, S. (2007). Homework: A few practice arrows. Educational Leadership, 65(4), 74-75. [Available online]

Clymer, J.B., & Wiliam, D. (2006). Improving the way we grade science. Educational Leadership, 64(4), 36-42. [Available online]

Colby, S.A. (1999). Grading in a standards-based system. Educational Leadership, 56(6), 52-55.

*Cox, K. (2011). Putting classroom grading on the table: A reform in progress. American Secondary Education, 40(1), 67-87.

Dean, M. G. (2014). Grade retention rates: Impact of standards-based grading as compared to traditional grading system in 3rd and 5th grades. (Doctoral dissertation). Retrieved from

Deddeh, H., Main, E., & Fulkerson, S. (2010). Eight steps to meaningful grading. Phi Delta Kappan, 91(7), 53-58.

*Diegelaman-Parente, A. (2011). The use of mastery learning with competency-based grading in an organic chemistry course. Journal of College Science Teaching, 40(5), 50-58.

Dueck, M. (2011). How I broke my own rule and learned to give retests. Educational Leadership, 69(3), 72-75. [Available online]

*Duker, P, Gawboy, A, Hughes, B, & Shaffer, K.P. (2015). Hacking the music theory classroom: Standards-based grading, just-in-time teaching, and the inverted class. Music Theory Online, 21(2). [Available online]

*Durm, M. (1993). An A is not an A is not an A: A history of grading. The Educational Forum, 57(3), 294-297. doi: 10.1080/00131729309335429

*Elkins, D. M. (2016). Grading to learn: An analysis and application of specifications grading in  communication course. Kentucky Journal of Communication, 35(2), 26-48.

Erickson, J.A. (2011). A call to action: Transforming grading practices. Principal Leadership, 12(1), 42-46.

Erickson, J.A. (2010). Grading practices: The third rail. Principal Leadership, 10(7), 22-26.

Erickson, J.A. (2011). How grading reform changed our school. Educational Leadership, 69(3), 66-70.

Feldman, J., & Reeves, D. (2020). Grading during the pandemic: A conversation. Educational Leadership, 78(1), 22-27.  [Available online]

Feldman, J. (2017). Do Your Grading Practices Undermine Equity Initiatives? Leadership. 47 (2), 8-11.

Feldman, J. (2018). Correcting variable grading policies can transform an entire school. Principal Leadership. 19 (4), 38-43. [Available online]

Feldman, J. (2018). The end of points. Educational Leadership. 75 (5), 36-40.

Feldman, J. (2019). Equitable grading: Tales of three districts. School Administrator. 76 (5), 38-41. [Available online]

Feldman, J. (2019). What traditional grading gets wrong. Education Week. 34(12), 22. [Available online]

Feldman, J. (2019). Beyond standards-based grading: Why equity must be part of grading reform. Kappan, 100(8), 52-55. [Available online]

Feldman, J. (2020). Taking the stress out of grading. Educational Leadership, 78(1), 14-20. [Available online]

Fisher, D., Frey, N., & Pumpian, I. (2011). No penalties for practice. Educational Leadership, 69(3), 46-51.

Fleenor, A., Lamb, S., Anton, J., Stinson, T., & Donen, T. (2011). The grades game. Principal Leadership, 11(6), 48-52.

*Frankin, A., Buckmiller, T., & Kruse, J. (2016). Vocal and vehement: Understanding parents’ aversion to standards-based grading. International Journal of Social Science Studies, 4(11), 19-29. [Available online]

Goodwin, B., & Rouleau, K. (2020). Research Matters / Grading to Encourage Re-Learning. Educational Leadership, 78(1), 84-85. [Available online]

Guskey, T. R. (1994). Making the grade: what benefits students?. Educational Leadership, 52(2), 14-20. [Available online]

Guskey, T .R. (2001). Helping standards make the grade. Educational Leadership, 59(1), 20-27.

Guskey, T. R. (2002). Computerized gradebooks and the myth of objectivity. Phi Delta Kappan, 83(10), 775-780.

Guskey, T. R. (2006). Making high school grades meaningful. Phi Delta Kappan, 87(9), 670-675.

