LGBTQI WORLD HISTORY:

A CHRONOLOGY FROM THE 27th CENTURY B.C.E.  TO THE 21st CENTURY C.E.

by Nigel A. Collett

INTRODUCTION

This is a chronology of persons, events and culture of interest to LGBTQI people.  It is not a history in itself, nor is it a fully comprehensive list of everyone and everything of LGBTQI interest in the history of the world.  It is meant to be a list of items of some importance in some way to LGBTQI history.  Readers seeking the meaning or implication of each entry will need to do their own research to discover it.

Not everyone listed here is LGBTQI. Many are those whose work or associations make them of interest to LGBTQI themes. No attempt has been made to identify who or who is not LGBTQI.  Readers seeking that information, if it exists, will need to research it for themselves.

The chronology includes much from the non-English speaking world, but most of the entries are Anglo-centric.  This is not to say that there is more LGBTI history in the English-speaking world.  It merely reflects the linguistic limitations of the compiler.

This chronology has been compiled with the aim of helping LGBTQI people realise that their sexual orientation and gender identity is neither new nor unusual.  The chronology makes clear that LGBTQI people have been part of humankind since the beginning of recorded history and that many of them have made huge contributions to human civilisations.

Above all, it is meant as a tool to provide students of LGBTQI history with a launching pad from which to explore and understand the vast depth and complexity of the past of what Christopher Isherwood happily labelled ‘our tribe’.  

 

Nigel Collett

Hong Kong

4 February 2019

TABLE OF CONTENTS

Introduction                                                                        

Organisation of the Entries                                                 

Abbreviations                                                                        

Part One – The Ancient World                                        

(27th to 10th Centuries B.C.E.)

Part Two – The Classical World of the Mediterranean         

(9th Century B.C.E. to 3rd Century C.E.)                                

Part Three – Christianity, Islam and the Dark Ages in Europe (4th to 11th Centuries C.E.)                                        

Part Four – The European Middle Ages and the

Continued Spread of Islam (12th to 14th Centuries C.E.)      

Part Five - European Renaissance, Reformation and Counter Reformation; the Start of European

Colonialism; Islam at Its Greatest Extent

(15th to 17th Centuries C.E.)

Part Six - The European Enlightenment and                

Revolution (18th Century to 1 C.E.)

Part Seven - Aesthetic and Artistic Change, Medical Interpretations, Legal Repression and the

Beginnings of Self-Realisation and Activism

(1836 to 1918 C.E.)

Part Eight - Between The Wars – False Dawn of        

the Bright Young Things (1919 to 1945 C.E.)

Part Nine – The Cold War and Repression                        

(1946 to 1966 C.E.)

Part Ten – Gay Liberation                                                

(1967 to 1979 C.E.)

Part Eleven – The Age of AIDS and Reaction                        

(1980 to 1992 C.E.)

Part Twelve – Integration in the West                                

(1993 to 2015 C.E.)

ORGANISATION OF THE ENTRIES

Each entry covers one year.  Years are shown in bold and are grouped in centuries.  Entries are organised as follows:

  1. Births.
  2. Deaths.
  3. Legislative changes in bold.
  4. Events and organisations.
  5. Theoretical, academic and professional texts.
  6. Histories.
  7. Biographies.
  8. Autobiographies.
  9. Diaries and journals.
  10. Letters.
  11. Novels, novellas and short stories.
  12. Poems.
  13. Plays.
  14. Films.
  15. Music.
  16. Art.

ABBREVIATIONS

b – born

B.C.E. – Before the Common Era (B.C.)

bf – boy friend

c -  circa (about)

C.E. – Common Era (A.D.)

d – dies/died

? – date uncertain or approximate

PART ONE – THE ANCIENT WORLD

Same-sex activity seems to have been common in the ancient world, prohibited by law between certain classes of people, perhaps, but not something seen as immoral or irreligious.  Same-sex cultural practices continued similarly in many regions until the coming of Christianity after the 3rd Century C.E., Islam after the 7th Century C.E. and European colonisation in the 16-20th Centuries.   The earliest Chinese Emperor, the Yellow Emperor, was noted for his boy concubines, setting a precedent of tolerance in Chinese civilisation that lasted, with exceptions, for nearly 4,000 years.  

27TH CENTURY B.C.E.

2697? The Yellow Emperor of China b.  

26TH CENTURY B.C.E.

2597?  The Yellow Emperor of China d, having enjoyed many boy concubines.

2500? Gilgamesh, 5th King of Uruk.

25TH CENTURY B.C.E.

2453-2422? Egyptian royal servants Khnumhotep and Niankhkhnum of the Fifth Dynasty are buried together.

24th CENTURY B.C.E.

2300? Pharaoh Pepi II Neferkare of Egypt makes nocturnal visits to his General Sasanet.

22ND CENTURY B.C.E.

2150? (to 2000?) Poem The Epic of Gilgamesh composed in Mesopotamia, the first recorded story with same-sex love, that of the semi-divine king Gilgamesh for his companion Enkidu.

11TH CENTURY B.C.E.

1075 The Middle Assyrian Law Codes state: ‘If a man has intercourse with his brother-in-arms, they shall turn him into a eunuch.’ 

1040? (or 1012?) King David of Israel b.

10TH CENTURY B.C.E.

970? (or 872?) King David of Israel d, his companion Prince Jonathan, son of Saul, King of Israel, having d earlier.

PART TWO – THE CLASSICAL WORLD OF THE MEDITERRANEAN

The classical world saw the spread of Greek, then Roman, culture around the Mediterranean and in much of the Near and Middle East.  Greek customs of, and laws pertaining to, same-sex love were added to by later Roman systems, differing but still largely tolerant of same-sex acts as long as they were confined within set class and status boundaries.  Poetry, literature and religious myth contained many stories of same-sex encounters, usually between older men and youths, or between gods and boys.  Monotheistic Judaism and Persian Zoroastrianism developed religious prohibitions that came to conflict with the cultures of the classical world.

Cultural practices regarding same-sex acts in the rest of the world largely remained undisturbed.

9th CENTURY B.C.E.

800? (to 730 or 700?) Homer’s Greek poems The Iliad (including stories of Achilles and Patroclus, and Zeus’s rape of Ganymede) and The Odyssey.

8TH CENTURY B.C.E.

728 Diocles is victor at the Olympic Games then elopes with his lover Philolaus.

714 Greek poet Archilochus b on Paros.

700? Boeotian brooches show Heracles and his helper Iolaus.

7TH CENTURY B.C.E.

? (or after 538 B.C.E.) Biblical book of Leviticus written, including passages, probably referring to priestly piety or part of a Holiness Code distinguishing Israelites from others : "You shall not lie with a male as with a woman; it is an abomination”, and "If a man lies with a male as with a woman, both of them have committed an abomination; they shall surely be put to death; their blood is upon them.”

676 Greek poet Archilocus killed.

640/638?  Athenian statesman and poet Solon b.

630 ?  Dorian aristocrats in Crete adopt formal relations between adult aristocrats and adolescent boys; an inscription from Crete is the oldest record of the social institution of paiderasteia among the Greeks.  

620? (or ?612) Poetess Sappho of Lesbos and poet Alcaeus of Lesbos b.

? Pre 609 Book of Deuteronomy states: “None of the daughters of Israel shall be a kedeshah, nor shall any of the sons of Israel be a kadesh, prohibiting Israelites from serving as temple prostitutes.

600? Sappho of Lesbos writes love poetry addressing younger women.

6TH CENTURY B.C.E.

572/570? Greek lyric poet Anacreon of Teos b.

570 Greek lyric poet Theognis of Megara and Greek tyrant Polycrates b.

560? Poetess Sappho of Lesbos d.

558 Athenian statesman and poet Solon d.

550? to 520?  Greek potter ‘the Affecter’ illustrates pots with same-sex love.  (?) Persian Zoroastrian Zend Avesta prescribes death penalty for homosexuality.

540 (to 530) Wall paintings in the Etruscan Tomb of the Bulls, the tomb of Aranth Spurianus or Arath Spuriana, show same-sex love.  (?) Greek lyric poet Theognis of Megara writing.

After 538 – Biblical Book of Genesis written with story of Sodom and Gomorrah, the sins of which cities were originally viewed as lack of charity, not same-sex love or lust.

534 (to 493) Chinese Ling, Duke of Wei (later lover of Mizi Xia / Zia, who gave him a ‘bitten peach’) b.

522/518? Greek poet Pindar of Thebes b.

515 Greek tyrant Polycrates d.

514 Lovers Harmodius and Aristogeiton attack tyrant Hippias in Athens by assassinating his brother, Hipparchus, and are commemorated by statues in the marketplace.

C 510 Cup by Peithinos depicts youth couples.

 

500? (or ?480)  Greek sculptor and painter Phidias b.

5TH CENTURY B.C.E.

? 5th Century - Biblical stories of David and Jonathan composed in I Samuel and of Ruth and Naomi in the Book of Ruth.

493 Chinese Ling, Duke of Wei, lover of Mizi Xia, who gave him a ‘bitten peach’, d.

490 Greek lyric poet Theognis of Megara d.

485 Greek lyric poet Anacreon of Teos d.

484? Greek historian Herodotus of Halicarnassus b.

480? Athenian tragedian Euripides b.  (C 480) Cup by Douris depicts beautiful Hippodamas being courted.  Cup by Makron depicts male prostitution.  Wall painting in Paestum tomb of the Diver depicts man embracing a youth.

477 Kritios and Nesiotes bronze figures of Harmodius and Aristogeiton.

471 Athenian historian and general Thucydides b.

470/469? Athenian philosopher Socrates b.

465 Greek ephebe Leagros d.

460/450 Athenian playwright Aristophanes b.

450? Athenian tragic poet Agathon and Athenian statesman and general Alcibiades b.

445? Athenian orator Lysias b.

443/438? Greek poet Pindar of Thebes d.

436  Greek sculptor and painter Phidias’s lover Pantarkes is victor in youth wrestling at the 86th Olympiad.

433 Athenian tragic poet Agathon and Pausanias become lovers.

430? Athenian historian, philosopher and soldier Xenophon b. Greek sculptor and painter Phidias d.

427? Athenian philosopher Plato  b. Athenian Aristophanes’s first comedy performed.

425 Greek historian Herodotus of Halicarnassus d.

424 Boeotian 300 heniochoi (reins-holders) and parabatai (chariot fighters) fight at the Battle of Delium.

418? Theban general Epaminondas b.

413 King Archelaus of Macedon ascends to the throne.

416 Athenian tragic poet Agathon’s banquet, celebrated in Plato’s Symposium, attended by his lover Pausanias.

411 Athenian playwright Aristophanes’s play Thesmophoriazousae (Women Celebrating the Festival of the Thesmophoria, also known as The Poet and the Women).

406 Athenian tragedian Euripides d.

404 Athenian statesman and general Alcibiades d.

400 Athenian historian and general Thucydides d.

4TH CENTURY B.C.E.

399 Athenian philosopher Socrates tried for corrupting youth and forced to commit suicide. King Archelaus of Macedon murdered by two former male lovers.

399 Athenian tragic poet Agathon d.

389? Athenian statesman Aeschines b.

386 Athenian playwright Aristophanes d.

385? Athenian philosopher Plato’s Symposium.

384 Athenian statesman Demosthenes and Athenian philosopher Aristotle b.

380? Athenian orator Lysias d.

378 Theban general Gorgidas raises the Sacred Band of Thebes.

371 Theban general and statesman Epaminondas and the Sacred Band of Thebes defeat the Spartans at Leuctra.

370? Athenian philosopher Plato’s dialogue the Phaedrus (Dialogue).

369 (to 340) King Xuan of Wu loves An Ling.

362 Theban general and statesman Epaminondas killed defeating the Spartans at Mantinea.

356 Alexander the Great, King of Macedon and his Macedonian companion Hephaestion b.

354 Athenian historian, philosopher and soldier Xenophon d.

350 Athenian philosopher Plato’s Laws.

347 Athenian philosopher Plato d.

345 Trial of Athenian statesman Aeschines; his speech Against Timarchus.

338 The Sacred Band of Thebes destroyed by King Philip II of Macedon at Chaeronea; he erects a monument in their honour.  

337 Demetrius Poliorcetes, King Demetrius I of Macedon, b.

336 King Philip II of Macedon murdered by his ex-lover, Pausanias. Alexander the Great becomes King of Macedon.

334 (?) Greek philosopher Zeno of Citium b.  King Alexander the Great visits the tomb of Achilles.

331 Macedonian Hephaestion is Leader of the Bodyguards of King Alexander the Great at Gaugamela.

326 King Alexander the Great completes conquest of most of the then known Western world.  In a legal case, the Roman Senate prefers to limit the application of slavery rather than limit the sexual use of slaves.

324 King Alexander the Great’s companion Hephaestion d of a fever at Ecbatana.

323 Alexander the Great, King of Macedon, d.

322 Athenian statesman Demosthenes, Athenian philosopher Aristotle and (?) Athenian statesman and general Aeschines d.

319 Antigonus II Gonatas, King of Macedon b.

317 (or 291/290) Roman Tribune Marcus Laetorius Mergus posthumously condemned for stuprum, a shameful sexual advance on a freeborn subordinate soldier.

 

308 Greek bucolic poet Theocritus of Syracuse b.

304 Prince Demetrius Poliorcetes of Macedon liberates Athens from Cassander then rapes several youths including Democles ‘the fair’.

301 (to 305)? Greek poet and scholar Callimachus of Cyrene b

3RD CENTURY B.C.E.

294 Demetrius Poliorcetes becomes King Demetrius I of Macedon.

283 King Demetrius I Poliorcetes of Macedon d.

281 Antiochus I Soter ascends to the throne of Seleucid Syria.

280? Chinese philosopher Han Fei Zi b.        

278 Chinese poet politician Qu Yua commits suicide in the Miluo River, perhaps because he has lost the love of the King of Chu.

276 Antigonus II Gonatas ascends to the throne of Macedon.

270? Greek Theocritus of Syracuse writing poems.

262? Greek philosopher Zeno of Citium d.

261 King Antiochus I Soter of Seleucid Syria killed.

256 (or 247) Chinese Emperor Gao (Gaozu) of Han b.

 

254 Roman comedy playwright Titus Maccius Plautus b.

250? Greek poet Theocritus of Syracuse d.  Chinese Anxi King of Wei loves the minister Lord Long / Lung Yang (or ?260).

240 Greek poet and scholar Callimachus of Cyrene d.

239 King Antigonus II Gonatas of Macedon d.

233 Chinese philosopher Han Fei Zi d.

226? (or 149?) Roman Lex Scantinia, named after Tribune Caius Scantinius Capitolinus, who was accused of soliciting another aristocrat’s son, penalizes both penetrator and passive victim willingly committing a stuprum (a shameful crime involving a free victim).  Other Tribunes refuse to assert his inviolability, leaving him to face prosecution.

221 Ptolemy IV Philopator becomes Pharaoh of Egypt.

210 Chinese Emperor Hui of Han b.

206 Chinese Emperor Gao (Gaozu) of Han founds Han dynasty; his ‘pillow companion’ is Jiru.

205 Pharaoh Ptolemy IV Philopator of Egypt d.

202 Chinese Emperor Wen of Han b.

2ND CENTURY B.C.E.

195 (or 185) Roman playwright Publius Terentius Afer (Terence) b. Chinese Emperor Gao (Gaozu) of Han d.  (or 194) Chinese Emperor Hui of Han ascends to throne; his favourite is Hong Yu / Hongru.

188 Chinese Emperor Jing of Han b.  Chinese Emperor Hui of Han d.

186 Bacchanalian scandal in Rome, involving sexual penetration of freeborn youth and the sacrifice of those who resisted.

184 Roman comedy playwright Titus Maccius Plautus d.  Consul Lucius Quinctius Flamininus expelled from the Roman Senate by Censor Marcus Porcius Cato for murdering a Gaulish noble at a banquet held to entertain his lover, the prostitute Philippus.

180 (?) Roman satirist Gaius Lucilius  b. (or 179) Chinese Emperor Wen of Han ascends to throne and loves Deng Tong, a boatman, and Zhao Tan and Beiging Bizi, eunuchs.

159 Roman playwright Publius Terentius Afer (Terence) d. 

157 Chinese Emperor Wen of Han d.  Emperor Jing of Han succeeds him; his favourite is Zho Ren.

156 Chinese Emperor Wu-di of Han (Liu Che) b.

149? Roman poet Quintus Lutatius Catulus b.

145? Pharaoh Ptolemy VII Neos Philopator of Egypt ascends the throne and is then killed by, or rules with, his brother Ptolemy VI.

141 Chinese Emperor Jing of Han d.  Chinese Emperor Wu-di of Han (Liu Che) becomes seventh Emperor of the Han Dynasty of China.  His lovers are Han Yan (illegitimate grandson of a marquis, forced to commit suicide), Han Yue, Li Yannan/Yannian (a castrated singer), Wei Zifu and Wei Qing.

138? Roman general and dictator Lucius Cornelius Sulla Felix b.

126 Roman Fabius Maximus Servilianus kills his son for taking the passive role in homosexual acts.

124 Roman Caius Sempronius Gracchus’s speech on return from Quaestorship in Sardinia includes lines boasting of his sexual forbearance towards young men.

120 Roman Governor of Sicily Gaius Verres b.

116 Roman scholar and writer Marcus Terentius Varro b. (?) Pharaoh Ptolemy VII Neos Philopator of Egypt d.

111? Roman Valerius Valentinus loses court case because his poem reveals a love affair with a freeborn boy.

108 Roman politician Lucius Sergius Catilina (Catiline) b.

104 Roman general Gaius Marius rules justifiable homicide in case of a freeborn soldier who had killed his Tribune, who had made sexual advances towards him.

103/4 Roman satirist Gaius Lucilius d.

102 Roman poet Quintus Lutatius Catulus is Consul.

100 Roman statesman and general Gaius Julius Caesar b.  (or 60?) Greek Meleager of Gadara ’s poems Στέφανος (Garland).

1ST CENTURY B.C.E.

99? Roman poet Titus Lucretius Carus (Lucretius) b.

94 Chinese Emperor Zhao of Han b.  (?) Nicomedes IV Philopator becomes King of Bithynia.

93? Roman politician Publius Clodius Pulcher b.

91 Emperor Xuan of Han b.

90?–80?  Roman poet Quintus Lutatius Catulus’s Epigrams.

87 Chinese Emperor Wu-di of Han (Liu Che) and Roman poet Quintus Lutatius Catulus d.   Chinese Emperor Zhao of Han succeeds Emperor Wu-di; his lover is Jin Shang.

84? Roman poet Gaius Valerius Catullus (Catullus) b.

83 Roman general and statesman Marcus Antonius (Mark Anthony) b.

80 Gaius Julius Caesar at court of King Nicomedes IV of Bithynia.

79 Roman general and dictator Lucius Cornelius Sulla Felix retires, mentioning his lover Metrobius in a farewell speech to the Senate.  

78 Roman general and dictator Lucius Cornelius Sulla Felix d.  (to 78?) Roman general and statesman Gaius Julius Caesar’s possible affair with Nicomedes IV, King of Bithynia.

75 Chinese Emperor Yuan of Han b.

74 Chinese Emperor Zhao of Han and King Nicomedes IV Philopator of Bithynia d.  Chinese Emperor Xuan of Han succeeds; his lover is Zhang Pengxu.

70 Roman poet Publicus Vergilius Maro (Virgil) and (or 69/68) Roman politician Gaius Cilnius Maecenas b.

65 Roman poet Quintus Horatius Flaccus (Horace) b.

64? Roman author and librarian Gaius Julius Hyginus b.

63 Roman Emperor Caesar Divi Filius Augustus (Augustus) b as Gaius Octavius  (Octavian).

62 Roman politician Lucius Sergius Catilina (Catiline) killed after his conspiracy to overthrow the Republic.

60 Roman politician Marcus Tullius Cicero prosecutes Gaius Verres, Governor of Sicily, for offences including violence against freeborn youths.

57 – 54  Roman poet Catullus’s poems Carmina.

55? Roman poet Albius Tibullus b. Roman poet Titus Lucretius Carus (Lucretius) d.

54? Roman poet Gaius Valerius Catullus (Catullus) d.

52 Roman Tribune Publius Clodius Pulcher murdered.

51 Chinese Emperor Cheng of Han b.

50 (? to 45?) Roman elegiac poet Sextus Propertius b.  Roman politician Marcus Tullius Cicero accuses Catiline of crimes including passive homosexuality and Publius Claudius Pulcher of being debauched by men as a youth.

49 Chinese Emperor Xuan of Han d. Roman statesman and orator Gaius/Quintus Scribonius Curio killed.  Chinese Emperor Yuan of Han succeeds Xuan; his lovers are Hong Kong and Shi Xian.

44 Roman general and statesman Gaius Julius Caesar assassinated.  Roman politician Marcus Tullius Cicero attacks Marcus Antonius (Mark Anthony) for selling himself to men in his youth and living as wife to Gaius Scribonius Curio.

43 Roman poet Publius Ovidius Naso (Ovid) b.  Roman Governor of Sicily Gaius Verres d.

42 Roman Emperor Tiberius Julius Caesar Augustus (Tiberius) b. (to 39) Roman poet Virgil’s poems the Eclogues. 

33 Chinese Emperor Yuan of Han d.  Emperor Cheng of Han succeeds him; his lovers are Zhang Fang and Chungyu Zhang.

30 Roman general and statesman Marcus Antonius (Mark Anthony) commits suicide.

29 (to 19)? Roman poet Virgil’s epic poem the Aeneid.

27 Chinese Emperor Ai-ti of Han b.  Roman writer Marcus Terentius Varro d.  Octavian becomes Augustus, 1st Emperor of Rome.

26 ( to 25? and 18?) Roman poet Tibullus’s Elegies.

20? Roman poet Ovid’s poems Amores (Loves).

19 Roman poets Publicus Vergilius Maro (Virgil) and Albius Tibullus d.

15? Roman poet Sextus Propertius d.

8 Roman politician Gaius Cilnius Maecenas and poet Quintus Horatius Flaccus (Horace) d.  

7 Chinese Emperor Cheng of Han d.

6 Chinese Emperor Ai-ti of Han (Liu Xin) ascends to the throne.   His lover Dong Xian falls asleep on Liu’s robes, so the Emperor cuts off his sleeve instead of waking him.

4? Roman statesman and writer Lucius Annaeus Seneca (Seneca the Younger) b.

3 Roman Emperor Servius Sulpicius Galba Caesar Augustus (Galba) b.  

1ST CENTURY C.E.

1 Chinese Emperor Ai-ti of Han  (Liu Xian) d.  Roman Ovid’s poems Ars Amatoria (The Art of Love).

8 Roman poet Ovid banished to Tomis on the Black Sea.

12 Roman Emperor Gaius Caesar Augustus Germanicus (Caligula) b.

14 Roman Emperor Caesar Divi Filius Augustus (Augustus) d.  Emperor Tiberius succeeds him.

15 Roman Emperor Aulus Vitellius Germanicus Augustus (Vitellius) b.

17 Roman author and librarian Gaius Julius Hyginus and (or 18?) Roman poet Publius Ovidius Naso (Ovid) d.

26 Roman Emperor Tiberius resides in Capri (till his death).

27 Roman courtier and writer Gaius Petronius Arbiter (Petronius) b.

Roman Emperor Tiberius completes Villa Jovis on Capri.

29 Roman Emperor Tiberius accuses his adopted grandson, Nero Caesar, of love affairs with young men.

30 Roman Emperor Marcus Cocceius Nerva Caesar Augustus (Nerva) b.  (to 40)?  Jewish philosopher Philo of Alexandria defends Levitical penalties for homosexuality in De Specialibus Legibus (The Special Laws). (?) Roman writer Valerius Maximus’s handbook Memorable Facts and Sayings.

32  Roman Emperor Marcus Salvius Otho Caesar Augustus (Otho) and Chinese historian Ban Gu Mengjian b.

35? Roman Praetorian Prefect Gaius Nymphidius Sabinus b.

37 Roman Emperor Nero Claudius Caesar Augustus Germanicus (Nero) b.  Roman Emperor Tiberius Julius Caesar Augustus (Tiberius) d. Emperor Caligula succeeds him.

39/40/41?  Roman poet Marcus Valerius Martialis (Martial) b.

41 Roman Emperor Gaius Caesar Augustus Germanicus (Caligula) murdered.

45? Roman poet Publius Papinius Statius b.

46? Greek historian and philosopher Lucius Mestrius Plutarchus (Plutarch) of Chaeronea b.

By 50 – Jewish writer Philo asserts the sin of Sodom was homosexual sex.

51 Roman Emperor Titus Flavius Domitianus (Domitian) b.

53 Roman Emperor Marcus Ulpius Nerva Traianus Augustus (Trajan) b.

53-57 Christian Saint Paul writes First Epistle to the Corinthians containing the passage: “Be not deceived: neither fornicators, nor idolaters, nor adulterers, nor effeminate, nor abusers of themselves with mankind (arsenokoitai, a term the meaning of which is disputed, perhaps merely ‘soft’ in morals), nor thieves, nor covetous, nor drunkards, nor revilers, nor extortioners, shall inherit the kingdom of God.” 

54  Nero becomes Roman Emperor.

55? Roman poet Decimus Iunius Iuvenalis (Juvenal) b.

?55-58 Christian Saint Paul writes Epistle to the Romans including the passage: “For this cause God gave them up unto vile affections: for even their women did change the natural use into that which is against nature: And likewise also the men, leaving the natural use of the woman, burned in their lust one toward another; men with men working that which is unseemly, and receiving in themselves that recompence of their error which was meet.

64 Roman Emperor Nero marries freedman Pythagoras.

65 Roman statesman and philosopher Lucius Annaeus Seneca (Seneca the Younger) commits suicide.

66 Roman courtier and writer Gaius Petronius Arbiter (Petronius) commits suicide.

67 Roman Emperor Nero castrates then marries freedman puer delicatus (boy toy) Sporus.

68 Roman Emperor Nero Claudius Caesar Augustus Germanicus (Nero) commits suicide, finished off by his freedman Doryphorus, whom he had earlier married, the Emperor himself taking the role of wife. Praetorian prefect Gaius Nymphidius Sabinus takes Sporus and marries him as Nero is burning on his funeral pyre, calling him ‘Poppaea’.  Sabinus is then killed by his troops. Emperor Galba becomes Emperor for seven months, kissing his male concubine Icellus in public at his accession.

69 Roman Emperor Servius Sulpicius Galba Caesar Augustus (Galba) killed by Otho’s troops. Emperor Marcus Salvius Otho Caesar Augustus (Otho) becomes Emperor for three months.  He lives intimately with Sporus, then commits suicide.  Sporus is captured by the Emperor Vitellius and commits suicide before he can be forced to act as Proserpine in an enactment of The Rape of Proserpine in the arena. Emperor Aulus Vitellius Germanicus Augustus (Vitellius) begins his reign by honouring his old paramour, freedman Asiaticus, then is killed eight months later.

76 Roman Emperor Publius Aelius Traianus Hadrianus Augustus (Hadrian) b.

79 Eruption of Mount Vesuvius buries two men in an embrace at Pompeii.

81 Domitian becomes Roman Emperor and creates his lover Earinos his cup bearer.

82 (to 90?) ? Roman Lex Scantinia revived by Emperor Domitian. 

85 Roman Emperor Hadrian becomes ward of Emperor Trajan.

92 Chinese historian Ban Gu Menjian d.

96 Roman Emperor Titus Flavius Domitianus (Domitian) murdered. Nerva becomes Roman Emperor. (?) Roman poet Publius Papinius Statius d.

98 Roman Emperor Marcus Cocceius Nerva Caesar Augustus (Nerva) d. Trajan becomes Roman Emperor.

By 100 – Jewish writer Josephus’s assertion that the sin of Sodom was homosexual sex is by now an idea generally accepted in Judaism.  The Christian treatise the Didache (The Teaching of the Twelve Apostles) states that “you shall not commit pederasty.”

2ND CENTURY

101? Greek philosopher and Roman Senator Lucius Vibullius Hipparchus Claudius Herodes Atticus (Herod Atticus) b.

104?   Roman poet Marcus Valerius Martialis (Martial) d.

110 (to 112)? Antinous, Greek lover of the Emperor Hadrian b.  Greek historian Plutarch’s ? Greek historian Plutarch’s ρωτικός – Eroticus or Amatorius (Dialogue on Love).

117 Roman Emperor Marcus Ulpius Nerva Traianus Augustus (Trajan) d.  Hadrian becomes Emperor.  

120? (125?) Greek rhetorician and satirist Lucian of Samosata b.  Greek historian Lucius Mestrius Plutarchus (Plutarch) d.  (?) Greek Strato of Sardis’s poems Musa paidika (The Muse of Boy Love).

125? Roman Numidian writer Lucius Apuleius b. Greek Strato of Sardis writes paederastic epigrams.  

130 Antinous, Greek lover of the Emperor Hadrian, drowns in the River Nile. Roman Emperor Hadrian deifies him and creates a cult, commissioning sculptures of him throughout the Roman Empire.

By 134 Christian Saint Aristides the Athenian (Marcianus Aristides)’s Apology of Aristides attacks Greek gods of whom " some polluted themselves by lying with males."

138 Roman Emperor Publius Aelius Traianus Hadrianus Augustus (Hadrian) d.

140? Roman poet Decimus Iunius Iuvenalis (Juvenal) d.

150? Greek Xenophon of Ephesus’s novel The Ephesian Tale of Anthia and Habrocomes. (or 300?) Greek Achilles Tatius of Alexandria’s novel Leucippe and Clitophon.

? Pre 155 – Unknown Christian (‘Saint Paul’)’s 1st Epistle to Timothy includes passage stating that arsenokoitai are wrongdoers (a term the meaning of which is disputed, either ‘soft’ in morals or ‘abusers of themselves with mankind’).

161 Roman Emperor Marcus Aurelius Commodus Antoninus Augustus (Commodus) b.

165  Christian apologist Saint Justin the Martyr of Flavia Neapolis, Palestine, writes: ‘We have learned that is an evil thing to show newborns, since we see that almost everyone, not only the girls but boys too, are forced into prostitution.’

170/172? Greek sophist Lucius Flavius Philostratus ‘the Athenian’ of Lemnos b.

173/4? Greek Polydeukes, disciple of Herod Atticus, d, and is proclaimed a Hero.

177 Greek philosopher and Roman Senator Lucius Vibullius Hipparchus Claudius Herodes Atticus (Herod Atticus) d.  Christian church father and apologist Athenagoras characterizes pederasts as foes of Christianity and advocates their excommunication.

180? Roman Numidian writer Lucius Apuleius and (after) Greek rhetorician and satirist Lucian of Samosata d.  Commodus becomes Roman Emperor.

By 185 Theophilus, Christian Patriarch of Antioch’s Apology to Autolycus states:  “To the unbelieving, who despise and disobey the truth but obey unrighteousness, when they are full of adulteries and fornication and homosexual acts and greed and lawless idolatry, there will come wrath and anger, tribulation and anguish, and finally eternal fire.”

187 Cao Pi,  Emperor Wen of Western Wei b.

192 Roman Emperor Marcus Aurelius Commodus Antoninus Augustus (Commodus) assassinated.

198 Christian Saint Titus Flavius Clemens (Clement) of Alexandria’s Paedagogus rebukes heathens for worshipping gods who indulge in debauching of boys and advises avoidance of homosexuality.

3RD CENTURY

200?  African Christian writer Tertullian in his book Ad nationes (To the Nations) and Christian father Clement of Alexandria in his book Paedogogus (Boys’ Chaperone) write of ‘the third sex’, the androgyne.  

202 (before) Christian church father Saint Clement of Alexandria condemns homosexuality as contrary to nature.

203/5? Roman (Syrian) Emperor Marcus Aurelius Antoninus Augustus, Heliogabalus (Elagabalus) b.

210 Chinese poet and musician Ruan Ji of the Eastern Han, lover of philosopher Xi Kang  b.

218 Elagabalus becomes Roman Emperor.

219 Roman Emperor Elagabalus tries to have his lover, the bond slave charioteer Hierocles from Caria, declared Caesar, calling him husband.  He appoints another lover, the Smyrna athlete Aurelius Zoticus, Cubicularius (Master of the Chamber) and marries him publicly.

220 Cao Pi becomes  Emperor Wen of Western Wei.

222 Roman Emperor Marcus Aurelius Antoninus Augustus, Heliogabalus (Elagabalus) murdered.

223 Chinese author, poet and philosopher Xi Kang, lover of poet Ruan / Yuan Ji  b.

226 Cao Pi,  Emperor Wen of Western Wei d.

237 Chinese scholar official Pei Kai b.

244–249 Roman Emperor Philip the Arab tries but fails to outlaw homosexual prostitution.

247/250? Greek sophist Lucius Flavius Philostratus ‘the Athenian’ of Lemnos d.

 

250? Roman writer Pseudo-Lucian’s Amores (The Loves).

262 Chinese author, poet and philosopher Xi Kang, lover of Ruan Ji d.

263 Chinese poet and musician Ruan Ji of the Eastern Han, lover of Xi Kang d.

265 (to 420?)  Chinese poet  Zhang Hanbian of the Jin dynasty writes in praise of actor Zhou Xiaoshi.

280?  Roman Saints Serge and Bacchus b.

283? Roman Carthaginian poet Marcus Aurelius Olympius Nemesianus writing poetry.

291 Chinese scholar official Pei Kai d.

PART THREE – CHRISTIANITY, ISLAM AND THE DARK AGES IN EUROPE

Christianity, which inherited and expanded Judaism’s opposition to same-sex acts, was adopted by the Roman Empire as the official religion of the state in the 4th Century.  This led to an increasingly violent series of legal prohibitions against same-sex activity which survived the fall of the Roman Empire and lasted throughout the Dark Ages in Europe.  Christianity spread beyond the bounds of the old Roman Empire to East and North Europe during the period, taking with it its prohibitions of same-sex love. There is little record, though, of actual persecution, and same-sex relations are found in some, particularly monastic, literature.  The eruption of Islam into Arabia, the Near and Middle East, Africa and finally the western Mediterranean from the 7th Century brought the prohibitions of the Koran into the countries of Muslim conquest, though systematic persecution of same-sex activity seems to have occurred nowhere in the Muslim world at this time.  Literature in many Muslim countries continued to include poetry and stories of same-sex love.  There is a continuing record of same-sex relations in China and the first record of such relations in Japan and Korea.

4TH CENTURY

305- 306  Christian Western Church Council of Elvira bars paederasts from Communion.

310 Roman poet and rhetorician Decimius Magnus Ausonius (Ausonius) of Burdigala, Gaul b.  (?) Roman Christian Saints Serge and Bacchus martyred.

313 (after) Christian Saint Pachomius the Great founds a monastery in the Thebaid in Egypt and his rule (the first for cenobites which influenced those of Saint Basil, John Cassian, Caesarius of Arles, Saint Benedict, and that of ‘the Master’) lays down that ‘no monk may sleep on the mattress of another’ or come closer to one another ‘whether sitting or standing’ than one cubit (about 18 inches), even when they take meals together.

314  Christian Eastern Church Council of Ancyra bans the Sacraments for 15 years to unmarried men under the age of 20 caught in homosexual acts, and excludes the man for life if married and over the age of 50.

Pre 340 Eusebius, Christian Bishop of Caesarea (Eusebius Pamphili) states that God forbade “all unlawful marriage, and all unseemly practice, and the union of women with women and men with men.”

342 Roman Emperors Constantius II and Constans issue a decree imposing an ‘exquisite punishment’ for the crime ‘when a male gives himself in marriage to an effeminate [femina, literally 'a woman'] and what he wants is for the effeminate to play the male role in sex [project the male parts].’  

353 Roman African Paulinus, Christian Bishop of Nola b.

354 Roman African Christian church father and theologian Saint Augustine, Bishop of Hippo b.

375 Greek Christian Saint Basil of Caesarea Mazaca demands of homosexuals a 15-year penitential of self-mortification while going without the sacrament.

Pre 379 Saint Basil, Christian Bishop of Caesarea (Basil the Great) states that: “He who is guilty of unseemliness with males will be under discipline for the same time as adulterers.”

386  Roman African Christian church father and theologian Saint Augustine and Roman Christian Saint Alypius, Bishop of Thagaste (in Africa) convert to Christianity.

390 (May 14) Roman Emperors Valentinian II, Theodosius I and Arcadius decree that homosexual acts are illegal and condemn the guilty to be burned alive in public.  Christian theologian Gregory, Bishop of Nyssa in Cappadocia, demands of homosexuals a 15-year penitential of self-mortification while going without the sacrament.

390 Christian Saint Gregory Bishop of Nyssa (Gregory Nyssen)’s Canonical Letter to Letoius of Mytilene prescribes the same period of penance for adultery and for "craving for the male".

390? (or 405 or 450?) Greek Nonnus of Panopolis in Egypt’s Thebaid 's epic poem Dionysiaca.

395 Roman rhetorician and poet Decimius Magnus Ausonius (Ausonius ) d.

5TH CENTURY

400? Roman Caelius Aurelianus of Sicca in Numidia’s On Chronic Diseases.

Pre 407 Christian Saint John Chrysostom, Archbishop of Constantinople’s Homilies state:  “All of these affections then were vile, but chiefly the mad lust after males; for the soul is more the sufferer in sins, and more dishonored than the body in diseases. ... [The men] have done an insult to nature itself. And a yet more disgraceful thing than these is it, when even the women seek after these intercourses, who ought to have more shame than men.”

418 (before) Anglo-Irish Christian Saint Patrick refuses sex to seamen rescuing him from Ireland.

419 Western Roman Emperor Flavius Placidius Valentinianus Augustus (Valentinian III) b.

425 Flavius Placidius Valentinianus Augustus (Valentinian III) becomes Western Roman Emperor.

By 427 Jewish Babylonian Talmud states: “Non-Jews accepted upon themselves thirty mitzvot [divinely ordered laws] but they only abide by three of them: the first one is that they do not write marriage documents for male couples.

430 Roman African theologian and Christian church father Saint Augustine, Bishop of Hippo d.

431 Roman African Paulinus, Christian Bishop of Nola d.

432/434? Christian regulations on homosexuality introduced to Hibernia (Ireland) and the Picts (Scotland).

455 Western Roman Emperor Flavius Placidius Valentinianus Augustus (Valentinian III) murdered.

498  Christian regulations on homosexual practices introduced to western Germany and the southern Netherlands as the Kingdom of the Franks converts to Christianity.  Byzantine Emperor Anastasius I abolishes tax on male brothels in favour of sampling the best men.

6TH CENTURY

503 Chinese Emperor Jianwen of Liang, second Liang Emperor b.

507 Chinese editor and poetry compiler Xu Ling b.

513 Chinese poet Yu Xin of the Liang and Northern Zhou dynasties b.

525 (after) Umbrian Christian Saint Benedict of Nursia’s monastic rule prescribes that monks should sleep in separate beds, clothed and with lights burning in the dormitory and that young men are not to sleep next to one another but be separated by the cots of elders.

528 Byzantine Emperor Justinian I mounts a pogrom against homosexuals.  Greek Christian Bishops Isaiah of Rhodes and Alexander of Diospolis in Thrace, and others, are castrated and paraded through the streets of Constantinople.

529 Byzantine Emperor Justinian I blames homosexuals for famines, earthquakes and pestilences.

530 Italian poet Venantius Fortunatus, Christian Bishop of Poitiers b.

533 Byzantine Emperor Justinian’s Institutes of the Corpus Iuris Civilis includes Institutes IV. xviii .4: In criminal cases public prosecutions take place under various statutes, including the Lex Julia de adulteris, ‘…which punishes with death (gladio), not only those who violate the marriages of others, but also those who dare to commit acts of vile lust with [other] men (qui cum masculis nefandum libidinem exercere audent)’.

538 Byzantine Emperor Justinian legislates against homosexuality in New Constitution 77, creating a crime of ‘corruption of males’.

540 From the reign of Korean King Chinhung (ruled to 576) hwarang (flower boys) serve as sexual partners to courtiers.

544 Byzantine Emperor Justinian legislates against homosexuality in New Constitution 141.

545 Chinese Xu Ling’s compilation of poems New Songs from a Jade Terrace.

549 Chinese Crown Prince Jianwen of Liang becomes second Liang Emperor.

551 Chinese Emperor Jianwen of Liang, second Liang Emperor d.

576 Byzantine Greek Christian Anastasia the Patrician, who had spent much of her life living disguised as a male monk in a monastery in Alexandria, d.

581 Chinese poet Yu Xin of the Liang and Northern Zhou dynasties d.

583 Chinese editor and poetry compiler Xu Ling d.

590 (before) Irish Christian Penitential of Finnian prescribes penance for homosexual acts.

Pre 597 – Arab scholar Abu'l-Faraj ibn al-Jawzi records Muhammad as cursing sodomites in several hadith, and recommending the death penalty for both the active and passive partners in same-sex acts.

7TH CENTURY

600/603? Italian poet Venantius Fortunatus, Christian Bishop of Poitiers d.  Irish Christian Penitential of Columban prescribes penance for homosexuality.

628 Islamic laws on homosexuality introduced to Bahrain, Qatar, the area of the U.A.E. and Oman.

 

630 Islamic law on homosexuality introduced in Mecca and parts of Yemen.

Pre 632 Prophet Muhammad recites Koran and blames people of Sodom and Gomorrah (Lut) for homosexuality: Do you commit an indecency which any one in the world has not done before you? Most surely you come to males in lust besides females.

 

Pre 634 Abdullah ibn Abi Qhuhafah (Abu Bakr) recommends toppling a wall on a homosexual evil-doer, or else burning him alive.

Before 636 Saint Isidore, Archbishop of Seville, presides over several councils in Visigothic Spain and writes the encyclopedic Etymologiae (Etymologies) which condemns non-procreative sexuality.

636 Islamic laws on homosexuality introduced to Kuwait.

637 Islamic law on homosexuality introduced in Palestine and Syria.

639 Islamic law on homosexuality introduced in the Horn of Africa (Somalia), Egypt, Mesopotamia and Armenia.

644 Visigothic Code of King Chindasvind/Chindasuinth the Younger in Spain stipulates castration for homosexual behaviour.  Irish Christian Penitential of Cummean prescribes penance for homosexual acts.

647 Islamic law on homosexuality introduced in Tripolitania (Libya).

651 Islamic law on homosexuality introduced in Persia and Turkmenistan.

652 Islamic law on homosexuality introduced in Herat (Afghanistan).

654 Islamic law on homosexuality introduced in Cyprus.

Pre 661 Arab Ali ibn Abi Talib orders death by stoning for one "luti" (homosexual) and has another thrown head-first from the top of a minaret.

665 Islamic law on homosexuality introduced in Cyrenaica (Libya).

670 Islamic law on homosexuality introduced in Tunisia.

? Pre 683 Muslim scholar Abd Allah ibn Abbas (Ibn Abbas; Al-Hibr; Al-Bahr; The Doctor; The Sea) states that throwing a homosexual from the top of a minaret must be followed by stoning.

693  Visigoth King Egica of Hispania and Septimania demands a Church council to deal with homosexuality. The Sixteenth Council of Toledo issues a decree that homosexual acts be punished by exclusion from Communion, hair shearing, one hundred stripes of the lash, and banishment into exile. King Egica adds castration.

698 Islamic law on homosexuality introduced in Tangiers, the Maghreb (Algeria, Morocco, Mauretania and Western Sahara) and in the Songhai Empire (Niger).

8TH CENTURY

701 Chinese poet scholar Li Bai / Bo / Po b.

711 Islamic law on homosexuality introduced in southern Hispania (Spain).

712 Islamic law on homosexuality introduced in Sindh and the southern Punjab.

713 Islamic law on homosexuality introduced in Transoxiana.

718 Byzantine Emperor Constantine V Copronymus b.

732/5? Northumbrian Christian scholar and poet Alcuin of York b.

736 Islamic law on homosexuality introduced in Georgia.

741 Constantine V Copronymus becomes Byzantine Emperor. Byzantine Emperors Leo III and Constantine V’s Eclogue reduces the penalty for homosexuality to castration.

751 Islamic laws on homosexuality introduced to Central Asia, including Kazakhstan, Kyrgistan, Uzbekistan (Tashkent, Samarkand and Bukhara) and Tajikistan.

756/7 Persian-Arab poet Abu-Nuwas al-Hasan ben Hani al-Hakami of Ahvaz  (Abu Nuwas) b.

759 Japanese Crown Prince Funado is exiled for having sex with ? boy-attendants during the mourning period for his grandfather.

762 Chinese poet scholar Li Bai / Bo / Po d.

772 Chinese poet Bai / Bo / Po Juyi / Chu-i b.

774 Japanese Buddhist Grand Master Kukai (Kobo Daishi) b.

775 Chinese official and writer on sex Bo Xingjian b. Byzantine Emperor Constantine V Copronymus d.

776 Frankish theologian Hrabanus Maurus, Abbot of Fulda and Archbishop of Mainz b.

779 Arab writer Abū ʿUthman ʿAmr ibn Baḥr al-Kinānī al-Baṣrī (al-Jahiz) of Basra b.

781/2 (before) Alcuin of York’s poetry.

786 Abu Nuwas becomes lover of his teacher, poet Waliba ibn al-Hubab, who dies the same year.

787 Caliph Muhammad ibn Harun al-Amin of Baghdad b.

789 Frankish Emperor Charlemagne endorses anti-homosexual pronouncements of the Synod of Ancyra in his ‘General Admonition’.

794 Caliph Abu Ishaq 'Abbas al-Mu'tasim ibn Harun of Baghdad b.

9TH CENTURY

By 800 Islamic law on homosexuality introduced in north of Chad.

804 Northumbrian Christian scholar and poet Alcuin of York d. Christian regulations on homosexuality introduced to Frisia (the northern Netherlands) and Saxony (north west Germany).

806 Kukai (Kobo Daishi) returns to Japan from China.

808/809 Frankish monk and theologian Walafrid Strabo, Abbot of Rechnau b.

809 Caliph Muhammad ibn Harun al-Amin ascends to the throne of Baghdad.

 

811 Byzantine Emperor Basil I b. (to 815) Persian-Arab poet Abu-Nuwas al-Hasan ben Hani al-Hakami of Ahvaz in Persia (Abu Nuwas) d.

813 Caliph Muhammad ibn Harun al-Amin of Baghdad killed. Council of Châlons orders old Christian penitentials lenient on homosexuality to be destroyed.

816 Japanese tradition ascribes the introduction of homosexuality to Japanese monasteries to Kukai (Kobo Daishu) founder of Shingon Buddhism’s founding of Mount Koya monastery.  

820 Islamic law on homosexuality introduced in Crete.

826 Chinese official and writer on sex Bo Xingjian d.

827 Islamic law on homosexuality introduced in Sicily and southern Italy.

829 Council of Paris blames natural disasters on sodomy, which it prohibits.

833 Abu Ishaq 'Abbas al-Mu'tasim ibn Harun becomes Caliph of Baghdad.

835 Japanese Buddhist Grand Master Kukai (Kobo Daishi) d.

840 Swiss poet and monk Notker Balbulus (‘the Stammerer’) of St. Gall and Byzantine Emperor Michael III b.

841 Frankish Grimold, Chancellor to King Louis the Pious of France, becomes Abbot of St. Gall, Switzerland.

842 Caliph Abu Ishaq 'Abbas al-Mu'tasim ibn Harun of Baghdad d.  Byzantine Emperor Michael III becomes Byzantine Emperor.  

846 Chinese poet Bai / Bo / Po Juyi / Chu-i d.

849 Frankish monk and theologian Walafrid Strabo, Abbot of Rechnau d.

850 Abu Ishaq Ibrahim II ibn Ahmad, 9th Aghlabid Emir of Ifriqiya (Tunisia) b.

856 Frankish theologian Hrabanus Maurus, Abbot of Fulda and Archbishop of Mainz d.

858 Persian sufi poet Abu al-Mujit Husayn Mansur al-Hallaj (Mansur al-Hallaj) b.

860 Frankish cleric Salamo and Andalusian Moorish poet Ibn `Abd Rabbihi - Ahmad ibn Muhammad ibn `Abd Rabbih (Ibn `Abd Rabbih) of Cordoba b.

862 Chinese Emperor Xizong of Tang b.

863 Christian prohibitions of homosexuality begin to be introduced in Moravia.

866 Byzantine Emperor Michael III falls in love with Basil the Macedonian and makes him Chamberlain then Co-Emperor as Basil I.  

867 Byzantine Emperor Michael III killed by his Co-Emperor Basil I (the Macedonian), who becomes sole Emperor.  Basil I grants intimacy to John, son of widow Danelis, with whom he had shared life earlier in a ceremonial union.  

868 Arab theologian Abu Bakr Muhammad bin Dawud al-Zahiri (Muhammad Ibn Dawud) of Baghdad b.

869 Arab writer Abū ʿUthman ʿAmr ibn Baḥr al-Kinānī al-Baṣrī (al-Jahiz) of Basra d.

870 Islamic law on homosexuality introduced in Kabul and eastern Afghanistan.

872 Frankish Grimold, Chancellor to King Louis the Pious of France and Abbot of St. Gall d.

872-893 Hadith collection Jami` at-Tirmidhi (Sunan at-Tirmidhi) of Abu `Isa Muhammad ibn `Isa at-Tirmidhi writes that Muhammad prescribed the death penalty for both the active and the passive partner: "Whoever you find committing the sin of the people of Lut, kill them, both the one who does it and the one to whom it is done."

873 Xizong of Tang becomes Chinese Emperor; his lover is Zhang Langgou.

875 Abu Ishaq Ibrahim II ibn Ahmad becomes 9th Aghlabid Emir of Ifriqiya (Tunisia).

884 Christian prohibitions of homosexuality begin to be introduced in Bohemia.

886 Byzantine Emperor Basil I d.

888 Emir Abdallah ibn Muhammad of Cordoba b. Chinese Emperor Xizong of Tang d.

889 (or 891) Emir and Caliph Abd al-Rahmān ibn Muhammad ibn Abd Allāh (Abd-ar-Rahman III) of Cordoba b.

10TH CENTURY

902 Abu Ishaq Ibrahim II ibn Ahmad, 9th Aghlabid Emir of Ifriqiya (Tunisia) d.

909 Arab theologian Abu Bakr Muhammad bin Dawud al-Zahiri (Muhammad Ibn Dawud) of Baghdad d.  Christian Council of Trolsy warns of “pollution with men or animals".

912 Swiss poet and monk Notker Balbulus (‘the Stammerer’) of St. Gall and Emir Abdallah ibn Muhammad of Cordoba d. Abd-ar-Rahman III becomes Emir of Cordoba.

917? Andalusian Moorish poet Yusuf Ibn Harun Al-Ramadi (Al-Ramadi) of Cordoba b.  Byzantine editor Constantinus Cephalas compiles poetic epigrams in The Greek Anthology.

918 SeveralKorean kings of the Koryo dynasty have relationships with boys (to 1392).

920 Frankish cleric Salamo d.

922 Persian sufi poet Abu al-Mujit Husayn Mansur al-Hallaj (Mansur al-Hallaj) d.

929 Emir Abd-ar-Rahman III of Cordoba declares himself Caliph.

934 Islamic laws on homosexuality introduced to Turkic Kara-khanid Khanate of Central Asia (including Uyghurs of Kashgar, Xinjiang).

940 Andalusian Moorish poet Ibn `Abd Rabbihi - Ahmad ibn Muhammad ibn `Abd Rabbih (Ibn `Abd Rabbih) of Cordoba d.

942 Amir Nasiru-d din Subuktigin of Ghazni b.

950 King Kshemagupta becomes King of Kashmir.

951 Japanese waka poems Ise monogatari (The Tales of Ise).

955 Octavianus made Pope John XII (to 964).

958 Byzantine Emperor Basil II b.  King Kshemagupta of Kashmir d.

960 Byzantine Emperor Constantine VIII b.  Christian prohibitions of homosexuality begin to be introduced in Denmark.  Islamic law on homosexuality introduced in Zanzibar and the Swahili Coast (Kenya, Tanzania and northern Mozambique).

961 Caliph Al-Hakam II ibn ʿAbd al-Raḥmān III of Cordoba d.

964 Pope John XII d.

966 Hisham II, 3rd Caliph of Cordoba b. Christian prohibitions of homosexuality begin to be introduced in Poland.

971  Sultan Yamīn ad-Dawlah Abul-Qāṣim Maḥmūd Ibn Sebüktegīn of Ghazni (Mahmud of Ghazni) b.

976 Caliph al-Ḥakam II ibn ʿAbd al-Raḥmān III (Al-Hakam II) of Cordoba d.  Hisham II becomes Caliph of Cordoba.  Co-Emperors Basil II and Constantine VIII become Byzantine Emperors.  

978 Taiping Guangji (Extensive Records of the Taiping Era), stories complied by Li Fang, includes the tale of the love of Prince Wang Zhongxian of Chu for scholar Pan Zhang.

Pre 981 – Arab scholar Abu Bakr Al-Jassas argues that the two hadiths on killing homosexuals "are not reliable by any means and no legal punishment can be prescribed based on them".

985 Japanese Tendai priest Genshin’s Ojoyoshu (Teachings Essential for Rebirth) condemns to hell one who has accosted and violated another’s acolyte and one who loves and violates another man.

988? - Christian regulations on homosexuality introduced into Kievan Rus (Ukraine and Russia).

994 Andalusian polymath Abū Muḥammad ʿAlī ibn Aḥmad ibn Saʿīd ibn Ḥazm (Ibn Hazm) of Cordoba  b.

995 Christian prohibitions of homosexuality begin to be introduced in Norway, Shetland, the Orkneys, the Faroe Islands, Iceland and Greenland.

997 (or 998) Amir Nasiru-d din Subuktigin of Ghazni d.  Sultan Maḥmūd ascends to the throne of Ghazni.

 

11TH CENTURY

1000? Byzantine Emperor Constantine IX Monomachos b. Christian prohibitions of homosexuality begin to be introduced in Sweden and (or 1001) Hungary.

1001 Islamic law on homosexuality introduced in Gandhara and Peshawar.

1007 German canon lawyer Burchard Bishop Worms’s Decretum equates homosexual acts with other sexual transgressions such as adultery and argues that they should have the same penance (generally fasting).

1010 Islamic law on homosexuality introduced in Lahore and the northern Punjab. (or 1020 to 1030) Japanese noblewoman Lady Murasaki’s novel Genji Monogatari(The Tale of Genji) contains one tale of Genji preferring a boy to his sister.

1012? Italian Theophylactus of Tusculum, Pope Benedict IX b.

1013 Hisham II, 3rd Caliph of Cordoba d.

1021? Andalusian Hebrew poet Solomon ibn Gabirol (Solomon ben Judah) of Malaga b.  Sultan Mahmud of Ghazni raises his lover, Turkish slave Malik Ayaz, to be Sultan of Lahore.

1022 Andalusian Moorish poet Yusuf Ibn Harun Al-Ramadi (Al-Ramadi) of Cordoba d.

1025 Byzantine Emperor Basil II d.  Constantine VIII sole Emperor.  

1028 Byzantine Emperor Constantine VIII d.

1030 Sultan Yamīn ad-Dawlah Abul-Qāṣim Maḥmūd Ibn Sebüktegīn of Ghazni (Mahmud of Ghazni) d.

1031 Japanese Tendai abbot Fujiwara no Zoyo b.

1032 Italian Theophylactus of Tusculum becomes Pope Benedict IX.

1033/4 Saint Anselm of Aosta, Archbishop of Canterbury b.

1035? French poet and teacher Bishop Marbod of Rennes b.

1036 Chinese poet Su Shi / Dongpo b. Italian Theophylactus of Tusculum, Pope Benedict IX forced to flee Rome but is restored.

1038 Persian poet at court of Mahmud of Ghazni, Abul Hasan Ali ibn Julugh Farrukhi Sistani (Farrokhi Sistani) d.

1040 Emir Muhammad Ibn Abbad Al Mutamid, 3rd and last Abbadid ruler of Seville, and Japanese Oe Tadafusa, diarist in Heian court b. (or 1041) Persian royal poet Abu Najm Ahmad ibn Ahmad ibn Qaus Manuchehri (Manuchehri Damghani) d.

1042 Byzantine Empress Zoe marries Constantine IX Monomachos, who becomes Emperor.

1043 Christian regulations on homosexuality introduced to Obotrite confederacy on the Elbe (north east Germany).

 

1044 Italian Theophylactus of Tusculum, Pope Benedict IX deposed.

1045 Italian Theophylactus of Tusculum, Pope Benedict IX restored but then sells papacy to his godfather, whom he then overthrows to resume the papacy.

1046 Persian poet Mas'ud-i Sa'd-i Salmān (Maslud Sa’d Salman) and French poet Abbot Baudri (Baldric) of Bourgeuil, Archbishop of Dol-en-Bretagne b. Italian Theophylactus of Tusculum, Pope Benedict IX ejected from Rome and is deposed by the Council of Sutri.

1047 Italian Theophylactus of Tusculum, Pope Benedict IX reoccupies the papacy.

1048 Persian polymath and poet Ghiyāth ad-Dīn Abu'l-Fatḥ ʿUmar ibn Ibrāhīm al-Khayyām Nīshāpūrī (Omar Khayyam) b. (or 1049-1051) Italian monk and doctor of the church Saint Peter Damian’s Liber Gomorrhianus (The Book of Gomorrah), in which he argues for stricter punishments for clerics failing their duty against vices of nature”.  Italian Theophylactus of Tusculum, Pope Benedict IX driven from Rome by German troops.

1049 Italian Theophylactus of Tusculum, Pope Benedict IX excommunicated.

1050 Rudolfo (Ralph), Archbishop of Tours b.

1053 Sicilian Arab poet Abd, al-Jabbar Ibn Hamdis (Ibn Hamdis) and Japanese Heian Emperor Shirakawa b.

1055 French writer Hildebert of Lavardin, Bishop of Le Mans, Archbishop of Tours and (or 1060) Jewish philosopher Rabbi Moses ben Jacob ibn Ezra (ha-Sallah) (Moses Ibn Ezra) of Granada b.   Byzantine Emperor Constantine IX Monomachos d.

1056 Norman King William II of England b. (?) Italian Theophylactus of Tusculum, Pope Benedict IX d.

1057 Andalusian Hebrew poet Solomon ibn Gabirol (Solomon ben Judah) of Malaga d.

1064 Andalusian polymath Abū Muḥammad ʿAlī ibn Aḥmad ibn Saʿīd ibn Ḥazm (Ibn Hazm) of Cordoba d.

1068 Islamic law on homosexuality introduced in eastern Anatolia.

1069 Emir Muhammad Ibn Abbad Al Mutamid becomes the 3rd and last ruler of the taifa of Seville in Al-Andalus.

1073 Japanese Heian Emperor Shirakawa ascends to throne.

1075 Spanish Jewish physician and philosopher Judah Halevi (Yehuda Halevi) b.

1076 Islamic law on homosexuality introduced in parts of Empire of Ghana (Guinea, Guinea-Bissau, Mauritania, Mali and Senegal).

1078 (or 1080?) Andalusian Moorish poet Abu Bakr Abd al-Malik ibn Quzma (Ibn Quzman) b.  ‘Onsor-al-Ma’ali Kay-Kavur, Prince of Gurgan and Tabarestan’s Qabus-nameh (Mirror for Princes).

1081 King Louis VI (Louis the Fat) of France b.

1085 Islamic laws on homosexuality introduced to Duguwa (part of Chad).

1087 Japanese Heian Emperor Shirakawa d.  Norman King William II of England ascends to the throne.

1090 French abbot Saint Bernard of Clairvaux b.

1093 Saint Anselm becomes Archbishop of Canterbury.

1094 Saint Malachy, Archbishop of Armagh, b.

1095 Andalusian polymath Abū-Bakr Muhammad ibn Yahya ibn al-Sāyigh Al-tujibi, (Ibn Bajja) b. Emir Muhammad Ibn Abbad Al Mutamid the 3rd and last ruler of the taifa of Seville in Al-Andalus d.

1097 Abbot Baudri of Bourgeuil loses the bishopric of Orléans to John, nicknamed ‘Flora’, the lover of the Archbishop of Tours.  Marbod becomes Bishop of Rennes.

1098 ‘Onsor-al-Ma’ali Kay-Kavur, Prince of Gurgan and Tabarestan d.

PART FOUR – THE EUROPEAN MIDDLE AGES AND THE CONTINUED SPREAD OF ISLAM

The 12th Century began a period of increasing oppression of those committing same-sex acts which lasted in legal form well into the modern Christian world.  Penalties became ever more severe and condemnation of same-sex acts, now classified as ‘sodomy’, ever more hysterical.  Legal enactments incorporating these trends spread throughout Europe and led to much suffering and many deaths often by gruesome methods.  Islamic society was largely more tolerant, and the flowering of Islamic civilisation in Granada, North Africa, Iraq and Persia included much literature of same-sex love.  Islam spread to its largest extent in Europe, Africa and Asia.

The attitudes of Chinese society remained much as they had always been.  In Japan and Korea, the record of male same-sex intimacy grows during the period and there is an additional growth of accepted male same-sex relations in Japanese Buddhist monasteries, with the beginnings of Japanese literature mentioning the subject.  

12TH CENTURY

1100 (?) Nicholas Breakspear (Pope Adrian IV) b.  Norman King William II of England d.  French canon lawyer Saint Ivo, Bishop of Chartres tries to convince Pope Urban II about risks of homosexuality and accuses Rodolfo (Ralph), Archbishop of Tours, of persuading Louis VI (Louis the Fat) King of France to appoint the King’s and Rodolfo’s lover, Giovanni, as Bishop of Orléans.

1102 Chinese poet Su Shi / Dongpo d.  The Council of London promulgates that homosexuality is sinful but refuses to legislate against offenders on advice of Archbishop Saint Anselm.

1103 Japanese Heian Emperor Toba b.

 

1107 English poet Geoffrey/Godfrey of Winchester (Martialis Coccus) d. Japanese Heian Emperor Toba ascends to throne.  Abbot Baudri of Bourgeuil becomes Archbishop of Dol.

1108 King Louis VI (Louis the Fat) of France ascends to throne.

1109 Saint Anselm, Archbishop of Canterbury d.

1110 English writer Saint Aelred, Abbot of Rievaulx and Persian poet and writer Ahmad ibn Umar ibn Alī, known as Nizamī-i Arūzī-i Samarqandī (Nizami ‘Aruzi) b.

1111 Japanese diarist in Heian court Oe Tadafusa d.  (to 1118) Chinese Song Emperor Zhenghe prescribes punishment for male prostitution as caning and fine.

1116 Japanese high priest of Kyoto temple, Tendai abbot Fujiwara no Zoyo d.

1117 Rudolfo (Ralph), Archbishop of Tours b.

1120 Japanese diarist at Heian court Fujiwara Yorinaga and and (?) Bishop John of Salisbury b.  English Prince William Etheling drowned in the shipwreck of the Blanche Nef.  King Baldwin II of Jerusalem convenes the Council of Nablus, which institutes the burning of individuals who perpetually commit sodomy.  (after) Japanese story collection Konjaku Monogatari (Anthology of Tales from the Past / Collection of Tales Old and New).

1121 Persian poet Mas'ud-i Sa'd-i Salmān (Maslud Sa’d Salman) d.

1123 French poet and teacher Bishop Marbod of Rennes and Japanese Heian Emperor Toba d.

1126 Persian poet Awhad ad-Din 'Ali ibn Mohammad Khavarani or Awhad ad-Din 'Ali ibn Mahmud (Anvari/Anwari) b.

1127 Japanese Emperor Go-Shirakawa b.

1130 French poet Abbot Baudri (Baldric) of Bourgeuil, Archbishop of Dol-en-Bretagne d.

1133 (or 1126?) Japanese Fujiwara Nobuyori, lover of Emperor Go-Shirakawa b.  Persian polymath and poet Ghiyāth ad-Dīn Abu'l-Fatḥ ʿUmar ibn Ibrāhīm al-Khayyām Nīshāpūrī (Omar Khayyam), Ibn Hamdis and French writer Hildebert of Lavardin, Bishop of Le Mans, Archbishop of Tours d.

1137 King Louis VI (Louis the Fat) of France d.

1138 Jewish philosopher Rabbi Moses ben Jacob ibn Ezra (ha-Sallah) (Moses Ibn Ezra) of Granada d.

1139 Andalusian polymath Abū-Bakr Muhammad ibn Yahya ibn al-Sāyigh Al-tujibi, (Ibn Bajja) d.

1140 Anglo-Norman cleric William Longchamp, Chancellor of England and Bishop of Ely b.  (? To 1150?) Italian Monk Gratian compiles his work Concordia Discordantium Canonum (or Decretum) in which he argues that sodomy is the worst of all the sexual sins because it involves using the member in an unnatural way, introducing the concept of natural law, which becomes important for sodomy.

1141 Spanish Jewish physician and philosopher Judah Halevi (Yehuda Halevi) d.

1143? English writer Saint Aelred, Abbot of Rievaulx, writes Speculum Caritatis (Mirror of Love).

1147 Japanese Shogun Minamoto no Yoritomo and Japanese diarist at Heian court Fujiwara Kanezane b.  (to 1164) Saint Aelred, Abbot of Rievaulx writes De spiritali amicitia (On Spiritual Friendship) giving love between persons of the same gender a profound expression.

1148 Saint Malachy, Archbishop of Armagh, d in the arms of Saint Bernard of Cairvaux, who puts on Malachy’s habit.  Bernard writes Liber De vita et rebus gestis Sancti Malachiae Hiberniae Episcopi (The Life and Deeds of Saint Malachy, Bishop of Ireland); Malachy was canonized only in 1190 .

1150? English Latin poet and/or playwright Hilary of Orleans (Hilary the Englishman) d.

1151 (or 1152) German Abbess Saint Hildegard von Bingen’s Scivias (Know the Ways of the Lord), an account of visions, some attacking same-sex practice.

1153 French doctor of the church Bernard, Abbot of Clairvaux, campaigner against same-sex practices in the church, but writer  of homophilic poems d, buried in the habit of Saint Malachy, Archbishop of Armagh.

1154 Englishman Nicholas Breakspear becomes Pope Adrian / Hadrian IV.

1156 Japanese Heian Emperor Toba and Japanese diarist at Heian court Fujiwara Yorinaga d.  Japanese Emperor Go-Shirakawa ascends to the throne; his lover is Fujiwara Nobuyori.

1157 Anglo-Norman King Richard I Coeur de Lion of England b.

1158 Japanese Emperor Go-Shirakawa d.

1159 Englishman Nicholas Breakspear, Pope Adrian / Hadrian IV d. Japanese Fujiwara Nobuyori, lover of Emperor Go-Shirakawa, executed for rebelling against his Emperor.

1160 Andalusian Moorish poet Abu Bakr Abd al-Malik ibn Quzma (Ibn Quzman) d.

1161 Persian poet and writer Ahmad ibn Umar ibn Alī, known as Nizamī-i Arūzī-i Samarqandī (Nizami ‘Aruzi) d.

1164 Norwegian Gulathingslog legal code outlaws sodomites.

1165 King Philip Augustus of France b.

1166 (C) Humphrey IV, Lord of Toron in Jerusalem b.

1167 English writer Saint Aelred, Abbot of Rievaulx d.

1175 (C) The Christian concept of sodomia (sodomy) appears in medieval Latin possibly in the Iberian peninsula on the model of Arabic liwãt (sodomite).

1179 The Third Lateran Council of Rome issues a decree for the excommunication of sodomites and rules that clerics guilty of ‘that incontinence which is against nature’ leave the Church or be perpetually confined in a monastery.

1180 John of Salisbury, Bishop of Chartres, d.

1184 Persian poet Abū-Muhammad Muslih al-Dīn bin Abdallāh Shīrāzī, Saadi Shirazi (Saadi Shirazi - Sa’di of Shiraz) and Algerian Arab poet and writer Ahmad al-Tifashi or Ahmad ibn Yusuf al-Tīfāchī (Ahmad al-Tifashi) b.

1186-88? Welsh monk and writer Giraldus Cambrensis’s Topographia Hibernica (Topography of Ireland) reveals Irish same-sex practices.

1187 Anglo-Norman King Richard I of England (as Duke of Aquitaine) and King Philip Augustus of France meet and create emotional bond.

1189 Persian poet Awhad ad-Din 'Ali ibn Mohammad Khavarani or Awhad ad-Din 'Ali ibn Mahmud (Anvari/Anwari) d.  King Richard I Coeur de Lion ascends to the throne of England. Anglo-Norman  William Longchamp becomes Chancellor of England and Bishop of Ely.

1190? Japanese novel Ariake no Wakare (Partings at Dawn).

1191 Islamic law on homosexuality introduced in Delhi and the Doab.  Anglo-Norman King Richard I Coeur de Lion of England makes public confession and penitence.

1192 Japanese Emperor Go-Shirakawa d.  Japanese Minamoto no Yoritomo becomes first Kamakura Shogun and takes young officer Yoshino as his lover.

1193 Christian prohibitions of homosexuality begin to be introduced in Estonia and Latvia.

1195 Anglo-Norman King Richard I Coeur de Lion of England makes second public confession and penitence.

1197 Anglo-Norman William Longchamp Chancellor of England and Bishop of Ely d.

1198 Humphrey IV, Lord of Toron in Jerusalem d.

1199 Anglo-Norman King Richard I Coeur de Lion of England and Japanese Shogun Minamoto no Yoritomo d.

13th CENTURY

1205 (or 1400) Islamic law on homosexuality introduced in Aceh.

1207 Persian poet Jalal ad-Din Muhammad Balkhi (Jalal-ad-Din Muhammad Rumi) b. Japanese diarist at Heian court Fujiwara Kanezane d.

1212 (to 1221) Japanese Uji shui monogatari (Tales Gleaned from Uji) contains tale of a monk who may have committed a same-sex act.

1213 Persian Sufi writer Fakhr al-dīn Ibrahīm ‘Irāqī (Fakhr-al-Din Iraqi) and Andalusian Marrakesh poet Ali ibn Musa ibn Said al-Maghribi (Ibn Said al-Andalusi) b.

1215 Korean cleric Kakhun’s Lives of Eminent Korean Monks discusses King Chinhung’s hwarang (flower boys).  Japanese reference work Kojidan (Talks on Ancient Matters).

1220? Italian philosopher, poet and writer Brunetto Latini of Florence b.

1223 King Philip Augustus of France d.

1230 Guillaume d’Auvergne, Bishop of Paris, writes that sodomites know each other as they stick out their penises at each other.

1232/1233 Pope Gregory IX starts the Dominican Inquisition in the Italian City-States and France.  Some Italian cities called for banishment and/or amputation as punishments for 1st- and 2nd-offending sodomites and burning for the 3rd or habitual offenders.  Inquisitors in certain regions extend their jurisdiction to sodomites. French biblical commentator Cardinal Hugh of Saint-Cher’s commentary on the Vulgate asserts that grass will not grow on a place where sodomy has so much as been mentioned, and that while an incubus may assume a man's shape, and a succubus a woman's, a succubus would never take on male form because even devils would be ashamed to take the passive role in sodomy.  Society of the Blessed Mary establishes branch in Perugia to hunt down sodomites.

1233 Pope Gregory IX’s bull Vox in Rama (Voice in Rama) equates German heretics with sodomites.

1235? Benedetto Gaetani Pope Boniface VIII b.  (C) The twelfth century term Bulgarus (Bulgarian), whence French bougre and English bugger, becomes generally used for both heretic and sodomite.  French scholar and poet Guillaume de Lorris starts the Roman de la Rose (Romance of the Rose) which advocates castration for sodomites.

After 1235 Islamic law on homosexuality introduced in the Gambia and north-eastern Côte d’Ivoire.

1237 Japanese monk Samon Shusei makes religious vow of faithfulness to his male partner at Todaiji Temple in Nara.

1241 Decretales (Decrees) of Pope Gregory IX codifies penalties against homosexual clergy.

1242 Statutes of Perugia appoint forty men to hunt sodomites.

1243 Andalusian Marrakesh poet Ali ibn Musa ibn Said al-Maghribi (Ibn Said al-Andalusi) ’s anthology of poems Rayat al-mubarrizin waghayat al-mumayyizin (Penants of the Champions).

1246? Touraine-Anjou legal code prescribes burning for bougrerie (buggery).

1248 Egyptian Arab shadow playwright Ibn Daniyal of Cairo b.

1249 Christian prohibitions of homosexuality begin to be introduced in Finland.

1250 (by) Islamic law on homosexuality introduced in Bengal and Central India. (?) Islamic laws on homosexuality introduced to Patani (southern Thailand).  Persian poet Jamal al-Din Khalil Shirvani’s collection Nozhat al-Majales (Joy of the Gatherings).

1252 Dominican inquisition permitted to use torture in sodomy cases.

1253 Algerian Arab poet and writer Ahmad al-Tifashi or Ahmad ibn Yusuf al-Tīfāchī (Ahmad al-Tifashi) d.

1255 King Alfonso X (the Wise) of Castille issues Fuero Real legal code prescribing castration followed by hanging by the legs till death three days later for sodomites.  The Blessed Humbert of Romans, French Grand Master of the Dominican Order, urges his members in Bologna to be diligent in pursuit of sodomites.

1257 Italian philosopher, astrologer and medical professor at Padua, Pietro d’Abano b.  Saint Peter Ordinski becomes Khan of the Tatars.  Saadi Shirazi’s poems Bustan/Bostan (The Orchard).

1258 Islamic law on homosexuality introduced in the khanates of Timur’s Mongol empire and the Golden Horde.  Saadi Shirazi’s stories Gulistan (The Rose Garden).

By 1259  Islamic laws on homosexuality introduced to north eastern Nigeria and northern Cameroon.

1259 Bologna adopts death penalty for sodomy.

1260? (or 1270?)  Orléans legal code Livres de jostice et de plet prescribes first-offending sodomites to lose their testicles, second offenders to lose their member, and third offenders to be burned; women caught in same-sex acts can be mutilated and executed.

1262 (to 1270) Siena enacts penalties for sodomites.  

1264? Ponç Hug IV Count of Empúries (Asturias) b.

1265  King Alfonso X of Castile (the Wise) issues legal encyclopaedia  Las Siete Partidas blaming natural catastrophes on sodomites. (to 1274) Italian theologian Saint Thomas Aquinas’s Summa Theologiae/Theologica (Summary of Theology)  argues that sodomy is second only to murder in the ranking of sins.

1266 Saint Peter Ordinski, Khan of the Tatars d.

1269 Japanese Confucian monk Gen’e b.

1270 (or 1271?) Persian poet Awhaduddin Awhadi Maragheie (Awhadi of Maragha) b.

1271 English Franciscan friar and philosopher Roger Bacon reports that many academics are banished from Paris for sodomy.

1272? French legal code Établissements de Saint Louis prescribes burning for bougrerie.

1273 Persian poet Jalal ad-Din Muhammad Balkhi (Jalal-ad-Din Muhammad Rumi) d.

1277 First recorded execution for sodomy in Western Europe by King of the Romans Rudolf I of Hapsburg, who burns Lord Haspisperch at the stake for sodomy.  Expulsion of sodomitical theologians and students from Paris.  Étienne Tempier (Stephanus of Orléans), Chancellor of the Sorbonne and Bishop of Paris, condemns the idea that the sin against nature is one against the nature of the species but not against that of the individual. Ponç Hug IV becomes Count of Empúries (Asturias).

1280 Bishop Brynjul’s Statute in Sweden gives financial penalties for sodomy.

1283 Philip de Remi, Lord of Beaumanoir, sets forth Beauvais law in Coutumes de Beauvais prescribing that convicted sodomites are to be burned and their property forfeited.

1284 King Edward II of England and Piers Gaveston, 1st Earl of Cornwall b.

1286 Andalusian Marrakesh poet Ali ibn Musa ibn Said al-Maghribi (Ibn Said al-Andalusi) d.  Pisa prescribes fines for sodomy.

1288 English Hugh Despenser the Younger, 1st Lord Despenser b.  Bologna replaces penalty of fine with burning for sodomites. Japanese Emperor Go-Daigo (ruled to 1339) has lover Kumawaka (Hino Kunimitsu).

1289 Persian Sufi writer Fakhr al-dīn Ibrahīm ‘Irāqī (Fakhr-al-Din Iraqi) d.

1290 (?) Italian Perugian poet and notary Cecco Nuccoli b.  Moor burned at Arguedas in Navarre for sodomy. Three English legal treatises: Britton prescribes death by burning for sodomites; Fleta prescribes burying  sodomites alive if taken in the act; Mirror of Justices.  (?) Saadi Shirazi’s poems Ghazaliyat (Lyrics).  Italian chronicler the Blessed Jacopo da Varagine’s Legenda aurea (The Golden Legend) repeats French theologian Peter the Chanter's fantasy that all the world's sodomites had died at Jesus's birth, adding that, according to Saint Augustine, because human nature was defiled with this vice, the Son of Man repeatedly postponed his incarnation and even thought of renouncing the project altogether.

1291 (or 1283?) Persian poet Abū-Muhammad Muslih al-Dīn bin Abdallāh Shīrāzī, Saadi Shirazi (Saadi Shirazi - Sa’di of Shiraz) d.

1292 Flemish Jan de Wertre burned at Ghent for sodomy.

1294 Italian Benedetto Gaetani becomes Pope Boniface VIII.

1295? Italian philosopher, poet and writer Brunetto Latini of Florence d.

By 1297 Islamic law on homosexuality introduced in Pasai (north Sumatra).

14th CENTURY

By 1300 Islamic law on homosexuality introduced in Malwa and the northern Deccan.

1300 Persian poet and satirist Nezam od-Din Ubeydollah Zâkâni (Ubayd-i Zakani) b. (or 1301) English King Edward II and Piers Gaveston become sworn brothers.

1303 Italian Benedetto Gaetani Pope Boniface VIII d. Islamic laws on homosexuality introduced to Terengganu. Japanese Hojo regent Sadatoki issues legal document to a Kamakura Zen monastery regulating resident acolytes.

1306 Byzantine Emperor Andronicus issues a decree reminding of prohibitions on obsessions with males.

1307 English King Edward II and Piers Gaveston, 1st Earl of Cornwall, swear vows to each other upon God’s body.  Gaveston exiled.  King Edward II ascends to the throne of England.   Suppression of the Knights Templar in France and accusations of their practices of sodomy.

1308 Lucca prescribes fines for sodomy.  Englishman Piers Gaveston 1st Earl of Cornwall exiled a second time.  French Ramond Bertrand de Got, Pope Clement V’s papal bull Faciens misericordiam (Granting Forgiveness) against the Templars cites the frightful evil of the sodomites.

1310 King Philip IV of France lays charges including sodomy against the late Pope Boniface VIII. Italian philosopher, astrologer and medical professor at Padua Pietro d’Albano’s commentary on the pseudo-Aristotelian Problemata (The Problems).  

1311 Egyptian scatological and satirical playwright Muhammad Ibn Daniyal d.

1312 English Piers Gaveston, 1st Earl of Cornwall killed by barons.

1313 Ponç Hug IV Count of Empúries (Asturias) d accused of sodomy.

1314 Italian professor of law Cina da Pistoia’s Commentary on the Code of Justinian uses Lex foedissimam of 287 to extend penalties to lesbians.

1315 Islamic law on homosexuality introduced in Makuria and Nobatia (lower and central Nubia – Sudan).

1315/16? Italian philosopher, astrologer and medical professor at Padua Pietro d’Abano d.

1316 King Magnus Eriksson of Sweden and Norway b.

1317 Burnings for sodomy at Laon.

1319 King Jean II le Bon of France b. King Magnus Eriksson becomes King of Sweden and Norway.

1321 Italian poet Dante's Inferno places sodomites in the Seventh Circle.  (?) Chigo no soshi (Acolyte’s Notebook / Scroll) paintings in Daigo temple, Kyoto.

1323 Islamic law on homosexuality introduced in southern India. Trial for sodomy of Arnold Verniolle at Pamiers imprisoned for life.

1325 (or 1319, 1320 or 1326) Persian poet Khāwaja Shamsu Dīn Muhammad Hāfez-e Shīrāzī (Hafez or Hafiz) b.  Florence enacts penalties for sodomites, including castration for intercourse with a younger person.  Islamic law on homosexuality introduced in western Anatolia.

1326 English Hugh IV le Despenser the Younger, 1st Lord Despenser executed.  French Arnaud de Verniolles, Subdeacon of Pamiers, prosecuted for male rape.

1327 The deposed King Edward II of England is killed, allegedly by having a red-hot poker forced through his rectum.

1329 Padua adopts death penalty for sodomy.

1330 Korean King Gongmin of Goryeo b.   Japanese writer Yoshida Kenko’s Tsure-zuregusa (Idle Writings).

1332 King Magnus Eriksson of Sweden and Norway becomes King of Scania (to 1360).

Pre 1333 Arab historian Al-Nuwayrī (Shihāb al-Dīn Ahmad b. 'Abd al-Wahhāb al-Nuwayri)’ Nihaya states that Muhammad is alleged to have said what he feared most for his community were the practices of the people of Lot (Sodom and Gomorrah).

1336 Siena prescribes fines and torture for non-payment for sodomy.

1337 Persian poet Awhaduddin Awhadi Maragheie (Awhadi of Maragha) d.

1338 Japanese shogun Ashikaga Takauji (ruled to 1358)

1342 Perugia enacts penalties for sodomites.  First execution for sodomy in Venice by burning alive.

1344 Burnings for sodomy at Dorche in Savoy.

1345 Juce Abolfaça and Simuel Nahamán burned for sodomy at Olite in Pamplona.

1346 Pascal de Rojas burned in Tudela for sodomy.

1347 Roman transvestite prostitute Rolandino Roncaglia tried for sodomy in Italy.

1349 Duke Wilhelm V of Jülich deposed by his sons for sodomy.

1350 (?) Italian Perugian poet and notary Cecco Nuccoli d.  King Jean II le Bon becomes King of France.

1351 Carpi adopts death penalty for sodomy. Gongmin of Goryeo becomes 31st King of the Goryeo dynasty of Korea.

1352 Japanese Confucian monk Gen’e d.  King Kongmin of Korea (ruled to 1374) appoints at least five youths as chajewi  (little brother attendants).

1354 (or 1360) Bayezid I, Ottoman Sultan b.  King Jean II le Bon of France’s lover, Charles de La Cerda, murdered by French barons.  Venetian Judges of Public Morals burn Rolandino (Rolandina) Ronchaia.

1356 Persian sufi poet Mu'in al-Din 'Ali Husayni Sarabi Tabrizi (Qasim-al-Anwar) b.

1357 Boatman Nicoleto Marmagna and his lover of four years, Giovanni Braganza, burned in Venice.

1358 Japanese 3rd Ashikaga Shogun Yoshimitsu b.

1360 Duke Bengt Algotsson, Stateholder of Scania, favourite of King Magnus Eriksson, murdered by nobles.  (?) Italian jurist Luca da Penne, in his Commentaria in tres libros Codicis Justiniani imperatoris (Commentary in Three Books on the Codes of Emperor Justinian), writes that sodomites destroy the human race.  Italian poet Giovanni Boccaccio’s Genealogia deorum gentilium (On the Geneaology of the Gods of the Gentiles). 

1361 Saint Bridget discloses King Magnus Eriksson of Norway and Sweden’s homosexuality in a text written in Rome.  

1363 Japanese actor and playwright Zeami Motokiya b.  Egyptian poet Aybak al-Safadi d.  Rome adopts death penalty for sodomy.

1364 King Jean II le Bon of France d.  Folkung Magnus Eriksson King of Norway and Sweden forced to abdicate after being accused of sodomy with the knight Bengt Algotsson.

1365 Florence adopts death by burning for sodomy.  Florence Council declares sodomy will bring God’s wrath on the city. Mutilation and execution of 15 year old Giovanni di Giovanni for sodomy in Florence.  Avignon innkeeper Raymond Pascal charges lodger Arnauld Guilhermus with attempted homosexual rape.

1368 Japanese Yoshimuchi, 4th Ashikaga Shogun and Holy Roman Emperor Sigismund of Luxemburg, King of Hungary b.  Christian prohibitions of homosexuality begin to be introduced in Lithuania and Samogitia.  Messenger Benedictus Capello charged with seducing 13 year old apprentice Anthorius Gasparinus in Venice.

1369 Holy Roman Emperor Charles IV castrates and burns a sodomite at Lucca.

1370? Neapolitan (Ischian) Baldassame Cossa, Anti-Pope John XXIII b. Jan van Aersdone and Willem Case executed for sodomy in Antwerp.

1371 Persian poet and satirist Nezam od-Din Ubeydollah Zâkâni (Ubayd-i Zakani) and (?) Italian notary and poet Marino Ceccoli of Perugia d.  Islamic law on homosexuality introduced in Thrace and Macedonia.

1372 Burnings for sodomy at Reims.

1373 Servant burned for sodomy at Olite in Pamplona.

1374 Sultan Yusuf III, 13th Nasrid ruler of the Emirate of Granada b.  King Gongmin of Goryeo, 31st King of the Goryeo dynasty of Korea, and King Magnus Eriksson of Sweden and Norway d.  No performer Zeami Motokiya performs before 3rd Ashikaga Shogun Yoshimitsu.

1375 Albrecht von Braunschweig-Göttingen, Archbishop of Hamburg-Bremen, accused by Dean Johann von Zesteflet of being a hermaphrodite and is forced to show his genitals.

1377 (before) Japanese stories Aki no yonaga monogatari (A Long Tale for an Autumn Night), the first of a series of chigo monogatori (tales of monastic same-sex relations).

1381 Two monks of the Beghard brotherhood and a peasant burned for sodomy in Augsburg.

1383? Man of letters and poet Shams Al-Din Muhammad Bin 'Alî Bin 'Uthman Al-Qahirï Al-Nawajî (Muhammad al-Nawadji) of Cairo b.

1385 Islamic law on homosexuality introduced in Albania.

1386 King Henry V of England and Florentine painter and sculptor Donato di Niccolò di Betto Bardi (Donatello) b.  King Richard II of England creates his favourite Richard de Vere Duke of Ireland and is accused of sodomy with him.

1387 Islamic law on homosexuality introduced in Greece.  Cremona adopts death penalty for sodomy.  Holy Roman Emperor Sigismund of Luxemburg, King of Hungary, becomes King of Croatia.

1388 French prelate Guy de Roye (Guido de Monte Rocherii), Archbishop of Tours and of Reims, in his Manipulus curatorum  (The Manual of the Curate) writes that the sin of sodomy is far greater than carnal knowledge of one's own mother.

1389 (or 1390) Persian poet Khāwaja Shamsu Dīn Muhammad Hāfez-e Shīrāzī (Hafez or Hafiz) d.  Bayezid I ‘The Thunderbolt’ becomes Ottoman Sultan and orders troops to collect boys for his harem.

1390 Lodi adopts death penalty for sodomy.

1391 English knights Sir William Neville and Sir John Clanvowe buried and commemorated together in the same grave in Constantinople.

1392 Basano adopts death penalty for sodomy.

1394 Bolognese poet, writer and diplomat Antonio Beccadelli ‘Panormita’, Japanese poet priest Ikkyu and Japanese 6th Ashikaga Shogun Yoshinori b.   Japanese shogun Ashikaga Yoshimochi (ruled to 1428); his lover was Akamatsu Mochisada, to whom he gave three provinces but whose misrule forced Yoshinori to order him to commit suicide.

1395 John Rykener, known also as Johannes Richer and Eleanor, a transvestite prostitute in London and Oxford, arrested, interrogated and burned at the stake. Japanese Yoshimochi becomes the 4th  Ashikaga Shogun and grants his lover, Samurai Akamatsu Mochisada, three provinces.   King Richard II of England commissions painting the Wilton Diptych. Tract Twelve Conclusions of the Lollards posted to door of Parliament bewailing sodomy in England.

1396 Islamic law on homosexuality introduced in Bulgaria.

1398 Johann Wasmud von Homburg, Priest of Mainz Cathedral and Inquisitor, accuses lay members of the orders of the Beguines and Beghards of same-sex acts ‘against nature’.

1399 King Richard II of England deposed.

PART FIVE – EUROPEAN RENAISSANCE, REFORMATION AND COUNTER REFORMATION; THE START OF EUROPEAN COLONIALISM; ISLAM AT ITS GREATEST EXTENT

Medieval prohibitions against ‘sodomy’ increased in severity whilst increasing knowledge of the classical world, with its attitude to same-sex love, spawned the outburst of art and literature of the Renaissance.  The decadent Roman Catholic Church saw many same-sex scandals, one factor in the reaction that caused the Reformation, then the Roman Catholic recovery of the Counter Reformation. Neither movements were of benefit to homosexuals as both produced fanaticism that continued and enforced penalties against same-sex activities. Europeans began to export their prejudices and laws around the globe as colonialism began and they started to discover many cultures with same-sex practices in the Americas, Africa and Asia, and to eradicate them where they could.  Islamic power reached it highest peak with the Ottoman Turkish conquest of Constantinople and the Balkans, and in India with the establishment of the Moghul Empire.  Both empires were tolerant of homosexual acts.  China and Korea remained as before, but in Japan in the 16th Century begins the flowering of same-sex relations and the literature describing it that lasted until the 19thCentury.

15TH CENTURY

C 15 Japanese Gikeiki (Tale of Yoshitsune).

1400 (?) Italian poet and scholar Pacifico Massimi (Massimo-Pacifico d’Ascoli) b.  English King Richard II killed, accused among other things of sodomy.  Johans Rorer executed for sodomy at Strasbourg.  Bolognese jurist Barthomoeo de Saliceto’s Lectures extends Italian professor of law Cina da Pistoia’s Commentary to prescribe death penalty for lesbians.  (Post) Islamic law on homosexuality introduced in Malacca, Negeri Sembilan, Selangor and the Moluccas (Maluku Islands).

1401 English tract Twelve Conclusions of the Lollards expanded to link Lollardy with sodomy.

1403 Ottoman Sultan Bayezid I d.  Florence establishes Officers of Decency to open brothels in order to limit same-sex activity.

1404 French Gilles de Montmorency-Laval, Baron de Rais b.

1405 King Juan II of Castille and León b.

1406 Byzantine Emperor Manual Paleologus II’s Chrysobull prohibits monks from forming same-sex relations with laity.  Juan II becomes King of Castille and León. (or 1407) Fifteen to Sixteen noble youths and eighteen commoners tried in Venice for sodomy and burned. Venice offers cash rewards for informants against sodomy.

1408 Japanese Ashikaga Shogun Yoshimitsu d.  Sultan Yusuf III becomes 13th Nasrid ruler of the Emirate of Granada.

1409 Neapolitan Italian humanist, writer and poet Giannantonio de’ Pandoni ‘Il Porcelio’ b.  Four priests hanged till death in a metal cage and one man burned for heresy and sodomy in Augsburg.

1410 (?) Italian (Ascoli) humanist, Latinist and writer Pacifico Massimi (or Massimo-Pacifico d’Ascoli) b.  Neapolitan (Ischian) Baldassame Cossa becomes Anti-Pope John XXIII.  (or 1434)? Berber Abu Abdullah Muhammad ben Umar Nafzawi (Sheikh Muhammad Ibn Umar al-Nafzawi)’s Arabic erotic manual Ar-rawd al-atir fi nuzhatil khatir (The Perfumed Garden) compiled at the request of the Hafsid ruler of Tunis, Abû Fâris `Abd al-`Azîz al-Mutawakkil.

1412 Jeanne d'Arc (Joan of Arc) b.  Islamic law on homosexuality introduced in Makuria (Nubia – Sudan).

1414 Ligurian Francesco Della Rovere, Pope Sixtus IV b.  

1415 English Richard Courtenay, Bishop of Norwich, d at the siege of Harfleur and King Henry V washes his body.  Florence removes death penalty for first offence of sodomy and prevents removal from office for first offenders. Neapolitan (Ischian) Baldassame Cossa, Anti-Pope John XXIII accused of sodomy amongst many other things by the Council of Constance and deposed.

1417 Venetian Pietro Barbo, Pope Paul II b. Sultan Yusuf III 13th Nasrid ruler of the Emirate of Granada d.

1418 Neapolitan (Ischian) Baldassame Cossa, Anti-Pope John XXIII d. Venice establishes Collegium contra sodomitas/sodomitarum (College against Sodomy/Sodomites). Florence Council declares sodomy will bring God’s judgement on the city.

1419 Holy Roman Emperor Sigismund of Luxemburg, King of  Hungary and Croatia, becomes King of Bohemia.  JapaneseAshikaga shogun forbids monk to dress acolytes in gorgeous apparel.

1420 (?) Italian Paduan teacher and poet Niccolo Lelio Della Comare (Nicolo Cosmico) b.  (or 1425) Portuguese introduce anti-sodomy laws to Madeira.

1421 Italian writer and librarian Bartolomeo Sacchi ‘Platina’ of Piadena and Japanese poet priest Sogi b.  English esquires Nicholas Molyneux and John Winter make a compact as ‘freres darmes’ (’brothers in arms’) in Harfleur.

1422 Henry V, King of England, d and asks to be buried with Richard Courtenay, Bishop of Norwich, rather than his wife.  A priest burned to death in a thatched hut in Bologna for sodomy.  English John, Duke of Bedford writes to Prior of Durham monastery demanding punishment for a sodomitical monk.  Venice uncovers circle of sodomitical customers of apothecary shops.

Before 1423 Japanese noh plays Kagetsu, Jinen koji, Togan koji, Seigan Koji deal with monk-acolyte relations.

1424 Vladislas III of Varna (Wladyslaw III Warneñczyk, Ulaszlo I), King of Poland b. Venice begins to view youths or boys not as victims but as willing partners and prescribes jail and lashes, with torture to obtain confessions.  Franciscan Saint Bernardino of Siena preaches one of several sermons in Florence, calling for sodomites to be ostracised.  

1425 King Enrique IV of Castille and (or 1428) Italian humanist Giulio Pomponio-Leto b. Bolognese poet, writer and diplomat Antonio Beccadelli (‘Panormita’)'s satire Hermaphroditus or L’ermafrodito (The Hermaphrodite).

1426 Antonio Masi (Cantarino) castrated and burned for sodomy in Bologna.

1427 (or 1428) Japanese Yoshimochi, the 4th Ashikaga Shogun d. Swiss Basel fisherman Peter Keller exiled for sodomy (styled heresy).

1428 Chinese Ming Xuande Emperor appoints Gu Zuo Censor of the Right Capital; he bans officials from visiting male brothels.

1429 Japanese Ashikaga Yoshinori becomes 6th Shogun and invites temple entertainers to share his bed.  

1430? (or after 1432) Florentine sculptor and painter Donatello’s bronze sculpture David.

1431 French poet and criminal François Villon b.  Jeanne d'Arc (Joan of Arc) burned at the stake for heresy and cross dressing. Cologne Council bans Rhine boat salt measurers from forcing young men to have their genitals weighed.

1432  Ottoman Mehmed bin Murad Khan, Sultan Mehmet II the Conqueror b.  Florence enacts laws against sodomy prescribing fines and creates the Ufficiali di Notte (Officers of the Night).

1433 Italian humanist, astrologer and Neo-Platonist Marsilio Ficino b. Persian sufi poet Mu'in al-Din 'Ali Husayni Sarabi Tabrizi (Qasim-al-Anwar) d. Portuguese introduce anti-sodomy laws to the Azores.  Sigismund of Luxemburg, King of Hungary, Croatia and Bohemia, becomes Holy Roman Emperor.

1434 Vladislas III of Varna (Wladyslaw III Warneñczyk, Ulaszlo I), becomes King of Poland.

1435 (to 1440?) Florentine sculptor and medallist Bertoldo di Giovanni b.  Japanese monastic record Inryoken nichiroku (Daily Record of the Cool Shady Eaves) to 1493.

1436 Japanese Ashikaga shogun forbids monk to dress acolytes in gorgeous apparel.

1437 Italian humanist and politician Filippo Buonaccorsi (Callimaco Esperiente) of San Gimignano b. Holy Roman Emperor Sigismund of Luxemburg, King of Hungary, Croatia and Bohemia, d.

1438 Investigation into allegations at English Markby Priory of canons, especially John Alforde, sleeping with youths.

1440 French Gilles de Montmorency-Laval, Baron de Rais, executed for murder and sodomy. Vladislas III of Varna (Wladyslaw III Warneñczyk, Ulaszlo I), King of Poland becomes King of Hungary.  English John Dey, Canon of New College, Leicester, excluded from the College for sodomy.  Florentine painter and sculptor Donato di Niccolò di Betto Bardi (Donatello) ’s bronze statue David.

1441 Japanese 6th Shogun Ashikaga Yoshinori plans to bestow three provinces on his male lover, Akamatsu Sadamara, and is killed.

1442? Florentine poet Filippo Scarlatti b.

1443 Genoese Giuliano Della Rovere, Pope Julius II b. Japanese actor and playwright Zeami Motokiya d.

1444 Florentine poet Giovanni Cavalcanti b. Vladislas III of Varna (Wladyslaw III Warneñczyk, Ulaszlo I), King of Poland and Hungary killed at the battle of Varna, the night before which he had been to bed with his page. (to 1446) Sultan Mehmet II the Conqueror becomes Sultan of the Ottoman Empire for the first time.  Venetian Council of Ten closes establishments for young persons at night.

1445 Florentine painter Alessandro di Mariano di Vanni Filipepi (Sandro Botticelli) b.  Portugal introduces anti-sodomy laws to Cape Verde Islands.

1446 Venice alters penalty for sodomy to decapitation then burning of the body.

1447 Islamic law on homosexuality introduced in Majapahit (Java).

1448 Japanese poet priest Socho b.

1449 Japanese shogun Ashikaga Yoshimasa (ruled to 1473).

1450 (or 1460?) Venetian humanist and poet Girolamo Balbi, Bishop of Gurk b.

1451 Sultan Mehmet II the Conqueror becomes Sultan of the Ottoman Empire for the second time.

1452 Italian polymath, painter and sculptor Leonardo di ser Piero da Vinci (Leonardo da Vinci) b.

1453 Florentine poet Girolamo Benivieni b.   Islamic law on homosexuality introduced in Constantinople which is conquered by Sultan Mehmet II the Conqueror, who is alleged to demand the son of Lukas Notaras; when this is refused, he executes the father and his family.

1454 Tuscan (Montepulciano) humanist and poet Angelo Ambrogini ‘Poliziano’ b. King Juan II of Castille and León d. Enrique IV becomes King of Castille.

1455 Man of letters and poet Shams Al-Din Muhammad Bin 'Alî Bin 'Uthman Al-Qahirï Al-Nawajî (Muhammad al-Nawadji) of Cairo d.  Venice elects nobles to monitor wine shops for pederasty.

1456 Venetian astrologer and occultist Fortunatius Affaydatus reports marriage of hermaphrodite Aemilia, whose trousseau is returned; she then becomes male, Aemilius.

1457 Islamic law on homosexuality introduced in Sulu (southern Philippines).

1458 Sienese page Alessandro Cinuzzi, ‘the most beautiful boy’ b. Venice Council declares sodomy was the cause of the Flood. Florence Council declares sodomy will cause harm to the Republic.   (to 1465) Italian humanist Francesco Filelfo’s epigrams about Porcellus Porcellius (Piggy Pig), Giannantonio de’ Pandoni (Il Porcelio).

1459 (?) Florentine painter Lorenzo di Credi b.  Islamic law on homosexuality introduced in Serbia, Pahang and Kedah.  French memoirist Jacques du Clerq, Sieur de Beauvoir records death of man at stake who wore women’s clothes and claimed to be both man and woman.

1460? Portuguese Jewish physician and writer Judah Leon Abravanel (Leone Ebreo) b. Ludovicus Segato acquitted of wounding in Venice as his alleged victim Antonius Pavanus had made sexual advances to him.

1462 French poet and criminal François Villon d.  Japanese poet Tosho Shugen’s poem Ryusuishu.

1463 Italian philosopher Giovanni Pico della Mirandola, Count Mirandola b.  Islamic law on homosexuality introduced in Bosnia.  Japanese shogun Yoshimasa orders confinement of a beautiful acolyte making monks unruly.