Guskey, T. R. (2009). Bound by tradition: Teachers’ views of crucial grading and reporting issues. Paper presented at the Annual Meeting of the American Educational Research Association, San Francisco, CA. [Available online]

Guskey, T. R. (2011). Five obstacles to grading reform. Educational Leadership, 69(3), 16-21. [Available online]

Guskey, T. R. (2013). The case against percentage grades. Educational Leadership, 71(1), 68-72. [Available online]

Guskey, T. R. (2020). Breaking up the grade. Educational Leadership, 78(1), 40-46. [Available online]

Guskey, T. R., Jung, L., & Swan, G. (2011). Grades that mean something: Kentucky develops standards-based report cards. Phi Delta Kappan, 93(2), 52-57.

Guskey, T. R., & Jung. L. (2006). The challenges of standards-based grading. Leadership Compass 4(2). [Available online]

*Guskey, T. R., & Jung, L. (2009). Grading and reporting in a standards-based environment: Implications for students with special needs. Theory Into Practice, 48(1), 53-62. 

Guskey, T. R., & Jung, L. (2012). Four steps in grading reform. Principal Leadership, 13(4), 22-28.

Guskey, T. R. & Link, L. (2019). The forgotten element of instructional leadership: Grading. Educational Leadership, 76(6).  [Available online]

Guskey, T. R., & Link, L. J. (2019). Exploring the factors teachers consider in determining students’ grades. Assessment in Education: Principles, Policy & Practice, 26(3), 303-320.

Hancock, E., Kilgore, L., & Maxey, A. (2016). Understanding assessment changes everything. Association for Middle Level Education Magazine, 3(5), 13–16. [Available online]

*Hany, K., Proctor, M., Wollenweber, J. & Al-Bataineh (2016). Teacher perceptions of standards-based grading: Implication and effectiveness. Journal of Teaching and Education, 5(1), 749-765. [Available online]

Haptonstall, K.G. (2010). An analysis of the correlation between standards- based, non-standards-based grading systems and achievement as measured by the colorado student assessment program (CSAP). (Doctoral dissertation).  Available from ProQuest Dissertations and Theses (3397087)

Hardegree, A. (2012). Standards-based assessment and high stakes testing: Accuracy of standards-based grading (Doctoral dissertation). Available from ProQuest Dissertations and Theses. (3540113)

Hill, G. R. (2018). Impact of teacher attitudes on implementation of a standards-based grading system (Doctoral dissertation). Available from ProQuest Dissertations and Theses. (13426348) [Available online]

Hochbein, C. & Pollio, M. (2016). Making grades more meaningful. Phi Delta Kappan, 98(3), 49-54. doi: 10.1177/0031721716677262

*Hooper, J., & Cowell, R. (2014). Standards-based grading: History adjusted true score. Educational Assessment, 19(1), 58-76. doi: 10.1080/10627197.2014.869451

*Iamarino, D.L.  (2014). The benefits of standards-based grading: A critical evaluation of modern grading practices. Current Issues in Education, 17(2). [Available online]

*James, A. R. (2018). Grading in physical education. Journal of Physical Education, Recreation & Dance, 89(5), 5-7. doi: 10.1080/07303084.2018.1442063. [Available online]

Jung, L. (2020). Does this count? Educational Leadership, 78(1), 34-38.

*Jung, L., & Guskey, T.R. (2007). Determining fair grades for students with special needs: A standards-based model. Paper presented at the Annual Meeting of the American Educational Research Association, Chicago, IL

Jung, L., & Guskey, T.R. (2011). Fair & accurate grading for exceptional learners. Principal Leadership, 12(3), 32-37.

Jung, L., & Guskey, T.R. (2010). Grading exceptional learners. Educational Leadership, 67(5), 31-35.

Jung, L., & Guskey, T.R. (2007). Standards-based grading and reporting: A model for special education. Teaching Exceptional Children, 40(1), 48-53.

*Kalnin, J.S. (2015) Proficiency-based grading: Can we practice what they preach? AILACTE Journal, 11(1), 19-36.

*Knight, M. & Cooper, R. (2019). Taking on a new grading system: The interconnected effects of standards-based grading on teaching, learning, assessment, and student behavior. NASSP Bulletin, 103(1), 65-92.

*Kunnath, J. (2017). Creating meaningful grades. Journal of School Administration Research and Development, 2(1), 53-56. [Available online]

*Lehman, E., DeJong, D., & Baron, M. (2018). Investigating the relationship of standards-based gradesvs. traditional-based grades to results of the scholastic math inventory at the middle school level. Educational Leadership Review of Doctoral Research, 6, 1-16. [Available online]

*Lehman, P. R. (1998) Grading practices in music. Music Educators Journal, 84(5), 37-40. 

*Lichty, J. A., & Retallick, M. S. (2017). Iowa agricultural educators current and perceived grading practices. Journal of Research in Technical Careers, 1(1), 11-19.

Link, L. J. (2020). Effective grading practices: Creating a culture of achievement. Principal Leadership, 21(2). [Available online]

Lord, M. (2016). Made to Measure. ASEE Prism, 25(6), 32-35. [Available online]

Marbouti, F., Diefes-Dux, H. A., & Madhavan, K. (2016). Models for early prediction of at-risk students in a course using standards-based grading. Computers & Education. [Available online]

Marzano, R.J., & Heflebower, T. (2011). Grades that show what students know. Educational Leadership, 69(3), 34-39.

*Mcbride, A. E., & Kahle, J. (2018). Standards-based grading: An examination of assessment options. Journal of Education & Social Policy, 5(4), 140-145.  

*Melograno, V. J. (2007). Grading and report cards for standards-based physical education. The Journal Of Physical Education, Recreation & Dance, 78(6), 45-53. [Available online]

Miller, J.J. (2013). A better grading system: Standards-based, student-centered assessment. English Journal, 103(1), 111-118. [Available online]

Mohnsen, B. (2006). Assessment and grading in physical education. Strategies (08924562), 20(2), 24-28.

Muñoz, M. A. & Guskey T.R. (2015). Standards-based grading and reporting will improve education. Phi Delta Kappan, 96(7), 64-68.

*Noschese, F. (2011). A better road: Improve teaching and student morale through standards-based grading. Iowa Science Teachers Journal, 38(3), 12-17. [Available online]

Norton, J. B. (2014). The impact of traditional and standards-based grading on teacher-issued grades, student achievement, and parental understanding of grades. (Doctoral dissertation). Available through ProQuest Dissertations and Theses. (3582795)

*Norton, M. N., Quayle, T., Cantwell, S., Barra, J., Champan, H. J., & Chan, J. (2020). Students and faculty perceptions of standards-based grading for clinical education. Teaching and Learning in Nursing.

O’Connor, K. (2009). Reforming grading practices in secondary schools. Principal’s Research Review, 4(1), 1-7.

O’Connor, K. (2017). A case for standards-based grading and reporting. School Administrator, 74(1), 24-28.

O’Connor, K., Jung, L. A. & Reeves, D. (2018). Gearing up for FAST grading and reporting. Phi Delta Kappan, 99(8), 67-71.  

O'Connor, K., & Wormeli, R. (2011). Reporting student learning. Educational Leadership, 69(3), 40-44.

Olsen, B., & Buchanan, R. (2019). An investigation of teachers encouraged to reform grading practices in secondary schools.  American Education Research Journal, 56(5), 2004-2039. [Available online]

Paeplow, C.G. (2011). Easy as 1, 2, 3: Exploring the implementation of standards-based grading in Wake County elementary schools (Doctoral dissertation). Retrieved from

Pekel, K. (2013). A tale of two grades: an evaluation of Grading for Learning, a middle school grading reform (Doctoral dissertation). Retrieved from

*Peters, R. & Buckmiller, T. (2014). Our grades were broken: Overcoming barriers and challenges to implementing standards-based grading. Journal of Educational Leadership in Action, 2(2), [Available online]

*Peters, R., Grundmeyer, T., & Buckmiller, T. (2016). An educational leadership program’s continuous improvement journey towards a standards-based system. International Journal of Learning, Teaching and Educational Research, 15(18), 79-96. [Available online]

*Peters, R., Kruse, J., Buckmiller, T., & Townsley, M. (2017) “It’s just not fair!” Making sense of secondary students’ resistance to a standards-based grading initiative in the midwestern United States. American Secondary Education, 45(3), 9-28.

Poll, T. R. (2019). Standards-based grading: A correlational study between grades and end-of-level test scores (Doctoral dissertation). Available through ProQuest Dissertations and Theses (13428322).

*Pollio, M. & Hochbein, C. (2015). The association between standards-based grading and standardized test scores as an element of a high school reform model. Teachers College Record, 117(11), 1-28.