1464 Italian Pietro Barbo becomes Pope Paul II.

1466 Dutch humanist Desiderius Erasmus of Rotterdam and Japanese warlord Hosokawa Masamoto b. Florentine painter and sculptor Donato di Niccolò di Betto Bardi (Donatello)  d.  German Konrad von Murach accused of sodomy by the Count Palatine and forced to confess and hand over castle of Tännesberg.  

1467 Venice requires all barber surgeons to report cases of anal penetration to the authorities.  Florentine painter Bartolomeo di Giovanni Corradini (Fra Carnevale)’s painting Presentation of the Virgin. 

1468 Italian humanist and politician Filippo Buonaccorsi (Callimaco Esperiente)’s homosexual poems found on his flight from Rome. Italian humanist Giulio Pomponio-Leto accused of seducing his students in Venice, but escapes death due to Roman extradition request.

1469 Venetian writer and classicist Lodovico Ricchieri (Caelius Rhodiginus) b. Italian humanist, astrologer and Neo-Platonist Marsilio Ficino’s Commentarium in Platonis Convivium (Commentary on Plato’s Symposium).

1470  German (Nuremberg) lawyer and humanist Willibald Pirckheimer and (?)  Italian humanist Mario Equicola b.

1471 German (Nuremberg) painter and engraver Albrecht Durer b.

Bolognese poet, writer and diplomat Antonio Beccadelli ‘Panormita’ d.  Venetian Pietro Barbo, Pope Paul II d of a heart attack in the arms of a page. Ligurian Francesco Della Rovere becomes Pope Sixtus IV.  English William Smyth publicly boasts of sodomy with Thomas Tunley in London but the case against him is dropped.  Germans George Semler, Fritz Röttel, Stefan Karl and Anndre Vetter arrested for being part of sodomitical circle in Regensburg.

1474 King Enrique IV of Castille and Sienese page Alessandro Cinuzzi, ‘the most beautiful boy’ d.  Filippo Buonaccorsi (Callimaco Esperiente) becomes Secretary to the King of Poland.

1475 Roman Michelangelo di Lodovico Buonarroti Simoni (Michelangelo) and Florentine Giovanni di Lorenzo de' Medici, Pope Leo X b.   Swiss Johannes Stocker, curate of Basel, exiled for raping a choir boy.

1476 Milan adopts death penalty for sodomy.  Islamic law on homosexuality introduced in Wallachia (Rumania).  Italian Leonardo Da Vinci and three other young men accused in an open anonymous denunciation before the Palazzo Vecchio and charged with sodomy of prostitute Jacopo Saltarelli in Florence, then freed on technical grounds.

1477 Italian (Vercelli) painter Giovanni Antonio Bazzi (Il Sodoma) b.  Italian humanist and poet Angelo Amrogini ‘Poliziano’ becomes Prior of San Paolo. Trial in Speyer of Katherina Hetzeldorfer, sentenced to drowning for sex with women.

1478 Tribunal del Santo Oficio de la Inquisición (Tribunal of the Holy Office of the Inquisition) founded in Spain by King Ferdinand II of Aragon and Queen Isabella I of Castille.

1479 Grand Prince Vasili III of Moscow b.

1480 Bolognese engraver  Marcantonio Raimondi (Marcantonio) and (?) Italian painter Gian-Giacomo Caprotti da Oreno (Salai) b.   Italian humanist Angelo Poliziano’s poem Favolo Di Orfeo (The Fable of Orpheus).  

1481 Sultan Mehmet II the Conqueror of the Ottoman Empire, Japanese poet priest Ikkyu and Italian writer and librarian Bartolomeo Sacchi ‘Platina’ d.  Portuguese introduce anti-sodomy laws to Elmina (Gold Coast/Ghana), São Tomé and Príncipe.  

1482 Islamic law on homosexuality introduced in Herzegovina.  Swiss Richard Puller von Hohenburg burnt at the stake in Zurich for sodomy and murdering the witnesses with his last lover, his servant Anton Mätzler.  Japanese essayist Ijiri Chusuke’s The Essence of Jakudo.

1483 Zahir-ud-din Muhammad Babur, 1st Mughal Emperor of India b. Roman professor of law Giovanni Battista Capranica ‘Flavius Pantagathus’, Bishop of Fermo murdered. Venice uncovers circle of sodomitical customers of apothecary shops.  Florentine painter Alessandro di Mariano di Vanni Filipepi (Sandro Botticelli)’s painting Madonna of the Magnificat.

1484 Italian poet Francesco Maria Molza and Japanese warlord Hosokawa Takakuni b.  Pope Sixtus IV (Francesco Della Rovere) d.  Italian humanist and lawyer Stefano Infesura’s diary Diarium urbis Romae (Diario della Città di Roma – Diary of the City of Rome) accuses Pope Sixtus IV  of sodomy.  Cologne city council establishes secret commissions to investigate the ‘spread of sodomy’.  Cologne man alleges he had been molested in 1481/2 by Councillor Johann Greveroide.

1485 (or 1490?) Sicilian diplomat and classicist Gian Matteo Giberti, Bishop of Verona and Italian poet Vincilao Boiano b.  (after) Neapolitan Italian humanist, writer and poet Giannantonio de’ Pandoni ‘Il Porcelio’ d.

1487 Roman Giovanni Maria Ciocchi del Monte, Pope Julius III b.  (?) Florentine poet Filippo Scarlatti d.  Michelangelo’s statue Bacchus.

1489 Mayor of Zurich executed for crimes including sodomy.  Pacifico Massimi of Ascoli's Hecatelegium (The Hundred Elegies).

1490 (to 1491) Italian humanist and poet Girolamo Balbi accused of sodomy and flees the University of Paris.

1491 Chinese Emperor Zhengde (Wuzong) of Ming b.  Florentine sculptor and medallist Bertoldo di Giovanni d.  (to 1493) University of Paris’s Publio Fausto Andrelini’s eclogue against Girolamo Balbi, De Fuga Balbi (On the Flight of Balbi).

1492 Chinese Zhu Houzhao, Ming Emperor Wuzong and Italian playwright, poet and satirist Pietro Aretino b.  Dutch humanist Desiderius Erasmus writes a series of love letters to a fellow monk while at a monastery in Steyn.  Italian humanist and Neo-platonist philosopher Marsilio Ficino’s Epistulae (Letters) include ones to his lover, Italian poet Giovanni Cavalcanti.

1493 Florentine humanist writer Agnolo Firenzuola, Abbot of San Salvatore and (or 1494) Ottoman Ibrahim Pasha, Grand Vizier b.  Columbus introduces Spanish anti-sodomy laws to Hispaniola (Haiti & the Dominican Republic) and St. Kitts.

1494 Ottoman Sultan Suleiman I ‘The Magnificent’, Italian Florentine mannerist painter Jacopo Carucci da Pontormo and French classicist, humanist and satirist writer François Rabelais b. Italian philosopher Giovanni Pico della Mirandola, Count Mirandola and Tuscan (Montepulciano) humanist and poet Angelo Ambrogini ‘Poliziano’ d, the latter perhaps of syphilis.  Parma adopts death penalty for sodomy.  (Post) In Florence, Dominican Friar Girolamo Savonarola ensures enactment of laws against sodomy:  a 500 Florin fine  and exclusion from all public office, and sometimes a public flogging with 25 strokes of the lash, for a first offence; for a second offence public humiliation and branding or exile; for a third offence death by fire. Italian painter Gian-Giacomo Caprotti (Salai) accompanies Leonardo da Vinci around Italy.German (Nuremberg) painter and engraver Albrecht Durer’s drawing of ‘Orpheus, the First Sodomite’ and woodcut Hercules.

1495 (to 1497) Pogrom against sodomites in Florence.

1496 Italian humanist and writer Filippo Buonaccorsi (Callimaco Esperiente) d.

1497 Italian (Florentine) poet Francesco Berni b. Pope Sixtus IV’s epitaph on the tomb of his favourite, Cardinal Giovanni Sclafenato, Bishop of Parma, who d this year, mentions his ingenuousness, loyalty and his other gifts of soul and body. Girolamo Balbi accused of sodomy and flees Prague.  German (Nuremberg) painter and engraver Albrecht Durer’s woodcut The Men’s Bath.

1498 Italian humanist Giulio Pomponio-Leto d.  Dominican Friar Girolamo Savonarola burned for heresy in Florence, stopping pogrom against sodomites.  French physician and diplomat Jacques Despars’s commentary on Avicenna’s Canon.  

1499 Italian humanist and Neo-platonist philosopher Marsilio Ficino d.  Islamic laws on homosexuality introduced to Kelantan.

16TH CENTURY

1500 Florentine goldsmith and sculptor Benvenuto Cellini b. Italian Paduan teacher and poet Niccolo Lelio Della Comare (Nicolo Cosmico) and (?) Italian (Ascoli) humanist, latinist and writer Pacifico Massimi (or Massimo-Pacifico d’Ascoli)  d.  Spanish introduce anti-sodomy laws to Cubagua Island, Venezuela. Venice applies sodomy laws to both active and passive men.  (By) Islamic law on homosexuality introduced in Brunei and north Borneo and in some states in Upper Volta (Burkina Fasu).  Accusations of sodomy made in Regensburg.  (C1500) Zoan Andrea’s engraving Woman and Her Maid.  Italian painter Cima da Conegliano’s Saint Sebastian.

1501 Italian (Pavia) physician, mathematician and astrologer Girolamo Cardano b.  (?) Spanish introduce anti-sodomy laws to Aruba.  Michelangelo starts sculpture David.

1502 Japanese poet priest Sogi d.  Spanish introduce anti-sodomy laws to coastal areas of Colombia and Darien (Panama).  Florence abolishes ‘Office of the Night’ for the investigation of homosexual crimes, which remain punishable.  Painter Sandro Botticelli accused of ‘keeping a boy’ in Florence.

1503 Italian Pier Luigi Farnese, 1st Duke of Parma and Piacenza (illegitimate son of Pope Paul III), Florentine poet and diplomat Giovanni Della Casa, Florentine author Anton Francesco Grazzini (Il Lasca) and Florentine poet, humanist and historian Benedetto Varchi b.  Giuliano della Rovere made Pope as Julius II.  German (Nuremberg) painter and engraver Albrecht Durer’s drawing of German humanist Willibald Pirckheimer “with erect penis into the man’s anus”.

1504 English cleric, playwright and teacher Nicholas Udall b.  Islamic law on homosexuality introduced in Dotawa (Nubia – Sudan).  Bolognese physiognomer and astrologer Bartolommeo della Rocca (Cocles)’s Chyromantie ac physionomie anastasis (Resurrection of Chiromancy and Physiognomy).  Michelangelo finishes statue David.

1505 Dutch physician and writer Levinus Lemnius b. Portugal introduces anti-sodomy laws to Portuguese Indian and Ceylon colonies.  Chinese Emperor Zhengde (Wuzong) of Ming ascends to throne.  He takes Sayyid Husain from Hami as a lover during a border campaign.

1506 Scurrilous sonnet written about Pope Julius II as he conquers Bologna. Portugal introduces Christian anti-sodomy laws to Socotra and Muscat.

1507 Japanese warlord Hosokawa Masamoto d.  German moralist and judge of the Prince Bishopric of Bamberg  Johann Freiherr von Schwarzenberg’s Bamberger Halsgerichtordnung (Procedure for the Judgment of Capital Crimes – the Bambergensis) prescribes burning for sodomy.  Portugal introduces Christian anti-sodomy laws to Mozambique and Mombasa, Kenya.

1508 Venetian theorist of painting Lodovico Dolce b.  Spanish introduce anti-sodomy laws to Puerto Rico.  German (Nuremberg) painter and engraver Albrecht Dürer’s woodcut Betrayal of Christ.

1509 French scholar and printer Etienne Dolet and the Italian lover of Michelangelo, Tommaso Dei Cavalieri b.  Florentine poet Giovanni Cavalcanti d.   Venetian diarist Priuli records open sodomy in the city.

1510 Florentine painter Alessandro di Mariano di Vanni Filipepi, better known as Sandro Botticelli d. Portugal introduces anti-sodomy laws to Goa.

1511 Portuguese Jewish physician and writer João Rodrigues de Castelo Branco ‘Amato Lusitano’ b. Portugal introduces anti-sodomy laws to Malacca.  Islamic law on homosexuality introduced in Johor.  Spain introduces anti-sodomy laws to Cuba.

1512 Portugal introduces anti-sodomy laws to Timor.

Florentine nobles demand that those punished for sodomy have sentences revoked; Giuliano de’ Medici, ruler of Florence and Duc de Nemours, grants their request.

1513 Pope Julius II (Giuliano Della Rovere) d. Portugual introduces Christian anti-sodomy laws in Aden.  Spanish spread anti-sodomy laws in countries surrounding the Caribbean in the Governorate of Castilla de Oro.  Florentine Giovanni di Lorenzo de' Medici becomes Pope Leo X.   Conquistador and Governor of Veragua (Panama) Vasco Nuñez de Balboa’s dogs tear to pieces forty Cueva women-men in Panama.

1514 Austrian mathematician and cartographer Georg Joachim de Porris (Rheticus) b.

1515 French humanist and logician Pierre de la Ramée (Petrus Ramus) b.

1516 Spanish introduce anti-sodomy laws to Uruguay.  Venice’s Collegium contra Sodomitas (Office against Sodomy) employs agents provocateurs.

1517 (or 1519) Soldier and nephew of Pope Paul IV, Cardinal Carlo Carafa b.

1518 French diplomat Hubert Languet b. Joint memorial in Merton College Oxford to Dr. Thomas Harper and Ralph Hamsterley.

1519 French protestant theologian Théodore de Bèze b. Leonardo di ser Piero da Vinci (Leonardo da Vinci) d.  (to 1521) Spanish introduce anti-sodomy laws to Aztec Mexico and Guatemala.

1520 Suleiman I ‘The Magnificent’ becomes Ottoman Sultan.  Islamic law on homosexuality introduced in Java.  Japanese poet San’eki Eiin’s poem San’eki Shik-o.

1521 Japanese daimyo Takeda Shingen b.  Pope Leo X (Giovanni di Lorenzo de' Medici), Portuguese Jewish physician, poet and philosopher Judah Leon Abravanel (Leone Ebreo) and Chinese Emperor Zhengde (Wuzong) of Ming d.  Hans Vitus Völsch ‘Doctor Veit’ executed for posing as an Englishwoman in Hamburg.

1522 Illegitimate daughter of Holy Roman Emperor Charles V Margherita d’Austria (di Parma), Duchess of Parma and Piacenza b. Spanish introduce anti-sodomy laws to Costa Rica.

1523 Islamic law on homosexuality introduced in Sinnar and Alodia (southern Nubia – Sudan).  Ottoman Ibrahim Pasha becomes Grand Vizier.  Florentine goldsmith and sculptor Benvenuto Cellini pays fine to settle charges of sodomy. Italian humanist, poet and diplomat Girolamo Balbi made Bishop of Gurk in Hungary.  Italian poet Francesco Berni exiled to the Abbey of San Giovani in Venere due to a homosexual scandal.

1524 Japanese Hosso sect priest Satomura Joha b.  Italian artist Gian Giacomo Caproti da Oreno ‘Salai’ and Venetian writer and classicist Caelius Rhodiginus (Lodovico Ricchieri) d.  Spanish introduce anti-sodomy laws to Granada and León, Nicaragua, Cuzcatlán (El Salvador), Honduras. Papal brief gives Inquisition ability to prosecute for sodomy in Crown of Aragon.  Roman painter and architect Giulio Romano’s I Modi (The Sexual Positions).  Sienese painter Il Sodoma’s painting St. Sebastian.   Italian playwright, poet and satirist Pietro Aretino’s sexual drawings burned in Rome.

1525 Italian humanist Mario Equicola d. Spain introduces anti-sodomy laws to Moluccas Islands.  Turkish writer Abullatif (Latifi)’s Risale-i evsaf-i Istanbul (Essay in Description of Istanbul).  Florentine goldsmith and sculptor Benvenuto Cellini’s statue Ganymede.

1526 French humanist Marc-Antoine Muret (Muretus) b. Portugal introduces anti-sodomy laws to Papua New Guinea.  Islamic law on homosexuality introduced in Hungary.  Ottoman Sultan Suleiman I grants governance of city of Buda to his lover John, Count of Siebenbürgen. Italian humanist Mario Equicola’s Libro d’Amore (Book of Love).  Spanish historian Gonzalo Fernández de Oviedo y Valdés (Oveido)’s Historia general y natural de las Indias (General and Natural History of the Indies).

1527 Japanese Kosaka Masanobu (Danjo), lover of Daimyo Takeda Shingen b.  Florence restores laws against sodomy with stiffer penalties. Spanish introduce anti-sodomy laws to Rio de la Plata.  Veronese engraver Giovanni Jacopo Caraglio (Jacobus Parmensis or Jacobus Veronensis)’s prints Gli Amori Degli Dei (Loves of the Gods) including Apollo and Hyacinthus.

1528 German (Nuremberg) painter and engraver Albrecht Durer d.  Islamic laws on homosexuality introduced to Perak.

1530 Japanese warlord Uesugi Kenshin and French philosopher Étienne de La Boétie b. Bolognese engraver Marcantonio Raimondi (Marcantonio), 1st Mughal Emperor Zahir-ud-din Muhammad Babur and German (Nuremberg) lawyer and humanist Willibald Pirckheimer d. Spanish explorer Álvar Núñez Cabeza de Vaca finds same-sex practices amongst natives of Florida and Texas.

1531 Japanese warlord Hosokawa Takakuni d.  French edition of Italian poet Giovanni Boccaccio’s Genealogiae Deorum (On the Geneaology of the Gods of the Gentiles) shows Orpheus homosexuality myth.   

1532 Italian lover of Pope Julius III Innocenzo Ciocchi Del Monte and Franco-Flemish composer Orlando di Lasso (Orlande de Lassus) b.  Japanese poet priest Socho d.  The Constitutio Criminalis Carolina or Halsgerichtsordnung (Procedure for the Judgment of Capital Crimes) of Holy Roman Emperor Charles V  (Peinliche Gerichstordnung Kaiser Karls V und des Heiligen Römischen Reiches) makes homosexuality a serious crime, prescribes burning at stake for ‘unchaste’ behaviour between men and establishes an inquisition authorised to use torture.  Portugal introduces anti-sodomy laws to Brazil. Trials of sodomites in Augsburg.  Sigmund Weser of Augsburg exiled for leading a ‘sodomite association’.  Michelangelo begins writing over 300 love poems dedicated to Tomasso de’ Cavalieri.

1533 Michel Eyquem, Seigneur de Montaigne b.  Grand Prince Vasili III of Moscow d.  The Law of 25 Henry VIII of England on buggery.  Italian poet Francesco Berni’s poem discusses being raped by Turkish pirates. Michelangelo’s drawing The Rape of Ganymede expressing feelings for his lover Tommaso de’ Cavalieri, to whom he dedicates it.

1534 Japanese warlords Oda Nobunaga and Hosokawa Fujitaka b.  French anti-sodomy law established in New France, Canada.  Spanish introduce anti-sodomy laws to Inca Peru, Bolivia and Ecuador (to 1542).   Lampoons written about Pope Julius II’s sodomy.

1535 Italian poet, humanist Girolamo Balbi, Bishop of Gurk and (1536?) Ottoman poet and kadi Me’ali d.  English royal minister Thomas Cromwell’s inquisitors find buggery in monasteries in Garendon in Leicestershire and Chertsey in Surrey.  Woman in France punished for transvestism and use of dildo.  Anabaptist Franz von Alsten accused of sodomy in Münster.

1536 Japanese warlord Toyotomi Hideyoshi b. Ottoman Ibrahim Pasha, Grand Vizier executed.  Florentine poet Francesco Berni poisoned.  Florentine painter Lorenzo di Credi and Dutch humanist Desiderius Erasmus d.  The Law of 25 Henry VIII of England on buggery re-enacted. Spanish introduce anti-sodomy laws to Buenos Aires, Argentina.

1537 ‘Meister’ Franz von Alsten, connected with a network of sodomites in Hamm in Cleves, beheaded for sodomy in Münster. Spanish introduce anti-sodomy laws to Paraguay. Italian Pier Luigi Farnese, 1st Duke of Parma and Piacenza, accused of rape of 24 year old Bishop of Fano, Cosimo Gheri, who d 40 days later.

By 1538 Islamic laws on homosexuality introduced in north-eastern Benin (Dahomey).

1538 Japanese warlord Maeda Toshiie b.  (or 1539) Ottoman poet Celebi of Uskub d.  Spanish anti-sodomy law established along west coast of Americas in the Real Audiencia de Panama, with jurisdiction from Nicaragua to Cape Horn.  French anti-sodomy law introduced in St. Kitts.  Scandal of illegitimate daughter of Holy Roman Emperor Charles V Margherita d’Austria’s refusal to bed her husband, Ottavio Farnese, whom she marries this year.

1539 Spanish statesman Antonio Pérez b. The Law of 25 Henry VIII of England on buggery re-enacted.

1540 (or 1545) Italian composer Giovan Leonardo Primavera b.

1541 The Law of 25 Henry VIII of England on buggery re-enacted.  Spanish introduce anti-sodomy laws to Chile. English playwright Reverend Nicholas Udall, headmaster of Eton, scandal with two schoolboys and a servant; he loses his post.  

1542 Florentine poet Girolamo Benivieni d and buried in Italian philosopher Giovanni Mirandola’s tomb.  Grand Duke Cosimo I de’ Medici of Florence passes stricter law against sodomy following earthquake and lightning strike on cathedral.  Japanese Daimyo Takeda Shingen makes written contract with his lover Kosaka Masanobu (Danjo).

1543 Tokugawa Ieyasu, 1st Tokugawa Shogun of Japan b (or 1542). Italian poet and man of letters Agnolo Firenzuola d. Japanese daimyo Takedo Shingen seals vow of love with page Kosaka Masanobu.  Italian mathematician, physician and astrologer Girolamo Cardano’s work on astrology and horoscopes Libelli duo, unus de supplemento almanach, alter de restitutione temporum et motuum coelestium. Item geniturae LXVII (Two Pamphlets, One an Almanach Supplement, the Other a Restoration of the Tomes and Motions of the Heavens.  In addition, 17 Horoscopes).

1544 Italian poet Torquato Tasso b. Italian poet Francesco Maria Molza d. Italian painter Girolamo da Carpi’s painting  The Rape of Ganymede.

1545 Florentine scholar, historian and poet Benedetto Varchi arrested for rape of student in Florence. (to 1548) Benvenuto Cellini’s statue Apollo and Hyacinth.

1546 French scholar and printer Etienne Dolet burned on the Place Maubert in Paris for blasphemy but probably also for sodomy. Japanese shogun Ashikaga Yoshiteru (ruled to 1565).

1547 Pier Luigi Farnese, 1st Duke of Parma and Piacenza and Ottoman poet Zati d. The Law of 25 Henry VIII on buggery repealed by King Edward VI of England.

1548 The Law of 25 Henry VIII on buggery re-enacted by King Edward VI of England with ameliorations re property. Florentine goldsmith and sculptor Benvenuto Cellini accused of sodomy.   Scandal of Giovanni Maria Ciocchi del Monte, Bishop of Palestrina, (later Pope Julius III) falling in love with street urchin Innocenzo Del Monte.

1549 Italian diplomat and connoisseur Cardinal Francesco Maria del Monte b. Florentine painter Giovanni Antonio Bazzi (Il Sodoma) d.  Jesuit Francis Xavier rails against ‘sodomy’ in Japanese Buddhist monasteries.

1550 King Charles IX of France and Chinese playwright Tang Xianzu (Yireng) b.  Cardinal Giovanni Maria Ciochhi Del Monte, Bishop of Palestrina made Pope Julius III and makes his 17 year old lover Innocenzo Del Monte a Cardinal.  (C 1550) Florentine goldsmith and sculptor Benvenuto Cellini’s statue Narcissus.

1551 King Henri III of France b.  (to 1697) Spanish introduce anti-sodomy laws to Yucatan.  Austrian mathematician and cartographer Georg Joachim de Porris (Rheticus) accused of sodomy in Leipzig.

1552 English poet Edmund Spenser b.  Spanish historian Francisco López de Gómara’s Historia general de las Indias (General History of the Indies).

1553 French writer, satirist and humanist François Rabelais d.  The Law of 25 Henry VIII on buggery repealed by Queen Mary I of England.  French humanist Marc-Antoine Muret (Muretus) flees to Paris accused of sodomy.

1554 Roman lawyer and judge Prospero Farinacci, English poet, soldier and statesman Sir Philip Sidney and English poet, dramatist and statesman Sir Fulke Greville, 1st Baron Brooke, 13th Baron Latimer and 5th Baron Willoughby de Broke b. French humanist Marc-Antoine Muret (Muretus) flees to Venice accused of second offence of sodomy; condemned to death in Paris in absentia, his effigy is burned at the stake.  Italian writer Matteo Bandello, Bishop of Agen’s short story revealing that Italian humanist and writer Giannantonio de’ Pandoni (Il Porcelio) had been a sodomite.

1555 Giovanni Maria Ciocchi del Monte, Pope Julius III and Turkish sufi poet and scholar Mehemmed Ghazali d.

1556 English playwright Nicholas Udall and Italian playwright, poet and satirist Pietro Aretino d.  Genoa adopts death penalty for sodomy.

1557 Florentine painter Jacopo Carucci da Pontormo d. Portugal introduces anti-sodomy laws to Macau.  Florentine goldsmith and sculptor Benvenuto Cellini given four years’ house arrest in Florence for keeping assistant Fernando da Montepulciano as ‘wife’.

1558 French humanist Marc-Antoine Muret (Muretus) flees to Rome accused of sodomy in Venice. (to 1562) Florentine goldsmith and sculptor Benvenuto Cellini writes autobiography while under house arrest for sodomy.

1559 Spanish introduce anti-sodomy laws to Florida.

1560 Italian diplomat Giovan Matteo Giberti, Bishop of Verona and Italian poet Vincilao Boiano d. Charles IX becomes King of France.

1561 English philosopher and politician Sir Francis Bacon and Japanese warlord Fukushima Masanori b.

1563 Chinese Wanli Emperor Zhu Yijun (Shenzong) of the Ming and  English poet Michael Drayton b.  French philosopher Étienne de La Boétie d.  The Law of 25 Henry VIII on buggery re-enacted by Queen Elizabeth I of England in full.

1564 English playwrights William Shakespeare and Christopher Marlowe b. Italian painter and sculptor Michelangelo Buonarroti (Michelangelo) d. French artist Jacques Le Moyne de Morgues notes ‘hermaphrodites’ in Florida.

1565 Persian miniaturist painter Reza Abbasi (Riza yi-Abbasi) and Florentine scholar, historian and poet Benedetto Varchi d. Spanish introduce anti-sodomy laws to the Philippines, Guam and the Northern Marianas.

1566 King James VI of Scotland and I of England b. Ottoman Sultan Suleiman I ‘The Magnificent’ d.  Neapolitan soldier and nephew of Pope Paul IV Cardinal Carlo Caraffa and his brother Giovanni, Duke of Paliano executed in Rome for crimes including sodomy.  Pope Pius V’s apostolic constitution Cum Primum (As Soon As) proscribes Jews, sodomites and heretics.  

1567 Ming dynasty official and writer Xie Zhaozhe b.

1568 Japanese warlord Toyotomi (Hashiba) Hidetsugu b. Italian theorist of painting Lodovico Dolce, Dutch physician and writer Levinus Lemnius and Portuguese Jewish physician and writer João Rodrigues de Castelo Branco ‘Amato Lusitano’ d. Pope Pius V’s Bull Horrendum illud scelus (That Ghastly Crime) decrees that clerics guilty of homosexual offences be stripped of their ecclesiastical offices and handed over to the civil authority for execution.

1569 Salim Nuruddin Jahangir (Jahangir), 4th Moghul Emperor and Japanese warlord Ogasawara Hidemasa b.

1570 Scots John Swan and John Litster executed for sodomy in Edinburgh.  Rodrigo Garcerán de Borja, Master of the Order of Montesa prosecuted for sodomy and ruined in Valencia.  Italian composer Giovan Leonardo Primavera involved in scandal with boy Luigi Dalla Balla at Loreto.  English Ballad Of the Horrible and Woful Destruction of Sodome and Gomorra published as a broadsheet.  

1571 Italian painter Michelangelo Merisi da Caravaggio and Shah ‘Abbas I ‘the Great’ of Iran b. Florentine goldsmith and sculptor Benvenuto Cellini d.  Jesuit Gaspar Vilela writes letter describing monastic homosexuality in Japan.

1572 English poet John Donne b. French humanist and logistician Pierre de la Ramée (Petrus Ramus) d.  English courtier Sir Philip Sidney meets French diplomat Hubery Languet.

1573 Japanese daimyo Takeda Shingen, lover of Kosaka Masanobu (Danjo) d.  Zhu Yijun (Shenzong) of the Ming becomes the Wanli Chinese Emperor.  Henri de France elected King of Poland and Grand Duke of Lithuania (to 1575).

1574 English poet Richard Barnfield and Chinese writer and poet Feng Menglong b. King Charles IX of France and Austrian mathematician and cartographer Georg Joachim de Porris (Rheticus) d.  Treviso prescribes pinning to a stake by the penis with a nail for one day then burning for sodomy. Henri III becomes King of France.

1575 Bolognese painter Guido Reni b.  Portugal introduces anti-sodomy laws to Angola.  Spanish physician and psychologist Dr. Juan Huarte’s Examen de ingenios para las ciencias (Examination of Intelligence for the Sciences).

1576 Italian art collector Cardinal Scipione Caffarelli Borghese b. Italian mathematician, physician and astrologer Girolamo Cardano d.  Portuguese historian and chronicler Pêro de Magalhães Gândavo describes Brazilian Indian same-sex habits.

1577 Innocenzo Ciocchi Del Monte d.

1578 Chinese scholar official Shen Defu and Italian art collector Cardinal Stefano Pignatelli b.  Japanese warlord Uesugi Kenshin and Kosaka Masanobu (Danjo), lover of Daimyo Takeda Shingen d.

1579 King James VI of Scotland falls in love with Esme, Lord Aubigny, later Duke of Lennox, then later in 1580s with Alexander Lindsey and the Earl of Huntly. English poet Edmund Spenser’s poem The Shepheardes Calender.  

1580 French Charles Gonzaga, Prince d’Arches, Duc de Rethel, et de Nevers b.  Woman in France punished for transvestism and use of dildo.  French Michel de Montaigne’s Essays published in first version.  Alessandro Valignano’s Catechismusfor Japanese converts warns them against homosexuality.

1581 French diplomat Hubert Languet d. Italian Torqato Tasso’s poem Gerussaleme liberata (Jerusalem Delivered).

1582 Spanish poet Juan de Tassis, 2nd Count of Villamediana (Conde de Villamediana) b.  Ottoman janissary poet Yahya, Japanese warlord Oda Nobunaga and his page Mori Ranmaru d, perhaps killed because Nobunaga planned to give Ranmaru the fief of Akechi Mitsuhide.  Ottoman Sultan Murat III celebrates circumcision of his son Mehmet with 50 days of ceremonies including processions headed by male ‘beloveds’.

1583 Chinese official, scholar and social historian Qian Qianyi and Turkish writer Nev`izade `Atayi (Ataullah ibn Yahya) b. English introduce anti-sodomy law to Colony of St. John’s, Newfoundland.  English pamphleteer Phillip Stubbes’s The Anatomie of Abuses. English satirist Stephen Gosson’s Plays Confuted.

1584 Japanese swordsman Miyamoto Musashi b. Italian writer Anton Francesco Grazzini (Il Lasca) d.  Tu Long, Chinese Secretary for Ministry of Rites, loses post for openly partying with boy entertainers. Neapolitan Jesuit missionary Alessandro Valignano’s Historia del Principo y Progresso de la Compania de Jesus en las Indias Orientales (1542-1564) (History of the Beginnings and Progress of the Society of Jesus in the East Indies (1542-1564) comments on relationships between monks and chigo (acolytes) in Japan.

1585 French humanist and classicist Marc-Antoine Muret (Muretus) and (post) Italian composer Giovan Leonardo Primavera d.  Zang Maoxun and Wu Yonglan, Chinese Government officials, denounced to the Emperor and removed to remote posts for intimacy with a male student.

1586 Italian priest, philosopher and satirist Antonio Rocco b. Margherita d’Austria (di Parma), Duchess of Parma and Piacenza and English poet, soldier and statesman Sir Philip Sidney d.  Islamic law on homosexuality introduced in Kashmir.  English diplomat Anthony Bacon, brother of philosopher and politician Sir Francis Bacon, accused of sodomy at Montauban.

1587 (?) English Robert Carr, Earl of Somerset b. Italian lover of Michelangelo, Tommaso Dei Cavalieri d.  Shah Abbas I ascends to throne of Persia.  English poet Father Nicholas Morton buried in tomb of Father John Seton in the English College, Rome.  Turkish poet Mustafa `Ali of Gallipoli’s Kava`idu`l-mecalis (The Etiquette of Gatherings).

1586 Anthony Bacon, brother of Sir Francis Bacon, accused of sodomy at Montauban.

1589 King Henri III of France assassinated by Dominican monk.

1590 French poet and dramatist Théophile de Viau and Italian nun Benedetta Carlini b.  English poet John Donne writes poems to ‘T.W’’, probably Thomas Woodward.

1591 Spanish statesman Antonio Pérez, Secretary to King Philip II of Spain, charged with sodomy before the Inquisition; he escapes to London.

1592 English George Villiers, Duke of Buckingham, Basque cross dressing soldier Catalina de Erauso (La Monja Alférez; The Nun Lieutenant) and French poet and dramatist Abbé François le Métel de Boisrobert b. French writer Michel Eyquem, Seigneur de Montaigne d.

1593 Mervyn Touchet, 12th Lord Audley, 2nd Earl of Castlehaven b.  English playwright Christopher Marlowe murdered. English poet, soldier and statesman Sir Philip Sidney’s stories The Countess of Pembroke’s Arcadia.   Christopher Marlowe’s play Dido, Queen of Carthage.  English playwright William Shakespeare’s poem Venus and Adonis.   English playwright Michael Drayton’s play Piers Gaveston.  (C 1593) Florentine painter Michelangelo Merisi da Caravaggio’s painting Bacchus.

1594 French César de Bourbon, Légitimé de France, Duc de Vendôme, Duc de Beaufort et Duc d’ Étampes; and Gottfried Heinrich Graf zu Pappenheim, Field Marshal of the Holy Roman Empire b.  Franco-Flemish composer Orlando di Lasso d.  An English schoolmaster named Cooke charged with sodomitical practices with students at Great Tey in Essex. English Richard Barnfield’s poems Greenes Funeralls and The Affectionate Shephearde. English playwright Christopher Marlowe’s play Edward II.

1595 French poet Denis Sanguin de Saint-Pavin b.  Italian poet Torquato Tasso and Japanese warlord Toyotomi (Hashiba) Hidetsugu d. Italian lawyer and judge Prospero Farinacci charged with sodomy in Rome but pardoned by Pope Clement VIII.  Michel de Montaigne’s Essays published in France.  English poet Richard Barnfield’s poems Cynthia, with Certaine Sonnets.

1596 English poet Edmund Spenser’s poem The Faerie Queen.

1597 Chinese writer Zhang Dai b.  Cardinal Francesco Maria del

 Monte houses painter Michelangelo Merisi da Caravaggio in Rome. English philosopher and politician Sir Richard Bacon’s Essayes. Religious meditations. Places of perswasion and disswasion.

1598 Englishman John Atherton, Bishop of Waterford and Lismore b.  Japanese warlord Toyotomi Hideyoshi d.   Spanish introduce anti-sodomy laws in Santa Fe de Nuevo México (New Mexico; the U.S. state of New Mexico, extending into the present-day U.S. states of western Texas, southern Colorado, southwestern Kansas, and the Oklahoma panhandle).  Dutch introduce anti-sodomy laws in Komeda and Kormantsi (Gold Coast/Ghana).  Sodomy trial in Frankfurt.  English poet, playwright and satirist John Marston attacks male ‘stews’ (brothels) in Scourge of Villanie.  English poet Richard Barnfield’s poems The Encomium of Lady Pecunia.  English playwright Christopher Marlowe’s play Hero and Leander.

1599 English poet Edmund Spenser and Japanese warlord Maeda Toshiie d. English academic and puritan John Rainoldes’s Th’Overthrow of Stage Plays.  English playwright Thomas Middleton’s Micro-Cynicon describes transvestism in London.

17TH CENTURY

C 17 - anonymous Chinese Duanxiu pian (Records of the Cut Sleeve) documents fifty male-male relationships.

1600 French Charles Gonzaga, Prince d’Arches, Duc de Rethel et de Nevers founds the Order of the Yellow Ribbon in Nevers; the order is suppressed by the King.  (C) Japanese Hata Soen’s Inu makura (Dog Pillow).

1601 King Louis XIII of France and Flemish sculptor Jérôme Duquesnoy b. English Ben Jonson’s play Poetaster.

1602 Japanese Hosso sect priest Satomura Joha d.  (post) Spanish introduce anti-sodomy laws to California.  Florentine painter Michelangelo Merisi da Caravaggio’s paintings Amor Vincit Omnia (Love Conquers All) and St. Michael and the Angel.

1603 (By) Islamic law on homosexuality introduced in northern Nigeria.  King James VI of Scotland accedes to the throne of England as James I.  Japanese shogun Tokugawa Ieyasu (ruled to 1605). Spanish physician Rodrigo a Castro’s De universa mulierum medicina (On the Universal Medicine of Women) contains section on hermaphrodites.  English Ben Jonson’s play Sejanus His Fall.  

1604 Tokugawa Iemitsu, 3rd Tokugawa Shogun of Japan and Chinese essayist and one of the ‘four high-ranking youths’ Chen Zhenhui b.

1605 French musician and poet Charles Coypeau d’Assoucy, Chinese Xizong Zhu Youxiao 15th Tianqi Emperor of the Ming and Japanese poet Nishiyama Toyoichi (Nishiyama Soin) b.  Islamic law on homosexuality introduced into south Sulawesi (Celebes).  French protestant theologian Théodore de Bèze d.  Jahangir becomes 4th Mughal Emperor.   Japanese Tokagawa Hidetada (rules to 1623). Japanese ruler of Bitchu, Ukita Narimasa, attacked by his nephew, whose lover, a page, he had ordered killed.  Scandal in Rome of art collectors Cardinal Scipione Caffarelli Borghese and Cardinal Stefano Pignatelli.  French Thomas Artus Sieur d'Embry’s Description de l’isle des Hermaphrodites nouvellement découverte (Island of the Hermaphrodites).   Bolognese painter Guido Reni’s painting David with the Head of Goliath.  

1606 English dramatist John Day’s The Isle of Gulls.

1607 English colony of Jamestown, Virginia introduces anti-sodomy laws. English barber James Slater charged in Hereford with sodomy against child of a neighbour.  English philosopher politician Sir Francis Bacon’s ‘On Friendship’.  English dramatist Cyril Tourneur’s play The Revenger’s Tragedy.

1608 Sweden criminalizes sodomy between men.  Italian physician Giulio Guastavini’s commentary on the pseudo-Aristotelian Problemata (Problems).  (or by 1610?) English dramatists Thomas Middleton and Thomas Dekker’s play The Roaring Girl, with female transvestite character Moll Cutpurse.

1609 Chinese poet, one of the Three Masters of Jiangdong, Wu Meicun b. English introduce anti-sodomy laws to Bermuda.  English playwright William Shakespeare’s Sonnets.  English Ben Jonson’s play Epicoene, or the Silent Woman.  Richard Finch of London charged with abusing his servant Nicholas Wheeler and whipping him while naked.

1610 Ferdinando II de’Medici, Mare Duce de Tuscana b.  Florentine painter Michelangelo Merisi da Caravaggio and Japanese warlord Hosokawa Fujitaka d.  Colony of Virginia enacts law against sodomy.  Louis XIII becomes King of France. Italian Jesuit Matteo Ricci describes in his journal Chinese boy actors in Beijing who practise ‘the terrible vice’.

1611 Chinese author, playwright and publisher Li Yu (Li Liweng) and Chinese poet Mao Xiang b. Spanish statesman Antonio Pérez d.  English dramatist Cyril Tourneur’s play The Atheist’s Tragedy.  English dramatists John Fletcher’s play The Night Walker, or, the Little Thief.  John Fletcher and Francis Beaumont’s play The Maid’s Tragedy, with love triangle between two men and a woman.

1612 Japanese wakasha (youths) kabuki theatre commences with male youth actors only, often with same-sex themed plays.   English dramatist John Webster’s play The White Devil.  Bolognese painter Guido Reni’s painting Atalanta and Hippomenes.  

1614 Chinese poet Song Wan b.

1615 Chinese Minister of Rites and poet Gong Dingzi (Zhi’an) b.  Persian ‘king of poets’ Zulali Khvansari and Japanese warlord Ogasawara Hidemasa d.  Fall of Robert Carr, Earl of Somerset, favourite of King James I of England.  Allegation of sodomy made against Edward Bawde of Middlesex.  Sir Fulk Greville plans joint memorial to himself and Sir Philip Sidney in Saint Paul’s Cathedral.

1616 Chinese scholar You Huai b.  English playwright William Shakespeare and Tokugawa Ieyasu, 1st Tokugawa Shogun of Japan d.  Inquisition burns a Spanish soldier and a Maltese boy for sodomy on Malta leading to a flight to Sicily of homosexuals.  Dutch introduce anti-sodomy laws to Guyana.  English Ben Jonson’s play The Devil is an Ass.

1617 Chinese playwright Tang Xianzu (Yireng) d.  Privy Council debates male favourites with King James I of England.

1618 Flemish painter Michiel Sweerts, Chinese poet Wu Jiaji, Chinese playwright Yu Tong and Japanese painter and printmaker Hishikawa Moronobu b.  Italian lawyer and judge Prospero Farinacci d.  Frenchman Peter de Guy charged with sodomy with the son of a knight in Middlesex.  Bolognese painter Guido Reni’s painting St. Sebastian.

1619 French writer and duellist Cyrano de Bergerac b.  Dutch introduce anti-sodomy laws to Jakarta, Indonesia. (to 1623) Sister Benedetta Carlini investigated in Pescia for claiming to have had visions telling her cell mate to masturbate her.

1620 Chinese Wanli Emperor Zhu Yijun (Shenzong) of the Ming and English poet Richard Barnfield d. Brandenburg-Prussia criminalizes sodomy, making it punishable by death. English pamphlet Haec Vir (This Womanlike Man) published to counter earlier pamphlet Hic Mulier (This Manly Woman), which attacked transvestites. Xizong Zhu Youxiao becomes 15th Tianqi Emperor of Ming.

1621 English Margaret Cavendish, Duchess of Newcastle, French Louis II de Bourbon, Prince de Condé and English politician and poet Andrew Marvell b. British introduce anti-sodomy laws to Nova Scotia.  Ferdinando II de’Medici becomes Mare Duce de Tuscana.  English philosopher and politician Francis Bacon, Viscount St Albans, forced from Lord Chancellor’s office for bribery linked to buggery. Japanese Tomiyama Doya’s novel Chikusai monogatari (Tale of Chikusai). Bolognese painter Guido Reni’s painting Bacchus and Ariadne.  

1622 French playwright and actor Jean-Baptiste Poquelin (Molière) and (?) Chinese actor Wang Zijia b.  Spanish poet Juan de Tassis, 2nd Conde de Villamediana d.  Somerset inn keeper George Dowdeney charged with sodomy after 14 years of similar offences. Bolognese painter Guido Reni’s painting An Allegory of Sacred and Profane Love.  

1623 Chinese scholar and philologist Mao Qiling b. Italian art collector Cardinal Stefano Pignatelli d.  British anti-sodomy laws introduced in St. Kitts.  French anti-sodomy laws introduced in Saint Barthélemy.  Japanese shogun Tokugawa Iemitsu (ruled to 1651). French poet and dramatist Théophile de Viau publishes poems Le Parnasse satyrique (The Satirical Parnassus) and is convicted of lèse-majesté divine (insult to the divine majesty), burned in effigy and imprisoned.  Investigation and conviction in Pescia of Italian nun Benedetta Carlini for justifying lesbian activity with visions.

1624 Chinese writer Xie Zhaozhe and Japanese warlord Fukushima Masanori d.  Captain Richard Cornish hanged for sodomy of servant William Cowse in Virginia Colony.  Dutch introduce anti-sodomy laws to New Netherlands (New York).   English John Fletcher’s play Love’s Cure on male transvestism.

1625 Japanese poet and scholar Kitamura Kigin and (or 1626) Chinese official, poet and writer Chen Weisong (Qi'nian, Jialing) b.  King James I of England and VI of Scotland d.  Ship’s master Richard Cornish executed in Virginia for sex with a steward, William Crouse.  Japanese shogun Tokegawa Hidetada orders his page and lover, Koyama Nagata, for having sex with Naruse, lord of Bungo.  English philosopher and politician Sir Francis Bacon, Viscount St. Albans’s Essays or Counsels. Civil and Moral (third and Latin collections).

1626 Queen Christina of Sweden b. Sir Francis Bacon, Viscount St. Albans and French poet and dramatist Théophile de Viau d.

1627 Salim Nuruddin Jahangir (Jahangir), 4th Moghul Emperor, Xizong Zhu Youxiao, 15th Tianqi Emperor of the Ming, and Italian diplomat and art connoisseur Cardinal Francesco Maria del Monte d.  English introduce anti-sodomy laws to Barbados.    (to 1644?)  Chinese writer Zuixifu Xinyuezhuren’s novels Yi-Chun Xiang-Zhi (Pleasant Spring and Fragrant Character) and Bian Er Chai (Wearing a Cap but also Hairpins).   Turkish writer Nev`izade `Atayi (Ataullah ibn Yahya)’s Heft han (The Seven Stories). Mohamed Qãsim Mussavir’s miniature of Shah Abbas I, Emperor of Persia, embracing a page.  

1628 English George Villiers, Duke of Buckingham murdered. English poet, dramatist and statesman Sir Fulke Greville, 1st Baron Brooke, 13th Baron Latimer and 5th Baron Willoughby de Broke d. Two Scotsmen burned to death for sodomy in Denmark. British introduce anti-sodomy laws to Nevis.   John Hockenhall charged with buggery and sorcery at Chester.  Jurist Sir Edward Coke’s Institutes of the Laws of England. 

1629 Shah Abbas I of Persia d. Dutch anti-sodomy laws introduced to Aruba.  Charles Gonzaga, Prince d’Arches, Duc de Rethel et de Nevers, becomes Duc de Mantoue (Mantua) et de Montferrat.

1630 Puritans settle Massachussetts Colony and introduce English anti-sodomy laws. Meredith Davy of Minehead charged with sodomitical assault on youth John Vicary. Italian priest and philosopher Antonio Roco writes L’Alcibiade fanciullo a scola (Alcibiades the Schoolboy).  Italian physician to two Popes, Paolo Zacchia (‘the Spiritual Father of Forensic Medicine’)’s Quaestiones Medico-legales (Medico-legal Questions). 

1631 English poet Katherine Philips b.  English poets Michael Drayton and John Donne d. Dutch introduce anti-sodomy laws to Sint Maarten.  Mervyn Touchet, 12th Lord Audley, 2nd Earl of Castlehaven scandal (leading to the first known trial and execution of a homosexual in England under the 1533 statute).

1632 Anglo-Welsh poet Katherine Philips and French composer Jean-Baptiste Lully b. Gottfried Heinrich, Graf zu Pappenheim, Field Marshal of the Holy Roman Empire killed at Lützen. British introduce anti-sodomy laws to Antigua.  

1633 Cardinal Scipione Caffarelli Borghese d.  English puritan William Prynne’s book attacking the theatre Histriomastix: The Player's Scourge, or Actor's Tragedy.

1634  Chinese writer on poetry Wang Shizhen b.  English introduce anti-sodomy laws to Maryland.  Dutch introduce anti-sodomy laws to Curaçao.  John Milton’s Comus. King Charles I of England dissociates himself from father’s habits in masque Coelum Britannicum (British Heaven).  Christina becomes Queen of Sweden.

1635 Persian miniaturist painter Reza Abbasi and (or 1636?) Turkish writer Nev`izade `Atayi (Ataullah ibn Yahya) d. English introduce anti-sodomy laws to Rhode Island. French introduce anti-sodomy laws to Guadeloupe, Saint Martin and Martinique.

1636 Chinese writer Wang Zhuo b. Dutch introduce anti-sodomy laws to Bonaire, Sint Eustatius and (?) Saba.  (to 1638) Flemish painter Peter Paul Rubens’s painting Rape of Ganymede.  (or 1637) Bolognese painter Guido Reni’s painting St. John the Baptist in the Wilderness.

1637 Chinese writer Shao Changheng b.  French Charles Gonzaga, Prince d’Arches, Duc de Rethel, et de Nevers, et de Mantoue (Mantua) et de Montferrat d.  Trial of John Allexander and Thomas Roberts in Plymouth, Massachusetts, for lewd behaviour and unclean carriage, sentenced to whipping, burning and exile.

1638 Dutch introduce anti-sodomy laws to Mauritius.  French introduce anti-sodomy laws to Île Bourbon (Réunion). English poet John Milton’s poem Lycidas.

1639 English introduce anti-sodomy laws to Connecticut.  English John Milton’s poem Epitaphium Damonis (Damon’s Epitaph) mourning the death of his friend Charles Diodati.

1640 Philippe of France, ‘Monsieur’, Duc d’Anjou, de Valois, de Chartres et de Nemours, Philippe I, Duc d’Orléans; Chinese writer Pu Songling and (?) English boy actor of female roles Edward Kynaston b.  John Atherton, Bishop of Waterford and Lismore convicted of buggery with tithe proctor John Childe and hanged at Cork.  Two young Japanese samurai, Utami Ukyo and Mokawa Uneme, commit double suicide in Edo.  Japanese story Denbu monogatari (A Boor’s Tale).  Japanese story Mokuzu monogatari (Tale of Seaweed).