*Post, S. L. (2017). Standards-based grading in a thermodynamics course. International Journal of Engineering Pedagogy, 7(1).

Prairie, V. L. (2020). Leadership for the implementation of standards-based grading in Asian expatriate high schools (Doctoral dissertation). Retrieved from

Proulx, C., Spencer-May, K., & Westerberg, T. (2012). Moving to standards-based grading: Lessons from Omaha. Principal Leadership, 13(4), 30-34.

Redmond, S. (2019). California expert principals’ identification of the best strategies for the implementation of a transition from a traditional grading and reporting System to a standards-based grading and reporting system: A delphi study (Doctoral dissertation). Retrieved from

Reeves, D.B. (2008). Leading to change: Effective grading practices. Educational Leadership, 65(5), 85-87. [Available online]

Reeves, D.B. (2011). Taking the grading conversation public. Educational Leadership, 69(3), 76-79.

Reeves, D., Jung, L. A., & O’Connor, K. (2017). What’s worth fighting against in grading? Educational Leadership, 74(8), 42-45.

Riede, P. (2018). Making the call inside admissions offices. School Administrator, 75(2), 26-29.

Rosales, R.B. (2013). The effects of standards-based grading on student performance in algebra 2 (Doctoral dissertation). Retrieved from

Scarlett, M. H. (2018). “Why did I get a C?” Communicating student performance using standards-based grading. Insight: A Journal of Scholarly Teaching, 13, 59-75. [Available online]

Schiffman, M. P. (2016). Standards-based grading: Educators' perceptions of the effects on teaching, student motivation, and assessment at the high school level. (Doctoral dissertation). Available through ProQuest Dissertations and Theses. (10117267).

Schimmer, T. (2014). Grading with a standards-based mindset. AMLE Magazine, 10-13.

Schimmer, T. (2020). Quality over counting: Mindsets of grading reform. ASCD Express, 16(2). [Available online]

*Schinske, J., & Tanner, K. (2014). Teaching more by grading less (or differently). CBE - Life Sciences Education (13), 159-166. [Available online]

Schneider, J., Feldman, J. & French, D. (2016). The best of both worlds. Phi Delta Kappan, 98(3), 60-67. [Available online]

Scriffiny, P. L. (2008). Seven reasons for standards-based grading. Educational Leadership, 66(2), 70-74. [Available online]

*Scott, S. (2005). What's in a grade?. General Music Today, 14(3), 17-24.

*Shippy, N., Washer, B., & Perrin, B. (2013). Teaching with the end in mind: The role of standards-based grading. Journal Of Family & Consumer Sciences, 105(2), 14-16.

Spencer, K. (2012). Standards-based grading. Education Digest, 78(3).

Souter, D.H. (2009). The nature of feedback provided to elementary students in classrooms where grading and reporting are standards-based (Doctoral dissertation). Retrieved from

Stephens, S.E. (2010). 7th-12th grade english/language arts teachers and their classroom grading practices: Investigating the use of standards-based grading in Nebraska’s rural classrooms (Doctoral dissertation). Retrieved from

*St. Pierre, N.A., & Wuttke, B.C. (2017). Standards-based grading practices among practicing music educators: Prevalence and rationale. Update: Applications of Research in Music Education, 35(2), 30-37. [Available online]

Stringer, P. (2017). Standards-based grading suggestions for grades 8-12. Vector, 58(1), 8-11. [Available online]

*Swan, G.M., Guskey, T.R., & Jung, L.A. (2014). Parents and teachers’ perceptions of standards-based and traditional report cards. Educational Assessment, Evaluation and Accountability, 26(3), 289-299.

Szymczak, J. S. (2015). Transitioning to a standards-based grading model at the middle level: A case study (Doctoral dissertation). Retrieved from

*Thiele, J. (2018). Students’ perceptions of grading practices and impacts on mindset development. The Advocate, 23(5). doi:10.4148/2637-4552.1012

Thiele, J. (2016). Grading practices and mindset development: The growth of both (Doctoral dissertation). Retrieved from

*Tierney, R. D., Simon, M., & Charland, J. (2011). Being fair: Teachers' interpretations of principles for standards-based grading. Educational Forum, 75(3), 210-227.

Tomlinson, C. (2000). Reconcilable differences? Standards-based teaching and differentiation. Educational Leadership, 58(1), 6-11. [Available online]

Townsley, M. (2013). Redesigning grading―districtwide. Educational Leadership, 71(4), 68-71.