1641 Colony of Massachusetts enacts law against sodomy. English introduce anti-sodomy laws to New Hampshire. Dutch anti-sodomy laws introduced to Malacca.  English pamphlet The Life and Death of John Atherton. Chinese Zhang Jun-ying’s Ren Jing Jing (The Canon of Using Human Beings as a Mirror).

1642 Japanese writer Ihara Saikaku b.  Chinese writer and scholar Shen Defu and Bolognese painter Guido Reni d. Dutch introduce anti-sodomy laws to Formosa (Taiwan).  Japanese ban female impersonation in kabuki theatre because of the bloodshed it causes over rivalries (to 1644).

1643 English scientist Sir Isaac Newton and French Philippe, Chevalier de Lorraine, lover of Philippe I, Duc d’Orléans b.  King Louis XIII of France d.  Japanese Shin’yuki (Book for the Friends of the Soul).  English John White’s The First Century of Scandalous, Malignant Priests.

1644 Chinese boy actor Xu Jiuqing/Xu Ziyun (Mansu - Purple Clouds) b.

1645 English Robert Carr, Earl of Somerset, Japanese swordsman Miyamoto Musashi and Chinese writer and poet Feng Menglong d.  Sodomy trial in Frankfurt.

1646 Black slave Jan Creoli choked then burned alive in Manhattan, New Netherlands for sodomy.

1647 English John Wilmot, 2nd Earl of Rochester b.  Negro Domingo Cassedon Drago charged with buggery in Essex with boy William Wraxall.

1648 English introduce anti-sodomy laws to the Bahamas.  Dutch introduce anti-sodomy laws to Tortola.  Japanese edict bans outrageous propositions to, or losing one’s head over, boys.  A drummer convicted of ‘crime against nature’ in New France, sentence commuted.  Japanese Baijoken’s Yodarekake, including Shiratama no soshi (The White Ball Book) (to 1653).

1649 The first known conviction for lesbian activity in North America; Sarah White Norman is charged with ‘lewd behaviour each with other upon a bed’ with Mary Vincent Hammon in Plymouth, Massachusetts. Hammon was under 16 and not prosecuted.  English John Durrant accused of buggery with Abdul Rhyme onboard ship; both given lashes and bread and water.  English puritan lawyer Clement Walker describes newly built male brothels in London in Relations and Observations. Flemish painter Michiel Sweerts’s Wrestling Match.

1650 Dutch Prince William of Orange (later King William III of England) b. Basque cross dressing soldier Catalina de Erauso (La Monja Alférez; The Nun Lieutenant) d. British introduce anti-sodomy laws to Anguilla.  French introduce anti-sodomy laws to Saint Croix.  Japanese law forbids officials in shogun’s castle from engaging in sex with youths.

 

1651 Mexican poet Juana Inez de la Cruz b.  Tokugawa Iemitsu, 3rd Tokugawa Shogun of Japan d. Italian priest and philosopher Antonio Rocco’s L’Alcibiade fanciullo a scola (Alcibiades in School) published anonymously and condemned by the Church.  Chinese actor Wang Zijia appears on Beijing stage to adulation.  Chinese man of letters and poet Wu Meicun’s poem ‘Wang lang qu’ (‘Song of Beau Wang’).

1652 Dutch introduce anti-sodomy laws to the Cape Colony.   Joseph Davis fined for wearing women’s clothing in New Hampshire.  

 

1653 Italian priest and philosopher Antonio Rocco d. Japanese edict bans making or accepting propositions to boys in Edo.  Another Japanese law forbids bannermen from employing footboys as sex objects.

1654 Louis Joseph de Bourbon, Duc de Penthièvre et de Vendôme, Maréchal de France b. Chinese actor Wang Zijia d.  Flemish sculptor Jérôme Duquesnoy II strangled and burned in Ghent for sodomy with an acolyte.  Japanese law makes youth and female role actors shave their forlocks to look like adult men. Queen Christina of Sweden abdicates throne.

1655 French writer and duellist Cyrano de Bergerac and Philippe, Duc de Vendôme, Grand Prior of the Order of Malta b.  French César de Bourbon, Légitimé de France, Duc de Vendôme, et de Beaufort and et d’ Étampes d.  The Connecticut Colony passes a law against sodomy, including women. British introduce anti-sodomy laws to Jamaica.

1656 Chinese essayist and one of the ‘four high-ranking youths’ Chen Zhenhui d.  Lower Austria legal code Ferdinandea prescribes burning for sodomy. Dutch introduce anti-sodomy laws to Colombo.  Margaret Cavendish, Duchess of Newcastle’s prose fiction Nature’s Pictures. Flemish painter Michiel Sweerts’s Portrait of a Young Man.

1657 Japanese stories Shudo monogatari (Tales of Shudo).  Japanese Buddhist priest’s manual of shudo, Saiseki (Silkworm-hatching).

1658 Dutch anti-sodomy laws introduced to Ceylon.  Chinese poet Chen Weisong (Qi'nian, Jialing) meets actor Xu Jiqing/Xu Ziyun (Purple Cloud) at Mao Xiang’s Shui Hui Yuan (Drawn-in-Water Garden) in Rugao, Jiangsu.

1659 British introduce anti-sodomy laws to Saint Helena.

1660 French anti-sodomy laws introduced to Saint Lucia. Japanese guide to actors Yaro mushi (Yaro Bugs).  Japanese Asai Ryoi’s Tokaido meishoki (Famous Sights along the Tokaido).  English play by anonymous author The Wandering Whore.  Jacob van Loo’s painting Amarillis Crowning Mirtillo.

1661 Italian nun Benedetta Carlini d.

1662 Queen Mary II of England b.  French poet and playwright Abbé François le Métel de Boisrobert d.

1663 Prinz Eugen von Savoyen-Carignan, Field Marshal of the Holy Roman Empire and Chinese scholar Jin Zhi b.  English diarist Samuel Pepys records that buggery is common in Italy.   Dutch François Caron and  Joost Shouten’s A True Description of the Mighty Kingdoms of Japan and Siam discusses Japanese temple and aristocratic homosexuality. 

1664 French François Louis de Bourbon Prince de Conti et de La Roche-sur-Yon b. English poet Katherine Philips, Chinese official and social historian Qian Qianyi and Flemish painter Michiel Sweerts d. English anti-sodomy law introduced to New York and New Jersey.  English writer Margaret Cavendish, Duchess of Newcastle’s Sociable Letters. English poet Katherine Philips’s Poems.

1665 Queen Anne of England b.  English John Milton’s poem Paradise Lost. (C 1665) Antoine Mathieu’s painting of Philippe of France, ‘Monsieur’, Duc d’Orléans.

1666 British introduce anti-sodomy laws to Barbuda.  English writer Margaret Cavendish, Duchess of Newcastle’s prose fiction The Blazing World.

1667 Dutch introduce anti-sodomy laws to Suriname.  Juan Curan sentenced to the galleys in Zaragoza for sodomising Bernardo Martinez and giving him syphilis.  English politician Andrew Marvell’s poem ‘The Last Instruction to a Painter’.

1668 Spanish introduce anti-sodomy laws to Saipan.

English writer Margaret Cavendish, Duchess of Newcastle’s plays The Presence and The Convent of Pleasure.

1669 English diarist Samuel Pepys mentions in his diary that he failed to see actor of female roles Edward Kynaston.  A case of sodomy tried in an Essex court.  English politician and poet Andrew Marvell’s poem ‘The Loyal Scot’.  

1670 Ferdinando II de’Medici, Mare Duce de Tuscana and French poet Denis Sanguin de Saint-Pavin d.  Execution of Major Weir for buggery of animals and incest with sister in Edinburgh.  English introduce anti-sodomy laws to Carolina and the Cayman Islands.   London’s Piccadilly Swallow Close incorporates Naked Boy Alley. Japanese Kiyomizu Shunryu’s guide to the male brothels  Inu tsurezuregusa (Idle Thoughts of a Dog). (C) Japanese novel Iro monogatari (Erotic Tales).  English Earl of Rochester’s play Valentinian.

1671 Giovanni Battista Gastone de’Medici, 7th Mare Duce  de Tuscana b.  Chinese poet Wu Meicun d.  Japanese Nishiyama Toyoichi (Nishiyama Soin)’s poem ‘Hana de soro’ (‘My Name is Blossom’) in Rakkasha (A Collection of Scattered Blossoms).  English dramatist Aphra Behn’s play with a homosexual character, Lorenzo.

1672 Tsar Peter the Great of Russia b. British anti-sodomy laws introduced in Tortola (British Virgin Islands).  Danish introduce anti-sodomy laws to Saint Thomas.

1673 English writer Margaret Cavendish, Duchess of Newcastle, Chinese Minister of Rites and poet Gong Dingzi (Zhi’an), Chinese poet Song Wan Song Wan and French playwright and actor Jean-Baptiste Poquelin (Molière) d.

1675 Chinese actor Xu Jiuqing/Xu Ziyun (Mansu - Purple Clouds) d.  Danish introduce anti-sodomy laws to Saint John.

English dramatist George Lesley’s pamphlet Fire and Brimstone: or, the Destruction of Sodom.

1676 Japanese poet and scholar Kitamura Kigin compiles the illustrated anthology of homoerotic poems Iwatsutsuji (Wild / Rock Azaleas) published in 1713.

1677 French musician and poet Charles Coypeau d’Assoucy d.  Dorothy Hoyt sentenced to whipping for wearing men’s clothing in Massachusetts. Nicholas Senison accused of sodomising Nathaniel Pond in Windsor, Connecticut.

1678 English politician and poet Andrew Marvell d.  English Surgeon Charles Peter’s treatise on syphilis, A Description of the Venereal Disease: Declaring the Causes, Sign,s and Effects, and Cure Thereof. With a Discourse of the Most Wonderful Antivenereal Pill.

1680 English John Wilmot, 2nd Earl of Rochester and (or 1679?) Chinese playwright, novelist and publisher Li Yu d.  British introduce anti-sodomy laws to Anegada and Virgin Gorda (British Virgin Islands) and the Turks & Caicos Islands.  Japanese shogun Tokugawa Tsunayoshi (ruled to 1709; one of his lovers was later his Chamberlain, Yanagisawa Yoshiyasu).  English Amy Poulter (James Howard) marries Arabella Hunt in Marylebone Church.  English playwrights Thomas Otway’s and Nathaniel Lees’s plays with homosexual characters Sir Thomas Tumble and Nemour respectively.

1682 King Charles XII of Sweden and (or 1683?) Japanese painter Miyagawa Choshun b.  Chinese poet and writer Chen Weisong (Qi'nian, Jialing) and Japanese poet Nishiyama Toyoichi (Nishiyama Soin) d.  English Sir John Finch and Sir Thomas Baines buried together in Christ’s Church, Cambridge.  English introduce anti-sodomy law to Pennsylvania, which then abolishes death penalty for sodomy.   English dramatist Thomas Otway’s play Venice Preserved, or, A Plot Discovered.  Japanese poet and writer Ihara Saikaku’s Kōshoku Ichidai Otoko (The life of an Amorous /a Sensuous Man).

1683 Danish law prescribes death by burning for ‘intercourse against nature’.  Japanese Furyu Soga koyo based on 1640 double suicide of samurai, Utami Ukyo and Mokawa Uneme.

1684 Chinese essayist Zhang Dai d.  English John Wilmot, 2nd Earl of Rochester’s play Sodom, or The Quintessence of Debauchery.

1685 German/British composer George Frideric Handel b.  Chinese poet Wu Jiaji and French Louis II de Bourbon, Prince de Condé d. French composer Jean-Baptiste Lully accused of sodomy by page Brunet.  (Or 1686) Japanese Ihara Saikaku’s novels Koshuku ichidai onna (Life of an Amorous Woman) and Koshoku gonnin onna (Five Amorous Women).

1687 French composer Jean-Baptiste Lully d.   Japanese poet and writer Ihara Saikaku’s short stories Nanshoku Okagami: Honchō

Waka Fūzoku (Great Mirror of Male Love: The Custom of Boy Love in Our Land), stories Budo denrai ki and Nanshoku okagami based on 1640 double suicide of samurai Utami Ukyo and Mokawa Uneme.

1688 Prince William of Orange takes English throne as King William III.  Japanese Ihara Saikaku’s novel Buke giri monogatari (Tales of Samurai Honour).  

1689 Queen Christina of Sweden d. Japanese law bans non-actor prostitutes, ‘unregulated boys’, in Edo and Osaka.  

1690 Qing dynasty law prohibits sodomy in China.  Spanish introduce anti-sodomy laws to Texas.  First Society for the Reformation of Manners founded in England.  German Englebert Kaempfer’s The History of Japan, giving an Account of the ancient and present State and Government of that Empire; of Its Temples, Palaces, Castles and other Buildings; of Its Metals, Minerals, Trees, Plants, Animals, Birds and Fishes; of The Chronology and Succession of the Emperors, Ecclesiastical and Secular; of The Original Descent, Religions, Customs, and Manufactures of the Natives, and of their Trade and Commerce with the Dutch and Chinese. Together with a Description of the Kingdom of Siam discusses Japanese male prostitution. 

1691 Prussian antiquarian Baron Philipp von Stosch b. English writer John Evelyn’s Mundus Foppensis (The Foppish World).  Japanese poet Basho’s Saga nikki (Saga diary).

1692 Italian Cardinal-Nephew Allesandro Albani b.

1693 Anna Ioannovna, Duchess of Courland, Empress of Russia and  Chinese painter Zheng Xie (Zheng Banqiao) b.  Japanese poet and writer Ihara Saikaku and Chinese poet Mao Xiang d.  Japanese Ihara Saikaku’s novel Okimiyage(Souvenir).

1694 Queen Mary II of England and Japanese painter and printmaker Hishikawa Moronobu d.

1695 Mexican poet Juana Inez de la Cruz d.

1696 English courtier John, Lord Hervey b. Chinese scholar Yu Huai d.  English playwright and architect Sir John Vanbrugh’s play The Relapse; Or Virtue in Danger.

1698 Italian poet and librettist Pietro Antonio Domenico Trapassi (Metastasio) b.  Raids in London by Society for the Reformation of Manners. Lord Portland, King William III of England’s ambassador to France, scandalises French court with Lord Westmoreland and Lord Raby.  English Captain Rigby RN prosecuted by Reverend Thomas Bray of the Society for the Reformation of Manners for approaching a young man, William Minton, in St. James’s Park.  Japanese daimyo Ogasawara Nagatane loses half his fief as a penalty for appointing his lover, Akimoto, as his leading minister and allowing him to ruin the domain.

1699 Three men commit suicide rather than face penalties at Tyburn, including wool draper Grant and clerk Jermain.

French introduce anti-sodomy law to Fort Maurepas, Louisiana and lands claimed in later States of Louisiana, Mississippi, Arkansas, Oklahoma, Missouri, Kansas, Nebraska, Iowa, Illinois, Indiana, Michigan, Wisconsin, Minnesota, North Dakota and South Dakota.  English Society for Reformation of Manners tract threatens exposure of ‘mollies’.       Rumours circulating of close relations of English King William III and Arnold Joose van Kepple, 1st Earl of Albemarle.   Arrests of sodomites in groups in London and Windsor.  English publication of Tryal and Condemnation of Mervin, Lord Audley Earl of Castlehaven (1631).  Japanese Nanshoku giri monogatari (Tales of Nanshoku Honour).

PART SIX – THE EUROPEAN ENLIGHTENMENT AND REVOLUTION

In Europe the power of Christian religion began to wane and the freer-thinking of the Enlightenment began to loosen the grip of religion on public morals.  In France, revolution led to the decriminalisation of homosexuality, which the empire of Napoleon spread to much of the continent.  But as the shoots of liberalism began to be seen in Europe, oppression spread in the rest of the world with the rise of vast European colonial empires and the decline of the Muslim powers.  China, Japan and Korea remained largely unaffected and continued as before, with the appreciation of same-sex relations and its literature at its height in Japan, but as peoples in the Americas, , Africa and much of south and south-east Asia lost their liberty, so they lost their freedoms to love whom they wished and draconian European legislation made same-sex acts illegal for the first time in those regions.  

18TH CENTURY

1701 Philippe of France, ‘Monsieur’, Duc d’Anjou, et de Valois, et de Chartres et de Nemours, Philippe I, Duc d’Orléans d.

1702 King William III of England and French Philippe, Chevalier de Lorraine, lover of the Duc d’Orléans d.

1703 Court of Holland executes Gabriel de Berger for sodomy.  English introduce anti-sodomy laws to Delaware.  Japanese writer Urushiya Ensai’s stories nanshoku ki no me-zuke (The Pickled Bud of Male Love).   English dramatist Thomas Baker’s play Tunbridge-Walks, or the Yeomen of Kent first uses the word ‘Molly’.

1704 Chinese playwright Yu Tong and Chinese writer Shao Changheng d.  English trial of John Norton for oral sex with John Coyney.  Japanese Shinju okagami (The Great Mirror of Shinju).

1705 Japanese poet and scholar Kitamura Kigin d.

1707 Raids in London by Society for the Reformation of Manners lead to arrests.  English broadsheet The Women-Hater’s Lamentation.

1708 English Archbishop George Stone of Armagh, Primate of Ireland b.  English surgeon John Marten/Martin’s Treatise of all the Degrees and Symptoms of the Venereal Disease.  English writer Edward (Ned) Ward’s satire The Modern World Disrob’d, or, Both Sexes Stript of Their Pretended Vertue, including ‘Sir Narcissus Foplin: or, the Self-Admirer’.  Japanese Chikamatsu’s novel Tanba Yosaku (Yosaku from Tanba).  Japanese Chikamatsu Monzaemon’s play Mannengusa shinju (Stonecrop Love-suicide).

1709 French writer Julien Offray de La Mettrie b.  Dutch English William Bentinck, Earl of Portland and French François Louis de Bourbon Prince de Conti, Prince de La Roche-sur-Yon d.  Japanese Shogun Tsunayoshi killed by his wife due to his love for the son of the Daimyo of Kai and his plans to adopt the Tokugawa youth as his successor.   His successor Shogun Tokugawa Ienobu (ruled to 1712) appoints his lover Manabe Akifusa as Chamberlain.  Raids in London by Society for the Reformation of Manners.  English writer Edward (Ned) Ward’s ‘Of the Mollies Club’, second part of A Complete and Humorous Account of all the Remarkable Clubs and Societies in the Cities of London and Westminster.  English writer and playwright Mary de la Rivière Manley’s novel The New Atlantis.  English playwright Thomas Baker’s play The Female Tatler.

1710 (or 1711) Chinese writer on poetry Wang Shizhen d. English Mary Kendall’s monument in Westminster Abbey links her in death with Lady Catherine Jones with whom she’d lived in life.  Case of John Atherton, Bishop of Waterford (1640) resurrected in The Case of John Atherton, Bishop of Waterford in Ireland. British Army Captain Thomas Walduck stationed in Barbados writes poem about sodomy.

1711 Russian Anna Ioannovna becomes Duchess of Courland. Japanese Ejima Kiseki’s Keisei kintanki (Courtesans Forbidden to Lose Their Tempers).

1712 King Frederick II of Prussia and Italian polymath and poet Conte Francesco Alagarotti b.  Louis Joseph de Bourbon, Duc de Penthièvre et Duc de Vendôme, Maréchal de France and English boy actor of female roles Edward Kynaston d.  English dramatist Charles Johnson’s play The Successful Pyrate performed.

1713 British anti-sodomy laws introduced in Gibraltar. English courtier John, Lord Hervey at Clare Hall, Cmbridge. (To 1715) Japanese Kyoto publisher Sawada Kichizaemon’s publication of Japanese poet and scholar Kitamura Kigin’s  illustrated anthology of homoerotic poems Iwatsutsuji (Wild Azaleas).   English dramatist Charles Johnson’s play The Successful Pyrate published.

1714 Italian Abbé Giovanni Battista Bastiani, Abbé in Breslau b.  Queen Anne of England d.

1715 French writer and moralist Luc de Clapiers, Marquis de Vauvenargues b.  Chinese writer Pu Songling d. French anti-sodomy law introduced in Mauritius and Dominica.  (?) English historian and bibliographer Narcissus Luttrell’s Brief Historical Relation of Affairs from 1678 to 1714.  Japanese Ejima Kiseki’s novel Seken musuko (Characters of Worldly Young Men).

1716 English poet Thomas Gray, Silesian German Graf Philipp Gothard von Schaffgorsch, Coadjutor of the Prince-Bishopric of Breslau and Chinese poet scholar and artist Yuan Mei b. Chinese scholar and philologist Mao Qiling d.  Russia criminalizes sex between men only in the armed forces in the Military Articles. English courtier John, Lord Hervey on grand tour.  Japanese Yamamoto Jocho’s Hagakure(Hidden by Leaves).

1717 English writer Horace Walpole, 4th Earl of Orford, and German (Brandenburg) art historian Johann Joachim Winckelmann b. English courtier John, Lord Hervey joins court of King George II of England.  English Circle of Lord Chesterfield, Alexander Pope, John Gay, Carr, John, Lord Hervey. English writer Daniel Defoe devotes an issue of Review to sodomy and arson.

1718 King Charles XII of Sweden d.  French Charles Ancillon (C. d’Ollincan’)’s Traité des Eunuques translated by Robert Samber as  Eunuchism Display’d, Describing all the Different Sorts of Eunuchs, etc. English compiler and writer Giles Jacob’s Tractatus de Hermaphroditis: Or, a Treatise of Hermaphrodites.

1719 Roman cross dresser Catterina Vizzani (Giovanni Bordoni) b. English William Holdbrook pilloried in London for attempted buggery of Thomas Pendrill; the mob tears apart the coach carrying him.

1720 English dramatist Samuel Foote b.  Pirates Mary (Mark) Read and Anne Bonny arrested in Jamaica.

1721 Danish introduce anti-sodomy laws to Greenland.

German crossdressing lesbian Catharina Margaretha Linck executed and her ‘wife’ Catherina Margaretha Mühlhahn punished in Halberstadt.  (or 1722)Japanese Chikamatsu Monzaemon’s play Shinju yoi no kojin (Love-suicide on Vigil Night / Shinju on the Eve of the Goshin Festival).

1723 English novelist Sarah Scott and Prussian Major-General Johann Friedrich Adolf von der Marwitz b. Giovanni Battista Gastone de’Medici becomes Mare Duce de Tuscana.  Robert Spencer, 4th Earl of Sunderland exposed as a homosexual by the publication of his letters to his kept ‘mistress’ Beau Wilson; Love-Letters Between a Certain Late Nobleman and the Famous Mr Wilson.

1725 English Henry Stuart, Cardinal of York and Chinese poet Jiang Shiquan (one of ‘the Three Great Masters of Qianlong Period’) b.  Tsar Peter the Great of Russia d.  Molly houses raided in London including houses in Field Lane and Beech Lane, Covent Garden and the Red Lion in Soho leading to many arrests. (C; no date) Japanese historian Kimura Takaatsu’s  Zoku-zoku buke kandan (Idle Tales of Military Families).

1726 Prinz Friedrich Heinrich Ludwig (Henry) of Prussia b.  Richard Wise buried in Granville Piper’s tomb in St. Mary Magdalene, Launceston.  Last execution for sodomy (by decapitation) in Hamburg Imperial Free City. London authorities set traps for mollies in St. James’s Park.  Trials of those arrested in molly houses in 1725.  Mollies Gabriel Lawrence, William Griffin and Thomas Wright hanged at Tyburn.  Second batch of molly trials.  Margaret ‘Mother’ Clap dies after being pilloried in the stocks.  Raids in London by Reformation of Manners Society.  August William Brown entrapped in Moorfields.   John, Lord Hervey meets Stephen Fox.  

1727 Prussian Kammerherr Ernst Ahasverus Heinrich Graf von Lehndorff and Chinese poet and critic Zhao Yi b. English scientist Sir Isaac Newton d.  English writer Horace Walpole, 4th Earl of Orford goes to Eton; his ‘Triumvirate’ there with George Montagu and Charles Lyttelton (later Bishop of Carlisle) and ‘Quadruple Alliance’ with poet Thomas Gray, Richard West and Thomas Ashton.  His closest friend is Henry Seymour Conway, his ‘intimate’ is Lord Lincoln, later 2nd Duke of Newcastle. Libertines Richard Edgcumbe and George Selwyn (Lincoln’s closest friend and later close friend of Lord March – ‘sentimental sodomist’; ‘necrophile’) form ‘Out of Town Party’.  George Duffus charged with sodomy in London.

1728 Bohemian German painter Anton Mengs and French diplomat and spy Charles-Geneviève-Louis-Auguste-André-Timothée d'Éon de Beaumont (Chevalier d’Éon de Beaumont) b. English John, Lord Hervey goes to France with Stephen Fox.

1729 Empress Yekaterina Alexeevna II (Catherine the Great) of Russia (Sophie Friederike Auguste von Anhalt-Zerbst-Dornburg in Pomerania) and French Admiral Comte Pierre André de Suffren de Saint Tropez, Bailli de Suffren b. English book Hell Upon Earth: or, the Town in an Uproar.

1730 German (Magdeburg) soldier and American Master General of the Continental Army Friedrich Wilhelm August Heinrich Ferdinand von Steuben (Baron Friedrich von Steuben) and Chinese collector, editor and historian Bi Yuan (Bi Xiangheng, Bi Qiufan, Lingyan shanren) b.  King Frederick II of Prussia as Crown Prince attempts to elope with Hans von Katte, who is executed in front of him.  Sodomite burned at stake in Potsdam, Prussia.  Province of Holland (in the United Provinces) criminalizes same-sex acts.  Anna Ioannovna, Duchess of Courland becomes Empress of Russia. Starting in Utrecht, Dutch gay pogrom to 1731, with 75 executions and 100 sentenced to death in absentia.    Court of Frisia informs Groningen that homosexuals often give each other women’s names. Dutch engraving Justice Glorified by the Discovery and Punishment of Rising Sin.  Japanese two volume book of engravings Nanshoku yamaji no tsuuyu (Dew on the Mountain Path of Nanshoku) by Nishikawa Sokenobu (or 1715, 1722).

1731 Collapse of dykes in the United Provinces (Netherlands) and flooding intensifies gay witch hunt.  English politician William Pulteney, 1st Earl of Bath’s pamphlet attacks John, Lord Hervey for sodomy.  English playwright George Lillo’s play The London Merchant.

1732 Stanislaw August II Poniatowski, last King and Grand Duke of the Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth b.  Dutch law ceases to enforce seizure of executed sodomists’ property.  English John, Lord Hervey and English politician William Pulteney, 1st Earl of Bath duel.

1733 English introduce anti-sodomy laws to Georgia.  Danish anti-sodomy law introduced to Saint Croix.

English poet Alexander Pope calls courtier John, Lord Hervey ‘Lord Fanny’ in ‘An Imitation of the First Satire of the Second Book of Horace’.

1734 Japanese author, scholar and poet Ueda Akinari b.   Swedish National Law Code makes no mention of sodomy.  Sub-statute added to illicit sex chapter of Qing legal code proscribing sex between men, forced or consensual, with penalties of caning and imprisonment for one month. English courtier John, Lord Hervey writes Memoirs (to 1734) and poem in response to poet Alexander Pope: ‘Epistle to a Doctor of Divinity’.  English writer Horace Walpole, 4th Earl of Orford goes up to King’s College, Cambridge; his love for Henry Conway (ater General and Secretary of State).

1735 English poet Alexander Pope attacks courtier John, Lord Hervey in ‘Epistle to Dr Arbuthnot’, characterising Hervey as ‘Paris’ and ‘Sporus’.  English writer Thomas Gilbert’s A View of the Town: In an Epistle to a Friend in the Country. A Satire.

1736 (1737?) French writer and politician Charles-Michel, Marquis de Villette b.  Prinz Eugen von Savoyen-Carignan, Feldherren of the Holy Roman Empire d. Italian polymath and poet Conte Francesco Alagaroti arrives in London, introduced by Voltaire to John, Lord Hervey, who has triangular affair with Lady Mary Wortley and Alagaroti.  English Oxford don William King refers to Lady Frances Brudenell, Duchess of Newburgh as a ‘lesbian’ in The Toast.

1738 George Clavering Cowper, 3rd Earl Cowper b.  Last Society for the Reformation of Manners disbanded in England.

1739 Irish Lady Eleanor Butler b.  Giovanni Battista Gastone de’Medici, Mare Duce de Tuscana d.   English writer Horace Walpole, 4th Earl of Orford goes on grand tour with Thomas Gray, Richard West and Thomas Ashton. Reverend Robert Thislethwayte, Warden of Wadham College, Oxford, charged with sodomitical assault on a college commoner in College Wit Sharpened and flees to France.

1740 Donatien Alphonse Francois, Marquis de Sade b.  Anna Ioannovna, Empress of Russia and Chinese scholar Jin Zhi d. Qing dynasty law prohibits same-sex relations in China.  Frederick II (the Great) becomes King of Prussia.

1741 English novelist Henry Fielding parodies John, Lord Hervey as Beau Didapper in novel Joseph Andrews.  English physician James Parsons’s A Mechanical and Critical Enquiry into the Nature of Hermaphrodites.

1742 English poet Richard West d. English book Select Trials … From the Year 1720 to this Time.  English poet Thomas Gray’s ‘Sonnet on the Death of Richard West’ and ‘Ode on a Distant Prospect of Eton College’.  Japanese Tsuuchi Hanjuro, Yasuda Abun and Nakada Mansuke’s kabuki play Narukami Fudo Kitayama zakura (Kitayama Cherry-blossoms of Narukami and Fudo).

1743 Prussian Major Christian Ludwig von Kaphengst b.  English courtier John, Lord Hervey and Roman cross dresser Catterina Vizzani (Giovanni Bordoni) d.  Execution for sodomy of an Irish doctor in Fort Frederica, Georgia.  English painter William Hogarth’s engravings Marriage-a-la-mode.

1744 Breve storia della vita di Catterina Vizzani romana che per ott'anni vesti abito da uomo in qualita di servidore, la quale dopo varj casi essendo in fine stata uccisa fu trovata pulcella nella sezzione del suo cadavero (A brief history of the life of Roman Catterina Vizzani, who for eight years wore a man's dress as a servant, who after several cases was finally killed and was found to have female organs in that section of her cadaver) by Giovanni Bianchi Bianchi.  François Boucher’s painting Jupiter and Callisto.

1745 Japanese shogun Tokugawa Ieshige (ruled to 1760); accused of appointing his controversial lover Ooka Tadamitsu as an official.

1746 King Gustav III of Sweden b. Mary (Charles) Hamilton charged with fraud at Taunton, England, for marrying a woman, Mary Price, and sentenced to six months in prison with whipping in four West Country towns. English novelist Henry Fielding’s novel The Female Husband.  

1747 English poet Anna Seward b. French poet and moralist Luc de Clapiers, Marquis de Vauvenargues d. Graf Philipp Gothard von Schaffgorsch (“the Bishop of Sodom”) becomes Prince-Bishop of Breslau.  (Before) Japanese Dazai Shundai’s Sanno gaiki (Unofficial History of the Three Rulers). English dramatist David Garrick plays Mr. Fribble in his own play Miss in Her Teen: or, The Medley of Lovers. He is attacked in The Pretty Gentleman: or, the Softness of Manners Vindicated from the False Ridicule Exhibited under the Character of William Fribble.

1748 Paris police report on gay hostelries. French social commentator and political thinker Charles-Louis de Secondat, Baron de La Brède et de Montesquieu’s The Spirit of the Laws.  French writer Julien Offray de La Mettrie justifies homosexuality in Discours sur le bonheur (Discourse on Happiness).  Scottish poet and author Tobias George Smollett’s novel Roderick Random.

1749 King Christian VII of Denmark b.  Two workers burned to death for sodomy in Paris.  Sodomy trial in Hamburg. (or 1748) English pamphlet Satan’s Harvest Home: Reasons for the Growth of Sodomy, in England accuses Italy of fostering homosexuality. English writer Thomas Cannon’s pamphlet Ancient and Modern Pederasty Investigated and Exemplify'd, the earliest defence of homosexuality in English. English novelist John Cleland in Fleet Prison writes novel Memoirs of a Woman of Pleasure (Fanny Hill).  Cleland falls out with Cannon and accuses him of being a homosexual. Cannon and his printer charged with obscenity, Cannon fleeing into exile for 3 years, his printer pilloried and jailed for a month.

1750 Scot James Ogilvy, 7th Earl of Findlater and 4th Earl of Seafield b.  Carpenter and pork butcher burned at the stake in the Place de la Grève, Paris for sodomy.  Thomas Sherlock, Bishop of London, blames two earthquakes on the rise of sodomy in the city.  Two women denounced by their landlady in Amsterdam for cohabiting.  Beijing gossip of two zhuangyaun furen (principal graduate wives), actor Fang Junguan with scholar Zhuang Bechun; Li Guiguan with scholar Bi Qiufan.  British surgeon George Arnaud’s Dissertation on Hermaphrodites.  Chinese Rulin waishi (Unofficial History of the Scholars) includes mention of seeking a male lover among scholars.

1751 French writer Julien Offray de La Mettrie d. Bavarian legal code Codex Iuris Bavarici Criminalis prescribes death by burning for sodomites.  English writer Horace Walpole, 4th Earl of Orford’s brother Edward accused of sodomy but accusers imprisoned.  English poet Alexander Pope’s ‘A Letter to a Noble Lord’ attacking John, Lord Hervey’s sexuality published after both their deaths. The True History and Adventures of Catharine Vizzani by surgeon Giovanni Battista Bianchi.  Scottish novelist Tobias George Smollett’s novel The Adventures of Peregrine Pickle.  English poet Thomas Gray’s ‘Elegy Written in a Country Churchyard’.

1752 English writer Horace Walpole, 4th Earl of Orford begins reconfiguration of Strawberry Hill.  Scandal in Rome of Henry Stuart, Cardinal of York and his majordomo, Lercari.

1753 French lawyer and statesman Jean Jacques-Régis, 1st Duc de Parmes et 1st Duc de Cambacérès and Japanese printmaker and painter Kitagawa Utamaro b.  Japanese painter Miyagawa Choshun d.  French writer and philosopher François-Marie Arouet (Voltaire) exposes King Frederick II of Prussia’s male lovers in La vie privé du roi de Prusse (The Private Life of the King of Prussia).  English painter William Hogarth’s The Analysis of Beauty.  Prinz Friedrich Heinrich Ludwig von Preussen (Prince Henry of Prussia) publishes Mémoire sur la situation présente de sa Majesté Prussienne (Memoir on the Present Situation of His Prussian Majesty) under the pseudonym ‘Maréchal Gessler’.  Tobias George Smollett’s novel The Adventures of Ferdinand, Count Fathom.

1754 English re-publication of life of Bishop Atherton in The Political Balance for 1754 as an attack on Archbishop George Stone of Armagh, Primate of Ireland.

1755 Louis Stanislas Xavier de Bourbon, ‘le Desiré (‘the Desired’), Comte de Provence then King Louis XVIII of France and Navarre,  English the Honourable Sarah Ponsonby, Anglo-American businessman Tench Coxe and (0r 1757?) American philosopher and founding father Alexander Hamilton b. German art historian Johann Joachim Winckelmann’s Gedanken über die Nachahmung der griechischen Werke in der Malerei und Bildhauerkunst (Reflections on the Imitation of Greek Works in Painting and Sculpture).

1756 German author and essayist Karl Philipp Moritz and French actress Françoise Marie Antoinette Joseph Saucerotte (Raucourt) b.  French introduce anti-sodomy laws to Seychelles.  English cross dresser Barbara Hill marries Ann Steed. English actress, playwright and novelist Charlotte Cibber Clarke’s novel The History of Henry Dumont, Esq.

1757 Prussian antiquarian Baron Philipp von Stosch d.

1758 British introduce anti-sodomy laws to the Gambia.

1759 Chinese artist Qian Yong and English writer Mary Wollstonecraft b.  German English composer George Frideric Handel d.  Court of Holland banishes The Reverend Andreas Klink for sodomy.  German art historian Johann Joachim Winckelmann’s Erinnerung über die Betrachtung der Werke der Kunst’ (‘A Reminder about the Consideration of Works of Art’); ‘Beschreibung des Torso im Belvedere zu Rom’ (‘Description of the Torso in the Belvedere in Rome’) and ‘Von der Grazie in Werken der Kunst’ (‘On Grace in Works of Art’).  François Boucher’s painting Jupiter and Callisto.

1760 English writer William Beckford, American soldier Deborah Sampson (Robert Shirtliff) and French linguist, philosopher and jurist Pierre-Étienne Du Ponceau (Peter Stephen Duponceau) b. Japanese shogun Tokugawa Ieharu (ruled to 1786); accused of appointing his controversial lover Tanuma Okitsugu as an official.  Hamburg procurer Martin Hartwig Scharrenberg arrested for sodomy and reveals a network of 20-24 men. French philosopher and art critic Denis Diderot’s novel La Religieuse (The Nun).

1762 Cloth-maker beheaded for sodomy with apprentices in Württemberg.  Catherine II becomes Empress of Russia.  English writer Sarah Scott’s novel A Description of Millenium Hall.

1763 English introduce anti-sodomy laws to Quebec, Prince Edward Island and Dominica.  French introduce anti-sodomy laws to Guiana (Guyane).  German art historian Johann Joachim Winckelmann’s Abhandlung von der Fähigkeit der Empfindung des Schönen in der Kunst und dem Unterrichte in derselben’ (‘Essay on the Capacity for the Sentiment for the Beautiful in Art, and on Instruction in It’).  English poet and satirist Charles Churchill attacks sodomy in his poem ‘The Times’.   François Boucher’s painting Jupiter, in the Guise of Diana, and Callisto.

1764 Anglo-Irish Percy Jocelyn Bishop of Leighlin and Ferns then of Clogher b.  English Archbishop George Stone of Armagh, Primate of Ireland and Conte Francesco Algaroti d.  Dutch persecution of homosexuals.  Stanislaw August II Poniatowski becomes last King and Grand Duke of the Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth.  English writer Horace Walpole, 4th Earl of Orford accused of effeminacy in a pamphlet by William Guthrie.  Amsterdam Court notes special places homosexuals gather in the city.  Italian (Milan) jurist, politician and philosopher Cesare, Marchese de Beccaria-Bonesana’s Cesare, Marchese de Beccaria-Bonesana’s Dei delitti e delle pene (Essay on Crimes and Punishment).  French writer and philosopher François-Marie Arouet (Voltaire)’s Dictionnaire philosophique (Philosophical Dictionary) describes sodomy as an ‘infamous outrage against nature.’  German art historian Johann Joachim Winckelmann’s Geschichte der Kunst des Alterthums (The History of Ancient Art).  English writer Horace Walpole, 4th Earl of Orford’s novel Castle of Otranto.  Hiraga Gennai’s guidebooks San no asa and Kiku no en (Chrysanthemum Garden).  

1765 Japanese Confucian scholar Ota Kinjo b.  Chinese painter Zheng Xie (Zheng Banqiao) d. English jurist and judge Sir William Blackstone’s Commentaries declares homosexuality ‘A crime not fit to be named.’

1766 Swiss-French writer Baronne Anne Louise Germaine de Staël -Holstein (Madame de Staël) b.  Christian VII becomes King of Denmark and Norway and Herzog von Schleswig-Holstein.  English writer Horace Walpole, 4th Earl of Orford in France with Crauford.  German art historian Johann Joachim Winckelmann’s Versuch einer Allegorie besonders für die Kunst’ (‘Essay on Allegory, Especially for Art’).  An anonymous English writer’s The Fruit Shop, A Tale: or, a Companion to St James’s Street.

1768  William "Kitty" Courtenay, 9th Earl of Devon and 3rd Viscount Courtenay of Powderham b.  German art historian Johann Joachim Winckelmann murdered.  Austrian Constitutio Criminalis Theresiana prescribes death by burning at stake for sodomites but prescribes beheading first.  Dutch author claims to be able to identify sodmites by effeminate, whorish appearance.  Japanese Hiraha Gennai’s Nenashigusa kohen and Kiko no en (Chrysanthemum Garden).  Japanese novel Fumoto no iro (Eros of the Foothills).  Japanese Ueda Akinari’s short story Kikuka no chigiri (The Chrysanthemum Vow).

1769  French Empereur Napoleon Bonaparte, German scientist (Friedrich Wilhelm Heinrich) Alexander Freiherr von Humboldt and Anglo-Irish politician Robert Stewart, Viscount Castlereagh, 2nd Marquess of Londonderry b.  English poet Thomas Gray meets Charles Victor de Bonstetten.  François Boucher’s painting Jupiter and Callisto.

1771 German author and reformer Johann Heinrich Daniel Zschokke and English Ernest Augustus, King of Hanover, Duke of Cumberland and Teviotdale and Earl of Armagh b.  English poet Thomas Gray d.  Gustav III becomes King of Sweden.  English Isaac Bickerstaff flees to France to avoid trial for trying to seduce a Savoy Barracks sentry; English novelist and playwright William Kenrick lampoons playwright David Garrick for being involved in the case in Love in the Suds a Town Eclogue. Being the Lamentations of Roscius for the Loss of His Nyky.

1772 English trial of Captain Robert Jones for sodomy with Francis Henry Hay; sentenced to death, pardoned by King George III, he flees to Lyons.  French Marquis de Sade sentenced to death in absentia for sodomy with his footman and his effigy burnt.  French Michel de Montaigne’s Journal discovered.

1773 English book collector Richard Heber b.

1774 English philosopher Jeremy Bentham starts making notes on reform of homosexual penalties.

1775 English novelist and dramatist Matthew Lewis b. British introduce anti-sodomy laws to South Georgia.  English poet

Thomas Gray’s Journal of His Tour in the Lake District.

1776 Raids in London on molly houses.  English Reverend Jackson, lampooned by dramatist Samuel Foote in The Capuchin, retaliates by accusing Foote of sodomy with a coachman, but he is acquitted.  Japanese author and scholar Ueda Akinari’s stories Ugetsu monogatari (Tales of Moonlight and Rain).

1777 German dramatist and poet Bernd Heinrich Wilhelm von Kleist, American (Massachusetts) teacher Charity Bryant and French socialite Jeanne Françoise Julie Adélaide Récamier b.  English dramatist Samuel Foote d. English writer William Beckford initiates affair with William Courtenay, son of the Earl of Devon. American Alexander Hamilton Aide to George Washington (to 1781). French writer and philosopher François-Marie Arouet (Voltaire)’s entry ‘On Sodomy’ in Prix de la Justice et de l’Humanité (The Prize for Justice and Humanity).

1778 Anglo-Irish Lady Eleanor Butler and English the Honourable Sarah Ponsonby elope to Llangollen.

1779 American naval officer Commodore Stephen Decatur b.  Cardinal-Nephew Allessandro Albani and Bohemian German painter Anton Mengs d.  Sons of Earl of Denbigh blackmailed for money, threatened with exposure as sodomites.  Chinese Qianlong Emperor’s 70th birthday party establishes respectability of including female impersonator actors, referred to as xianggong (male courtesans), in gatherings.  Dutch persecution of homosexuals prompts Swiss-Dutch Abraham Perrenot’s plea for tolerance in his tract Bedenking omtrent het straffen van zekere schandelijke misdaad (Objection Regarding the Punishment of a Certain Shameful Crime).

1780 Maharaja Ranjit Singh of the Punjab, Engish Reverend John Church and (?) Chinese poetess Wu Tsao b. Mob kills sodomite in London pillory.  Irish statesman Edmund Burke proposes abolition of pillory in British House of Commons.  English Captain James Cook observes aikane, men who have sex with men, in Hawaii.

1781 Prussian Major-General Johann Friedrich Adolf von der Marwitz d. Sodomite strangled to death in Antwerp, Austrian Netherlands.  English legal decision makes it necessary to prove penetration and emission of seed for a charge of buggery. English writer William Beckford’s first same-sex affair in Geneva.

1782 English Reverend John Church b. Italian poet and librettist Pietro Antonio Domenico Trapassi (Metastasio) d.  Johann Friedel’s Briefe über die Galenterien von Berlin (Letters about the Gallantries / Flirtations of Berlin ) describes Berlin’s boy bordellos and warme Brüder (‘warm brothers’).  English writer William Beckford’s novel Vathek.   

1783 American writer and diplomat Washington Irving b.  British introduce anti-sodomy law to North-Western Territory.

1784 Swiss German scholar and hatter Heinrich Hössli and American Sylvia Drake b. British introduce anti-sodomy laws to New Brunswick.  Russians introduce anti-sodomy laws to the Aleutian Islands.  English writer William Beckford scandal at Powderham Castle with William Courtenay.  Anonymous French writer’s pornographic novel La Cauchoise ou Mémoires d'une courtisane célèbre‬: ‪Roman pour servir de suite à tous les bon ouvrages de la philosophie de la nature‬ (The Cauchoise or Memoirs of a Famous Prostitute: a Novel to Serve for all the Good Works of Philosophy and Nature).

1785 Chinese poet Jiang Shiquan (one of ‘the Three Great Masters of Qianlong Period’) d.  (to 1816) English philosopher Jeremy Bentham draws up arguments in an essay for penal reform of laws against same sex (never published) in ‘On Paederasty.  French Marquis de Sade’s novel Les Cint Vingt Journées de Sodom (The One Hundred and Twenty Days of Sodom) written in the Bastille. German author and essayist Karl Philipp Moritz’s autobiographical novel Anton Reiser.  (C) Japanese Hiajitsu Tosaku’s travel tale Nikokuren pekidan.

1786 American Vice President William R. King, English politician John Cam Hobhouse, 1st Baron Broughton and English explorer and M.P. William John Bankes b. King Frederick II (the Great) of Prussia and Italian Abbé Giovanni Battista Bastiani, Abbé in Breslau d. British introduce anti-sodomy laws to British Honduras (Belize) and Penang.  Japanese shogun Tokugawa Ienari (ruled to 1837). English writer William Beckford’s novel Vathek published.  French philosopher Marie Jean Antoine Nicolas de Caritat, Marquis de Condorcet calls for decriminalisation in edition of Voltaire’s Prix de la Justice et de l’Humanité (The Prize of Justice and Humanity).

1787 Imperial German law (Josephinische Strafsgesetzbuch) of Emperor Joseph II replaces death penalty for sodomy with imprisonment, forced labour and flogging.   English writer William Beckford initiates Portuguese affairs.  Japanese scholar of Dutch learning Morishima Nakayoshi comments on Dutch capital punishment for same-sex acts.  John Webber’s painting A Chief of the Sandwich Isles.

1788 English poet George Gordon Byron, Lord Byron and German philosopher Arthur Schopenhauer b. French Admiral Pierre-André Suffren de Saint-Tropez murdered at Versailles. British introduce anti-sodomy laws to Botany Bay, New South Wales. Japanese printmaker and painter Kitagawa Utamaro’s Uta Makura (The Pillow Book).

1789 American writer James Fenimore Cooper b.  George Clavering Cowper, 3rd Earl Cowper dies in Florence and is later accused of sodomy by journalist Topham. Spanish introduce anti-sodomy laws to Nootka Sound, Alaska.  English Captain William Bligh observes mahu (effeminate men) in Tahiti.   English writer Horace Walpole, 4th Earl of Orford’s Reminiscences written.

1790 English William Spencer Cavendish, 6th Duke of Devonshire, French travel writer Astolphe-Louis-Léonor, Marquis de Custine  and American poet Fitz-Greene Halleck b.  Two dozen sodomites arrested in Hamburg tavern.  French pamphlet Les petits bougres au manege (The Little Buggers of the Riding School).  (C 1790) Japanese printmaker and painter Kitagawa Utamaro’s woodcut of preparation for sodomy in a brothel.

1791 English diarist Anne Lister, Austrian playwright Franz Grillparzer and American President James Buchanan b.  French penal code and Andorra decriminalise same-sex acts.  Edition of Jean-Jacques Rousseau’s epigrams has illustrations showing executions of homosexuals in Rome and Paris. Jean-Jacques Scot James Ogilvy, 7th Earl of Findlater and 4th Earl of Seafield goes to the Continent in exile.

1792 Graf Alfred von Maltzan-Wedell b.  King Gustav III of Sweden d.

1793 French General Nicholas Changarmier b. French writer and politician Charles-Michel, Marquis de Villette d. British introduce anti-sodomy laws to Trinidad.  English tract The Cloistered Whores lampoons homosexuals in Paris.

1794 German soldier and American Master General of the Continental Army Friedrich Wilhelm August Heinrich Ferdinand von Steuben (Baron Friedrich von Steuben) d. .  Prussian penal code (Allgemeine Landrecht für die Preussischen Staaten) replaces death penalty for same-sex acts with flogging, one year’s imprisonment and banishment.

1795 German author and essayist Karl Philipp Moritz, Silesian German Graf Philipp Gothard von Schaffgorsch, Prince-Bishop of Breslau and English novelist Sarah Scott d. Homosexual acts decriminalised in Belgium and Luxembourg.  British anti-sodomy laws introduced to the Cape Colony.  French Marquis de Sade’s erotic dramatic dialogue La Philosophie dans le boudoir (Philosophy in the Bedroom).  

1796 German poet and dramatist Karl August Georg Maximilian Graf von Platen-Hallermünde b. Empress Catherine II the Great of Russia d.   First trial for homosexual offence in Australia.  English novelist and dramatist Matthew Lewis’s novel The Monk.

1797 English writer Horace Walpole, 4th Earl of Orford, English writer Mary Wollstonecraft and Chinese collector, editor and historian Bi Yuan (Bi Xiangheng, Bi Qiufan, Lingyan shanren) d. Dutch persecution of homosexuals.  Anna Grebou arrested for same sex activity in Amsterdam. English Reverend John Fenwick flees to France to escape sodomy charge.

1798 French actress Marie Dorval b.  Stanislaw August II Poniatowski, last King and Grand Duke of the Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth and Chinese poet, scholar and artist Yuan Mei d. Homosexual acts decriminalised in some Swiss cantons.  Raids in London on molly houses.  English George Ferrars Townshend, 3rd Marquess Townshend, 2nd Earl of Leicester (then Lord Chartley), goes to Trinity College, Cambridge with Italian servant Neri.

1799 (By) Islamic law on homosexuality established in Sierra Leone.

19TH CENTURY

1800 Prussian Major Christian Ludwig von Kaphengst d.

1801 English Cardinal John Henry Newman b.  English poet George, Lord Byron at Harrow, writes poems to William Harness, George Earl Delawarr, the Duke of Dorset and the Earl of Clare.

1802 French ecclesiastic Jean-Baptiste Henri-Dominique Lacordaire b.  Prince Friedrich Heinrich Ludwig (Henry) of Prussia d. Scandal of English novelist and dramatist Matthew Lewis and fourteen year old William Kelly.  Japanese Jippensha Ikku’s novel Tōkaidōchū Hizakurige (Shank’s Mare).

1803 American essayist and poet Ralph Waldo Emerson, German chemist Professor Justus von Liebig, English cleric Richard Hurrell Froude and English Sir James Brooke, Rajah of Sarawak b.  Last execution for sodomy in Continental Europe occurs in Dutch Netherlands in Schiedam near Rotterdam.  Austrian Penal Code punishes ‘unnatural lust’ with six months to one year imprisonment.  American anti-sodomy laws introduced in the Louisiana Purchase (Louisiana, Mississippi, Arkansas, Oklahoma, Missouri, Kansas, Nebraska, Iowa, Illinois, Indiana, Michigan, Wisconsin, Minnesota, North Dakota, South Dakota).  English poet George, Lord Byron’s affair with Lord Grey de Ruthyn.

1804 French author Armandine Aurore Lucie Dupin, Baroness Dudevant (Georges Sand) b.  American philosopher and founding father Alexander Hamilton d. Napoleonic code introduced in Italy, decriminalising homosexuality.  Russians introduce anti-sodomy laws to Alaska.  

1805 Danish author and poet Hans Christian Andersen b.  English poet George, Lord Byron goes to Cambridge; writes poems to chorister John Edlestone; his circle includes Charles Skinner Matthews, John Cam Hobhouse and Scrope Berdmore Davies; love for page Fulton; closest friends William Bankes and Edward Noel Long.  German writer and politician Johann Wolfgang von Goethe’s biographical essay on German art historian Johann Winckelmann.

1806 French General Christophe Léon Louis Juchault de Lamorcière b. Japanese printmaker and painter Kitagawa Utamaro d.

1807 American Governor and Senator James Henry Hammond b. English Henry Stuart, Cardinal of York d. English George, Lord Byron’s poems Hours of Idleness; poem ‘The Cornelian’.

1808 King Christian VII of Denmark and Norway and Duke of Schleswig-Holstein d.  British introduce anti-sodomy laws to New Caledonia and Freetown (Sierra Leone).  Islamic laws on homosexuality introduced to Sokoto Caliphate in northern Nigeria.  English Reverend John Church ejected from Banbury living due to ‘sodomitical assaults’ on young men.  Japanese Ishikawa Masamochi’s novel Hida no takumi monogatari (Tale of a Hida Craftsman).

1809 English poet Alfred, Lord Tennyson, English politician and poet Richard Monckton Milnes 1st Baron Houghton, Russian (Ukrainian) dramatist and novelist Nikolai Vasilevich Gogol, American President Abraham Lincoln, German actor Hermann Hendrichs and English poet and writer Edward FitzGerald b. Japanese scholar and poet Ueda Akimari (Ueda Shūsei) and English poet Anna Seward d.  Dutch criminal code Criminal Wetboek voor het Koningrijk Holland condemns sodomy with penalty of life imprisonment.       English poet George, Lord Byron travels east with John Hobhouse, 1st Baron Broughton and visits Beckford’s old palace in Portugal then reaches Albania and Greece; his friendship with Nicolo Giraud. English George Ferrars Townshend, 3rd Marquess Townshend, (then 2nd Earl of Leicester) accused of picking up young Guardsmen and, with wife about to accuse him, successfully sues the Morning Herald but flees to Genoa. Marianne Woods and Jane Pirie, schoolmistresses in Edinburgh, accused of lesbianism and take their case to court (eventually winning in the Houe of Lords in 1819).

1810 Polish composer Fryderyk Franciszek Chopin and French writer Charles Forbes René de Montalembert, Comte de Montalembert, Deux-Sèvres b.  French diplomat and spy Charles-Geneviève-Louis-Auguste-André-Timothée d'Éon de Beaumont (Chevalier d’Éon de Beaumont) d. British anti-sodomy law introduced in Seychelles, Mauritius and the Chagos Islands (Diego Garcia).  English Reverend John Church commences marrying mollies in the Swan molly house in Vere Street, London. Death of Sellis, the valet of English Prince Ernest Augustus Duke of Cumberland and Teviotdale and Earl of Armagh, allegedly killed by the Duke for accusing him of relations with Neale, another valet.  Vere Street pilloryings.  English pamphlet The Trying and Pillorying of the Vere Street Club.  Scottish novelist Sir Walter Scott publishes three volumes of English poet Anna Seward’s poems.  German dramatist, novelist and poet Bernd Heinrich Wilhelm von Kleist’s play Prinz Friedrich von Homburg.

1811 English poet Arthur Henry Hallam b.  Prussian Kammerherr Ernst Ahasverus Heinrich Graf von Lehndorff d.  German dramatist, novelist and poet Bernd Heinrich Wilhelm von Kleist commits suicide.  English Ensign John Hepburn and Drummer Thomas White executed for sodomy.  Death of Scot James Ogilvy, 7th Earl of Findlater and 4th Earl of Seafield in Dresden, leaving all his property to family of young man named Fischer.  Homosexual acts decriminalised by Napoleon in the Netherlands and its colonies, including the Dutch East Indies.  Coachman of Anglo-Irish Bishop Percy Jocelyn of Leighlin and Ferns accuses him of sodomy but is himself imprisoned.  English William ‘Kitty’ Courtenay, 3rd Viscount Courtenay of Powderham accused by Exeter magistrate of sodomy and flees to France.  Memoirs of Prince Eugene of Savoy, Field Marshal of the Holy Roman Empire published.  English poet George, Lord Byron’s poem ‘To Thyrza’.

1812 English artist and poet Edward Lear b. English Reverend V.P. Littlehales sexually assaults a footman, admits charge and flees to the U.S.  English poet George, Lord Byron’s poem Childe Harold’s Pilgrimage and poems ‘One Struggle More and I Am Free’ and ‘Sometimes in the Haunts of Men’.  American poet Fitz-Greene Halleck and American Joseph Rodman Drake’s satirical ‘Croaker’ poems.

1813 American evangelist Henry Ward Beecher and American explorer John Charles Frémont b.  Bavarian criminal code decriminalizes sodomy.  English Reverend John Church charged with sodomy but acquitted. Japanese Õta Kinjõ remarks on prevalence of same-sex love amongst warriors in Japan. English lawyer Richard Holloway’s The Phoenix of Sodom, or the Vere Street Coterie.

1814 English hymn writer Frederick William Faber  b.  French Donatien Alphonse Francois Marquis de Sade and Chinese poet and critic Zhao Yi d. British introduce anti-sodomy laws to Malta, Saint Lucia and British Guiana (Guyana).  Louis Stanislas Xavier de Bourbon, ‘le Desiré (‘the Desired’), Comte de Provence becomes King Louis XVIII of France and Navarre. (to 1816) English philosopher Jeremy Bentham writes private pages on reform of laws against homosexuality.  Reverend John Church builds the Surrey Tabernacle.  French imprisonment of seller and engraver of print mocking Napoleon’s Archchancellor of the Empire, Jean-Jacques-Régis de Cambacérès, 1st  Duc de Parme and 1st Duc de Cambacérès, for sex with servants.

1815 Italian Saint Giovanni Melchiorre Bosco (Don Bosco) and American lawyer and politician Richard Henry Dana Jr. b.  French actress Françoise Marie Antoinette Joseph Saucerotte (Raucourt) d.  Napoleon decriminalizes same-sex acts in Duchy of Luxembourg and five Rhineland States, including Baden and Württemberg.  British anti-sodomy laws introduced in Ceylon (Sri Lanka) and Ascension Island.

1816 English scholar and churchman Charles John Vaughan, Anglo-American painter William Rimmer and English William Kenworthy Browne b.  English prosecution and execution of James Cooper and three other crew of H.M.S. Africaine.  British introduce anti-sodomy laws to Tristan da Cunha.   English poet George, Lord Byron’s wife initiates proceedings causing his ostracism and his departure for the continent. Disgrace of English General Sir Eyre Coote for flagellation with schoolboys of Christ’s Hospital School.  English William Spencer Cavendish, 6th Duke of Devonshire hosts Grand Duke Nicholas, later Czar of Russia, at Chatsworth.

1817 American author and poet Henry David Thoreau b. Swiss-French writer Baronne Anne Louise Germaine de Staël-Holstein (Madame de Staël) d. Reverend John Church convicted of sodomy and jailed for two years.  Dutch anti-homosexual pamphlet.  Japanese Nanboku Tsuruya’s drama Sakura hime azuma bunsho (Eastern Documents of the Cherry-blossom Princess) and Chigogafuchi hana no shiranami (White Waves of the Flowers of Chigogafuchi).

1818 English dramatist and novelist Matthew Gregory Lewis d. End of pillory for same-sex crimes in England.  English writer Horace Walpole, 4th Earl of Orford’s Reminiscences and Letters to George Montagu.  English poet Percy Bysshe Shelley publishes poem Laon and Cynthia (an incestuous love story), translates Plato’s Symposium and writes essay ‘A Discourse on the Manners of the Antient Greeks Relative to the Subject of Love’, published privately. German philosopher Arthur Schopenhauer’s Die Welt als Wille und Vorstellung (The World as Will and Representation).

1819 English poet Arthur Hugh Clough, American poet Walt Whitman and American novelist Herman Melville b.  Kingdom of the Two Sicilies decriminalizes sodomy.  British introduce anti-sodomy laws to Singapore.  American anti-sodomy law introduced in Florida.  English poet John Keat’s poem The Eve of St Agnes attacks sexual asceticism.  English poet George, Lord Byron’s poem Don Juan mocks moral hypocrisy.

1820 American rights campaigner Susan B. Anthony and (?) Anglo-Irish Post Office Secretary Gustavus Charles Cornwall (Cornwall-Dalyell)  b.  (?) Chinese poetess Wu Tsao d.  American Commodore Stephen Decatur killed in a duel. Parma, Piacenza and Guastalla decriminalize sodomy.  (By 1820s) Hanover and Brunswick decriminalize sodomy. Irish Charles Robert Maturin’s novel Melmoth the Wanderer. Anglo-Irish Percy Jocelyn Bishop of Leighlin and Ferns becomes Bishop of Clogher. (C 1820) American artist Mary Ann Willson’s painting The Two Sisters.

1821 English explorer Sir Richard Francis Burton and English politician George Augustus Frederick Cavendish-Bentinck b.  French Empereur Napoleon Bonaparte d.  Chinese Daoguang Emperor prohibits gentlemen from attending drinking parties with actors. German author and reformer Heinrich Zschokke’s Der Eros (Eros: Or, On Love).  English poet Percy Bysshe Shelley’s poem ‘Adonais’, an elegy on John Keats.  Japanese artist Katsushika Hokusai’s woodcut of female same-sex love in a brothel.

1822 French artist Rosa Bonheur, English lawyer and novelist Thomas Hughes, and English Brigadier-General John Nicholson b. Robert Stewart, Viscount Castlereagh, 2nd Marquess of Londonderry confesses to King George IV that he is being blackmailed and commits suicide.  Spain decriminalizes sodomy.  Scandal of Anglo-Irish Percy Jocelyn Bishop of Clogher and a Guardsman (who had dined earlier with John Cam Hobhouse, 1st Baron Broughton).  Jocelyn flees to Scotland.  William Makepiece Thackeray invited to have sex on arriving at school aged 11.  English diarist Anne Lister visits the Ladies of Llangollen. English writer Horace Walpole, 4th Earl of Orford’s Memoirs of the Reign of George II first published.

1823 King Carl I of Württemberg, English politician the Honourable Gerard James Noel, Chichester Samuel Parkinson-Fortescue, 2nd Baron Clermont and 1st Baron Carlingford, English magistrate Sir Franklin Lushington and English schoolmaster poet William (Johnson) Cory b.  English poet George, Lord Byron goes to Greece and meets boy Lukas. Reverend Thomas Jephson, Fellow of St John’s College, Cambridge, mugged in a male honey trap, charges assailants, charged in turn, is acquitted but is told to leave the College.  

1824 King Louis XVIII of France and Navarre, Archchancellor of the French Empire, Jean-Jacques-Régis de Cambacérès, 1st  Duc de Parme and 1st Duc de Cambacérès, Anglo-American businessman Tench Coxe and English poet George, Lord Byron d. British anti-sodomy law introduced in Malacca.  English diarist Anne Lister falls in love with Maria Barlow. German (Hanoverian) scholar Karl Otfried Müller’s Die Dorier (History and Antiquities of the Doric Race).  Russian Vice Admiral Vasily Mikhailovich Golovnin’s Memoirs of a Captivity in Japan, during the Years 1811, 1812 and 1813, with Observations on the Country and the People.  English poet George, Lord Byron’s poems ‘On This Day I Complete My Thirty-Sixth Year’, ‘Love and Death’ and ‘Last Words in Greece’. English philosopher Jeremy Bentham’s last writing on legal reform.

1825 American poet Bayard Taylor and German (Hanover) lawyer Karl Heinrich Ulrichs b.  Japanese Confucian scholar Ota Kinjo d.  English suppression of Barley Mow molly house. French travel writer Astolphe-Louis-Léonor, Marquis de Custine thrashed by soldiers he’d propositioned and ostracised by Paris society.

1826 American composer Stephen Foster and Friedrich Wilhelm Ernst Georg Prinz von Preussen b.  English sodomy act amended to remove need for penetration and emission of seed and re-imposes death penalty.  British introduce anti-sodomy laws to Labuan, Arakan, Manipur, Assam and Tenasserim.  English poet George, Lord Byron’s friend Richard Heber flees to Continent to avoid scandal.

1827 American soldier Deborah Sampson (Robert Shirtliff) d. American poet Fitz-Greene Halleck attacked in press after death of American poet Joseph Rodman Drake.  English suppression of Rose and Crown molly house. Chinese ZhangXintai’s notebook on Guangdong customs Yue you xiao zhi.

1828 Irish Patrick Ronayne Cleburne, Major-General in the American Confederate Army b.  American writer Theodore Winthrop d. English Offences against the Person Act, Section 16, prescribes death penalty for buggery. The term ‘crime against nature’ is used in the U.S. Criminal Code.

1829 American composer Louis Moreau Gottschalk, German (Nassau) editor Adolf Glaser and Henry Lygon, 5th Earl Beauchamp b.  Anglo-Irish Lady Eleanor Butler d. British introduce anti-sodomy laws to Western Australia. Afghan Shahzada Kamran Durrani becomes Emir of Herat.  English poet Arthur Henry Hallam’s close friendship with poet and politician Richard Monckton Milnes, 1st Baron Houghton.  Heinrich Heine outs August Graf Platen in Die Bäder von Lucca (The Baths of Lucca). Autobiography of Basque cross dressing soldier Catalina de Erauso, La Monja Alférez (The Nun Lieutenant) published in Paris. Japanese Nanboku Tsuruya’s drama Asakusa reigenki (Account of the Asakusa Miracle).

1830 American poet Emily Dickinson, English painter and sculptor Frederic Leighton, 1st Baron Leighton, Abdur Rahman Khan Amir of Afghanistan and English poet Christina Rosetti b. English suppression of Bull Inn molly house.  English poet Arthur Henry Hallam rejects love of poet and politician Richard Monckton Milnes, 1st Baron Houghton.  Japanese Kitamura Nobuyo’s Kiya Shoran (An Amusing Miscellany for Your Perusal).

1831 English cleric Frederic William Farrar, American Indian chief Ta-Tanka l-Yotank (Sitting Bull), English Lieutenant-Colonel Sir Henry Clarke Jervoise and English Sir Robert George Wyndham Herbert, 1st Premier of Queensland b.    Homosexual acts decriminalised in Brazil.  English poet Arthur Henry Hallam’sessay ‘On Cicero’.  William ‘Kitty’ Courtenay, 3rd Viscount Courtenay of Powderham becomes 9th Earl of Devon.

1832 American author  Reverend Horatio Alger and English Australian lawyer, politician and civil servant Sir John Bramston b.  English The Honourable Sarah Ponsonby d.  Russian criminal code prescribes exile of four years in Siberia for muzhelozhestvo (homosexual crimes).  English writer Edward Fitzgerald meets 16 year old William Kenworthy Browne and falls in love with him.

1833 English Major-General Charles George Gordon and German (Frankfurt) socialist politician Johann Baptist von Schweitzer b.  English poet Arthur Henry Hallam and English book collector Richard Heber d. Captain Henry Nicholas Nicholls hanged for sodomy, abandoned by his family. Arrest of English poet George, Lord Byron’s closest Cambridge friend, explorer M.P. William John Bankes, for sex with a Guardsman in a toilet near House of Commons; the Duke of Wellington testifies for him and he is found not guilty.  French author George Sand meets actress Marie Dorval.  Poem Don Leon (a plea for law reform) written at time of Peel’s reform bill and appointment of Commission on Criminal Law.

1834 English aristocrat Roden Berkeley Wriothesley Noel, English Lieutenant-Colonel John Wallace Hozier and French composer Prince Edmond Melchior Jean Marie de Polignac b. British introduce anti-sodomy laws to the Falkland Islands.  English Quarterly Journal of Education first suggests prurience between masters and boys. English public school Eton attacked for immorality.  Japanese Nishimura Sadao’s Shikido kinpisho (Compendium of Sexual Secrets).

1835 English author Samuel Butler and French composer Camille Saint-Saëns b.  English Reverend John Church, English William ‘Kitty’ Courtenay, 9th Earl of Devon and 3rd Viscount Courtenay of Powderham and German poet and dramatist August Graf von Platen-Hallermünde d.  Last executions for sodomy in England of James Pratt and John Smith.  Russia extends penalties for same-sex acts to civilians, with penalty birching and exile and extends anti-homosexual laws to Russian occupied Poland.  French poet, dramatist and novelist Théophile Gautier’s novel Mademoiselle de Maupin.  American painter George Catlin’s painting of the Dance to the Berdashe of Sauk and Fox Indians on Great Plains.

PART SEVEN – AESTHETIC AND ARTISTIC CHANGE, MEDICAL INTERPRETATIONS, LEGAL REPRESSION AND THE BEGINNINGS OF SELF-REALISATION AND ACTIVISM

The last seven decades of the 19th Century began to change the lot of homosexuals in the western world.  Starting in France and America, then spreading to England, literature addressed same-sex love in gradually less discrete ways.  Walt Whitman’s poetry began a huge growth in self-expression in verse.  The aesthetic theory developed by Walter Pater at Oxford found fruit in Oscar Wilde and the dilettantism of the end of the century.  As western men began for the first time since the classical world to write, initially secretly, of same sex love, the medical profession, largely in the German speaking lands of Europe, began to theorise on the causes and treatment of same-sex desire.  Yet legal repression increased, albeit with less lethal penalties.  For the first time, brave individuals began to campaign for homosexual rights.  European colonialism spread its legal prohibitions to the last free parts of the globe, affecting Japan,  which began to view homosexual acts as antithetical to nation building, the strength of its people and international standing.  Only China remained unchanged.

1836 German (Prussian) aristocrat Bernhard Ludwig Ernst Freiherr von Richthofen b. English cleric Richard Hurrell Froude d.  Homosexual acts decriminalised in Peru (to 1837).  English Commission on Criminal Law refuses to remove death penalty for sodomy but penalty tacitly abandoned. American anti-sodomy law introduced to Texas.  Swiss writer Heinrich Hoessli’s Eros: Die Mannerliebe der Griechen (The Manly Love of the Greeks).  Peter Sewally, the ‘man-monster’, cross dressing thief and prostitute, sentenced to five years’ imprisonment in New York.  French medical hygienist Alexandre-Jean-Baptiste Parent Duchâtelet’s study of Paris prostitution.

1837 English poet Algernon Charles Swinburne, German painter Hans von Marées, German novelist and dramatist Adolf von Wilbrandt and English scholar Oscar Browning b.  Prussia reduces penalty for same-sex acts to a prison term.  English Ernest Augustus, Duke of Cumberland and Teviotdale and Earl of Armagh becomes King of Hanover.  Roman Catholic Bishop Polding of Sydney alleges that two thirds of prisoners on Norfolk Island indulge in homosexuality.  Japanese Kitagawa Morisada’s Morisada Manko (Morisada’s Dirty Book) (to 1853).  French painter Numa Boucoiran’s painting Saint Sebastian.

1838 English Secretary of Lloyds and politician Colonel Sir Henry Montague Hozier and English teacher and translator Henry Graham Dakyns  b.  Mauritius Criminal Code outlaws sodomy.  British introduce anti-sodomy laws to Aden and the Pitcairn Islands.  Swiss German hatter and writer Heinrich Hössli’s anthology Eros, Die Männerliebe der Griechen, ihre Beziehungen zur Geschichte, Erziehung, Literatur und Gesetzgebung aller Zeiten (Eros or the Male-male Love of the Greeks, Their Relationship to History, Education, Literature and Legislation of all time).

1839 English scholar and writer Walter Pater, Russian (Belorussian) geographer Nikolai Mikhaylovich Przhevalsky, English tutor to Queen Victoria Canon John Neale Dalton and Russian composer Modest Petrovich Mussorgsky b.  Maharaja Ranjit Singh of the Punjab d.  Württemberg decriminalizes same-sex acts.  Piedmont-Sardinia’s criminal code punishes ‘unnatural lust’ in cases of public scandal with ten years’ imprisonment.  Henry David Thoreau’s novel Sympathy.

1840 English scholar John Addington Symonds, English classical scholar Professor Ingram Bywater, English painter Simeon Solomon, Austro-Hungarian Czech entertainer Emil Mario Vacano, English banker Francis (Frank) Augustus Bevan, English aristocrat Lord Arthur Pelham-Clinton, English teacher Arthur Sigwick and Russian composer Pyotr Ilyich Tchaikovsky b. English diarist Anne Lister and Afghan Shahzada Kamran Durrani, Emir of Herat d.  Hanover decriminalizes same-sex acts. American lawyer and politician Richard Henry Dana Jr.’s memoir Two Years before the Mast. American writer James Fenimore Cooper’s novel Jack Tier.

1841 Welsh American explorer and journalist John Rowlands (Sir Henry Morton Stanley) and American judge Oliver Wendell Holmes, Jr. b. Bill to abolish death penalty for sodomy passes in Commons but fails in Lords. British introduce anti-sodomy laws to Hong Kong.  English explorer and M.P. William John Bankes accused of sodomy with Guardsman in Green Park and flees to continent. American essayist and poet Ralph Waldo Emerson’s essay ‘Friendship.

1842 Archduke Ludwig Viktor Josef Anton (Lutzi Wutzi) of Austria, American journalist and writer Ambrose Gwinnett Bierce, English politician, educationalist and writer Sir Philip Magnus, 1st Baronet, Anglo-Welsh English translator and collector George Ernest John Powell and Australian bushranger Andrew George Scott (Captain Moonlight) b. American poet Walt Whitman’s temperance novel Franklin Evans.

1843 American author Charles Warren Stoddard, Peter Doyle (lover of Walt Whitman), Paul Maximilian Lamoral Fürst von Thurn und Taxis, William (Willie) Fear Dyer (choirboy beloved of John Addington Symonds) and American novelist Henry James b.  Anglo-Irish  Percy Jocelyn deposed Bishop of Clogher d.  Shopkeepers in Galerie d’Orléans in Paris petition police to stop cruising there.  Russian dramatist Nikolai Gogol’s play The Gamblers.

1844 English poet and priest Gerard Manley Hopkins, German (Prussian Saxony) philosopher Friedrich Nietzsche, French poet Paul Verlaine, English financier, courtier and conservative politician Horace Brand Farquhar, 1st Earl Farquhar, American artist Thomas Cowperthwaite Eakins and English reformer Edward Carpenter b.  English writer William Beckford, Chinese artist Qian Yong and French linguist, philosopher and jurist Pierre-Étienne Du Ponceau d.  English painter and nonsense poet Edward Lear meets Chichester Fortescue in Rome.  German philosopher Arthur Schopenhauer’s Die Welt als Wille und Vorstellung (The World as Will and Representation) expanded edition 2.  Benjamin Disraeli’s novel Coningsby.

1845  English Lord Ronald Gower, (?) English Captain Charles Montague Barber, Yorkshire gentleman George Ripley and King Ludwig Otto Friedrich Wilhelm (Ludwig II) of Bavaria, Count Palatine of the Rhine, Duke of Bavaria, Franconia and in Swabia b. English William Johnson Cory appointed Master at Eton.  English writer Horace Walpole, 4th Earl of Orford’s Memoirs of the Reign of George III first published.  The Correspondence of Sir Philip Sidney and Hubert Languet, translated by Steuart A. Pears.

1846 English art historian and critic Sir Claude Phillips and English cross dressing Frederick William (Fanny Winifred) Park b. American novelist Herman Melville’s novel Typee.  

1847 German Philipp Frederick Alexander Fürst zu Eulenburg und Hertefeld, Graf von Sandels, Lieutenant General Kuno Augustus Friedrich Karl Detlev Graf von Moltke, Anglo-Irish Captain Martin Oranmore Kirwan and English Archibald Primrose, 5th Earl of Rosebery b.  German author and reformer Johann Heinrich Daniel Zschokke d.  American novelist Herman Melville’s novel Omoo.  

1848 French novelist Charles-Marie-Georges Huysmans (Joris-Karl Huysmans), English cross-dressing Thomas Ernest (Stella) Boulton and English American musician and composer Jesse Shepard b.  American anti-sodomy law introduced to California, New Mexico, Arizona, Nevada, Colorado, Utah and Oregon.  English poet Edward Lear meets Franklin Lushington in Malta.  Japanese Takizawa Bakin’s Kinsei setsu bishnen roku (A Record of Recent Rumours about Beautiful Youths). English courtier John, Lord Hervey’s Memoirs first published. American writer James Fenimore Cooper’s novel Jack Tier: or the Florida Reefs.

1849 English critic and poet Sir Edmund Gosse, Swedish novelist and playwright John August Strindberg, Swedish writer Charlotte Leffler-Edgren, Duchess of Cajanello, American poet James Whitcomb Riley, American Zuni Indian berdache We’wha, Imperial German Chancellor  Bernhard Heinrich Karl Martin Fürst von Bülow  and English Lord Henry Richard Charles Somerset b.  Polish composer Fryderyk Franciszek Chopin, French socialite Jeanne Françoise Julie Adélaide Récamier and French actress Marie Dorval d. English introduce anti-sodomy laws to Vancouver.  American author George Thompson (Greenhorn)’s novel City Crimes, Or, Life in Boston and New York.  American novelist Herman Melville’s novel Redburn and novella Billy Budd written but not published.  American essayist Henry David Thoreau’s novel A Week on the Concord and Merrimack Rivers.  Chinese novelist Chen Sen’s novel Ping-hua Bao-jan (A Mirror of Theatrical Life).  English poet Alfred, Lord Tennyson’s poem In Memoriam in memory of poet Arthur Hallam.  

1850 English Field Marshal Earl Kitchener of Khartoum, German officer and diplomat General Maximilian von Schwartzkoppen, Russian mathematician and writer Sophia Kovalevsky, German Friedrich Botho Graf zu Eulenburg and Scottish novelist Robert Louis Balfour Stevenson b. Scandal at Royal Military Academy, Woolwich; 33 boys expelled.  English ‘H. Smith’ (William Dugdale)’s ‘A Few Words about Margeries – the Way to Know the Beasts, their haunts, etc’ in Yokel’s Preceptor: or, More Sprees in London! American novelist Herman Melville’s novel White Jacket.  American poet Bayard Taylor’s story ‘Hylas’.

1851 English writer on art Joseph William Gleeson White, German Friedrich Franz III Grand Duke of Mecklenburg-Schwerin, Belgian poet Théodore Hannon,English diplomat Sir Francis Edmund Hugh Elliot, Norman Moor (lover of John Addington Symonds), English poet Richard C. Jackson and Lord Henry Arthur George (Arthur) Somerset b.  English Ernest Augustus, King of Hanover, Duke of Cumberland and Teviotdale and Earl of Armagh, American (Massachusetts) teacher Charity Bryant and American writer James Fenimore Cooper d.  Prussia extends criminalization of same-sex acts to the Rhine Province.  English writer Charles Kingsley attacks Tractarians.  English poet Edward Fitzgerald’s Euphanor, a Dialogue on Youth.  American novelist Herman Melville’s novel Moby Dick. American poet Bayard Taylor’s poem ‘To a Persian Boy’.  

1852 English courtier Reginald Brett, 2nd Viscount Esher, English artist George Francis (Frank) Miles, German photographer Wilhelm von Plüschow (Guglielmo Plüschow), German General Adjutant Hans Dietrich Graf von Hülsen-Haeseler and Irish novelist George Augustus Moore b. Russian playwright Nikolai Vasilevich Gogol d.  Portugal decriminalizes homosexual acts. Austrian Penal Code increases penalty for same-sex acts to five years’ imprisonment.  British introduce anti-sodomy laws to Lower Burma.  German Professor Johann Ludwig Casper’s article on same-sex desire ‘Über Notzucht und Päderastie und deren Ermitlung Seitens des Gerichtsartzes’ (‘About Rape and Pederasty and Their Determination on the Part of the Court Physician'), in which he argues for the first time that sexual orientation is congenital.  English poet and cultural critic Matthew Arnold’s poem ‘Empedocles on Etna’.

1853 English businessman and imperialist Cecil Rhodes, English composer and suffragette Dame Ethel Mary Smyth, German zoologist and anthropologist Ferdinand Karsch-Haack and Scot Major-General Sir Hector Macdonald b.  American Vice President William R. King d.  American anti-sodomy law introduced in Washington State.  E.A. Duchesne’s De La Prostitution dans la Ville d’Alger depuis la Conquête (Prostitution in the City of Algiers since the Conquest).

1854 Scottish historian of Venice Horatio Robert Forbes Brown, French poet Arthur Rimbaud, German industrialist Friedrich ‘Fritz’ Krupp, German (Munich) painter Paul Hoecker, English theosophist Charles Webster Leadbeater, French Marshal Louis Hubert Gonzalve Lyautey, Belgian writer Georges Eekhoud, English poet Francis Edwin Murray, German Lieutenant General Graf Georg Albrecht Wilhelm von Hohenau, English William Welsford Ward (Ward the Choirboy - Oxford friend of Wilde) and Anglo-Irish poet and dramatist Oscar Wilde b.  New Zealand adopts British laws against sodomy with death penalty.  German lawyer Karl Heinrich Ulrichs forced to resign from Hanover government service due to his homosexuality.  American essayist Henry David Thoreau’s novel Walden, or a Life in the Woods.

1855 American novelist Howard Overing Sturgis, French aesthete Marie Joseph Robert Anatole, Comte de Montesquiou-Fézensac, French poet and novelist Paul Duval (Jean Lorrain), Chinese official and literatus He Gangde, English author Marie Corelli, South African writer Olive Schreiner and English poet Edward Cracroft Lefroy b.  English explorer and M.P. William John Bankes d in Venice. English George Ferrars Townshend, 3rd Marquess Townshend, 2nd Earl of Leicester d in Genoa as Signor Compton.  London guide says streets full of ‘margeries’ and ‘pooffs’.  American poet Walt Whitman’s poem Leaves of Grass.  American poet Bayard Taylor’s Poems of the Orient.

1856 German (Mecklenburg) photographer Baron Wilhelm von Gloeden, American painter John Singer Sargent, American theatrical & literary agent Elisabeth (Bessy) Marbury, Venetian gondolier Giacomo (Angelo) Fusato (lover of John Addington Symonds), English academic and writer Wilfred Austin Gill and English novelist Violet Paget (Vernon Lee) b.  American poet Walt Whitman first uses term ‘adhesiveness’. American writer George William Curtis’s The Howadji in Syria.  American novelist Herman Melville’s short story ‘I and My Chimney’. English cleric and hymn writer Fredrick William Faber’s Poems.

1857 English Lieutenant-General Robert Baden-Powell 1st Baron Baden-Powell, Grand Duke Sergei Alexandrovich of Russia, Australian bushranger James Nesbitt, German artist Christian Wilhelm Allers, American novelist Henry Blake Fuller, American teacher suffragette Martha (M.) Carey Thomas, Danish writer Herman Joachim Bang, French diplomat Raymond Lecomte, Irish prostitute Jack Saul, English amanuensis to Cecil Rhodes, Neville E. Pickering, Richard Reginald Harding (‘Kitten’ – Oxford friend of Wilde) and English poet Charles Philip Castle Kains Jackson b.  French writer Astolphe-Louis-Léonor, Marquis de Custine d. Brigadier-General John Nicholson killed at the siege of Delhi.  British Obscene Publications Act.  English physician and writer William Acton’s The Functions and Disorders of the Reproductive Organs condemns masturbation.  French physician and forensic scientist Dr. Auguste-Ambroise Tardieu’s A Medico-Legal Study of Indecent Assaults.  1857 – 1859. English writer Horace Walpole, 4th Earl of Orford’s Complete Correspondence of Horace Walpole, 9 vols, ed. Peter Cunningham. English novelist Thomas Hughes’s novel Tom Brown’s Schooldays.

1858 English artist Henry Scott Tuke, American essayist and poet Horace Traubel, King Gustav V of Sweden, Grand Duke Constantine Constantinovich of Russia, Dutch criminal anthropologist Arnold Aletrino, Swedish author Selma Lagerlöf, English suffragette composer Dame Ethel Smyth, Irish novelist Edith Somerville, French mystic Joséphin Péladan (Sâr Péladan), English art expert and editor More Adey, English actor Norman Forbes-Robertson and American author Edward Irenaeus Prime-Stevenson (Xavier Mayne) b.   William Spencer Cavendish, 6th Duke of Devonshire and Graf Alfred von Maltzan-Wedell d.  Homosexual acts decriminalised in the Ottoman Empire and Timor-Leste. English introduce anti-sodomy laws to British Columbia.  German Professor Johann Ludwig Casper’s book Practisches Handbuch der gerichtlichin Medizin (Practical Handbook of Forensic Medicine) argues for innateness of sexual orientation.  English scholar John Addington Symonds brings about disgrace of Dr. Vaughan, Headmaster of Harrow.  English poet Alfred, Lord Tennyson meets poet Algernon Charles Swinburne. English cleric Frederic William Farrar’s novel Eric, or Little by Little.  English school master William (Johnson) Cory’s poems Ionica.  

1859 English poet Alfred Edward (A.E.) Housman, American author and poet Wallace deGroot Cecil Rice, Welsh writer Ernest Percival Rhys, American decorator Elsie de Wolfe, Lady Mendl, German Kaiser Wilhelm II (Friedrich Wilhelm Viktor Albert von Preußen), English Lieutenant William Alfred Ernest Lonergan and Scottish writer Kenneth Grahame b. English William Kenworthy Browne, beloved of Edward Fitzgerald, American writer and diplomat Washington Irving and German scientist Friedrich Freiherr von Humboldt d.  Piedmont-Sardinia’s criminal code repeats punishment of  ‘unnatural lust’ in cases of public scandal with ten years’ imprisonment.  Canada enacts death penalty for sodomy.   Maharajadhiraja Raj Rajeshwar Sawai Shri Sir Shivaji Rao Holkar Bahadur XII becomes Maharajah Holkar of Indore.  Resignation of Reverend Dr Charles John Vaughan as Headmaster of Harrow. English political writer John Stuart Mill’s On Liberty argues against the persecution of minorities and cites Athen’s execution of Socrates for corrupting youth. English writer Horace Walpole, 4th Earl of Orford’s Journal of the Reign of George III from the Year 1771 to 1783 first published.  French writer Joseph Méry’s novel Monsieur Auguste.  English writer Edward FitzGerald’s translation of poem Rubaiyat of Omar Khayam inspired by Edward Byles Cowell. English Simeon Solomon’s painting David Playing Before Saul.

1860 English writer Frederick William Rolfe (Baron Corvo), English poet Reverend Edwin Emanuel Bradford, Estonian German poet Stanislaus Eric Count Stenbock, Scottish writer Sir James Matthew Barrie 1st Baronet, American campaigner Jane Addams, English poet and political activist John Evelyn Barlas (Evelyn Douglas), English stockbroker Hugh Weguelin, English Russophile and antiques dealer Albert Henry Stopford and American art collector and writer Edward (Ned) Perry Warren (Arthur Lyon Raile) b.  German philosopher Arthur Schopenhauer d.  Section 377 of the Indian Penal Code criminalizes same-sex acts. English scholar John Addington Symonds is disgraced at Magdalen College, Oxford. Reverend Charles John Vaughan offered Bishopric of Rochester but forced by John Addington Symonds’s father to withdraw.  In Tianjin, China, 35 brothels employ 800 boy prostitutes.  American poet Walt Whitman adds poem ‘Calamus’ to the U.S. version of Leaves of Grass.  English priest and poet Gerard Manley Hopkins starts writing poems.

1861 American critic and novelist Alfred J. Cohen (Alan Dale), English writer Horace Annesley Vachell, Ferdinand Maximilian Karl Leopold Maria of Saxe-Coburg and Gotha-Koháry (Ferdinand I, King of Bulgaria), Danish American manager and aide to ex-President Herbert Hoover Lauritz (Lawrence) Waldemar Tonner, English journalist and biographer Robert Harborough Sherard Kennedy, Italian Jesuit Pietro Tacchi Venturi and English writer and suffragette Edith Mary Oldham Ellis (née Lees) b. English poet Arthur Hugh Clough, French ecclesiastic Jean-Baptiste Henri-Dominique Lacordaire and American writer Theodore Winthrop d.  English Parliament repeals the Buggery Act of 1533 and enacts Offences against the Person Act, reducing penalty for sodomy to ten years to life imprisonment.   Sierra Leone adopts English Offences Against the Person Act criminalizing homosexual acts. English American musician and composer Jesse Shepard ‘adopted’ by American explorer John C. Frémont.  American writer Theodore Winthrop’s novel John Brent.  English scholar John Addington Symonds’s poem ‘What Cannot Be’ written.

1862 English academic Goldsworthy Lowes Dickinson, English herald Sir Arthur Vicars,  Swedish painter Eugène Jansson, Chinese President Cao Kun Cao Kun (Zhongshan), English academic the Reverend Frederick William Bussell and English writer Arthur Christopher (A.C.) Benson b.  American writer Henry David Thoreau d.  Enraged by imprisonment in Frankfurt of German shooting club official, socialist politician Johann Baptist von Schweitzer, for an unproven charge of molesting a male youth, German lawyer Karl Heinrich Ulrichs starts writing private letters on homosexuality to contacts in Germany and comes out to his family.  English priest and poet Gerard Manley Hopkins goes up to Brasenose College, Oxford and recommends friends to read Theocritus’s idylls on boy love, ‘Thalusia’ and ‘Hylas’.  American writer Theodore Winthrop’s novels John Brent and Cecil Dreeme.  American poet Bayard Taylor’s poems The Poet’s Journal.  

1863 English poet Reverend Samuel Elsworth Cottam, Anglo-French poet, librarian and medical biographer Victor Gustave Plarr, Egyptian Greek poet Constantine Cavafy, Dutch author Louis Couperus, American architect Ralph Adams Cram, London male brothel owner Alfred Waterhouse Somerset Taylor, English art gallery director Arthur Bellamy Clifton, English designer Charles Robert Ashbee, German Maximilian Egon II, Prinz zu Fürstenberg and Spanish philosopher and writer Jorge Agustín Nicolás Ruiz de Santayana y Borrás (George Santayana) b.  English cleric Frederick Faber d. Last execution for homosexuality in Australia (Tasmania).

1864 French poet and writer Marc-André Raffalovich, English poet and novelist Robert Smythe Hichens, Anglo-Irish diplomat Sir Roger Casement, Scottish anarchist John Henry Mackay (Sagitta), Austro-Hungarian officer Colonel Alfred Victor Redl, English architect, designer and poet Herbert Percy Horne, French collector Alphonse Kahn, German Prinz Aribert Joseph Alexander von Anhalt, German (Hanover) playwright Benjamin Franklin (Frank) Wedekind, English diplomat Sir Louis du Pan Mallet, Australian painter Agnes Goodsir, English writer Osman Edwards (student friend of Wilde) and English poet Charles Edward Sayle b.  Major-General Patrick Ronayne Cleburne killed at the Battle of Franklin, Tennessee.  Governor and Senator James Henry Hammond, American composer Stephen Foster and Swiss German scholar and hatter Heinrich Hössli  d.  Ludwig II becomes King of Bavaria.  Italian Saint Giovanni Bosco founds Society of St. Francis de Sales.  English reformer Edward Carpenter to Trinity Hall, Cambridge.  English writer Edward Fitzgerald meets Joseph Fletcher, ‘Posh’.  English academic Walter Pater delivers paper ‘Diapheneite’ to students at Oxford and is a member of the Old Mortality society, which includes Swinburne, John Addington Symonds, C.L. Shadwell, Provost of Oriel College, and classical scholar Professor Ingram Bywater, all homosexually inclined.  German psychiatrist Richard von Krafft-Ebing publishes an essay on sexuality.  German lawyer Karl Heinrich Ulrichs’s first two of twelve pamphlets under the name Numa Numantius on ‘the intermediate sex’, Forschungen Über Das Rätsel Der Mannmänlichen Liebe (Researches into the Riddle of Love between Men); Vindex: Social-juristiche Studien über mannmännliche Geschlechtsliebe (Vindicator: Social and Legal Studies on Man-Manly Love) - which contained the first use of the term Urning - and Inclusa: Anthropologische Studien über mannmännliche Geschlechtsliebe  (Included: Anthropological Studies on Man-Manly Love).  English Cardinal John Henry Newman’s Apologia pro Vita Sua. English artist Simeon Solomon’s painting Sapho and Erinna (C 1864).

1865 English playwright and novelist Laurence Housman, Francis Bennett-Goldney M.P., Athlone Pursuivant, American Presidential aide Major Archibald Butt, English heiress Winnaretta Singer, Princesse Edmond de Polignac, Anglo-South African writer and art historian Henry Currie (Harry - H.C.) Marillier (schoolboy and student friend of Wilde), American poet, essayist and critic Logan Pearsall Smith, Irish composer Norman Houston O’Neill, English actor Charles Maitland Hallard, English writer Henry Currie (Harry) Marrillier (schoolboy and student friend of Wilde), Scottish poet, translator, critic and diplomat Grant Duff Douglas Ainslie (student friend of Wilde), American dramatist Clyde Fitch and English poet and critic Arthur William Symons b. French General Christophe Lamorcière d.  Abraham Lincoln assassinated.  San Marino decriminalizes sodomy.  Hong Kong adopts British 1861 Offences against the Person Act.  English scholar John Addington Symonds reads American poet Walt Whitman.  American writer Henry James’s affair with American judge Oliver Wendell Holmes, Jr. German lawyer Karl Heinrich Ulrichs’s third, fourth and fifth pamphlets on ‘the intermediate sex’: Vindicta: Kampf für Freiheit von Verfolgung (Revenge/Rod of Freedom: Battle for Freedom from Persecution); Formatrix: Anthropologische Studien über mannmännliche Geschlechtsliebe  (Formative: Anthropological Studies in Man-Manly Love); Ara Spei (Refuge of Hope).   Ulrichs and his publisher tried but found not guilty of ‘illegal behaviour’ in Leipzig, Saxony. English poet Algernon Charles Swinburne’s poems Atalanta in Calydon.  English Simeon Solomon’s painting Love among the Schoolboys.

1866 Spanish playwright Jacinto Benavente, English poet John Gambril Francis Nicholson, German Jewish sexologist Benedict Friedlander, English artists Walford Graham Robertson, Vishwanath Singh Maharaja of Chhatarpur, English poet John Henry Gray, English aristocrat Lord Albert Edward Godolphin Osborne, English poet Richard Le Gallienne and English poet Dr. William George Headlam b.  Henry Lygon, 5th Earl Beauchamp d.  Danish law ends death by burning for ‘intercourse against nature’.   English academic Walter Pater is tutor to poet Gerard Manley Hopkins at Oxford.  American writer Reverend Horatio Alger scandal in Boston.  English journalist James Greenwood’s three articles in the Pall Mall Gazette, ‘A Night in the Workhouse’.  Poem Don Leon (account of Byron’s gay loves) published by William Dugdale.  English poet Algernon Charles Swinburne’s Poems and Ballads, First Series.  English cultural writer Matthew Arnold completes elegy on poet Arthur Clough, ‘Thyrsis’.  English poet Christina Rosetti’s Goblin Market and Other Poems.

1867 German-English poet and sexual reformer George Cecil Ives, English novelist Edward Frederic (E.F.) Benson, German Jewish industrialist and Foreign Minister Walther Rathenau, Japanese novelist Natsume Kinnosuke (Natsumi Soseki), Japanese author and naturalist Minakata Kumagusu, English poet Lionel Pigot Johnson, Anglo-Irish thief and murderer Captain Richard Gorges, German American classicist Edith Hamilton, Zulu gang leader Nongoloza Mathebula, English art historian Campbell Dodgson, English pornographer Paul Harry Ferdinando (‘Lively Poll’; P.H. Carrington) and English poet Edmund St.Gascoigne Mackie b. American poet Fitz-Greene Halleck d.  New Zealand reduces death penalty for buggery to life imprisonment.  American anti-sodomy law introduced to Alaska.  German lawyer Karl Heinrich Ulrichs became the first self-proclaimed homosexual to speak out publicly for homosexual rights at the Congress of German Jurists in Munich.  Castrated body of a 16-year old apprentice found in Berlin park causes a panic.  English Medical Times and Gazette article ‘Aberrations of the Sexual Instinct’.  English academic Walter Pater’s essay ‘Winckelmann’ in the Westminster Review.  American writer Reverend Horatio Alger’s novel Ragged Dick. French playwright Henri Becque’s play and opera libretto Sardanapale.

1868 German (Prussian) poet Stefan Anton George, German Jewish physician sexologist Magnus Hirschfeld, Danieri Basammula-Ekkere Mwanga II Mukasa Kabaka of Buganda, English barrister, writer and poet William Percy Addleshaw (Percy Hemingway), English activist Esther Roper, English academic Francis Fortescue (Sligger) Urquhart, German Scottish photographer [Baron?] Adolphus (Adolph) de Meyer,  Anglo-German Graf Harry Clément Ulrich Kessler, German Grossherzog Ernst Ludwig Karl Albrecht Wilhelm von Hessen und bei Rhein, Anglo-American writer Walter Blackburn Harte and English writer Norman Douglas b.  English Sir James Brooke, Rajah of Sarawak, American Sylvia Drake and American President James Buchanan d.  North Carolina abolishes death penalty for sodomy.  Hungarian journalist and rights campaigner Karoly Maria Kertbeny coins term ‘homosexualität’ in letter of 6 May to German lawyer Karl Ulrichs.  Ulrichs publishes sixth and seventh pamphlet on same-sex law reform: Gladius Furens: Das Naturräthsel der Urningsliebe und der Irrthum als Gesetzgeber. Eine Provocation an den deutschen Juristentag (Raging Sword: The Nature of the Riddle of Urning Loves and the Error of Legislators.  A Challenge to German Jurists); Memnon: Die Geschlechtsnatur des mannliebenden Urnings (Memnon: The Sexual Nature of Man-Loving Urnings).  English reformer Edward Carpenter reads American poet Walt Whitman’s poems. English poet Algernon Charles Swinburne mentions Whitman in critical study William Blake.  English academic Walter Pater introduces poet Gerard Manley Hopkins to English painter Simeon Solomon, who visits Italy with academic Oscar Browning and has his painting Bacchus exhibited.  English Roden Noel’s Beatrice and Other Poems including ‘Ganymede’.  American Walt Whitman’s poem ‘Calamus’ published in England.  English poet Dante Gabriel Rosetti includes Whitman’s poems in a collection. English scholar John Addington Symonds’s poem ‘Eudiades’ written.  English poet Alfred Lord Tennyson starts to write Idylls of the King.

1869 French writer André Gide, Romanian actor Édouard de Max, English author and aesthete Reginald ‘Reggie’ Turner, French courtesan Anne Marie Chassaigne (Liane de Pougy), Fürstin Ghica/Ghika, Russian painter Konstantin Andreyevich Somov and Canadian journalist and art critic Robbie Ross b.  English politician John Cam Hobhouse, 1st Baron Broughton and American composer Louis Moreau Gottschalk d.   South Carolina last American state to abolish death penalty for sodomy.    Canada removes death penalty for sodomy.  Hungarian journalist Karoly Maria Kertbeny’s pamphlet, The Social Harm Caused by Paragraph 143 of the Prussian Legal Code, publishes word ‘homosexualität’ for first time.  He publishes this and another pamphlet anonymously.  Mutilated boy found in a Berlin apartment leads to the trial and imprisonment of Carl von Zastrow. English academic Walter Pater’s essay ‘Notes on Leonardo da Vinci’ in The Fortnightly Review.  American writer Bret Harte’s short story ‘Tennessee’s Partner’ in the Overland Monthly.  French artist Jean-Frédéric Bazille’s painting Scène d’été (Summer Scene).  American artist William Rimmer’s painting Fall of Day (to 1870).

1870 English Lord Alfred Douglas, Finnish painter Magnus Knut Enckell, Belgian-French poet and photographer Pierre Félix Louis (Pierre Louÿs), Anglo-Irish poet and activist Eva Gore-Booth, English painter Ernest Boulton, German painter Rudolph Karl Alexander (Sascha) Schneider and English writer Hector Hugh Munro (Saki) b.  French writer Charles Forbes René de Montalembert, Comte de Montalembert, Deux-Sèvres d.  English aristocrat Lord Arthur Pelham-Clinton reported to have d. Prussian Penal Code imposed throughout the North German Confederation with Paragraph 175 outlawing homosexual acts. Arrest in London of Frederick (Fanny Winifred) William Park and Thomas Ernest (Stella) Boulton, charged with, then acquitted of, a series of sexual offences; the scandal involves Lord Arthur Clinton, son of the 4th Duke of Newcastle. English poet A.E. Housman meets Moses John Jackson at Oxford. American poet Bayard Taylor’s novel Joseph and His Friend.  English reformer Edward Carpenter’s Narcissus and Other Poems. French painter and sculptor Jean-Léon Gérôme’s painting The Snake-charmer.