Townsley, M. (2017). Three lessons for schools shifting their grading. School Administrator, 74(1), 27.

Townsley, M. (2017) Impact of standards-based grading practices on post-secondary readiness as measured by standardized college entrance exams (Doctoral dissertation). Available through ProQuest Dissertations and Theses. (10253938)

Townsley, M. (2018). Mastery-minded grading in secondary schools. School Administrator, 75(2), 16-21. [Available online]

*Townsley, M. (2019). Considering standards-based grading: Challenges for secondary school leaders. Journal of School Administration Research and Development, 4(1), 35-38. [Available online]

*Townsley, M. (2019). Walking the talk: Embedding standards-based grading in an educational leadership course. Journal of Research Initiatives, 4(2). [Available online]

Townsley, M. (2020). Standards-based grading implementation pitfalls to avoid in secondary math. Iowa Council of Teachers of Mathematics Journal, 43, 11-15.

*Townsley, M. (2020). Grading principles in pandemic-era learning: Recommendations and implications for secondary school leaders. Journal of School Administration Research and Development, 5(S1), 8-14. [Available online]

*Townsley, M., & Knight, M. (2020). Making change stick: A case study of one high school’s journey towards standards-based grading.  Journal of Educational Leadership in Action, 6(3). [Available online]

Townsley, M., & Knight, M. (2020). 3 big shifts for standards-based grades. ASCD Express, 16(2). [Available online]

*Townsley, M., Buckmiller, T., & Cooper, R. (2019). Anticipating a second wave of standards-based grading implementation and understanding the potential barriers: Perceptions of high school principals. NASSP Bulletin, 103(4), 281-299.

*Townsley M., & Buckmiller T. (2020). Losing As and Fs: What works for schools implementing standards-based grading? Educational Considerations, 46(1). [Available online]

*Townsley, M. & Varga, M. (2018). Getting high school students ready for college: A quantitative study of standards-based grading practices. Journal of Research in Education, 28(1), 92-112. [Available online]

Tripp, M. (2018). Effects of standards-based grading on students in agricultural education (Doctoral dissertation). Retrieved from

Tucker, C. (2018). Rethinking grading. Educational Leadership, 75(5). [Available online]

Urich, L.J. (2012) Implementation of standards-based grading at the middle school level (Doctoral dissertation). Retrieved from

Vanhala, M. (2020). How I revamped my grading system. Educational Leadership, 78(1). 67-70. [Available online]

Vatterott, C. (2011). Making homework central to learning. Educational Leadership, 69(3), 60-64.

Venables, D. R. (2020). Five inconvenient truths about how we grade. Educational Leadership, 78(1), Online exclusive. [Available online]

Weaver, D. J. (2018). High school principals’ leadership activities in policy development and implementation of standards-based grading (Doctoral dissertation). Retrieved from

*Welsh, M. E., D’Agostino, J. V., & Kaniskan, B. (2013). Grading as a reform effort: Do standards-based grades converge with test scores? Educational Measurement: Issues and Practice, 32(2), 26-36. doi:10.1111/emip.12009

*Wilcox, J. (2011). Holding ourselves to a higher standard: Using standards-based grading in science as a means to improve teaching and learning. Iowa Science Teachers Journal, 38(3), 4-11. [Available online]

Winger, T. (2005). Grading to communicate. Educational Leadership, 63(3), 61-65. [Available online]

*Wisch, J. K., Ousterhout, B. H., Carter, V., & Orr, B. (2018). The grading gradient: Teacher motivations for varied redo and retake policies. Studies in Educational Evaluation, 58, 145-155.  

*Wormeli, R. (2006). Accountability: Teaching through assessment and feedback, not grading. American Secondary Education, 34(3), 14-27.

Wormeli, R. (2011). Redos and retakes done right. Educational Leadership, 69(3), 22-26.

Wormeli, R. (2017). We have to prepare students for the next level, don’t we? AMLE Magazine, 5(1), ##-##.

Youngman, E.C. (2017). An examination of parental perceptions of standards-based report cards (Doctoral dissertation). Available through ProQuest Dissertations and Theses. (10263582) [Available online]

Zimmerman, T. (2017). Grading for understanding - Standards-based grading. The Physics Teacher, 55, 47-50. [Available online]