1871 French writer Marcel Proust, Australian poet John Le Gay Brereton, American writer Claude Hartland, English art expert Sir William Rothenstein, English George Seymour 7th Marquess of Hertford, Russian Georgi Vasilyevich Chicherin, Soviet People’s Commissar for Foreign Affairs, English lover of Sir Alfred Douglas Maurice Schwabe, Neapolitan-Franco-English socialite Donna Maria Beatrice Olga Alberta Caracciolo, Baroness de Meyer, Princess Catherine Hilda Duleep Singh of the Punjab, Russian art writer Walter Feodorovich Nouvel, George Arthur Maurice Hamilton-Gordon, 2nd Baron Stanmore, English film actor and diplomat Sir Charles Ferdinand Mendl, American historian Gaillard Thomas Lapsley, English art patron and female impersonator Herbert Charles [Jerome] Pollitt [Diane de Rougy] and Anglo-German poet Theodore William Graf Wratislaw b.  German actor Hermann Hendrichs d.  Guatemala decriminalises homosexual acts.  Costa Rica decriminalises homosexual acts in Constitution of President General Tomás Miguel Guardia Gutiérrez.  French poet Arthur Rimbaud meets poet Paul Verlaine.  English scholar John Addington Symonds starts to write to American poet Walt Whitman and writes poems ‘Eudiades’ and ‘Love and Death: A Symphony’. English painter Simeon Solomon’s prose poem A Vision of Love Revealed in Sleep.  American writer Bayard Taylor’s poem ‘Twin Love’.

1872 English essayist and caricaturist Sir Henry Maximilian (Max) Beerbohm, English illustrator and writer Aubrey Vincent Beardsley, William Lygon 7th Earl Beauchamp, Russian poet and musician Mikhail Alekseyevich Kuzmin, English polymath and civil servant Sir Edward Howard Marsh, English bibliographer Christopher Sclater Millard, American Senator and Governor David Walsh, American actress Maud Adams, Irish American film director William Cunningham Deane-Tanner (William Desmond Taylor), American female impersonator Hal Wadell (or Waddell) or Ramón Ícarez (Ray (Rae) Bourbon), Baltic German poet and writer Elisar von Kupffer (Elisarion) and Russian impresario Sergei Diaghilev b. Austrian playwright Franz Grillparzer d.  Alsace-Lorraine, Baden, Bavaria and Württemberg adopt North German Confederation Paragraph 175, the law on homosexuality, as part of the new German Reich.  English William (Johnson) Cory dismissed from post of Master at Eton.  Georg Prinz von Preussen’s autobiography Vergilbte Blätter (Yellowed Leaves).

1873 English author and cleric John Francis Bloxam, French novelist Sidonie- Gabrielle Colette, American author Willa Sibert Cather, English journalist and editor Benjamin Guy (B.G.) Horniman, German writer and cultural historian Hans Otto August Ostwald, German (Riga) writer Guido Hermann Eckardt (Fritz Geron Pernauhm) and English linguist and fraud Sir Edmund Backhouse b.  German chemist Professor Justus Freiherr von Liebig d.  Japan criminalizes same-sex acts.  French poet Rimbaud shoots poet Verlaine. Conviction of English painter Simeon Solomon for cottaging with George Roberts, stableman.  English Roden Noel publishes an essay on George, Lord Byron, ‘Lord Byron and His Times’ in St. Paul’s Magazine, working out Byron’s bisexuality from Mary Shelley’s publication in 1840 of a letter from Percey Bysshe Shelley to Peacock about Byron’s life at Venice; he becomes Groom of the Privy Chamber to Queen Victoria. English academic Walter Pater’s Studies in the History of the Renaissance, dedicated to Charles L. Shadwell, Provost of Oriel College.  (to 1876) English scholar John Addington Symonds’s Studies of the Greek Poets.  American writer Charles Warren Stoddard’s novel South-Sea Idylls.  English stories The Romance of Lust, or Early Experiences published by William Lazenby (in 4 vols to 1876).  English poet and critic Edmund Gosse’s poems On Viol and Flute. English reformer Edward Carpenter’s poems Narcissus and Other Poems.  French poet Arthur Rimbaud’s poem Une Saison en Enfer (A Season in Hell).

1874 American transgender Earl Lind, English author W. Somerset Maugham, German rights campaigner and anarchist Adolf Brand, American painter Beatrice Romaine Goddard (Romaine Brooks), American writer Gertrude Stein, Venezuelan composer Reynaldo Hahn, American poet Amy Lowell, English owner of The Ladies Review, impresario and writer Roy Horniman, Oscar Wilde’s lover clerk Edward Shelley and Iranian poet Prince Iraj Mirza, Jalal-ol-Mamalek b.  British introduce anti-sodomy laws to Fiji.  English reformer Edward Carpenter to Leeds, where he begins correspondence with American poet Walt Whitman.   English Benjamin Jowett, Master of Balliol College, prevents academic Walter Pater’s appointment as Proctor having heard he was ‘spooning’ undergraduate William M. Hardinge.  (or 1875) Irish playwright Oscar Wilde meets English artist George Francis (Frank) Miles at Oxford.  Irish scholar John Pentland Mahaffy’s Social Life in Greece.  French poet Paul Verlaine’s poems Romances sans parole (Romance without Words).

1875 English magus and writer Aleister Crowley, Irish writer Forrest Reid, French composer Maurice Ravel, Henry Cyril Paget ‘Toppy’, Earl of Uxbridge and 5th Marquess of Anglesey, Irish art dealer Sir Hugh Percy Lane, French writer and physician Henri-Léon Vengeon (Henri Ghéon), Anglo-Irish composer Norman Houston O'Neill, English prostitute (and accuser of Wilde) Frederick Atkins and German writer Thomas Mann b.  Danish writer Hans Christian Andersen and German (Frankfurt) socialist politician Johann Baptist von Schweitzer d. Guatemala and Mexico decriminalize homosexual acts.   English academic and poet Oscar Browning dismissed from Eton.  American author Henry James emigrates to Europe. English Bishop of Oxford attacks academic Walter Pater’s Studies in the History of the Renaissance. Second edition of Irish scholar John Pentland Mahaffy’s Social Life in Greece removes mention of pederasty.  American author Henry James’s novel Roderick Hudson.  English scholar John Addington Symonds’s poems Lyra Viginti Cordarum, including ‘Three Visions of Imperial Rome, Midnight at Baiae’, and start of publishing of Renaissance in Italy (to 1886). German novelist and dramatist Adolf von Wilbrandt’s Fridolin's heimlich Ehe: Nach Erinnerungen und Mittheilungen (Fridolin’s Mystical Marriage: by Memories and Medium), the first openly gay German novel.

1876 American playwright and novelist Natalie Clifford Barney, German writer and rights campaigner Friedrich Radszuweit, Dublin Herald Francis Richard Shackleton, French poet, author and painter Max Jacob,  English Tom Kennion, lover of Oscar Wilde, Eugenio Maria Giuseppe Giovanni Pacelli (Pope Pius XII) and Spanish composer Manuel de Falla y Matheu b. French author Armandine Aurore Lucie Dupin, Baroness Dudevant (Georges Sand) d. English Frederic, Lord Leighton, paints explorer Richard Burton. English scholar John Addington Symonds’s last part of his Studies of the Greek Poets.  English academic Walter Pater writes ‘A Study of Dionysus’.

1877 American writer Alice B. Toklas, English poet Pauline Mary Tarn (Renee Vivien), English critic James Agate, Chinese playwright and scholar Qi Rushan, American artist Marsden Hartley, American artist and architect Edward (Ed) Shepard Hewitt, English seller of political honours John Arthur Maundy Gregory and English mathematician Godfrey Harold (G.H.) Hardy b. French General Nicholas Changarmier and American evangelist Henry Ward Beecher d.  (to 1878) British introduce anti-sodomy laws to British North Borneo (Sabah).  German psychiatrist Richard von Krafft-Ebing publishes his first article on same-sex eroticism.   English academic Walter Pater meets poet Richard Jackson at Oxford and prepares second edition of Studies in the History of the Renaissance. English Reverend St. John Tyrwhitt attacks scholar John Addington Symonds and Oxford Aestheticism in ‘The Greek Spirit in Modern Literature’ in The Contemporary Review. Walter Pater and John Addington Symonds withdraw from contest for Professorship of Poetry at Oxford.  English reformer Edward Carpenter visits poet Walt Whitman in the U.S.  English poet Gerard Manley Hopkins, ordained priest and writes poem ‘God’s Grandeur’. Irish dramatist and poet Oscar Wilde’s poems Wasted Days.  English schoolmaster William (Johnson) Cory’s poems Ionica II.  

1878 Chinese politician Cheng Ke, Minister of the Interior and Mayor of Tinjin, Austrian photographer Rudolph Franz Lehnert, German photographer Ernst Heinrich Landrock, Anglo-American businesswoman Elizabeth Arden, French Princesse Eugène (Violette) Murat, German writer Hermann Breuer (Bill Forster), German writer Ruth Margarete Roellig, Alphonse Conway (picked up by Wilde at Worthing aged 16) and Japanese author and poet Yosano Akiko b.  American poet and writer Bayard Taylor d.  British introduce anti-sodomy laws to Cyprus.  John George Edward Henry Douglas Sutherland Campbell, 9th Duke of Argyll becomes Governor General of Canada.  English Lord Henry Somerset’s liaison with Harry Smith discovered. German photographer Baron Wilhelm von Gloeden settles in Taormina.  German editor Adolf Glaser prosecuted for sodomy.  English scholar John Addington Symonds’s The Sonnets of Michael Angelo Buonarotti and Tommaso Campanella and poems Many Moods.  English academic Walter Pater’s autobiographical ‘Imaginary Portraits 1: the Child in the House’ in Macmillan’s Magazine.   English poet Algernon Charles Swinburne’s Poems and Ballads, Series II.

1879 English writer E.M. Forster, Irish nationalist Patrick Pearse, George Gordon, 2nd Marquess of Aberdeen and Temair (Lord Haddo to 1916), Polish musician Wanda Landowska, American author Mabel Dodge Luhan, Russo-American actress Alla Nazimova, English actor Ernest Frederic Graham Thesiger, English conservative politician and colonial governor George Ambrose Lloyd, 1st Baron Lloyd, English composer John Nicholson Ireland, German artist Marcus Michael Douglas Behmer, English diplomat Charles Archibald Walker Rose, English poet St. John Welles Lucas-Lucas and English Air-Commodore L.E.O. Charlton b.  German Paul Maximilian Lamoral Fürst von Thurn und Taxis and Anglo-American painter William Rimmer d.  Australian bushranger James Nesbitt shot dead.  English Lord Henry Somerset resigns as Comptroller of the Queen’s Household and goes into exile in Europe. English Lord Ronald Gower sues journal Man of the World for publishing hints of his homosexual liaisons; the Prince of Wales writes him a letter accusing him of being a ‘member of an association for unnatural practices’.  English poet Algernon Charles Swinburne goes to live with Theodore Watts-Duncan in Putney.   Australian Edward De Lacy Evans revealed in Melbourne to be Ellen Tremayne.   German lawyer Karl Heinrich Ulrichs’s last pamphlet of twelve on ‘the intermediate sex’: Critische Pfeile: Denkschrift über die Bestrafung der Urningsliebe. An die Gesetzgeber (Critical Arrows: Memorandum to the Legslature on Punishing the Urnings Lover).  French novelist Julien Viaud (Pierre Loti)’s novel Aziyadé.  English poet Gerard Manley Hopkins’s poem ‘The Bugler’s First Communion’.

1880 English writer Marguerite Radclyffe Hall, English plant collector Reginald John Farrer, English writer Lytton Strachey, French novelist Baron Jacques d’Adelswärd Fersen, American writer Carl Van Vechten, Manuel Azaña Díaz, President of Spain, English poet and soldier Sydney Frederick McIlree Lomer (Sydney Oswald), American poet and author Angelina Weld Grimké, American actor Eugene O’Brien, American pianist Richard Moritz Buhlig, Austrian film maker Richard W. Ornstein (Richard Oswald), English diplomat  Aubrey Nigel Henry Molyneux Herbert, English Conservative politician Samuel John Gurney Hoare, 1st Viscount Templewood and English cleric and writer Augustus Montague Summers b.  Australian bushranger Andrew George Scott (Captain Moonlight) d. Homosexual acts decriminalised in Japan and Paraguay.  Maharaja Sir Sardar Singh Bahadur becomes Maharajah of Jodhpur.  Abdur Rahman Khan becomes Amir of Afghanistan.  English police raid drag ball at Temperance Hall in Hulme, Manchester.    English scholar John Addington Symonds asks American poet Walt Whitman if ‘adhesivness’ means same-sex acts; end of their correspondence.  English Charles Edward Hutchinson’s attack on Oxford homosexuals in pamphlet Boy Worship.  English poet and priest Gerard Manley Hopkins, working in a Liverpool parish, writes poem ‘Felix Randal’. English scholar John Addington Symonds’s New and Old: A Volume of Verse.  

1881 English novelist Louis Umfreville Wilkinson (Louis Marlow), American painter Russell Cheney, King Vajriravudh (Rama VI) of Thailand, Mustafa Kemal Ataturk, President of Turkey, Dutch poet Jacob Israël de Haan, English colonial civil servant Sir Ronald Henry Amherst Storrs, Scottish painter William Bruce Ellis Ranken,  Irish American actor Whitford Kane, English colonial governor Sir Ronald Henry Amherst Storrs, English explorer and MP Lieutenant-Colonel Charles Kenneth Howard-Bury, English socialist politician Albert Victor Grayson, German diplomat Leopold von Hoesch, French aristocrat Comte Hamelin Francois Albert de Warren, American poet Harold Witter Bynner (Emanuel Morgan), American mentor Henry Wadsworth Longfellow Dana, Angelo Giuseppe Roncalli (Pope John XXIII) and English writer and trader John Moray Stuart-Young b.  Russian composer Modest Mussorgsky and English cross dressing Frederick William (Fanny Winifred) Park (Graham) d.  English scholar John Addington Symonds meets Venetian gondolier Angelo Fusato.  Irish prostitute Jack Saul’s pornographic account The Sins of the Cities of the Plain, or, The Recollections of a Mary-Anne (ghost written by painter Simeon Solomon?).  Irish playwright Oscar Wilde’s Poems and Eleutheria, including ‘Helas!’  Anglo-German poet Stanislaus Eric, Count Stenbock’s poems Love, Sleep and Dreams.  English reformer Edward Carpenter starts poem Towards Democracy.  Belgian poet Théodore Hannon’s poems Rimes de joie (Rhymes of Joy).  English Gilbert and Sullivan’s musical Patience: or, Bunthorne’s Bride.

1882 English novelist Adeline Virginia Stephen (Virginia Woolf), Polish composer Karol Maciej Szymanowski, Australian poet and writer Frederic Manning, American actor John Barrymore, Danish painter Einar Magnus Andreas Wegener / Lili Elbe, German physician Edwin Bab, English diplomat Archibald Clark Kerr, 1st Baron Inverchapel and English novelist Humphrey Neville Dickinson b.  American essayist and poet Ralph Waldo Emerson, Anglo-Welsh English translator and collector George Ernest John Powell and American lawyer and politician Richard Henry Dana Jr. d.  Jai Singh Prabhakar becomes Maharajah of Alwar.  Anglo-Irish poet Oscar Wilde visits American poet Walt Whitman twice.  French neurologist Jean-Martin Charcot and Victor Magnan’s article ‘Inversion du sens génital et autres perversion sexuelles’ (‘Inversion of the Genital Senses and Other Sexual Perversions’) in Archives de neurologie.  American poet Walt Whitman’s autobiography Specimen Days in America.  Anglo-Irish playwright Oscar Wilde’s Poems.  English writer John Addington Symonds’s sonnet cycle L’Amour de l’impossible (The Love of the Impossible). Belgian poet Edmond Haraucourt (Sire de Chambly)’s poems La Légende des sexes: Poèmes hystériques (Legend of the Sexes: Hysterical Poems).

1883 English poet Edmund John, English economist John Maynard Keynes, English army officer Kenneth Searight, French designer Coco Chanel, American artist Charles Demuth, English actress Estelle Winwood, Italian poet Umberto Poli (Saba), American gossip columnist and socialite Elsa Maxwell, American actor John Lennox Arthur Williams (Johnny Arthur), French painter Marie Laurencin, Freifrau von Waëtjen, Austro-Hungarian German-Jewish writer Franz Kafka, English historian Canon Frederick Arthur (Snipper) Simpson (or 1884), English psychiatrist Adrian Stephen, French decorator and costumier Étienne Jacques Alexandre Marie Joseph, Comte Bonnin de la Bonninière de Beaumont, French writer Ernest Psichari and English eccentric Gerald Hugh Tyrwhitt-Wilson, 14th Lord Berners b.  English writer Edward FitzGerald d. Dublin Castle scandal involving French, Cornwall and Connelan.  English biographer Robert Sherard meets Irish playwright Oscar Wilde in Paris.  (after) English poet and political activist John Evelyn Barlas (Evelyn Douglas) introduced by Robert Sherard to Irish playwright Oscar Wilde at Oxford. English novelist and journalist Eliza Lynn Linton’s article ‘The Epicene Sex’ in The Girl of the Period and Other Social Essays.  English scholar John Addington Symonds’s A Problem in Greek Ethics circulated privately.  English Lord Robert Gower’s My Reminiscences.  Anglo-German poet Stanislaus Eric, Count Stenbock’s poems Myrtle, Rue and Cypress.  English poet Edward Cracroft Lefroy’s poems Echoes from Theocritus and Other Poems published in four pamphlets (to 1884). English reformer Edward Carpenter’s first part of poem Towards Democracy.  American painter Thomas Cowperthwaite Eakins’s painting The Swimming Hole.

1884 English writer James Elroy Flecker, English Field-Marshal Sir Claude Auchinleck, American 1st Lady Eleanor Roosevelt, English novelist Sir Hugh Walpole, American composer Charles Tomlinson Griffes, American poet Sara Teasdale, American writer and Nazi activist George Sylvester Viereck (Stuart Benton), English broadcaster and writer Naomi Ellington Collinson Jacob, Scottish Captain Neil Boyd Watson McEachern, American choreographer Louis Horst,  English painter Glyn Warren Philpot, American writer Hallett Abend, Russian artist Andrey Avinoff, Swedish painter Gösta Adrian-Nilsson (GAN) and English novelist Ivy Compton Burnett b.  Germany introduces anti-sodomy laws to South-West Africa (Namibia), Togoland and German New Guinea. Britain introduces anti-sodomy laws to British New Guinea.  Danieri Basammula-Ekkere Mwanga II Mukasa becomes 31st Kabaka of Buganda.  In the United Ireland, Irish nationalist William O’Brien accuses James Ellis French of the Dublin C.I.D. and Gustavus Cronwall, Secretary to the Post office, of sodomy; Dublin libel trial followed by felony trial of French (who is sentenced to two years), Cornwall, Captain Martin Oranmore Kirwan of the Dublin Fusiliers, Surgeon Major Juan Albert Fernandez of the 3rd Battalion, Grenadier Guards (the three of whom are acquitted), 70 year old Quaker merchant James Pillar (who confesses and is imprisoned for 20 years) and two male brothel keepers, George ‘Mother’ Fowler and Daniel Considine (both of whom are imprisoned for 2 years hard labour).  American art collector Edward (Ned) Perry Warren meets John Marshall at Oxford.  German Adolf Wilbrandt’s novel Fridolin's heimlich Ehe: Nach Erinnerungen und Mittheilungen (Fridolin’s Mystical Marriage: by Memories and Medium) translated into English. English novelist Violet Paget (Vernon Lee)’s novel Miss Brown.  Swedish writer August Strindberg’s ‘Nature the Criminal’ in short stories Getting Married.  English scholar John Addington Symonds’s poems Fragilia Labilia.  Ango-French poet Marc-André Raffalovich’s poems Cyril and Lionel: A Volume of Sentimental Studies.

1885 English novelist D.H. Lawrence, English painter Duncan James Corrowr Grant, Russian ballerina Ida Lvovna Rubenstein, Russian poet Sophia Yakovlena Parnok, English musical hall artist Frederick (Fred) Jester Barnes, German Jewish writer and activist Kurt Hiller (Keith Lurr and Klirr (Thule)), German activist Max Danielsen,  English diplomat  Gerald Wellesley, 7th Duke of Wellington, French writer François Charles Mauriac and English writer Leonard Green b. English poet and politician Richard Monckton Milnes 1st Baron Houghton d. English Major-General Charles George Gordon killed in Khartoum. Henry Labouchere’s amendment to Section 11 of the English Criminal Law Amendment Act establishes ‘gross indecency’ offence.  Anglo-Irish writer Oscar Wilde has a dalliance with schoolboy Henry [Harry – H.C.] Marillier.  National Vigilance Associaton founded in England.  The Eagle Street College established in Bolton, England.  English painter Henry Scott Tuke moves to Falmouth. English American musician and composer Jesse Shepard meets Lauritz (Lawrence) Waldemar Tonner.  Berlin police raid Seeger Restaurant with 11 men convicted of homosexual offences, the last gay bar raid in Berlin until 1933.  German (Prussian) aristocrat Bernhard Ludwig Ernst Freiherr von Richthofen appointed Berlin President of Police.  Berlin Police Commissioner Leopold von Meersheidt-Hüllessem establishes Homosexuallen Dezernat (Department of Homosexuals).  Italian neurologist Paolo Mantegazza’s Gli Amori degli Uomini (The Sexual Relations of Mankind).  American writer Charles Warren Stoddard’s autobiography A Troubled Heart.  English academic Walter Pater’s novel Marius the Epicurean.  French writer Joris-Karl Huysmans’s novel À rebours (Against Nature). English reformer Edward Carpenter’s second part of poem Towards Democracy.  English poet Edward Cracroft Lefroy’s Echoes from Theocritus and Other Poems pubished as a book, including ‘A Palaestral Study’ and ‘An Idler Listening to Socrates Discussing Philosophy with His Boy-Friends’.  Anglo-French poet Marc-André Raffalovich’s poems Tuberose and Meadowsweet.  English poet Charles Sayle’s poems Bertha: A Story of Love. English poet and political activist John Evelyn Barlas (Evelyn Douglas)’s poems Bloody Heart.  English poet Gerard Manley Hopkins writing ‘dark sonnets’.

1886 English poet and merchant navy doctor John Leslie Barford, English diplomat and writer Sir Harold Nicolson, English writer Siegfried Sassoon, English novelist Arthur Annesley Ronald Firbank, English author Thomas Burke, American poet and novelist Hilda Doolittle (H. D.), American publisher Margaret Anderson, American actor Edward Everett Horton, French writer and soldier Henri Alban-Fournier (Alaine-Fournier), English mountaineer George Herbert Leigh Mallory, Anglo-German Prince Alexander Albert of Battenberg (Alexander Albert Mountbatten, 1st Marquess of Carisbrooke), Austrian lawyer and activist Hermann Freiherr von Teschenberg, American blues singer Gertrude Malissa Nix Pridgett (Ma Rainey) and American writer and philosopher Professor Alain LeRoy Locke b.  American poet Emily Dickinson, English amanuensis to Cecil Rhodes, Neville E. Pickering and King Ludwig Otto Friedrich Wilhelm (Ludwig II) of Bavaria d.  Portugal recriminalizes homosexuality.  Irish playwright Oscar Wilde meets (and is seduced by) Canadian critic Robbie Ross, English architect, designer and poet Herbert Percy Horne and theatrical impresario Harry Melville. American Zuni Indian berdache We’wha represents his/her tribe in Washington as a woman.  English Roden Noel re-publishes ‘Lord Byron and His Times’ in Essays on Poetry and Poets dedicated ‘to my friend, John Addington Symonds’.  German psychiatrist Richard, Freiherr von Krafft-Ebing’s Psychopathia Sexualis.  German study Die Verbrecherwelt von Berlin (The Criminal World of Berlin).  Chinese writer Li Hongruo’s Chaoshi congzai (A Broad View of the Capital City).  English scholar John Addington Symonds’s biography  Sir Philip Sidney and edition of Sir Thomas Browne’s Religio medici (The Religion of a Physician of 1642): Urn burial (of 1658), Christian morals (of the 1670s), and other essays.  English explorer Sir Richard Francis Burton’s ‘Terminal Essay’ to Volume 10 of his translation of the Arabic One Thousand and One Nights, The Thousand Nights and a Night; this was the first essay on homosexuality to be published in English - in it he postulates the existence of ‘the Sotadic Zone’.  English writer A.C. Benson’s novel Memoirs of Arthur Hamilton.  Scottish novelist Robert Louis Stevenson’s novel The Strange Case of Dr. Jekyll and Mr Hyde. English academic Walter Pater writes short story ‘Denys l’Auxerrois’. Swedish writer August Strindberg’s short stories Getting Married II.  Anglo-French poet Marc-André Raffalovich’s poems In Fancy Dress, including ‘Rose Leaves When the Rose is Dead’ and ‘The World Well Lost IV and XVIII’.

1887 English poet Rupert Brooke, English writer Winifred Ashton (Clemence Dane), English Field Marshal Viscount Montgomery of Alamein, English Lady Una Troubridge, American publisher Nancy Woodbridge (Sylvia) Beach, American anthropologist Ruth Benedict, Anglo-American actress Lynn Fontanne, German novelist Anna Elisabet (A.E.) Weirauch, Spanish painter Gabriel Morcillo Raya, Armenian dancer Armen Ohanian, English psychoanalyst James Beaumont Strachey, Chilean gambler and diplomat José Antonio (Tony) Gandarillas Huici (Baroness von Bülop), Australian politician Albert Augustine (Bert) Edwards, Anglo-Irish M.P. Captain John Henry Thorpe (Thorpey), English courtier Sir Alan Frederick (Tommy) Lascelles, English Labour politician Edward Hugh John Neale Dalton, Baron Dalton, English economist Gerald Frank Shove and German S.A. leader Ernst Röhm b.  German painter Hans von Marées d.   Homosexual acts decriminalised in Argentina.  Ferdinand I becomes Prince Regent of Bulgaria.  Swedish writer August Strindberg’s article ‘The Last Word on the Question of Women’.  English scholar John Addington Symonds’s translation of Benvenuto Cellini’s The Life of Benevenuto Cellini.  American writer Edward Irenaeus Prime-Stevenson’s novel White Cockades: An Incident -Five’ of the ‘Forty.   Irish writer George Moore’s novel A Mere Accident.  English writer Joseph William Gleeson White’s poems Ballads and Rondeau. English poet and political activist John Evelyn Barlas (Evelyn Douglas)’s poems Phantasmagoria: Dream-Fugues.

1888 English arabist and writer Thomas Edward (T.E.) Lawrence, American poet Thomas Stearns (T.S.) Eliot, English memoirist and international scoundrel Gerald Bernard Francis Hamilton (Patrick Weston), English poet Fabian Strachey Woodley, English poet Theodore Percival (T.P.) Cameron Wilson, English writer Katherine Mansfield, German film director Friedrich Wilhelm Murnau, German Hungarian novelist playwright Christa Winsloe, Baroness Hatveny, American actor Monty Woolley, Scottish schoolmaster John Ferguson Roxburgh, English private secretary to Prime Minister Stanley Baldwin Sir Geoffrey Storrs Fry, 1st Baronet, English law academic Philip Landon, German writer Hans Blüher, English politician Sir Philip Albert Gustave David Sassoon, 3rd Baronet,  Scottish doctor and Unionist politician Walter Elliott Elliott, English Anglican priest Ronald Arbuthnott Knox, English broadcaster Hilda Matheson, French writer Marcel Jouhandeau and Portuguese poet Fernando António Nogueira de Seabra Pessoa b. Italian Saint Giovanni Bosco (Don Bosco), Russian geographer Nikolai Przhevalsky and English poet and illustrator Edward Lear d.  Germans introduce anti-sodomy laws to Tanganyika coast.  Anglo-Irish writer Oscar Wilde first meets male prostitutes at Piccadilly, has a dalliance with English poet Richard Le Gallienne and an affair with clerk Frederick [Fred] Althaus. Swedish writer Charlotte Leffler-Edgren, Duchess of Cajanello and Russian mathematician and writer Sophia Kovalvsky’s Kampen för lyckan (The Struggle for Happiness). French writer Henri d’Argis’s novel Sodome (Sodom).  English poet and priest Gerard Manley Hopkins’s poem ‘Epithalamion’.  English poet Charles Philip Castle Kains Jackson’s poem ‘Hyacinthus’ appears in The Artist, taken as the start of the Uranian poets.

1889 Scottish writer and translator Charles Kenneth Scott-Moncrieff, English film director James Whale, American Cardinal Francis Joseph Spellman, English writer Benjamin Musser, Jamaican American writer and poet Festus Claudius (Claude) McKay, German Nazi Adolf Hitler, German homosexual rights activist Richard Schultz, English author and broadcaster Naomi Eleanor Clare Jacob, German philosopher Ludwig Wittgenstein, English historian and science writer Henry Fitzgerald (Gerald) Heard, Scottish broadcasting executive John Reith, 1st Baron Reith, Austro-Hungarian film director Leontine Schlesinger (Leontine Sagan), American actor Franklin Pangborn, American actor Clifton Webb, Russian American conductor Alexander Smallens, English socialite Dorothy (Dotty) Violet Wellesley, Duchess of Wellington, English writer Francis Frederick Locker Birrell, English diplomat and author Frank Trelawny Arthur Ashton-Gwatkin, English poet 2nd Lieutenant James Stanley Yates, English scholar of Burma Gordon Hannington Luce, French philosopher Gabriel Honoré Marcel and French writer and artist John Cocteau b. English poet and priest Gerard Manley Hopkins d. Death penalty for sodomy abolished in Scotland.   Italy decriminalizes sodomy in whole country in Penal Code Zanardelli (hitherto only the north had criminalised it).  Finland criminalizes same-sex acts. British introduce anti-sodomy laws to British Central African Protectorate (Nyasaland/Malawi).  English Cleveland Street scandal involving Prince Albert Victor (eldest son of the Prince of Wales), Henry James Fitzroy, Earl of Euston and Lord Arthur Somerset opens with the Old Bailey trial of pimps George Daniel Veck and Henry Newlove, who are sentenced to nine and four months jail.  Ernest Parke publicises the case in the North London Press, naming Euston and Somerset; Euston sues for libel.  Anglo-Irish playwright Oscar Wilde has an affair with American dramatist Clyde Fitch, meets poet John Gray and publishes essay ‘The Portrait of Mr W.H.’ in Blackwood’s magazine.  German lawyer Karl Friedrich Ulrichs begins to publish journal Alaudae (Larks) from L’Aquila in Italy (to 1895). W. Aldis Wright’s three-volume Letters and Literary Remains of Edward Fitzgerald.  English scholar John Addington Symonds’s Memoirs written.  American critic Alfred J. Cohen (Alan Dale)’s novel A Marriage below Zero. American writer Edward Prime-Stevenson (Xavier Main)’s novel Janus: A Matter of Temperament.  French writer Henri d’Argis’s novel Gomorrhe (Gomorra). Anglo-French poet Marc-André Raffalovich’s poems It Is Thyself including ‘Sonnet CXX’.  English Lord Henry Somerset’s autobiographical poems Songs of Adieu.  English poet Charles Sayle’s poems Erotidia.  English poet Algernon Charles Swinburne’s Poems and Ballads, Series III.  English writer Arthur Symons’s poems Days and Nights. English poet and political activist John Evelyn Barlas (Evelyn Douglas)’s poems Love Sonnets.  American artist Thomas Cowperthwaite Eakins’s photograph Bill Duckett Nude, at the Art Students’ League of Philadelphia.

1890 English writer Rose Laure Allatini (A.T. Fitzroy), Danish American opera singer Lauritz Melchior, English poet Philip Gillespie Bainbrigge, American playwright & poet Blanche Marie Louise Oelrichs (Michael Strange), English international cad Gerald Frank Hamilton Souter (Gerald Hamilton), Captain Sir Harold Malcolm Bullock M.P., 1st Baronet, English economist Sir Dennis Holme Robertson, German diplomat and anti-Nazi Andreas Theodor Albrecht Graf von Bernstorff, German painter Jeanne Mammen and Polish dancer Vaslav Nijinski b.  English Cardinal John Henry Newman, English explorer Sir Richard Francis Burton, American Indian chief Ta-Tanka l-Yotank (Sitting Bull), American explorer John Charles Frémont and King Carl I of Württemberg d.  British introduce anti-sodomy laws to Kenya, Southern Rhodesia (Zimbabwe) and Northern Rhodesia (Zambia).  The English libel trial of the Earl of Euston against Ernest Parke ends with Parke imprisoned for 12 months. English critic Sir Edmund Gosse writes to scholar John Addington Symonds acknowledging his own homosexuality. German photographer Baron von Gloeden visits Tunisia.  Anglo-Irish playwright Oscar Wilde’s novel The Picture of Dorian Gray published in the American journal Lipincott’s; he meets Lionel Johnson at Walter Pater’s rooms in Oxford and Fred Althaus at the Crown public house in Charing Cross. English explorer Sir Richard Francis Burton and publisher Leonard Smithers’s Priapeia, or Sportive Epigrams on Priapus by Divers Poets in English Verse and Prose. French writers Paul Ginisty and Jules Guérin’s Les rastaquouères : Étude parisienne (The Rastaquoueres: A Parisian Study) and Deux tourtereaux: pièce en un acte (Two Love Birds: One Act Play).

1891 American composer Cole Porter, American choreographer Ted Shawn, French writer Maurice Rostand, Scottish socialite and singer Dorothy (Dickie) Fellowes-Gordon, SS Oberführer Emil Sembach, Austrian playwright Theodor Tagger (Ferdinand Brückner), British literature academic Bonamy Debrée, Hungarian aristocrat Romola de Pulszky (Nijinsky), English anthropologist and psychologist John Layard, English painter and poet Vivian Forbes, German writer Hans Siemsen (Pfarrer Silesius),  English official Major Sir Desmond Morton, Scottish peer Captain Ian Colin Maitland, 15th Earl of Lauderdale, Swiss artist Paul Thévenaz and English director Edmund Goulding b.  English poet Edward Cracroft Lefroy, American novelist Herman Melville, Russian mathematician and writer Sophia Kovalevsky, English artist George Francis (Frank) Miles, French aristocrat Arthur Anne Marie Charles Vicomte de Noailles, English politician George Augustus Frederick Cavendish-Bentinck and French poet Arthur Rimbaud d.  British introduce anti-sodomy laws to Bechuanaland (Botswana).  Maharaja Sir Bhupinder Singh becomes Maharajah of Patiala.  Two men in Victoria, Canada, sentenced to 15 years’ imprisonment for same-sex acts.  The word ‘homosexuality’ entered general English usage.  Scandal and flight of Edward Samuel Wesley de Cobain M.P.  English reformer Edward Carpenter meets George Merrill.  Estonian German Count Eric Stenbock meets Irish composer Norman Houston O’Neill on top of an omnibus in Piccadilly.   French writer André Gide meets Anglo-Irish playwright Oscar Wilde in Paris.  Oscar Wilde meets actor Roland Atwood and, though Lionel Johnnson, meets Bosie, Lord Alfred Douglas, who was being blackmailed and for whom he paid the blackmailer.  Oscar Wilde bails out of jail English poet and political activist John Evelyn Barlas (Evelyn Douglas), who has fired three revolver shots from Westminster Bridge at the Houses of Parliament and is then confined in an asylum (to 1914).  Edith Lees marries Havelock Ellis.  The Artist reports on English writer Frederick Rolfe’s painting of a Roman Catholic church in Christchurch. Irish playwright Oscar Wilde’s The Soul of Man under Socialism.   English scholar John Addington Symonds’s A Problem in Modern Ethics issued privately.  French mystic Joséphin Péladan (Sâr Péladan)’s books L’androgyne (The Androgyne) and La gynandre (The Gynandre).  Swedish writer August Strindberg’s novel The Cloister.  Irish playwright Oscar Wilde’s novel A House of Pomegranates.  American writers Fergus Redmond and Archibald Clavering Gunter’s novel A Florida Enchantment.  American writer Edward Irenaeus Prime-Stevenson’s novel Left to Themselves: Being the Ordeal of Philip and Gerald.  Anglo-American writer Howard Overing Sturgis’s novel Tim: A Story of Eton.  American writer Ambrose Bierce’s stories Tales of Soldiers and Civilians.  American novelist Henry James’s short story ‘The Pupil’. English writer Richard Le Gallienne’s poems The Book-Bills of Narcissus.  American writer Henry Blake Fuller’s play At Saint Judas’s.  German playwright Benjamin Franklin (Frank) Wedekind’s play  Frühlings Erwachen (Spring Awakening).

1892 English poet Ralph Nicholas Chubb, English writer and publisher David ‘Bunny’ Garnett, English writer Vita Sackville West, Australian sexologist Norman Zions (Haire), American actress Mary Jane (Mae) West, English memoirist Sir Frances Osbert Sacheverell Sitwell, 5th Baronet, American diplomat Benjamin Sumner Welles, Irish nationalist General Eoin O’Duffy, American poet and playwright Edna St. Vincent Millay, Chinese author and historian Guo Moro, Amanullah Khan, Amir of Afghanistan, German American rights campaigner Henry Gerber, American psychiatrist Harry Stack Sullivan, Russian poet Marina Tsvetaeva, American writer Janet Flanner, French artist Suzanne Alberte Eugénie Malherbe, (?) American female impersonator Hal Wadell (or Waddell) or Ramón Ícarez (Ray (Rae) Bourbon), American dancer and artist Hubert Julian (Jay) Stowitts, English actor producer Patrick Desmond and American writer Djuna Barnes b. American poet Walt Whitman, English poet Alfred, Lord Tennyson, Swedish writer Charlotte Leffler-Edgren, Duchess of Cajanello, Austro-Hungarian Czech entertainer Emil Mario Vacano, English stockbroker Sydney Russell-Cooke and English schoolmaster and poet William (Johnson) Cory d. Freda (Fred) Ward killed by lover Alice Mitchell in Memphis.  Canada extends laws against homosexuality to include ‘gross indecency’.  English scholar John Addington Symonds uses term ‘homosexual’ in a letter and agrees to collaborate with Havelock Ellis on an essay on homosexuality.  Dr. James Kiernan uses ‘homosexual’ as a noun in an American medical journal.  First use of ‘bisexual’ appears in Charles Gilbert Chaddock’s translation of German psychiatrist Richard von Krafft-Ebing’s Psychopathia Sexualis.   English poet John Henry Gray meets Anglo-French poet Marc-André Raffalovich.   Anglo-Irish writer Oscar Wilde meets publishing sales assistant Edward Shelley and begins an affair.  English Lord Alfred Douglas [Bosie], editor of magazine The Spirit Lamp, blackmailed at Oxford, where he has been having an affair with Maurice Schwabe, is bailed out by Oscar Wilde, with whom he starts a love affair.  Bosie and Alfred Taylor introduce Wilde to lamp-wick factory clerk Sydney Mavor, with whom Wilde starts an affair.  Maurice Schwabe introduces Wilde to bookmaker’s clerk Freddie Atkins, with whom they both go to Paris and have sex together. Bosie has sex with working class Alfred Wood then introduces him to Wilde, who does too.  English rights campaigner George Ives reads Edward Carpenter’s poem ‘Towards Democracy and meets Irish playwright Oscar Wilde.  English poet and political activist John Evelyn Barlas (Evelyn Douglas)’s article Oscar Wilde: A Study in the Novel review.  Oscar Wilde and his group, including his then lover Edward Shelley, wear green carnations to the opening performance of his play Lady Windermere’s Fan.  English writer and feminist Edith Lees Ellis’s pamphlet A Noviciate for Marriage.  English scholar John Addington Symonds’s Our Life in the Swiss Highlands and translation of Life of Michelangelo Buonarotti.  English poetry anthology The Book of the Rhymers' Club. French mystic Joséphin Péladan (Sâr Péladan)’s book La queste du Graal - proses lyriques de l'éthopée - la décadence latine (The Quest of the Grail – Lyrical Ethiopian Prose – Latin Decadence).  English poet John Gambril Nicholson’s Love in Earnest: Sonnets, Ballades, and Lyrics. Irish playwright Oscar Wilde’s Poems re-issued.  English rights campaigner George Ives’s poems The Lifting of the Veil.  German poet Stefan George’s poems Algabal.  American actor and poet William Theodore Peters’s poems The Tournament of Love.  English writer Arthur Symons’s poems Silhouettes and his play The Minister’s Call shown privately at the Independent Theatre Society to avoid censorship.

1893 Welsh singer Ivor Novello , American actor director Alfred Lunt, French author Mercedes de Acosta, Italian author Carlo Emilio Gadda, American journalist Dorothy Thompson, American tennis star Bill Tilden, English writer Sylvia Townsend Warner,  American film actress Jean Acker, Prince Paul of Yugoslavia, Welsh poet Evan Frederic Morgan, 2nd Viscount and 4th Baron Tredegar, English Conservative politician and colonial governor Colonel John Jestyn Llewellin, 1st Baron Llewellin, English Liberal politician Leslie Hore-Belisha, 1st Baron Hore-Belisha, English Conservative politician Harry Frederick Comfort Crookshank, 1st Viscount Crookshank, English poet Robert Malise Bowyer Nichols, African-American composer Lawrence Brown, English entertainer Douglas Byng and English poet Wilfrid Owen b.  English scholar John Addington Symonds and Russian composer Pyotr Ilyich Tchaikovsky d.  English trial and sentencing of Edward Samuel Wesley de Cobain M.P. English Lieutenant-Colonel John Wallace Hozier arrested but discharged for picking up soldiers in Westminster.  English rights campaigner George Ives founds the Order of Chaeronea.  French writer André Gide arrives in Tunisia and has his first sex with a man, an Arab boy named Ali.  English art historian Campbell Dodgson becomes librarian at British Museum.  German photographer Baron Gloeden’s photographic exhibitions at Egyptian Hall and Pall Mall, London.  English poet Joseph William Gleeson White’s Studio reproduces photographs of Baron Gloeden and English writer Frederick Rolfe.  Sent down for failing exams, Lord Alfred Douglas [Bosie] takes Campbell Dodgson as tutor and they join Wilde at Babbacombe, Devon, then Bosie and Wilde live together in the Savoy and Albemarle Hotels in London, which becomes known publicly. Alfred Waterhouse Somerset Taylor introduces Wilde to Charlie and William Parker and others, with all of whom Wilde has sex.  Bosie’s English lover, Maurice Schwabe, is exiled by his family for two years to Australia and New Zealand. Alfred Taylor in drag ‘marries’ Charles Spurrier Mason; he pimps Charlie and William Parker to Oscar Wilde.  An attempt is made by rent boy Alfred Wood, William Allen and Robert Clibborn to blackmail Wilde over a letter to Bosie.   He and Bosie have sex with 17 year old Oxford servant boy Walter Grainger.  Wilde, Bosie and Robbie Ross have sex with sixteen-year-old schoolboy Philip Dansey, whose father Colonel Dansey threatens to expose them.  Bosie goes to Cairo where he claims to have sex with the then Brigadier Herbert Kitchener.  Brabazon Purcell’s report into boy wives in Kimberley District of Cape Province.  German psychiatrist and sexologist Albert Moll’s Die konträre Sexualempfindung (Contrary Sexual Feeling).  Die Enterbten des Liebesglückes oder das dritte Geschlecht (Those Dispossessed of Love or the Third Sex) by homosexual German Otto Podjuki (‘Otto de Joux’). French army surgeon Jacobus X’s L’Amour aux colonies (Love in the Colonies).  English scholar John Addington Symonds’s In the Key of Blue and Other Prose Essays; Walt Whitman: A Study; and The Life of Michelangelo Buonarroti.  Teleny, ‘the first novel in English to concern itself with homosexuality to its fullest extent’.  French writer André Gide’s novel; Le Voyage d’Urien (Urien’s Journey).  English academic Walter Pater’s short story ‘Apollo in Picardy’.  English writer Reverend Edwin Emanuel Bradford’s short story ‘Boris Orloff’’.  English Lord Alfred Douglas stops editing magazine Spirit Lamp and his poem ‘Hyacinthus’ appears in The Artist, as does Anglo-German poet Theodore William, Graf Wratislaw’s poem ‘To a Sicilian Boy’.  Theodore William, Graf Wratislaw’s poems Caprices, including ‘To a Sicilian Boy’.  Anglo-German poet Stanislaus , Count Stenbock’s poems The Shadow of Death.  English poet John Henry Gray’s poems Silverpoints. English courtier Viscount Esher’s poems Foam.  English poet Charles Sayle’s poems Musa Consolatrix (Muse of Comfort). American actor and poet William Theodore Peters’s poems Posies out of Rings, and Other Conceits.

1894 American sexologist Alfred Kinsey, Dutch artist and author Willem Arondeus, Peking opera star Mei Lanfang, German writer and polymath Hans Jürgen von der Wense, Polish actress Pola Negri, American writer Clarkson Crane, Italian pianist Renata Borgatti, Prince Edward Albert Christian George Andrew Patrick David, later King Edward VIII, Chilean painter Álvaro Guevara, French photographer Lucy Mathilde Renée Schwob (Claude Cahun), French antique dealer Yvonne Anne-Marie de Bremond d'Ars, English writer Annie Winifred Ellerman (Bryher), English painter Arthur Lett-Haines, American blues singer Bessie Smith, Barbadian doctor Cecil Belfield Clarke, American activist Prescott Townsend  and English writer Violet Trefusis b.  English poet Christina Rosetti, Scottish writer Robert Louis Stevenson, English aristocrat Roden Noel and English academic Walter Pater d.  Suicide of Francis, Viscount Drumlanrig, private secretary to Archibald Primrose, 5th Earl of Rosebery, Prime Minister of England (to 1895). British introduce anti-sodomy laws to Uganda.  English painter Simeon Solomon in St. Giles workhouse.  Anglo-Irish playwright Oscar Wilde and Lord Alfred Douglas [Bosie] have sex with sixteen-year-old Alphonse Conway at Worthing. They meet French writer André Gide in Florence. London male brothel owner Alfred Waterhouse Somerset Taylor and cross dressing Arthur Marling arrested at John Preston’s party in Fitzroy Street, London with eighteen men, two in drag. English architect, designer and poet Herbert Percy Horne moves to Italy.  English academic the Reverend Frederick William Bussell, Chaplain of Brasenose College, delivers sermon on his dead friend Walter Pater.  Venezuelan composer Reynaldo Hahn meets French writer Marcel Proust. Poet Charles Philip Castle Kains Jackson publishes essay ‘The New Chivalry’ and is sacked as editor of The Artist.  English writer George Ives is attacked for his article in the Humanitarian advocating same-sex relations. English writer John Francis Bloxam edits magazine The Chameleon; includes short story ‘The Priest and the Acolyte’ and Lord Alfred Douglas’s poem ‘Two Loves’ in its single Oxford edition, including the line: ‘The love that dare not speak its name.’  English reformer Edward Carpenter’s Homogenic Love, and its Place in a Free Society, first delivered as a public lecture in Manchester; the Manchester Labour Press publishes his essays ‘Sex Love’, ‘Woman’ and ‘Marriage’. The first edition of the English literary quarterly The Yellow Book.  French psychologist Ludovic Dugas’s L’Amitié antique d’après les moeurs populaires et les théories des philosophes (Ancient Friendship According to Popular Culture and the Theories of Philosophers).  Swedish writer August Strindberg’s article ‘Perverts’ published in French.  English writer Robert Hichens’s novel The Green Carnation.  Anglo-American writer Howard Overing Sturgis’s novel All that Was Possible.  Anglo-German poet Stanislaus Eric, Count Stenbock’s short stories and poems Studies of Death.  English poetry anthology The Second Book of the Rhymers' Club.  English poet Alan Stanley’s poems Love Lyrics. French poet Alphonse Marius Gossez’s poems Six Attitudes d’adolescent (Six Teenage Attitudes). Belgian-French poet and photographer Pierre Félix Louis (Pierre Louÿs)’s prose poetry collection Les Chansons de Bilitis (Songs of Bilitis).  Irish playwright Oscar Wilde’s Salome translated by Lord Alfred Douglas. Anglo-French poet Marc-André Raffalovich and English poet John Henry Gray’s play The Blackmailers.  German playwright Frank Wedekind’s play Lulu.  German painter Rudolph Karl Alexander (Sascha) Schneider’s painting The Anarchist.

1895 Erzherzog Wilhelm Franz Joseph Karl von Habsburg-Lothringen (the Red Prince), German painter Walter Spies, English novelist Leslie Poles (L.P.) Hartley, American film star Rudolph Valentino, Anglo-Irish socialite Dolly Ierne Wilde, German historian Ernst Hartwig Kantorowicz, American lyricist Lorenz Milton Hart, Russian poet Sergey Alexandrovich Yesenin, Russian head of N.K.V.D. Nikolai Ivanovich Yezhov, Prince Pierre of Monaco, Duc de Valentinois, Austrian psychoanalyst Anna Freud, English Edward (Ned) William Bootle-Wilbraham, 3rd Earl of Lathom, American actress Hattie McDaniel, English writer Charles Raymond Mortimer Bell, Irish director Brian Desmond Hurst, American composer Leo Sowerby, German Generalfeldmarschall Wolfram Freiherr von Richthofen, American gold mine heiress Alice Antoinette Delamar, German writer Ewald Tscheck, American blues singer Alberta Hunter, English writer Louis Golding, English Captain Edward Harold Brittain M.C., German politician Rudolph Katz and F.B.I. Director J. Edgar Hoover b.  Anglo-German poet Stanislaus Eric, Count Stenbock, Norman Moor (lover of John Addington Symonds) and German lawyer Karl Heinrich Ulrichs d.  German (Prussian) aristocrat Bernhard Ludwig Ernst Freiherr von Richthofen, Berlin President of Police, said to have committed suicide.  British introduce anti-sodomy laws to Upper Burma.  Resignation of Archibald Primrose, 5th Earl of Rosebery, from post of English Prime Minister.  American novelist Henry James refuses to write biography of English scholar John Addington Symonds. Anglo-Irish playwright Oscar Wilde and Bosie, Lord Alfred Douglas meet French writer André Gide in Blidah, Algieria.  Wilde meets Oxford student Tom Kennion in London.  The three Wilde trials.  Sidney (Jenny) Mavor refuses to testify against Wilde.  Friend of Wilde Alfred Waterhouse Somerset Taylor arrested at home, where police seized women’s clothing, and tried with Oscar Wilde, whom he refuses to betray; both sentenced to two year’s hard labour. English Newspaper Truth attacks Lord Alfred Douglas. George Seymour, 7th Marquis of Hertford settles in Mackay, Australia. Anglo-Irish poet and activist Eva Gore-Booth meets Esther Roper in Italy. English writers Arthur Symons and Aubrey Beardsley edit and publisher Lionel Smithers publishes magazine The Savoy (to 1896).  English reformer Edward Carpenter’s pamphlet Homogenic Love and book Love’s Coming of Age, with a chapter on ‘The Intermediate Sex’.  Its publisher, T. Fisher Unwin, withdraws after the Wilde trials, so Manchester Labour Press publishes it.  Scottish historian Horatio Robert Forbes Brown’s biography of English scholar John Addington Symonds.  Swedish writer August Strindberg’s autobiographical novel Le Plaidoyer d'un fou (The Defence of a Fool or A Madman’s Defence). Anglo-French poet Marc-André Raffalovich’s L’Affaire Oscar Wilde (The Oscar Wilde Affair) published in Paris.  Anglo-American novelist Howard Overing Sturgis’s novel All That Was Possible.  Scottish writer Kenneth Grahame’s novel The Golden Age. Irish novelist George Moore’s novel Celibates. French writer Henri d’Argis’s novel L’Éducation conjugale (The Education of Marriage). American poet, essayist and critic Logan Pearsall Smith’s The Youth of Parnassus, and Other Stories.  English writer Percy Lancelot Osborn’s short story ‘Saida Effendi’ published in Out of Egypt.  English magus and writer Aleister Crowley’s Aceldama, a Place to Bury Strangers in: a Philosophical Poem.  Canadian writer Walter Blackburn Harte’s poems Meditations in Motley.  Anglo-French poet Marc-André Raffalovich’s poems The Thread and the Path.  English writer Arthur Symons’s poems London Nights. English barrister, writer and poet William Percy Addleshaw (Percy Hemingway)’s poems The Happy Wanderer and Other Poems. Anglo-Irish playwright Oscar Wilde’s play The Importance of Being Earnest.  German playwright Benjamin Franklin (Frank) Wedekind’s play Erdgeist (Earth Spirit).  American inventor Thomas Alva Edison’s film The Gay Brothers, the first film with a gay theme. 

1896 English writer Joe Randolph (J.R.) Ackerley, French writer Henry Marie Joseph Frédéric Expedite Millon de Montherlant, American composer Virgil Thomson, Russian choreographer and ballet dancer Leonid Fyodorovich Myasin (Léonide Massine), German Nazi Philipp, Prinz und Landgraf von Hessen, Chinese writer and poet Yu Dafu, French publisher Gustave Léon Beyria, American singer Ethel Waters, American novelist Myron Brinig, English peer Captain Napier (Naps) George Henry Sturt, 3rd Baron Alington, Japanese writer Nobuko Yoshiya, English Conservative politician Colonel Victor Alexander Cazalet, English writer Robert Cedric Sherriff and American writer and poet Robert Menzies McAlmon b. English painter Lord Frederic Leighton dies one day after elevation to a barony as 1st Baron Leighton. American Zuni Indian berdache We’wha and French poet Paul Verlaine d. British introduce anti-sodomy laws to Gold Coast (Ghana).  English academic the Reverend Frederick William Bussell becomes Vice-Principal of Brasenose College, Oxford (to 1944).  German rights campaigner and anarchist Adolf Brand publishes Der Eigene (The Special/Unique), world’s first homosexual journal (to 1931).  German sexologist Magnus Hirschfeld’s pamphlet, published under the pseudonym Th. Ramien, Sappho und Sokrates: Wie erklärt sich die Liebe der Männer und Frauen zu Personen des eigenen Geschlechts? (Sappho and Socrates: How Do We Understand the Love of Men and Women for Persons of Their Own Sex? ).  Otto Podjuki (‘Otto de Joux’)’s Die hellenische Liebe in der Gegenwart (Greek Love in the Present Day).  English scholar John Addington Symonds’s A Problem in Greek Ethics published. Sexologist Havelock Ellis’s Sexual Inversion published in Leipzig as Das Konträre Geschlectsgefühl.  Anglo-French poet Marc-André Raffalovich’s Uranisme et Unisexualité (Uranism and Unisexuality) published in Paris.  English academic Goldsworthy Lowes Dickinson’s The Greek View of Life. English academic the Reverend Frederick William Bussell’s School of Plato.  Anthology Der Eros und die Kunst: Ethischen Studien (Eros and Art: Ethical Studies) by German ‘Ludwig Frey’.  German poet August, Graf von Platen’s diaries published (and in 1900).  English writer E.F. Benson’s novel The Babe B.A.  English poet Lord Roden Noel’s My Sea and Other Poems.  English poet John Gambril Nicholson’s poems A Chaplet of Southernwood.  English poet A.E. Housman’s poems A Shropshire Lad.  English Lord Alfred Douglas’s Poems. English rights campaigner George Ives’s poems Book of Chains. Anglo-French poet, librarian and medical biographer Victor Gustave Plarr’s poems In the Dorian Mood 1896 (Decadents, Symbolists, Anti-Decadents).   American writers Fergus Redmond and Archibald Clavering Gunter’s play of their novel A Florida Enchantment. American novelist Henry Blake Fuller’s play At Saint Judas’.

1897 English journalist and writer Michael Davidson, American novelist and playwright Thornton Niven Wilder, American director Dorothy Arzner, French poet and novelist Louis Aragon, English sociologist Walter John Herbert ‘Sebastian’ Sprott, Sudeten German nationalist Heinrich (Heinz) Ruth, Australian actress Dame Judith Anderson, American composer Henry Cowell, Australian costume designer John Orry-Kelly, American film designer Natacha Rambova, English museum curator Sir Arthur Leigh Bolland Ashton, American female impersonator George Francis Peduzzi (Karyl Norman), English arabist Gerald de Gaury MC, German SA Deputy Leader Edmund Heines, Hungarian film star Lya de Putti, American art director Jere Abbott, Anglo-American Conservative MP Arthur Ronald Lambert Field Tree, English Prime Minister Robert Anthony Eden, 1st Earl of Avon, New Zealand writer Hector Bolitho, Brazilian director Alberto de Almeida Cavalcanti, English painter William Park (Gabriel) Atkin, American poet John Wheelwright,  Giovanni Battista Enrico Antonio Maria Montini (Pope Paul VI)  and Anglo-American politician and socialite Sir Henry (‘Chips’) Channon b.  English cleric and schoolmaster Reverend Charles John Vaughan and Friedrich Franz III, Grossherzog von Mecklenburg-Schwerin d.  America introduces anti-sodomy laws to Hawaii.  Mwanga II Mukasa, 31st Kabaka of Buganda deposed.  German sexologist Magnus Hirschfeld founds Wissenschaftlich-humanitäres Komitee (Scientific Humanitarian Committee ) in Charlotttenberg and petitions Reichstag to abolish German Legal Code’s Paragraph 175.  Start of German Social Democratic Party (S.P.D.)’s support for abolition of Paragraph 175.  German Kaiser Wilhelm II issues a decree against pederasty in the Army. English rights campaigner George Ives visits reformer Edward Carpenter at Millthorpe. Dutch criminal anthropologist Arnold Aletrino publishes an article saying homosexuals could be normal, non-criminal men.  Anglo-Irish playwright Oscar Wilde released from jail and goes to the Continent.  He goes to Naples with Lord Alfred Douglas and meets Neapolitan poet Giuseppe Garibaldi Rocco and Englishman I.D.W. [Sir John] Ashton; together they pick up Italian boys.  In Taormina he meets Latvian photographer Baron von Transéhe-Roseneck, English Russophile and antiques dealer Albert Henry Stopford and German ‘Baron’ Wilhelm von Gloeden.  Londoner Alfred Waterhouse Somerset Taylor released from jail and goes to the U.S.  English art historian and critic Sir Claude Phillips becomes first Keeper of the Wallace Collection (to 1911).  The last edition of the English literary journal The Yellow Book.  Sexologist Havelock Ellis’s Sexual Inversion published in German as Die Homosexualität; its first British edition includes scholar John Addington Symonds’s A Problem in Modern Ethics, but is bought up by Scottish historian Horatio Brown and suppressed.  Its second edition brought out without Symonds’s name on title page.  English writer Wilfred Austin Gill’s Edward Cracroft Lefroy: His Life and Poems.  English schoolmaster and poet William (Johnson) Cory’s Extracts from the Letters and Journals.  American poet Walt Whitman’s Calamus: A Series of Letters Written During the Years 1868-1880 by Walt Whitman to a Young Friend, Peter Doyle.  Anglo-Irish playwright Oscar Wilde writes autobiographical De Profundis.  English Army officer Kenneth Searight’s erotic collection Paidikion commences (to 1917).  Swedish writer August Strindberg’s autobiographical novel Inferno. French poet and novelist Paul Duval (Jean Lorrain)’s novel Monsieur de Bougrelon.  French writer André Gide’s novel Les Nourritures terrestres (Fruits of the Earth). English rights campaigner George Ives’s poems A Book of Chains, including ‘With Whom, Then, Should I Sleep’.  English writer Arthur Symons’s poems Amoris Victima (Victim of Love).  (to 1898) French composer Claude Debussy sets friend Belgian-French poet and photographer Pierre Félix Louis (Pierre Louÿs)’s prose poems Les Chanson de Billitis (Songs of Bilitis) for piano and voice (Lesure Number 90).

1898 German poet and playwright Bertolt Brecht, German actor Hans Heinrich von Twardowski, English journalist and writer Beverley Nichols, American photographer Berenice Abbott, Spanish poet and dramatist Federico del Sagrado Corazón de Jesús García Lorca, Russian painter Pavel Tchelitchew, American actor Randolph Scott, English actress Gertrude Lawrence, American director Mitchell Leisen, French editor Gaston Lestrade, Anglo-Canadian poet Elsa Gidlow, Polish painter Maria Górska (Tamara de Lempicka), French writer Pierre Guyolot-Dubasty (Axerios), Italian Jeweller Fulco Santo Stefano della Cerda, Duca della Verdura e di Carolina Valguarnera dei principi di Niscemi e Marchese di Murata La Cerda (Fulco di Verdura), Australian fashion editor Madge McHarg (Garland), Lady Ashton, Anglo-American socialite Robert Gould Shaw III, English academic Sir Cecil Maurice Bowra, American pianist Allen C. Tanner,   Anglo-Irish playboy Herbert Frank (Adrian) Bishop, English harpsichord maker Thomas Goff, English freelance architect and photographer Montague Charles Glover and Russian film director Sergei Mikhailovich Eisenstein b.  English poet Joseph William Gleeson White, Chichester Samuel Parkinson-Fortescue, 2nd Baron Clermont and 1st Baron Carlingford, and English illustrator Aubrey Beardsley d.  English Vagrancy Act outlaws importuning or soliciting.  American anti-sodomy law introduced to the Phlippines, Guam and Puerto Rico.  English trials at the Old Bailey of blackmailers of homosexuals; Andrew Grant ‘Queen Anne’, Henry Coulton and Albert Edward Thorpe given life sentences, William Allen and Robert Cliburn seven years.  German Social Democratic Party sponsors a debate in the Reichstag on repealing Paragraph 175 but fails.  German Scientific-Humanitarian Committee’s pamphlet Eros vor dem Reichsgericht (Eros before the Imperial Court). German Prinz Aribert Joseph Alexander von Anhalt dismissed for pederasty by Kaiser Wilhelm II. German Friedrich Botho Graf zu Eulenburg flees to Italy.   George Bedborough, Secretary of the Legitimization League, convicted of selling ‘lewd’ book, sexologist Havelock Ellis’s Sexual Inversion (2nd edition). Australian poet and writer Frederic Manning brought to England by Reverend Arthur Galton.  Future volumes of Ellis’s work Studies in the Psychology of Sex (of which Sexual Inversion forms Volume 2) all published in the U.S.  Kansas asylum castrates 48 homosexuals. Aberdeen press attacks English writer Frederick Rolfe. Henry Cyril Paget ‘Toppy’, Earl of Uxbridge becomes 5th Marquess of Anglesey. German industrialist Friedrich Krupp commences holidays on Capri.  French writer A. Essebac’s ‘Partenza’……. vers le beauté! (‘Partenza’ – to the Beauty!).  English writer Arthur Symons’s Aubrey Beardsley.  Swedish writer August Strindberg’s autobiographical sketches Legends.  English reformer Edward Carpenter’s Some Friends of Walt Whitman: A Study in Sex Psychology.  Scottish writer Kenneth Grahame’s novel Dream Days.  English writer Frederick Rolfe’s Stories Toto Told Me.  English magus and writer Aleister Crowley’s poems Jephthah and Other Mysteries, Lyrical and Dramatic and White Stains: The Literary Remains of George Archibald Bishop, a Neuropath. English poet Edmund St. Gascoigne Mackie’s poems Charmides: or, ‘Oxford Twenty Years Ago’.  Anglo-Irish playwright Oscar Wilde’s poem The Ballad of Reading Gaol.

1899 Actor playwright Sir Noël Coward, Anglo-Irish producer and actor Alfred Willmore (Michéal MacLiammóir),  American letter writer Jebb Alexander, American poet Harold Hart Crane, Australian artist Sir William Dobell, French composer Francis Jean Marcel Poulenc, English actor Charles Laughton, Mexican American actor Ramón Navarro, Chinese sociologist and eugenicist Pan Guangdan, Japanese novelist Miyamoto Yuriko, English historian, economist and Cooperativist George Douglas Howard (G.D.H.) Cole, American director George Dewey Cukor, Anglo-French actress and theatre producer Eva Le Gallienne, English Conservative politician Sir Ian Macdonald Horobin, English actor and producer George K. Arthur, American film producer Irving Grant Thalberg,  German dancer prostitute Anita Berber, American publisher Monroe Wheeler, German sexologist Richard Linsert, English architectural conservationist and editor of Country Life Christopher Edward Clive Hussey, Anglo-Polish author and Islamist Romauld (Rom) Landau,  English Conservative politician Derick Heathcoat-Amory, 1st Viscount Amory and 4th Baronet, English Conservative politician Sir Ian Macdonald Horobin, German diplomat and anti-Nazi Wolfgang Gans Edler Herr zu Putlitz, Alice Wrench (Princess Dilkusha de Rohan) and English colonial Governor Oliver, 2nd Earl Baldwin b.  American writer Reverend Horatio Alger, English academic and writer Wilfred Austin Gill and French artist Rosa Bonheur d.  America and Germany introduce anti-sodomy laws to Samoa.  Maharaja Sir Kishan Singh becomes Maharajah of Bharatpur.  German sexologist Magnus Hirschfeld starts Jahrbuch für sexuelle Zwischenstufen (Yearbook on Sexual Intermediaries) in Germany (to 1923).  German ethnologist Dr. Michael Haberlandt records male prostitution in Zanzibar.  Japanese publication Eastern World attacks same-sex practices.  German Adolf Brand publishes Baltic German poet and writer Elisar von Kupffer (Elisarion)’s anthology Lieblingminne und Freundesliebe in der Weltliteratur (Preferred Form of Love and Love of Friends in World Literature) written as a response to the imprisonment of Oscar Wilde.   South African writer and art historian Henry Currie (H.C.) Marillier writes preface to the Early Works of Aubrey Beardsley.  Russian writer and philosopher Vasili Vasilievich Rozanov’s book People of the Moonlight.  William Brenton Greene’s article ‘The Metaphysics of Christian Apologetics’ in The Presbyterian and Reformed Review.  English writer Edward A.W. Clarke’s novel Jaspar Tristram.  Belgian writer Georges Eeekhoud’s novel Escal-Vigor (translated in 1930 as A Strange Love -  A Novel of Abnormal Passion), its author prosecuted but not found guilty of pornography in Bruges. English Lord Alfred Douglas’s poems The City of the Soul.  English writer Arthur Symons’s poems Images of Good and Evil.  American artist Thomas Cowperthwaite Eakins’s painting Wrestlers.  (C 1899) Italian painter Marcello Dudovich’s poster for Inchostri.

20TH CENTURY

1900 English Admiral of the Fleet Louis, 1st Earl Mountbatten of Burma, last Viceroy of India, English Admiral of the Fleet Sir Charles Edward Lambe, American writer in French Julian Hartridge (Julien) Green, American academic and critic Professor Newton Arvin, English writer and bibliographer Alphonse James Albert (A.J.A.) Symons, Sri Lankan cinematographer, collector and musician Lionel Wendt, Japanese historian Iwata Jun’ichi, American actress Jean Arthur, American actress Joan Crawford, American actor William Haines, American explorer Richard Halliburton, English Conservative politician Robert John Graham Boothby, Baron Boothby, British power boat racer Marion Barbara (Joe) Carstairs, Baltic German fashion photographer Baron George Hoyningen-Huene, English student and model for Peter Pan, Michael Llewelyn Davies, English student and poet Rupert Erroll Victor Buxton, French surrealist writer René Crevel, French singer Suzanne Marion (Suzy Solidor), Japanese mathematics teacher Chiyo Monma, American script writer George Oppenheimer,  Canadian composer Colin McPhee, Chilean-French art collector Arturo (Arturito) López Willshaw, communist René Crevel, English courtesan (Jessie) Doris Delevingne, Viscountess Castlerosse,  English socialite the Honourable Hamish St Clair Erskine, American arts sponsor Arthur Everett (Chick) Austin, Jr., German activist Karl Giese, English composer Alan Bush, German activist Max Miede, English artist Sir Roland Algernon Penrose, French writer and photographer Marc Allégret and American composer Aaron Copland b.  German philosopher Friedrich Nietzsche, Anglo-Irish playwright Oscar Wilde and Anglo-American writer Walter Blackburn Harte d.  Maharajadhiraja Raj Rajeshwar Sawai Shri Sir Shivaji Rao Holkar Bahadur XII of Indore forbidden trips abroad by the Viceroy of India due to his scandalous behaviour.  English author and aesthete Reginald ‘Reggie’ Turner forced to leave England.  English Lord Alfred Douglas attacked by boys’ pimps in Paris.  German Prinz Aribert Joseph Alexander von Anhalt has his marriage annulled, reputedly because of his homosexuality. The Correspondence of Thomas Gray ed. Duncan C. Tovey, vol. 1.  Austrian playwright and poet Franz Seraphicus Grillparzer’s Briefe und Tagebücher (Diary and Correspondence).  French novelist Achille Bécasse (Achille Essebac)’s novels Luc (Luke) and L’Élu (The Chosen One). Scottish historian Horatio Forbes Brown’s poems, Drift.  English rights campaigner George Cecil Ives’s poems Eros’ Throne.  

1901 American novelist Glenway Wescott, English policeman Harry Daley, English designer Sir Norman Hartnell, German film star singer Marie Magdalene (Marlene) Dietrich, American actor Clark Gable, American anthropologist Margaret Mead, American sculptor Thelma Ellen Wood, American painter Beauford Delaney, Chinese Peking opera star Zhu Qinxin, American puppeteer and novelist Forman Brown (Richard Meeker), American actor singer Nelson Ackerman Eddy, American actress Mildred Harris, English actress Blyth (Blythe) Daly, English music critic and writer Edward Charles Sackville-West, 5th Baron Sackville, King Paul of Greece, English painter John Christopher (Kit) Wood, English socialite and antiquarian the Honourable Ralph Edward (Eddie) Gathorne-Hardy,  French composer Henri-Pierre Poupard (Henri Sanguet), French journalist and writer Robert de Saint-Jean, French director Jean Grémillon, English novelist John Frederick Norman Hampson Simpson (John Hampson), Anglo-Irish politician Brendan Bracken, 1st Viscount Bracken, English architect Paul Edward Paget, English diplomat and historian Stewart Henry Perowne, English secret agent Denis Rake, English actor Eric Portman, French theologian and philosopher Jean Guitton and English poet Wilfrid Scawen Blunt b.  English magistrate Sir Franklin Rushington, French composer Prince Edmond Melchior Jean Marie de Polignac and Amir Abdur Rahman Khan of Afghanistan d. Hong Kong codifies legislation in Offences against the Person Ordinance with buggery attracting a life sentence.  Dutch criminal anthropologist Arnold Aletrino defends homosexuals at the Fifth Congress of Criminal Anthropology in Amsterdam.  English art gallery director Arthur Bellamy Clifton and art expert and writer More Adey open Carfax Gallery, Camden Town, London.  Mexico City police arrest 41 males at a dance.  German Grossherzog Ernst Ludwig Karl Albrecht Wilhelm von Hessen und bei Rhein divorced by wife, Victoria Melita, for homosexuality.  Japanese guide to schools warns pupils against accepting tuition in return for same-sex.  English scholar John Addington Symonds’s A Problem in Modern Ethics published. German Scientific-Humanitarian Committee’s pamphlet Was Soll das Volk vom dritten Geschlecht Wissen? (What Should the People Know about the Third Sex?).  American writer Claude Hartland’s autobiography The Story of a Life.  English writer Frederick Rolfe’s novel In His Own Image.  French novelist Achille Bécasse (Achille Essebac)’s novel Dédé.  French courtesan Liane de Pougy’s novel Idylle Saphique.  French poet and novelist Paul Duval (Jean Lorrain)’s novel Monsieur de Phocas.  English poet Percy Lancelot Osborn’s poems Rose Leaves from Philostratus.  

1902 The Prince George Edward Alexander Edmund (Babe), Duke of Kent, American poet James Mercer Langston Hughes, English film director Anthony (Puff) Asquith, American actress Tallulah Brockman Bankhead, American novelist André Tellier, Spanish poet Luis Cernuda, American actor Will Geer, English artist Edward Eardley Knollys, English mountaineer Andrew (Sandy) Comyn Irvine, French artist and designer Christian (Bébé) Bérard, American costume designer Walter Plunkett, English schoolmaster and M.P. Maurice Christopher Hollis, English historian Richard Pares, Barbadian author and actor Terence Lucy Greenidge, English politician Alexander Gavin Henderson, 2nd Baron Faringdon, English Liberal politician Robert Hamilton Bernays, American art historian Alfred Hamilton Barr, Jr., English art critic Adrian Stokes, German writer Kurt Neuburger, English literary scholar and director George Humphrey Wolferstan [Dadie) Rylands, William Cecil James Philip John Paul Howard, 8th Earl of Wicklow (Billy Clonmore), American dancer and activist Mabel Hampton and American critic Francis Otto (F.O.) Matthiessen b.  Friedrich Wilhelm Ernst Georg Prinz von Preussen,  English imperialist businessman Cecil Rhodes and English writer Samuel Butler d. English poet Lionel Pigot Johnson d an alcoholic.   German industrialist Friedrich ‘Fritz’ Krupp deported from Italy for sex with minors. Krupp scandal engulfs community on Capri; German artist Christian Wilhelm Allers flees to New Zealand and changes his name to Andresen.  German photographer Wilhelm von Plüschow (Guglielmo Plüschow) convicted of procuration and seduction of minors in Naples and sentenced to eight months jail.  German Social Democratic Party paper Vorwärts reports Krupps scandal.  Suicide of Friedrich ‘Fritz’ Krupp. German photographer Wilhelm von Plüschow (Guglielmo Plüschow) convicted of procuration and seduction of minors in Naples and sentenced to eight months jail.  German ethnologist and historian Heinrich Schurtz’s Altersklassen und Männerbünde: Eine Darstellung der Grundformen der Gesellschaft (Ages and Male Bonding:  A Presentation of the Basic Forms of Society).  English writer Robert Harborough Sherard’s semi-autiobiographical Oscar Wilde: The Story of an Unhappy Friendship.  Lord Ronald Gower’s Old Diaries, 1881-1901. English reformer Edward Carpenter’s collection Iolaus: An Anthology of Friendship.  American novelist Owen Wister’s novels The Virginian and A Horseman of the Plains.  French writer André Gide’s novel L’Immoraliste (The Immoralist).  French writer Colette’s novel Claudine en ménage (Claudine Married).  French writer Jean Lombard’s novel L’Agonie (The Agony).  Danish writer Herman Joachim Bang’s novel Mikaël.  English poets Arthur Edward (E.) Knox and Arthur Linton’s A Book of Poems.  English poet Roden Noel’s The Collected Poems.  English writer Arthur Symons’s Poems.  Paul Gaughin’s paintings Man in a Red Cape and Bathers.

1903 Belgian French writer Marguerite Yourcenar, American poet Countee Cullen, American author Charles Reginald Jackson, English writer Rupert Croft-Cooke, American author and diarist Anaïs Nin, American cooking writer James Beard, English historian Alfred Leslie (A.L.) Rowse, English writer Evelyn Waugh, English critic and writer Cyril Vernon Connolly, American pianist and composer Vladimir Samoylovich Horowitz, Soviet mathematician Andrey Nikolaevich Kolmogorov, American director Vincente Minnelli, American actress Josephine Hutchinson, Austrian dancer and actress Ottilie Ethel Leopoldine (Tilly) Losch, Countess of Carnarvon, English film maker John Sutro, English opera director Sir David Webster, English art historian Roger Packman Hinks, New Zealand writer James Francis Courage, French writer Raymond Radiguet, Anglo-Irish actor and producer Hilton Edwards, Swiss adventurer and writer Ella Maillart, English diplomat Sir Arthur Harry Tandy, Argentine/English historian and novelist Alfredo León (Alfred) Duggan, American artist Maurice Grosser,  American poet Edwin Denby, American artist Thomas Dabney Mabrey, American architectural historian Henry-Russell Hitchcock, American photographer Walker Evans, Anglo-Irish aristocrat Arthur Paul John James Charles Gore, 7th Earl of Arran, English dancer Ernest Reginald Wollfield (Rupert Doone), Anglo-American MP Hamilton Kerr, Irish author and British MP William Teeling, British historian Sir James Cochran Stevenson Runciman, English Master of Wellington College Robert (Bobby/Bobbie) Paton Longden, English composer Sir Lennox Randal Francis Berkeley, Russian Jewish painter George Bergen, American photographer Walker Evans, American actress Owena Wolcott (Ona Munson), Austrian-American singer Margaretha (Greta) Keller, French writer Pierre Herbart and English writer William Plomer b.  Mwanga II, Kabaka of Buganda, American miners Jason Chamberlain and John Chaffee,  Anglo-Irish Post Office Secretary Gustavus Charles Cornwall (Cornwall-Dalyell), English stockbroker Hugh Weguelin and English cleric Frederic William Farrar d. Scot Major-General Sir Hector Macdonald’s suicide.  Suicide (?) of English trader and philanthropist Quintin Hogg.  Russian penal code reduces penalty for same-sex acts to at least three months’ imprisonment.  Frederic William Farrar Baron d’Adelswärd-Fersen and Comte Hamelin Francois Albert de Warren accused of ‘public offence against decency’ in Paris for holding gay parties and black masses, sentenced to six months’ imprisonment and a fine.  New York police conduct the first raid recorded in the U.S. on a gay bathhouse, the Ariston Hotel Baths; 26 men arrested and 12 brought to trial on sodomy charges, 7 men receiving sentences ranging from 4 to 20 years in prison. German rights campaigner Adolf Brand and sexologist Benedict Friedlander found Gemeinschaft der Eigenen (Community of the Special), an organisation to repeal Paragraph 175 of the German Legal Code. Brand is imprisoned for two months for ‘lascivious content’ in his Der Eigene magazine.  Russian-American Vladimir Vladimirovich Nabokov’s pamphlet against state interference in same sex issues.  German sexologist Magnus Hirschfeld’s pamphlet Der urnischer Mensch (The Uranian Person).  German physician Edwin Bab’s Die Gleichgeschlechtliche Liebe (Same-sex Love).  Austrian philosopher Otto Weininger’s Geschlecht und Charakter (Sex and Character). American writer Gertrude Stein’s unpublished novel Q.E.D.  American author Charles Warren Stoddard’s novel For the Pleasure of His Company: An Affair of the Misty City. French novelist Jacques Élie Henri Ambrose Ner (Han Rymer)’s novel La Fille manqué (The Would-be Girl).  American writer Henry James’s novella The Beast in the Jungle.  American poet and art collector Arthur Lyon Raile (Edward ‘Ned’ Perry Warren)’s Itamos: a Volume of Poems. German writer Hans Ostwald’s Lieder aus dem Rinnstein (Songs from the Gutter), 3 vols. (to 1906). French writer André Gide’s play Saul.

1904 English author Christopher Isherwood, English actor Sir John Gielgud, English aesthete Sir Harold Acton, English diplomat Alastair Graham, English novelist Angela du Maurier, American writer and poet Harrison Parker Tyler, English-American film star Archibald Alexander Leach (Cary Grant), American artist Paul Cadmus, English artist Oliver Hilary Samborne Messel, English writer Mary Renault, Umberto II, King of Italy, Spanish artist Salvador Dali, French ballet dancer and choreographer Serge Lifar, Mexican writer and poet Salvador Novo López, Japanese artist Okawa Tatsuji, American actor Charles (Buddy) Rogers, American photographer Jerome Zerbe, English stage and house designer Oliver Hilary Sambourne Messel, English dancer and choreographer Sir Frederick William Mallandaine Ashton, Franco-Russian editor Nicolas Louis Alexandre (Niki), Baron de Gunzburg , Russian dancer and librettist Boris Evgenievich Kochno, Dutch musician and resistance fighter Frieda Belinfante, American journalist Paul Mooney, American landscape architect and homophile movement founder William Dorr Lambert Legg (W. Dorr Legg), the Honourable Hugh Patrick Lygon, Scottish historian John Patrick Douglas Balfour, 3rd Baron Kinross, English actor Anthony (Tony) Arnatt Bushell,  American author, critic and librarian George Reynolds Freedley, English Sir Peter Norton-Griffiths, 2nd Baronet,  American academic biographer Howard N. Doughty, English politician Alan Tindal Lennox-Boyd, 1st Viscount Boyd of Merton, English Conservative politician John Selwyn Brooke Lloyd, Baron Selwyn-Lloyd, English writer Lieutenant Commander Anthony Heckstall-Smith DSC, Welsh photographer Angus McBean, English ballet dancer and choreographer Sydney Francis Patrick Chippendall Healey-Kay (Sir Anton Dolin), American director Moss Hart and English photographer Sir Cecil Beaton b.  Welsh American explorer and journalist John Rowlands (Sir Henry Morton Stanley), Captain Martin Oranmore Kirwan of the Royal Irish Fusiliers, English cross dressing Thomas Ernest (Stella) Boulton and Irish prostitute Jack Saul d.  Scandal of homosexual orgies in the Paris studio of English painter Ernest Boulton involves many figures but all are acquitted.  Photographers Austrian Rudolph Franz Lehnert and German Ernst Heinrich Landrock found photographic studio in Tunis. German judge August Hesse shoots a homosexual blackmailer in Berlin but is set free.  German (Saxon) lawyer Dr. Paul Ackermann sentenced to two months’ suspended jail for homosexual offence with blackmailer.  German activist Adolf Brand’s pamphlet Kaplan Dasbach und die Freundesliebe (Kaplan Dasbach and Friend-love) outs Jesuit politician Kaplan Dasbach who resigns as leader of the Center Party and is said to commit suicide in 1907.  German Heinrich Magnus Hirschfeld’s Berlins drittes Geschlecht (Berlin’s Third Sex). He starts Jahrbuch für sexuelle Zwischenstufen (Yearbook on Sexual Intermediaries), which runs for 23 volumes.  German sexologist Benedict Friedländer’s Renaissance des Eros Uranios (Renaissance of Uranian Love).  French playwright Oscar Méténier’s Virtus et vices allemands (German Virtues and Vices).  American sexologist Charles Godfrey Leland’s The Alternative Sex: or, The Female Intellect in Men, and the Masculine in Women.  English poet Charles Edward Sayle’s three-volume edition of works of English writer Sir Thomas Browne.  French Marquis de Sade’s Les Cint Vingt Journées de Sodom (120 Days of Sodom) published. Thomas Wright’s The Life of Edward Fitzgerald.  The Correspondence of Thomas Gray ed. Duncan C. Tovey, vols 2-3.  English writer Arthur Symons’s Studies in Prose and Verse.  English biographer Thomas Wright’s Life of Edward Fitzgerald.   English poet John Henry Gray’s The Last Letters of Aubrey Beardsley.  English writer Howard Overing Sturgis’s novel Belchamber.  English writer Hector Hugh Munro (Saki)’s novel Reginald. American writer Charles Warren Stoddard’s novel The Island of Tranquil Delights.  English writer Frederick Rolfe (Baron Corvo)’s novel Hadrian VII.  French novelist louis Lumet’s novel Les cahiers d’un congréganiste (Notes from a Congreganist).  French novelist Jules Hoche’s novel Moeurs d’exception: Le Vice mortel (Exceptional Habits: Deadly Vice).  French novelist Eugène Bouton (Jean Rodes)’s novel Les Adolescents: Moeurs collégiennnes (The Adolescents: College Habits). French poet and novelist Paul Duval (Jean Lorrain)’s novel La Maison Philibert (The House of Philibert).  Dutch poet Jacob Israël de Haan’s novel  Pijpelijntjes (Lines from De Pijp) causes him to be dismissed as a teacher.  Hermann Breuer (Bill Forster)’s novel Anders als die Andern (Different from the Others).  English writer E.M. Forster’s short story ‘The Story of a Panic’.  German playwright Benjamin Franklin (Frank) Wedekind’s play Die Büchse der Pandora (Pandora's Box).  German painter Paul Hoecker’s portrait on Capri of Nino Cesarini, lover of French Baron Adelswärd-Fersen. German painter Rudolph Karl Alexander (Sascha) Schneider’s painting Hypnose (Hypnosis).

1905  English writer Sjovald Cunyngham-Brown, American painter Jared French, English politician Thomas Edward Neil (Tom) Driberg, Swedish film star Greta Lovisa Gustafsson (Greta Garbo), English aesthete Brian Howard, English composer Sir Michael Tippett, Welsh actor Emlyn Williams, German actress, English Major Sir Herbert Paul Latham, 2nd Baronet and M.P., German writer Erika Julia Hedwig Mann, American tycoon Howard Hughes, American composer and librettist Marcus (Marc) Samuel Blitzstein, American actress Joan Crawford, American actress Clara Gordon Bow, French director Jean Vigo, English writer Sidney Arthur Brahma Rogers, American art collector Arthur Jeffress, Alexander (Lexel) Friedrich Wilhelm Georg Konrad Ernst Maximilian Graf von Hochberg, Baron zu Fürstenstein, 5th Fürst von Pless, French religious Jean Bourgoint, English painter Reginald John ‘Rex’ Whistler, English travel writer Robert Byron, German bass singer Doda Conrad, French writer André Fraigneau, English painter Charles Robert Owen Medley, Irish Conservative politician Colonel John (Jack) Robert Jermain Macnamara, English Labour politician Thomas Cecil (Tom) Skeffington-Lodge, English actor and scriptwriter Sir Basil Hardington Bartlett, 2nd Baronet, English colonial governor Sir Roland Evelyn Turnbull, American theatrical producer Richard Halliday and English artist Edward Burra b.  English 1st Premier of Queensland Sir Robert George Wyndham Herbert, Henry Cyril Paget ‘Toppy’, 5th Marquess of Anglesey, English Lieutenant-Colonel John Wallace Hozier, William (Willie) Fear Dyer (choirboy beloved of John Addington Symonds)  and English painter Simeon Solomon d. German Jewish Kommerzienrat (Commercial Counsel) Hermann Israel commits suicide after homosexual blackmail.  Grand Duke Sergei Alexandrovich of Russia assassinated.  Anglo-French poet Marc-André Raffalovich builds church and clergy house for English poet John Henry Gray in Edinburgh.  German publisher Adolf Brand imprisoned for two months for ‘lewd items; in magazine Der Eigene (The Unique).  Austrian psychiatrist Sigmund Freud’s Drei Abhandlungen zur Sexualtheorie (Three Essays on the Theory of Sexuality) published in Vienna.  English bibliographer Christopher Sclater Millard (Stuart Mason) translates essay of French writer André Gide on Irish playwright Oscar Wilde. Oscar Wilde’s autobiographical De Profundis published.  English writer Robert Harborough Sherard (Kennedy)’s autobiography Twenty Years in Paris: Being Some Recollections of a Literary Life.  French Baron Jacques d’Adelswärd Fersen’s novel Lord Lyllian.  English writer E.M. Forster’s novel Where Angels Fear to Tread.  English writer Horace Annesley Vachell’s novel The Hill: A Romance of Friendship.  Irish novelist Forrest Reid’s novel The Garden God.  French novelist Ferri-Pisani’s novel Les Pervertis, roman d’un potache (Perverts: A Schoolboy Novel).  English writer Arthur Annesley Ronald Firbank’s book of two short stories, Odette d’Antrevernes and A Study in Temperament.  Scottish German writer John Henry Mackay (Sagitta) commences his series of stories Die Bücher der namenlosen Liebe (Books of the Nameless Love).  American writer Willa Sibert Cather’s stories ‘Paul’s Case’ and ‘The Sculptor’s Funeral’.  English writer A.C. Benson reprints English schoolmaster and poet William (Johnson) Cory’s poems.  English writer John Moray Stuart-Young’s Osrac, the Self-Sufficient and Other Poems, with a Memoir of the Late Oscar Wilde and An Urning’s Love. (Being a Poetic Study of Morbidity).  Arthur Symons’s A Book of Twenty Songs.  American author and poet Wallace de Groot Cecil Rice’s poetry compilation The Athlete’s Garland.  German painter Rudolph Karl Alexander (Sascha) Schneider’s painting Morgendämmerung (Dawn).

1906 American writer and painter Richard Bruce Nugent, English interior designer John Beresford Fowler, American writer Frederick Prokosch, English director John Richard Schlesinger, French writer Maurice Sachs, English aesthete Stephen James Napier Tennant, English writer Godfrey Winn, American editor and novelist George Davis, Emperor Pu Yi of China, English poet Valentine Ackland, English artist and architect Felix Harbord, English Sidney Herbert, 16th Earl of Pembroke, 13th Earl of Montgomery, English museum curator Carl Winter, American architect Philip Cortelyou Johnson, German-American photographer Horst Paul Albert Bohrmann (Horst P. Horst), English actor Alan Webb, English academic John Hanbury Angus Sparrow, Irish actor, playwright and theatrical agent Arthur John Perry, Hungarian British writer Adam De Hegedus (Rodney Garland), American dancer and choreographer Lester Horton, English botanist and diplomat Mark Ogilvie-Grant, American writer John Myers Myers, American editor of Musical America Cecil Michener Smith, English poet laureate Sir John Betjeman, English physicist Professor Derek Ainslie Jackson, English lover of Robert Heber-Percy, Captain Hugh Gordon Cruddas Porteus, German writer Klaus Mann, English Conservative politician Alexander Victor Edward Paulet Montagu, 10th Earl of Sandwich, Leader of the British Labour Party Hugh Todd Naylor Gaitskell, Turkish painter Nurullah Berk, English author Terence Hanbury (Tim; T.H.) White, American poet Robert Nichols Montague Hunt  and Italian director Luchino Visconti b. American rights campaigner Susan B. Anthony, American singer Josephine Baker, South African production designer Michael Weight and French poet and novelist Paul Duval (Jean Lorrain) d.  German journalist Maximilian Harden begins publishing articles in Die Zukunft (The Future) on homosexuality at the German court, accusing Fürst Philipp zu Eulenburg-Hertefeld, Lieutenant General Graf Kuno Augustus Friedrich Karl Detlev von Moltke and others of the Kaiser’s circle of homosexuality.  German Wilhelm Jansen becomes leader of the Alt-Wandervogel.  English bibliographer Christopher Sclater Millard (Stuart Mason) jailed for three months for gross indecency. Welsh writer Ernest Percival Rhys founds Dents’s Everyman’s Library book series. German writer Hans Ostwald’s Männliche Prostitution im kaiserlichen Berlin (Male Prostitution in Imperial Berlin).  German zoologist and anthropologist Ferdinand Karsch-Haack’s Das gleichgeschlechtliche Leben der Kulturvölker - Ostasiaten: Chinesen, Japanese, Korea (The Homosexual Life of the Civilised Peoples – East Asian: Chinese, Japanese, Korean).  Edward Carpenter’s Days with Walt Whitman.  English writer A.C. Benson’s Walter Pater. English journalist and biographer Robert Harborough Sherard’s The Life of Oscar Wilde.  American writer Ambrose Gwinnett Bierce’s The Cynic’s Wordbook.  American essayist Henry David Thoreau’s Journal published in 14 volumes, ed. Bradford Torrey and Francis H. Allen.  American writer Edward Irenaeus Prime-Stevenson (Xavier Mayne)’s novel Imre: A Memorandum, America’s first openly gay novel, published privately in Naples. Austrian novelist Robert Musil’s novel Die Verwirrungen des Zöglings Törleß (The Confusions of Young Torless).  German writer  Guido Hermann Eckardt (Fritz Geron Pernauhm)’s novel Die Infamen (The Infamy).  Russian writer Mikhail Alekseyevich Kuzmin’s novel Kril’ya (Wings).  English writer John Moray Stuart-Young’s novel Passion’s Peril.  (to 1910) Chinese writer Zhang Chunfan’s novel Jiuweigui (Nine-tailed Turtle – Nine Times Cuckold).  English writer Arthur Symons’s The Fool of the World and Other Poems.  French illustrator Édouard-Henri Avril (Paul Avril)’s lithograph ‘Hadrian and Antinoüs’ in Manuel d’érotologie classique, an edition of Friedrich Karl Forberg’s 1824 anthology of classical erotic texts, De figuris Veneris.  German painter Rudolph Karl Alexander (Sascha) Schneider’s painting Ikarus.

1907 Louis Ferdinand Viktor Eduard Albert Michael Hubertus Prinz von Preussen, English poet W.H. Auden, English poet Rudolf John Frederick (John) Lehmann, American photographer George Platt Lynes, English spy Anthony Blunt, English writer Daphne du Maurier, English actor Sir Laurence Olivier, American writer, impresario and art connoisseur Lincoln Edward Kirstein, French diplomat, writer and rights campaigner Roger Peyrefitte, Mexican painter Frida Kahlo, American actor Cesar (Butch) Romero, American actress Barbara Stanwyck, American writer and poet Hubert Creekmore, American actress Glesca Marshall, English socialite Sir Charles Michael Robert Vivian Duff, 3rd Baronet, Anglo-Irish writer and music critic Desmond Christopher Shawe-Taylor, English photographer Leonard John French, American Republican official Arthur Hendrick Vandenberg, Jr., American theatrical lawyer L. Arnold Weisberger, American songwriter Alexander (Alec) Lafayette Chew Wilder, Welsh playwright Keith Winter, English Lady Sibell Rowley (nee Lygon),  British poet Edward William Frank James, American writer and journalist Lucius Morris Beebe, English T.V. broadcaster and journalist Gilbert Charles Harding, English writer Maurice Richardson, American journalist Varian Mackey Fry, American singer Gladys Bentley, Ulster politician and historian Harford (H.) Montgomery Hyde, American debutante Leslie Foster (later Nast, then Lady Benson), Irish-American Elizabeth Maud Kerr-Smiley (Mrs Christopher Hussey), English Conservative politician Major John Ronald Hamilton Cartland, English Labour politician Richard Howard Stafford Crossman, English female impersonator Barri Chatt, English jazz composer Reginald Foresythe, English ballet dancer and designer William Evelyn Chappell, French indologist Alain Daniélou and English schoolmaster and writer Thomas Cuthbert (T.C.) Worsley b. French novelist Charles-Marie-Georges Huysmans (Joris-Karl Huysmans), English Secretary of Lloyds Colonel Sir Henry Montague Hozier and American poet Walt Whitman’s lover Peter Doyle d. Transvaal Colony and Swaziland Roman-Dutch law prohibits homosexuality.  Gustav V becomes King of Sweden.  Irish Dublin Castle scandal; theft of Irish Crown Jewels by Francis Shackleton and disgrace of Chief Herald, Sir Arthur Vicars and Dublin Herald Francis Richard Shackleton; revealed to be honosexual were Vicars, his close friend George Gordon, Lord Haddo, the eldest son of the 1st Marquis of Aberdeen and Temair, the Viceroy and Lord Lieutenant of Ireland; Shackleton and his ‘intimate friend’ Captain Richard Gorges, an instructor at the Curragh Camp; Francis Bennett-Goldney M.P., Athlone Pursuivant; and another intimate friend of Shackleton, John George Edward Henry Douglas Sutherland Campbell, 9th Duke of Argyll, who was married to Princess Louise, sister to King Edward VII and had been (as the Marquis of Lorne) Governor General of Canada.  Friedrich Heinrich, Prince of Prussia, refuses Grand Mastership of the Knights of St John on grounds of his own homosexuality. German scandal of Fürst Philipp zu Eulenburg-Hertefeld, General-Leutnant Graf Kuno von Moltke; first trials involving both.  German publisher Adolf Brand alleges that Reichskanzler (Imperial Chancellor) Fürst Bernhard von Bülow had a relationship with his Private Secretary, Privy Councillor Max Scheefer; at libel trial Brand is imprisoned for 18 months.  Scandal involving German photographer Wilhelm von Plüschow (Guglielmo Plüschow) in Naples.  English sexologist Havelock Ellis writes of this in socialist journal New Age, saying ‘to be abnormal is not to be unnatural’. American writers Gertrude Stein and Alice B. Toklas meet.  English academic Oscar Browning leaves King’s College Cambridge.  British report of South African miners taking amankotshane or izinkotshane (young male concubines) in mining camps.  English biographer Thomas Wright’s The Life of Walter Pater.  Ranger Gull [Leonard Creswell Ingleby]’s Oscar Wilde. German writer Elisar von Kupffer’s biography Giovan Antonio - il Sodoma and play Aino und Tio.  English poet and critic Sir Edmund Gosse’s autobiography, Father and Son.  German Tagebuch einer männlichen Braut (Diary of a Male Bride) based on diary of suicide Alfred H.  English poet Edward Lear’s Letters.  English novelist E.M. Forster’s novel The Longest Journey.  Anglo-American writer Humphrey Neville Dickinson’s novel Keddy: A Story of Oxford.  French writer Guillaume Apollinaire’s pornographic novel Les Onze Mille Verges ou les Amours d’un Hospodar (The Eleven Thousand Rods or the Loves of a Lord) banned.  French writer Baron Jacques d’Adelswärd-Fersen’s novel Le baiser de Narcisse (The Kiss of Narcissus).  English cleric Alphonsus Joseph-Mary Augustus Montague Summers’s Antinous and Other Poems. French Baron Jacques d’Adelswärd Fersen’s poems Ainsi chantait Marsyas (Marsyas Is still Singing).  German poet Stefan George’s poems Der siebente Ring (The Seventh Ring).  Polish Yiddish play Got fun nekome (God of Vengeance).  American studio Vitagraph’s film The Spy: A Romantic Story of the Civil War. Swedish painter Eugène Jansson’s painting The Naval Bathhouse.

1908 English writer Quentin Crisp, English actor Sir Michael Redgrave, English writer Lord David Alexander Reginald Herbert, English diarist James Lees-Milne, English theatre manager and producer Hugh ‘Binkie’ Beaumont, English arts benefactor Victor William (Peter) Watson, Chinese novelist Qin Shou’ou (Ch'in Hao), American actor Gene Raymond, American actress Ethel Merman, American editor and novelist William Keepers Maxwell, German art dealer Erica Brausen, American writer and playwright Leonard Spigelgass, Swiss adventurer and writer Annemarie Schwarzenbach, American female impersonator and entertainer Victor Eugene James Malinovsky (Gene Malin/Jean Malin/Imogene Wilson), American producer Leonard Sillman, American actor Hiram Sherman, Australian caricaturist Stanley Parker, American philanthropist Edward (Eddie) Warburg, English Communist Gabriel (Bill) Carritt, English writer Arthur Calder-Marshall, English writer Henry Robin Romilly Fedden, English writer and naturalist Jocelyn Brooke, English writer John Robert Liddell, English playwright Norman Ackland Bernstein (Rodney Ackland), English founder of the Colony Club Muriel Belcher and American Senator Joe McCarthy b. English poet Dr. William George Headlam,  Maharajadhiraja Raj Rajeshwar Sawai Shri Sir Shivaji Rao Holkar Bahadur XII of  Indore and English Lieutenant-Colonel Sir Henry Clarke Jervoise d.  German sexologist Benedict Friedlander commits suicide.  General Adjutant Graf Dietrich von Hülsen-Haeseler dies wearing a ballerina’s tutu while dancing in front of the Kaiser.  British introduce anti-sodomy laws to the South Sandwich Islands and the British Antarctic Territory.  Ferdinand I becomes Tsar of Bulgaria.  German General Graf Johannes Lynar and Lieutenant General Graf Wilhelm von Hohenau courtmartialled for homosexual conduct; Hohenau dimissed and Lynar imprisoned for fifteen months.  Fürst Philipp zu Eulenburg-Hertefeld arrested and tried for perjury; he feigns sickness and the trial is indefinitely prorogued, but he returns all his orders and is exiled from court. Prosecution of Scottish-German writer John Henry Mackay (Sagitta) in Germany for volumes extolling same sex love. Emperor Pu Yi ascends the throne of China as the twelfth and last Qing Emperor.  English art expert and writer More Adey leaves Carfax Gallery and becomes Co-editor of the Burlington Magazine, leaving Arthur Bellamy Clifton as Director of the Carfax Gallery, Camden Town, London. German psychiatrist Paul Näcke’s articles ‘Über Homosexualität in Albanien’ (‘About Homosexuality in Albania’) in the Yearbook for Sexual Intermediates and ‘Classification of Homosexuals’ in the Journal of General Psychiatry.  French journalists Henri de Weindel and F.P. Fischer’s L’homosexualité en Allemagne (Homosexuality in Germany).  American writer Edward Irenaeus Prime-Stevenson (Xavier Mayne)’s The Intersexes: A History of Simisexualism as a Problem in Social Life, the first American survey, published privately. English writer James Blyth’s Edward Fitzgerald and Posh: Herring Merchants (Including letters from E. Fitzgerald to J. Fletcher).  Thomas Wright’s The Life of Walter Pater.  English reformer Edward Carpenter’s Iolaus: An Anthology of Friendship.  English writer E.M. Forster’s novel A Room with a View. Dutch poet Jacob Israël de Haan’s novel Pathologieën (Pathologies).  English Winchester Schoolboy Charles Kenneth Scott-Moncrieff’s story ‘Evensong and Morwe Song’.  English writer A.C. Benson’s The Poems of Arthur Christopher Benson.  English poet Reverend Edwin Emmanuel Bradford’s poems Sonnets, Songs & Ballads.   English writer John Moray Stuart-Young’s poems Through Veiled Eyes.  English writer Marguerite Radclyffe Hall’s poems A Sheaf of Verses. English poet Dr. William George Headlam’s Book of Greek Verse.  Swedish painter Gösta Adrian-Nilsson (GAN)’s paintings Self Portrait, Youth with a Burning Heart and Ynglingen och döden (Young Man with Death).

1909 English poet and writer Sir Stephen Spender, American writer and same sex researcher Samuel Morris Steward, English painter Sir Francis Cyril Rose, 4th Baronet, English diver Lionel ‘Buster’ Crabb, Dutch Nazi victim Marinus Van der Lubbe, Canadian poet John Glassco, Welsh politician Thomas George Thomas, 1st Viscount Tonypandy, English gardener Alvilde Bridges, Viscountess Chaplin,  French art dealer Pierre Colle, American adventurer Richard Halliburton, American architect William Alexander Levy (William Alexander), Norwegian female impersonators and male courtesans, the Rocky Twins (Leif and Paal Roschberg),  American painter John Heliker, American actress and director Margaret ‘Beanie’ Barter, American organist and conductor Paul Calloway, French friend of André Gide, Robert Levesque, English literary editor Alan Pryce-Jones, German tennis star Gottfried Alexander Maximilian Walter Kurt Freiherr von Cramm, English Labour politician William James Field, English diplomat Sir George Lisle Clutton, American photographer Bruce Bellas (Bruce of Los Angeles), Australian dancer Robert Murray Helpman (Sir Robert Helpmann), English writer and publisher Roger Machell, Italian Cardinal Mario Luigi Ciappi and English painter Francis Bacon b.  English poet Algernon Charles Swinburne, English poet Pauline Mary Tarn (Renée Vivien), American dramatist Clyde Fitch and American writer Charles Warren Stoddard d.  German attempt to criminalize lesbian sex fails. First season of the Ballets Russe in Paris.  German General Graf Kuno von Moltke’s third libel trial settled out of court.  Second trial of Fürst Philipp zu Eulenburg-Hertefeld collapses when he again feigns ill health and is never resumed.  German Magnus Hirschfeld convinces police to issue a Transvestitenschein (transvestite pass) to those wishing to cross-dress in public.  English theosopher Charles Webster Leadbeater scandal with Krishnamurti.  English writer Arthur Symons suffers psychotic breakdown. French photographer Claude Cahun meets Suzanne Alberte Eugénie Malherbe French Baron Jacques d’Adelswärd Fersen starts Paris journal Akademos. Swedish author Selma Lagerlöf  the first woman to win the Nobel Prize for Literature.  English reformer Edward Carpenter’s The Intermediate Sex.  French writer André Gide’s Corydon, based in part on Henri Ghéon’s La Vie secrète de Guillaume Arnoult (The Secret Life of William Arnoult).  English barrister, writer and poet William Percy Addleshaw (Percy Hemingway)’s Sir Philip Sidney.  German psychiatrist Paul Näcke’s article ‘The Diagnosis of Homosexuality’ in the Central Neurological Journal.  English M.D. O’Brien’s attacks on Edward Carpenter, including Socialism and Infamy: the Homogenic or Comrade Love Exposed.  English writer Julia Ellsworth Simeon Ford’s Simeon Solomon.  Canadian critic Robert Ross’s Aubrey Beardsley.   French author Michel Proust starts À le recherche du temps perdu (In Search of Lost Time).  French Baron Jacques d’Adelswärd Fersen’s novel Et le feu s’éteignit sur la mer (And the Fire Died Out on the Sea).  Japanese Mori Ogai’s novel Wita Sekusuarisu (Vita Sexualis). English writer John Moray Stuart-Young’s poems Out of Hours and The Seductive Coast.  American poet Edward (Ned) Perry Warren (Arthur Lyon Raile)’s The Wild Rose: a Volume of Poems. American poet, essayist and critic Logan Pearsall Smith’s Songs and Sonnets.  American film Getting Even. American Lubin comedy film When Women Win.  American film Getting Even.

1910 French writer Jean Genet, English singer Sir Peter Pears, American author Paul Bowles, English broadcaster Arthur Marshall, English spy Guy Burgess, English gardener Peter Coats, English writer George Frederick Green, American composer Samuel Barber, English explorer Sir Wilfred Thesiger, American actress Patsy Kelly, American journalist Joseph Wright Alsop V, American actor LeRoy Melvin Radabaugh (Richard ‘Dick’/’Roy’ Cromwell), English aesthete the Honourable Desmond Parsons, American poet Édouard Roditi,  American writer Margaret Wise Brown, English barrister and author Christopher Hobhouse, Anglo-Irish peer Arthur Gore, 8th Earl of Arran, American connoisseur Henry Plumer McIlhenny and Greek painter Yannis Tsarouchis b. German (Munich) painter Paul Hoecker d. King Vajiravudh (Rama VI) ascends Thai throne. German photographer Wilhelm von Plüschow (Guglielmo Plüschow) leaves Italy and returns to Germany.  German sexologist Magnus Hirschfeld’s Die Transvestiten: ein Untersuchung über den erotischen Verkleidungstrieb (The Transvestites: A Study of The Erotic Drive to Cross-Dress) first coins the term ‘transvestite’.  German Alt-Wandervogel leader Wilhelm Jansen resigns due to homosexual scandal.  American anarchist Emma Goldman first begins speaking publicly in favour of homosexual rights. Irish composer Norman Houston O’Neill is the first composer to conduct and record his own work.  French mystic Joséphin Péladan (Sâr Péladan)’s essay ‘De l'Androgyne. Théorie plastique’ (‘The Androgyne: Plastic Theory’).  English magus Aleister Crowley’s The Scented Garden of Abdullah the Satirist of Shiraz.  English writer activist Edith Mary Oldham Ellis’s triple biography of James Hinton, Friedrich Nietzsche and Edward Carpenter, Three Modern Seers.  Austrian psychiatrist Sigmund Freud’s Eine Kindheitserinnerung des Leonardo da Vinci (Leonardo da Vinci and A Memory of His Childhood).  French writer André Gide’s Oscar Wilde.  Robert Sherard’s pamphlet Oscar Wilde Defended against André Gide’s Wicked Lies.  English academic Oscar Browning’s autobiography Memories of Sixty Years.  English magus and writer Aleister Crowley’s autobiographical The World’s Tragedy.  English academic Goldsworthy Lowes Dickinson starts The Autobiography of Goldsworthy Lowes Dickinson (published 1973). English poet Dr. William George Headlam’s His Letters and Poems.  English writer Hector Hugh Munro (Saki)’s novel Reginald in Russia.  English writer John Gambril Nicholson’s novel In Carrington’s Duty-Week.  English writer E.M. Forster’s novel Howard’s End.  French writer Jean-Auguste-Gustave Binet-Valmer’s novel Lucien.  George Douglas Howard (G.D.H.) Cole’s poems New Beginnings and the Record.  English magus Aleister Crowley’s poems The Scented Garden.  English writer Marguerite Radclyffe Hall’s Poems of the Past and Present.  Russian composer Igor Stravinsky and Russian impresario Serge Diaghilev’s ballet Firebird.  Dutch painter Cornelis Theodorus Maria van Dongen (Kees van Dongen)’s portrait A Young Arab.

1911 American poet, writer and psychotherapist Paul Goodman, American playwright Tennessee Williams, English playwright Sir Terence Rattigan, English art historian Arthur William Douglas Cooper, Italian American composer Gian Carlo Menotti, American director Nicholas Ray, American director Charles (Chuck) Walters, English writer George Frederick Green, American track athlete and golfer Babe Didrikson Zaharias, English couturier Neil Munro (Bunny) Roger, English diplomat Valentine Nicholas Lawford, English actor Harry Fleetwood Andrews, English socialite ‘Mad Boy’ Robert Vernon Heber-Percy, American harpsichordist Ralph Kirkpatrick, English composer and pianist Stanley Bate, American arts administrator and composer Oliver Daniell, American dancer Le Roy Kerpestein (Eugene ‘Gene’ Loring), American talent agent Henry Leroy Willson, Canadian Secretary of the British Museum Bentley Bridgewater, English film director Robert James Hamer, English architect Claud Stephen Phillimore, 4th Baron Phillimore, American choreographer Jack Cole and American poet laureate Elizabeth Bishop b. German novelist and dramatist Adolf von Wilbrandt, Austrian lawyer and activist Hermann Freiherr von Teschenberg, Maharaja Sir Sardar Singh Bahadur of Jodhpur, English teacher and translator Henry Graham Dakyns and English politician the Right Honourable Gerard James Noel d.  Chinese Qing criminal code prohibits qiangzhi weixie zhi fanxing (forced lewd acts) by males and male homosexuality if forced or one of the partners is under 12 years old.  English reformer Edward Carpenter starts unsuccessful campaign to have all books entered on public catalogue of the British Museum and to make public the list of books available only on special application.  German Wilhelm Jansen forms the Jung-Wandervogel (to 1933).  Chinese dan Mei Lanfang begins agitation against siyuchi (private residence system) in Beijing opera.  English writer Christopher Millard edits Oscar Wilde Three Times Tried.  German anthropologist Ferdinand Karsch-Haack’s Das gleichgeschlechtliche Leben der Naturvölker (Homosexual Life in Primitive Cultures).  American journalist Ambrose Gwinnett Bierce’s The Devil’s Dictionary.  Irish novelist George Augustus Moore’s autobiography Ave.  English writer Hector Hugh Munro (Saki)’s novel The Chronicles of Clovis.  English novelist D.H. Lawrence’s novel The White Peacock.  English poet John Gambril Nicholson’s poems A Garland of Lad’s Love.  English poet Edward Lear’s Later Letters.  English critic and poet Sir Edmund Gosse’s poem ‘Neurasthenia’ in Collected Poems. American writer Edward Perry (Ned) Warren (Arthur Lyon Raile) purchases the Warren Cup in Jerusalem.  (to 1912) Swedish painter Gösta Adrian-Nilsson (GAN)’s painting Ilja (Portrait of Karl Edvard Holmström). English painter Duncan James Corrowr Grant’s paintings Footballers and Bathing.

1912 English mathematician Alan Turing, Australian novelist Patrick White, American novelist John William Cheever, American dancer and choreographer Barton Mumaw, Scottish writer Frederick Burrows Urquhart, English painter John Keith Vaughan, American rights activist Bayard Rustin, Belgian American poet May Sarton, Irish actor Wilfrid Brambell, English writer Lawrence George Durrell, American composer John Milton Cage, English Conservative and Unionist politician John Enoch Powell, Greek life partner of Patrick White Emmanuel George (Manoly) Lascaris, English journalist Michael Clive (Micky) Burn, English actor and director Frith Banbury and American rights activist Harry Hay b.  Swedish writer August Strindberg, Danish writer Herman Joachim Bang, English actor Robert Flemyng and German physician Edwin Bab d.  American Presidential aide Major Archibald Butt and his lover Francis (Frank) David Millet die together on the Titanic.  English Criminal Law Amendment Act (“The White Slave Trade Act”) sets sentence for importuning and soliciting at 6 months plus flogging for 2nd offence.  Emperor Pu Yi of China deposed.  Boy actors rise up in China and overturn enforced siyuchi ‘private residence system’ whereby they were hired out by their master-trainer.  Dutch criminal anthropologist Arnold Aletrino helps found the Dutch branch of the Scientific Humanitarian Committee.  Marshal Louis Hubert Gonzalve Lyautey becomes French Resident General in Morocco to 1925. English art historian Campbell Dodgson becomes Keeper of Prints and Drawings at the British Museum (to 1932).  Scottish socialite and singer Dorothy (Dickie) Fellowes-Gordon becomes lover of Elsa Maxwell (to 1963).  English writer Cyril Bruyn Andrews attacks major public school vice in Introduction to the Study of Adult Education.  English writer William Paine’s Shop Slavery and Emancipation.  German writer Hans Blüher’s Die deutsche Wanderwogelbewegung als erotisches Phänomen: Ein Beitrag zur Erkenntnis der sexuellen Inversion (The German Wandervogel Movement as an Erotic Phenomenon: A Contribution to the Discovery of Sexual Inversion) and Wanderwogel: Geschichte einer Jugendbewegung (Wanderwogel: History of a Youth Movement).  Arthur Ransome’s Oscar Wilde: A Critical Study. Irish novelist George Augustus Moore’s autobiography Salve.  German painter Rudolph Karl Alexander (Sascha) Schneider’s autobiography Mein Gestalten und Bilden (My Figures and Pictures).  German writer Thomas Mann’s novel Death in Venice.  French restaurateur and writer Xavier Marcel Boulestin (Sidney Place)’s novel Les Fréquentations de Maurice, moeurs de Londres (The Associates of Maurice, London Fashion).  American film Algie the Miner.  German painter Rudolph Karl Alexander (Sascha) Schneider’s paintings Gymnasion (Gymnasium) and Youth in a Blue Coat.

1913 American poet and writer Charles Henri Ford, English novelist Sir Angus Wilson, English Chindit Brigadier Michael Calvert, English cleric Bishop Mervyn Stockwood, English composer Benjamin Britten, Lord Britten of Aldeburgh, American playwright and novelist William Motter Inge, English diarist and writer Richard Rumbold, American film star David Kaminski (Danny Kaye), American poet James Broughton, French actor and director Jean-Alfred Villain-Marais, Australian actress Coral Browne, Austrian American actress Hedy Lamarr, American businessman Clay Laverne Shaw, English spy Donald Maclean, (?) English antique expert Simon (Harry) Carnes (Simon Fleet), English socialite Lady Alexandra Mary Cecilia Caroline Paget, English actor Stewart Granger, American novelist Arthur Anderson (Fritz)  Peters, German Lilly Wust, French aristocrat Hubert Vicomte de Saint-Senoch, Scottish painter Robert MacBryde, American film star Burt Lancaster, Anglo-American writer Tom Alden Cullen, American dancer José Martinez-Berlanga (Pete Martinez / Pete Stefan), English stenographer to Sir Winston Churchill Patrick Francis Kinna, Belgian politician André de Staercke,   Iraqi Crown Prince and Regent Abd al-Ilah of Hejaz, English Labour politician Robert Joseph Mellish, Baron Mellish, English music critic Ronald Crichton, English lover of Montagu Glover, Ralph Edward Hall, English fighter pilot Wing Commander John Simpson DFC, American poet Muriel Rukeyser, English actor and director Peter Patrick Brabazon Browne (Peter Glenville), American actor Samuel Laird Cregar, Italian Cardinal Sebastiano Baggio and American film star Tyrone Edward Power Jr. b.  English writer Frederick William Rolfe (Baron Corvo) and American journalist Ambrose Gwinnett Bierce d.  Austro-Hungarian (Galician) Colonel Alfred Victor Redl commits suicide. English diplomat and writer Sir Harold Nicolson marries Vita Sackville-West. The word ‘faggot’ is first used in print in a vocabulary of criminal slang published in Portland, Oregon.  Abraham Brill’s ‘The Conception of Homosexuality’ in the Journal of the American Medical Association.  American novelist Henry James’s autobiography, A Small Boy and Others.  English writer E.M. Forster writes Maurice (to 1914).  American writer Edward Irenaeus Prime-Stevenson (Xavier Mayne)’s novel Out of the Sun.  French Marcel Proust publishes novel Du Coté de chez Swann (The Way by Swann’s).  French writer Georges Polti’s novel L’Éphèbe: Roman achéen (The Ephebe: an Achaian Novel). French writer and soldier Alaine-Fournier’s novel Le Grand Meaulnes (The Lost Domain).  Scottish German writer John Henry Mackay (Sagitta) completes his series of stories Die Bücher der namenlosen Liebe (Books of the Nameless Love).  English poet Edmund John’s poems The Flute of Sardonyx.  English poet Francis Edwin Murray (H. Allen Mair)’s poems Leaves from Love’s Rose.  English poet Reverend Edwin Emmanuel Bradford’s poems Passing the Love of Women and Other Poems and In Quest of Love and Other Poems.  English writer Arthur Symons’s poems Knave of Hearts. Ballet Russe presents Igor Stravinsky and Vaslav Nijinsky’s Le Sacre du Printemps (The Rite of Spring) in Paris.  Swedish painter Gösta Adrian-Nilsson (GAN)’s painting Tusch.

1914 American writer William Burroughs, English letter writer and soldier Myles Hildyard, American painter, playwright and dancer Charles Sebree, English actor Sir Alec Guinness, English actor Charles Hawtrey, English politician Ian Harvey, American entertainer Gypsy Rose Lee, American writer James Otis Purdy, Irish fashion designer John Bryan Cavanagh, New Zealand artist and designer Felix Runcie Kelly, American prostitute Louis Denham Fouts, American writer, editor and actor Leo Lerman,  American mezzo soprano Nell Tangeman, American lyricist John Treville La Touche, Swiss-American photographer and film maker Rudy Burckhardt, American writer John (Jack) Paul Dunphy, American academic Robert Halsband, Scottish painter Robert Colquhoun, English art historian editor of the Burlington and Deputy Surveyor of the King’s Pictures Lionel Benedict Nicolson, British Guianian jazz band leader Kenrick Reginald Hijmans (Snakehips) Johnson, English Conservative politician Sir Charles Fletcher Fletcher-Cooke, Russian artist Elie Grekoff, Canadian diplomat and poet Douglas Valentine LePan, American writer Don Ettlinger, American actor Gaspar Griswold (David) Bacon Jr., Italian Cardinal Agostino Casaroli and English novelist Colin MacInnes b.  Billy Lee Tipton b as Dorothy Tipton.  John George Edward Henry Douglas Sutherland Campbell, 9th Duke of Argyll, Governor General of Canada, English poet and political activist John Evelyn Barlas (Evelyn Douglas), German Friedrich Botho Graf zu Eulenburg, English banker Francis (Frank) Augustus Bevan, English aristocrat Lord Albert Edward Godolphin Osborne and English classical scholar Professor Ingram Bywater d. French writer and soldier Henri Alban-Fournier (Alaine-Fournier) killed on the Meuse in the 1st World War.  French writer Ernest Psichari killed at Rossignol in the Battle of the Frontiers.   British introduce anti-sodomy laws to Nigeria. Canadian critic Robert Ross versus English Lord Alfred Douglas libel trial. Founding of the British Society for the Study of Sex Psychology (B.S.S.P.), with English reformer Edward Carpenter as first President.  English writer Robert Graves writes to Edward Carpenter. Anglo-Irish thief of Irish crown jewels Captain Richard Gorges murders a London policeman. American David Walsh Governor of Massachusetts (to 1917).  English rights campaigner George Ives’s A History of Penal Methods: Criminals, Witches, Lunatics.  German sexologist Magnus Hirschfeld’s Die Homosexualität des Mannes und des Weibes (Homosexuality of Men and Women).  German writer Hugo (Hugländer) Friedländer’s article ‘Aus dem homosexuallen Leben Alt-Berlins’ in Jahrbuch für sexuelle Zwischenstufen (Yearbook of Sexual Intermediates).  German Ferdinand Büttner’s Ich und meine fünf Jungen (My Five Lads and I).  English reformer Edward Carpenter’s Intermediate Types among Primitive Folk. English bibliographer  Christopher Sclater Millard (Stuart Mason)’s Bibliography of Oscar Wilde.  English Lord Alfred Douglas’s Oscar Wilde and Myself.  American writer Henry James’s autobiography Notes of a Son and Brother.  Irish novelist George Augustus Moore’s autobiography Vale.  English writer Hector Hugh Munro (Saki)’s novel Beasts and Super-Beasts.  English international cad Gerald Bernard Francis Hamilton (Patrick Weston)’s novel Desert Dreamers.  French novelist Francis Carco’s novel Jésus-la-Caille.  Japanese novelist Natsume Soseki’s novel Kokoro.  English author D.H. Lawrence’s short story ‘The Prussian Officer’.  American writer Gertrude Stein’s Tender Buttons: Objects, Food, Rooms.  English Lord Alfred Douglas’s poem ‘The Rossiad.  English soldier and writer Sydney Frederick McIlree Lomer (Sydney Oswald)’s translation The Greek Anthology: Epigrams from Anthologia Palatina XII.   Sidney Drew’s film of Fergus Redmond and Archibald Clavering Gunter’s novel A Florida Enchantment. French composer Claude Debussy composes Six épigraphes antiques as piano pieces, preludes to a recital of friend Belgian-French poet and photographer Pierre Félix Louis (Pierre Louÿs)’s prose poems Les Chanson de Billitis (Songs of Bilitis). Finnish painter Magnus Knut Enckell’s painting The Faun.  American artist Marsden Hartley’s Portrait of a German Officer (Karl von Freyberg).  Swedish painter Gösta Adrian-Nilsson (GAN)’s painting Figur med hjärta (Figure with Heart). 

1915 English writer Maurice Denton Welch, Australian artist and writer Donald Stuart Leslie Friend, English actor Dennis Price, American singer Billie Holliday, American composer Billy Strayhorn, English head of MI6 Sir Maurice Oldfield, English actor Hugh William Paddick, American socialite James Paul (Jimmy) Donahue Jr., American composer David Leo Diamond, American jazz guitarist Tony Romano, American author Herbert Oswald Nicholas Kubly, American conductor Newell Own Jenkins, American writer Gordon Sager, English soldier and writer Frank Baines, English Secretary to the Emir of Bahrain Major-General George Lewis Gerald Green, Anglo-Irish physician and Buddhist monk Laurence Michael Dillon (Laura Maud Dillon)/Lobzang Jivaka and French philosopher Roland Barthes b.  English writer and poet James Elroy Flecker, Swedish painter Eugène Fredrik Jansson, Grand Duke Constantine Constantinovich of Russia, German artist Christian Wilhelm Allers, German editor Adolf Glaser and English poet Rupert Brooke d. Irish art dealer Sir Hugh Percy Lane killed on board the R.M.S. Lusitania. English poet 2nd Lieutenant James Stanley Yates killed at the Battle of Loos. English writer Marguerite Radclyffe Hall lives with Una Troubridge.  B.S.S.P. pamphlet The Social Problem of Sexual Inversion.  German reformer Adolf Brand’s pamphlet Heldenthum und Kamaraden-Liebe in Krieg (Heroism and Love of Comrades in War).  English writer R.H. Sherard’s The Real Oscar Wilde.  English writer Thomas Burke’s autobiography Nights in Town: A London Autobiography.  Polish-English writer Joseph Conrad’s novel Victory.  English author D.H. Lawrence’s novel The Rainbow.  English author Arthur Annesley Ronald Firbank’s novel Vainglory.  English poet Cuthbert Wright’s poems One Way of Love.  Swedish painter Gösta Adrian-Nilsson (GAN)’s painting Jack. 

1916 English writer Robin, 2nd Viscount Maugham, English Reverend Peter Gamble, English writer James Pope-Hennessy, English artist and philosopher George Melhuish, American writer Harold Norse (Rosen), Vietnamese poet Ngô Xuân Diệu, American actor Van Johnson, English artist and restaurateur Brion Gysin, American editor and writer Darrell Berrigan, American actress Martha Raye, American actor Keenan Wynn, English Prime Minister Sir Edward Richard George (Ted) Heath, English eye surgeon and activist Patrick Trevor-Roper, English ballet critic Christopher Richard Sandford Buckle, American film star Issur Danielovitch (Kirk Douglas), Swedish dancer and acting teacher Gert Olof Sigurd Eriksson (Yat Malmgren), American author Charles Myron Clegg, American composer Ben Weber, English painter, restaurateur and writer Brion Gysin, English artist Maud Rosemary Montagu (nee Peto), Countess of Sandwich, English Spitfire pilot Wing Commander Ian F. Gleed, English actor Tom Gill, Jamaican valet and soldier Patrick Nelson and American writer John Horne Burns b. American novelist Henry James, English Field Marshal Earl Kitchener of Khartoum,  his A.D.C. Captain Oswald Fitzgerald, 18th Bengal Lancers, English socialite Lord Ronald Sutherland Gower, English writer Hector Hugh Munro (Saki), Japanese novelist Natsumi Sõseki, Dutch criminal anthropologist Arnold Aletrino, American poet James Whitcomb Riley, Belgian poet Théodore Hannon, English barrister, writer and poet William Percy Addleshaw (Percy Hemingway), English architect, designer and poet Herbert Percy Horne, American artist Thomas Cowperthwaite Eakins and English writer and sexologist Edith Lees Ellis d. English writer Humphrey Neville Dickinson killed at the Somme.  Irish nationalist Patrick Pearse hanged. Arrest and hanging of Irish diplomat Sir Roger Casement.  British introduce anti-sodomy laws to British Togoland (Ghana).  Marshal Louis Hubert Gonzalve Lyautey French Minister of War (to 1917).  English cad Gerald Hamilton sentenced to two years hard labour for gross indecency with a soldier in his London flat.  Anglo-Irish Eva Gore-Booth and Esther Roper found journal Urania (to 1940).  The English Review denounces invasion of Britain by German Urnings.  German sexologist Max Marcuse publishes account of transgender operations in article ‘Ein Fall von Geschlechstumwandlungstrieb’ (‘A Case of a Desire to Change Gender’).    Chinese writer Wang Mengsheng’s Liyuan jiahua  (Anecdotes from the Theatre World).  English writer Arthur Symons’s essays Figures of Several Centuries.   English reformer Edward Carpenter’s autobiography My Days and Dreams. English writer John Moray Stuart-Young’s autobiography The Coaster at Home.  English writer Edward Frederic Benson’s novel David Blaize.  English writer John Gambril Nicholson’s novel The Romance of a Choir-Boy.  Irish novelist George Moore’s novel The Brook Kerith.  English novelist Arthur Annesley Ronald Firbank’s novel Inclinations. English novelist John Buchan’s novel Greenmantle.  English writer  Leonard Green’s short stories Dream Comrades. Japanese writer Nobuko Yoshiya’s stories Hana monogatari (Flower Tales - to 1924).  English poet Reverend Edwin Emmanuel Bradford’s poems Lays of Love and Life.  American film Behind the Screen.  Swiss artist Paul Thévenaz’s drawing Portrait of a Negro.

1917 American writer Jane Bowles, American diarist Donald Vining, Australian novelist Sumner Locke Elliott, Austrian concentration camp survivor Josef Kohout (Heinz Heger), English comedian Frankie Howerd, American director Arthur Laurents, American writer Carson McCullers, English painter Francis John Minton, Chinese playwright Wu Zuguang, Anglo-French Mexican surrealist painter Bridget Pamela Arkwright Bate (Bridget Bate Tichenor), Scottish politician the Honourable Sir Thomas Galloway Dunlop (Tam) Galbraith, English broadcaster and journalist Nancy Brooker Spain, American actor William Rukard Hurd Hatfield, American co-founder of the Mattachine Society Charles Dennison (Chuck) Rowland, American writer and co-founder of the Mattachine Society William Dale Jennings, American actor Peter Garey, American composer Lou Silver Harrison, American electrician and musician William (Bill) Colvig, American pianist and TV host (partner with Robert Fizdale – ‘The Boys’) Arthur Gold,  English John Ian Robert Russell, 13th Duke of Bedford,  English writer Nigel Nicolson, English dancer and spy Jack (Jacky) Hewit, American producer Richard David Barr (Baer) and American actor Raymond Burr b. English poet Edmund John and German General Maximilian von Schwarzkoppen d.  Homosexuality decriminalised in Soviet Russia.  American anti-sodomy law introduced to Saint Thomas, Saint John and Saint Croix (United States Virgin Islands).  English poet and writer Siegfried Sassoon’s protest against the war and encounter with psychologist W.H.R. Rivers in Craiglockhart.  English soldier T.E. Lawrence raped in Deraa.  Jamaican 2nd Lieutenant Ernest Dunn cashiered from the British Army for sex with another officer.  Robert Graves’s sweetheart Private G.H. Johnstone sentenced to four months for soliciting.  English writer D.H. Lawrence destroys homosexual treatise ‘Goats and Compasses’.  Georgi Vasilevich Chicherin becomes Russian People’s Commissar for Foreign Affairs.  French writer André Gide falls in love with 16 year old Marc Allégret, the son of his protestant pastor. German writer Hans Blüher’s Die Rolle der Erotik in Der Mannlichen Gesellschaft; Eine Theorie der Menschlichen Staatsbildung (The Role of the Erotic in Masculine Society: A Theory of Human Government Formation) (second vol. 1919). English journalist and biographer Robert Harborough Sherard’s The Real Oscar Wilde.  English critic and poet Sir Edmund Gosse’s The Life of Algernon Charles Swinburne.  American novelist Henry James’s autobiography The Middle Years.   English plant collector Reginald Farrer’s travel memoir On the Eaves of the World.  English writer Norman Douglas’s novel South Wind.  English magus Aleister Crowley’s novel Not the Life and Adventures of Sir Roger Bloxham.  English writer Winifred Ashton (Clemence Dane)’s novel Regiment of Women.  English writer Arthur Annesley Ronald Firbank’s novel Caprice.  American poet T.S. Eliot dedicates poem Prufrock and Other Observations to Jean Verdenal (who had d 1915).  English poet and writer Siegfried Sassoon’s poems The Old Huntsman.  English poet Robert Malise Bowyer Nichols’s Ardours and Endurance.  Austrian film maker Richard Oswald’s film The Picture of Dorian Gray.  Swiss artist Paul Thévenaz’s Sketch for a Mural.

1918 American composer and conductor Leonard Bernstein, American artist Bernard Perlin, English poet James Kirkup, American producer director choreographer Jerome Rabinowitz (Jerome – Jerry - Robbins), American politician Walter Jenkins, American writer Jacqueline Susann, American writer Allen Stuart Drury, American musician and co-founder of the Mattachine Society Robert (Bob) Booth Hull, English politician Charles Anthony (Tony) Raven Crosland,  English fighter pilot and racing driver Roberta Elizabeth Marshall Cowell (Robert Marshall Cowell) and American actor Gordon Heath b. English Captain Edward Harold Brittain M.C. killed, perhaps suicide, at Asiago in Italy after his homosexuality is revealed in a letter.  English poets Wilfrid Owen, Philip Gillespie Bainbrigge and Theodore Percival (T.P.) Cameron Wilson killed in the war.  Anglo-Irish Major Francis Bennett-Goldney M.P., Athlone Pursuivant, French mystic Joséphin Péladan (Sâr Péladan), German playwright Benjamin Franklin (Frank) Wedekind and Canadian critic Robbie Ross d.  New Zealand anti-sodomy law introduced in Western Samoa.  Tsar Ferdinand I of Bulgaria abdicates.  English M.P. Noel Pemberton Billing attacks ‘Cult of the clitoris’; English actress Maud Allan loses Salome libel trial.  English Russophile and antiques dealer Albert Henry Stopford sentenced to imprisonment (to 1919) for gross indecency with a male in Hyde Park.  English writer Annie Winifred Ellerman (Bryher) meets writer Hilda Doolittle.  English writer publisher Frank Harris’s Oscar Wilde: His Life and Confessions.  English writer John Moray Stuart-Young’s autobiography The Iniquitous Coaster.  American Earl Lind’s Autobiography of an Androgyne.  Irish novelist George Augustus Moore’s autobiographical Confessions of a Young Man.  Polish dancer Vaslav Nijinsky’s autobiographical Cahiers written (to 1919).  English writer Rose Allatini (A.T. Fitzroy)’s novel Despised and Rejected published and banned.  English priest poet Gerard Manley Hopkins’s poems published by Robert Bridges.  English poet Reverend Edwin Emmanuel Bradford’s The New Chivalry and Other Poems.  Portuguese poet Fernando António Nogueira de Seabra Pessoa’s poems Antinous. English nautical physician poet Dr. John Leslie Barford (Philebus)’s poems Ladslove Lyrics. English poet Siegfried Sassoon’s poems Counter-attack.  German poet Else Lasker-Schuler’s poem ‘David und Jonathan’. German playwright Bertolt Brecht’s play Baal.  German film Ich möchte kein Mann sein (I Don’t Want to Be a Man).  Russian artist Andrey Avinoff’s painting Nijinsky.

PART EIGHT – BETWEEN THE WARS – FALSE DAWN OF

THE BRIGHT YOUNG THINGS

As the 1st World War liberalised many western societies, western homosexuals of wealth and status found greater freedom to express themselves, not only in art and literature but also in their lives.  Openly homosexual cultures flourished briefly in Paris, Berlin and to a lesser degree elsewhere.  Activism devloped and grew from the previous period, but the beginnings of sexual freedom did not have time to spread to most levels of western societies before the rise of Fascism and Nazism extirpated homosexual freedoms in Italy, Germany then across all of Nazi-conquered Europe.  Many gay men and lesbian women died or suffered in concentration camps. Communism, initially a liberating force in Russia, turned under Stalin into one which oppressed the freedoms of homosexuals.  Japanese right wing nationalism was antipathetic to homosexuality. In China, the spread of western sexology was initially a liberating force in a highly conservative society, but nationalist nation building came to see deviance as a symptom of weakness and homosexual freedoms were abrogated.  Across the colonial world, now at its maximum extent, oppression of homosexuals remained the norm.

1919 American pianist Wladziu Valentino Liberace (Liberace), English author Iris Murdoch, American poet William Morris Meredith Jr., American writer Merle Miller, English boxer Frederick Percival (Freddie) Mills, American choreographer Mercier Philip (Merce) Cunningham, American publisher Malcolm Forbes, English social researcher and campaigner Michael Schofield (Gordon Westwood), English activist Esmé Ross-Langley, American writer Merle Miller, English peer Captain Arthur Cameron Corbett, 3rd Baron Rowallan, American activist Morris Kight, American conductor Robert Zeller, English playwright and speechwriter Sir Ronald Graeme Millar, American academic Robert (Bob) Harris Chapman,  English restaurateur Peter William Pollock, English female impersonator Terri Gardener, American psychologist Clarence Arthur Tripp, English director Michael Pickersgill Benthall, American Bishop Paul Moore Jr., Austrian Cardinal Hans Hermann Wilhelm Groër  and English writer Paul Berry b. Archduke Ludwig Viktor Josef Anton (Lutzi Wutzi) of Austria and American essayist and poet Horace L. Traubel d. British anti-sodomy laws introduced in Tanganyika, South-West Africa (Namibia) and Papua New Guinea. Amanullah Khan becomes Amir of Afghanistan.  German sexologist Magnus Hirschfeld founds Institut für Sexualwissenschaft (Institute for Sexual Science) and the Aktionskomitee (Action Committee) to lobby against Paragraph 175.  German Hans Kahnert founds the Berliner Freundschaftsbund (Berlin Friendship Association). German painter Walter Spies meets German writer and polymath Hans Jürgen von der Wense in Dresden.  Governor David Walsh elected to U.S. Senate.  German paper Die Freundschaft (Friendship) published.  English Russophile Albert Henry Stopford’s memoir The Russian Diary of an Englishman: Petrograd 1915–1917.  English poet Lionel Pigot Johnson’s Some Winchester Letters of Lionel Johnson edited anonymously by John Francis Stanley Russell, 2nd Earl Russell.  English writer Hector Hugh Munro (Saki)’s novel The Toys of Peace.  English novelist Arthur Annesley Ronald Firbank’s novel Valmouth.  Irish novelist George Moore’s novel Avowals.  French novelist Marcel Proust’s novel À l'ombre des jeunes filles en fleurs (In the Shadow of Young Girls in Flower).  German novelist Anna Elisabet (A.E.) Weirauch’s novel Der Skorpion (The Scorpion).  American novelist Henry Blake Fuller’s novel Bertram Cope’s Year.   Japanese novelist Nobuko Yoshiya’s novel Yaneura no nishojo (Two Virgins in the Attic).  American writer Sherwood Anderson’s short story ‘Hands’ in Winesburg, Ohio.  English writer Leonard Green’s short stories The Youthful Lover.  English poet Theodore Percival (T.P.) Cameron Wilson’s poems Magpies in Picardy.  English schoolmaster poet Arnold W. Smith’s poem A Boy’s Absence.  English writer John Moray Stuart-Young’s poems Candles in Sunshine.  English writer Louis Golding’s poems Sorrow of War.  English 2nd Lieutenant James Stanley Yates’s War Lyrics and Other Poems.  German sexologist Magnus Hirschfeld sponsors and appears in Richard Oswald’s film Anders als die Andern (Different from the Others) which is based on the 1904 novel by Hermann Breuer and is banned in 1920.

1920 American actor Edward Montgomery Clift, American writer Donald Windham, American writer William Laurence (Lonnie) Coleman, English editor Joan Ann Werner (Jonny) Laurie, American writer and teacher Bowden Broadwater, English celebrity doctor Patrick Willis Woodcock, American businessman and arts patron Morris Golde, American actor Daniel (Dan/Simon) Scott,  American writer John Wingate, American pianist and TV host (partner with Arthur Gold – ‘The Boys’) Robert Fish (Fizdale), American pianist and conductor Leon Fleisher, American lesbian Stormé DeLarverie,  Welsh politician Roy Harris Jenkins, Baron Jenkins of Hillhead, American painter George Clair Tooker, English theatrical caterer Bruce Copp, English serviceman and writer George Hayim, Mexican priest Marcial Maciel Degollado and Finnish artist Touko Laaksonen (Tom of Finland) b.  American writer Howard Overing Sturgis, American composer Charles Tomlinson Griffes, South African writer Olive Schreiner, English teacher Arthur Sigwick and English plant collector Reginald John Farrer d.  English socialist politician Albert Victor Grayson disappears. English writer Marguerite Radclyffe Hall sues Sir George Lane Fox-Pitt for libel for accusing her of immorality and breaking the Troubridge marriage; she wins but does not contest the appeal.  German painter Walter Spies meets director Friedrich Wilhelm Murnau in Berlin.  Freikorps members disrupt talk by Magnus Hirschfeld in Hamburg and he is beaten up in Munich. Russian dancer Boris Evgenievich Kochno becomes Russian impresario Serge Diaghilev’s lover.  Russo-American actress Alla Nazimova cited as lesbian correspondent in Charlie Chaplin’s divorce from wife Mildred Harris.  Deutsche Freundschaftsverband (German Friendship Association) formed.  German magazine Die Freundschaft (Friendship) sponsors Internationale Reiseführer (International Travel Guide).  Single issue of British magazine The Quorum: A Magazine of Friendship.  English writer William Paine’s A New Aristocracy of Comradeship.  English writer E.F. Benson’s autobiography Our Family Affairs and novel Queen Lucia.  French writer André Gide’s autobiographical Si le grain ne meurt (If It Die).  English writer D.H. Lawrence’s novel Women in Love. (to 1921)  French novelist Marcel Proust’s novel Le Côté de Guermantes (The Guermantes Way).  English writer Beverley Nichol’s school novel Prelude.  English writer John Moray Stuart-Young’s novel The Soul Slayer.  American novelist Waldo Frank’s novel The Dark Mother. English poet Reverend Edwin Emmanuel Bradford’s The Romance of Youth and Other Poems. English barrister, writer and poet William Percy Addleshaw (Percy Hemingway)’s Last Verses.  English writer Arthur Annesley Ronald Firbank’s play The Princess Zoubaroff.  Film Anders als die Andern (Different from the Others) banned in Germany.  German painter Rudolph Karl Alexander (Sascha) Schneider’s painting Feeling of Dependence.  American dancer and artist Hubert Julian (Jay) Stowitts’s portrait of Emil Otto Hoppé.

1921 English actor Sir Dirk Bogarde, American poet Chester Simon Kallman, Brazilian photographer Alair Gomes, English Derek Rawcliffe, Bishop of Glasgow and Galloway, Japanese artist Go Mishima, American editor and songwriter Edith Eyde (Lisa Ben), American activist Dorothy Louise Taliaferro (Del) Martin, French artist and historian Philippe Jullian, English art dealer Geoffrey Bennison, Anglo-Irish Mairi Elizabeth Vane-Tempest-Stewart (Lady Mairi Bury),  American violinist and composer Charles (Chuck) Turner, American playwright Leo Rost, American artist Norris Embry, American poet David Louis Posner, English soldier Major Anthony (Tony) Maycock, English gay servicemen’s activist Dudley Cave, French illustrator Jean Boullet, American illustrator and author Carl Vernon Corley, French artist Raymond Carrance (Czanara), English conductor Sir John Michael Pritchard and English novelist Patricia Highsmith b.  English Australian lawyer, politician and civil servant Sir John Bramston, French writer Baron Robert de Montesquiou-Fézensac, French composer Charles-Camille Saint-Saëns, English lover of Sir Alfred Douglas Maurice Schwabe, French diplomat Raymond Lecomte, English pornographer Paul Harry Ferdinando (Lively Poll; P.H. Carrington), Swiss artist Paul Thévenaz and German Philipp, Fürst zu Eulenburg-Hertefeld d.  English herald Sir Arthur Vicars murdered by I.R.A.  English student and model for Peter Pan,  Michael Llewelyn Davies drowns with his lover Rupert Erroll Victor Buxton in the Thames in what was possibly a suicide pact.  House of Commons passes English New Criminal Law Amendment Bill extending Labouchere amendment to women but it fails in the Lords. German sexologist Magnus Hirschfeld convenes first International Congress for Sex Reform in Berlin.  German activist Adolf Brand starts personal advertisement section Extrapost in magazine Der Eigene (The Special) and is fined 5,000 Marks; he also publishes eleven issues of Freundschaft und Freiheit (Friendship and Freedom).  Italian science historian Aldo Mieli (‘Proteus’) founds Rassegna degli Studi Sessuali (Review of Sexual Studies) and Società italiana per lo studio delle questioni sessuali (the Italian Society for the Study of Sexual Matters).   Marshal Louis Hubert Gonzalve Lyautey made Marshal of France.  German anthropologist Ferdinand Karsch-Haack founds magazine Uranus.  English academic Goldsworthy Lowes Dickinson writes majority of The Autobiography of Goldsworthy Lowes Dickinson (published in 1973).  English plant collector Reginald Farrer’s travel memoir The Rainbow Bridge.  English author Arthur Annesley Ronald Firbank’s novel Santal.   English diplomat and author Frank Trelawny Arthur Ashton-Gwatkin (John Paris)’s novel Kimono.  French novelist Marcel Proust’s novel Sodome et Gomorrhe (Sodom and Gomorra) (to 1922).  Baron Jacques d’Adelswärd Fersens novel Hei Hsiang (Le parfum noire) (Hei Hsiang – the Black Perfume).  French writer André Lang’s novel Le Responsable (The Head).  Portuguese poet Fernando Pessoa’s poems 35 Sonnets. English poet Fabian Strachey Woodley’s poems A Crown of Friendship.  English poet Dr. John Leslie Barford’s poems Young Things. English writer John Moray Stuart-Young’s poems Minor Melodies: Lyrics and Songs. Theater de Eros (Theatre of Eros), run by Bruno Matussek, commences performances in Berlin with Die Infamen (The Infamy) based on the 1906 novel by Guido Hermann Eckardt (Fritz Geron Pernauhm).  English artist Sidney James Hunt’s Ganymede Before Zeus.

1922 American writer Jack Kerouac, English civil servant writer Austin Coates, American writer James Fugaté (James Barr), Italian director Pier Paolo Pasolini, Italian designer Pierre Cardin, English actor Denholm Elliott, American actress singer Judy Garland, French activist André Baudry, (or 1923) American drag queen and activist José Julio Sarria, American anthropologist, activist and writer Tobias Schneebaum, English rally driver Sheila van Damm, American fashion designer William Ralph (Bill) Blass, English organist Alan Harverson Hooper, American artist Frederick Gray Foy, German Jew Felice Schragenheim, English soldier Adrian Liddell Hart, Austrian-American designer and co-founder of the Mattachine Society Rudi Gernreich, American poet Howard Moss, American poet Robert Horan, Austrian-British composer Raffaello Douglas, Baron von Banfield Tripcovich, Austro-French collector and decorator Alexis Rosenberg 3rd Baron de Rede, American designer Tom C. Keogh, American author James Lord, English painter John Leith Craxton, American photographer Robert (Bob) Henry Mizer, Welsh actor Anthony Creighton, Italian actor Paolo Carlini, Italian Cardinal Pio Laghi, American Archbishop Paul Marcinkus, French Cardinal Roger Marie Élie Etchegaray and American fashion critic Richard Blackwell b.  French writer Marcel Proust d.  Walter Rathenau, Forign Minister of Germany, murdered.  Irish American film director William Cunningham Deane-Tanner (William Desmond Taylor) murdered.  Suicide of English Lewis ‘Lulu’ Viscount Harcourt. USSR criminal code omits homosexuality.  English writer Virginia Woolf meets writer Vita Sackville West.  English socialite Dorothy (Dotty) Violet Wellesley, Duchess of Wellington leaves her husband the Duke of Wellington for Vita Sackville-West.  Australian ‘Bishop’ Charles Webster Leadbeater scandal with boys in Sydney.  German anthropologist Ferdinand Karsch-Haack’s magazine Uranus closes.  Chinese literary Creation Society founded in Japan with its journal Chuangzao (Creation Quarterly). Shanghai newspaper Jingbao (Crystal) first discusses male prostitution.  English rights campaigner George Ives’s booklet The Continued Extension of the Criminal Law.  English writer Thomas Burke’s The London Spy: A Book of Town Travels.  German Jewish writer and activist Kurt Hiller (Keith Lurr and Klirr (Thule))’s tract against Paragraph 175 Die Schmach des Jahrhunderts (The Shame of the Centuries). Chinese writer He Gangde’s Chunming menglu (Dream Record of the Capital).  American Earl Lind’s autobiography The Female Impersonators.  English arabist and writer T.E. Lawrence writes autobiography The Mint. English author D.H. Lawrence’s novel Aaron’s Rod.  English author E.F. Benson’s novel Miss Mapp.  Irish novelist George Moore’s novel In Single Strictness. French novelist François-Félicien Durand (Francis de Miomandre)’s novel Ces petits messieurs (These Little Men). French writer Georges-Michel’s novel La Bohème-canaille (Bohemian Rabble).  French writer Victor Margueritte’s novel La Garçonne (The Boy Girl).  American writer Robert Menzies McAlmon’s stories A Hasty Bunch.  Chinese writer Yu Dafu’s short story ‘Mangmang ye’ (‘Boundless Night’) in journal Chuangzao (Creation Quarterly).   American poet T.S. Eliot’s poem The Wasteland, an elegy for French medical officer Jean Jules Verdenal, who had been killed in 1915.  English poet A.E. Housman’s Last Poems.  English poet Charles Philip Castle Kains Jackson’s poems Finibus Cantat Amor (Love Sings at the Fringes).  English poet Reverend Edwin Emmanuel Bradford’s poems Ralph Rawdon: a Story in Verse. English writer  Arthur Symons’s poems Love’s Cruelty. American writer Gertrude Stein’s play Ada published.  Dutch playwright Joahnna Maria van Ijssel de Schepper-Becker’s play Wat nie mag (What Man Must Not).  German director Freidrich Murnau’s film (with German painter Walter Spies) Nosferatu. Polish composer Karol Szymanowski dedicates Songs of an infatuated Muezzin Op.42 to Lord Alington.

1923 American diarist Ned Rorem, English author Francis King, English writer Peter Wildeblood, Italian director Franco Zeffirelli, American episcopal priest and author Reverend Malcolm Boyd, American conservative rights activist Marvin Liebman, British director Lindsay Gordon Anderson,  Japanese artist Gojin Ishihara (Gekko Hayashi), Dutch writer Gerard Kornelis van het Reve, English performer William Sulley White (Larry Grayson), English art historian and curator Michael Jaffé, American art collector Joseph F. McCrindle, American composer William (Bill) Flanagan,  American composer and organist Daniel (Danny) Rogers Pinkham, American painter and musician Larry Rivers, Belgian diplomat Fernand Paul Jules Spaak, English Conservative politician Edward Charles Gurney Boyle, Baron Boyle of Handsworth and 3rd Baronet, English serviceman George Montague, English fighter pilot Squadron Leader Christopher Gotch, African-American feminist Anita Cornwell, American sociologist George Goetschius, Italian Archbishop Pasquale Macchi, Italian Cardinal Achille Silvestrini, French Cardinal Albert Vanhoye  and German writer and holocaust survivor Gad Beck b. English financier, courtier and conservative politician Horace Brand Farquhar, 1st Earl Farquhar, English writer Katherine Mansfield, French writer Baron Jacques d’Adelswärd Fersen, Dutch author Louis Couperus, French writer Raymond Radiguet, German Lieutenant General Kuno Augustus Friedrich Karl Detlev Graf von Moltke, English diplomat  Aubrey Nigel Henry Molyneux Herbert, Venetian gondolier Giacomo (Angelo) Fusato (lover of John Addington Symonds), English poet Richard C. Jackson and English academic Oscar Browning d.  Cao Kun becomes President of the Beiing Government; his favourite Li Yanqing sells government offices etc.  Cheng Ke becomes Beijing Government’s Minister of Justice.  Painter Walter Spies leaves Germany for the Dutch East Indies. Japanese novelist Nobuko Yoshiya meets Monma Chiyo.  American Society for the Suppression of Vice under John Sumner in conjunction with New York Police launches campaign to root out homosexuality in bathhouses, on piers and beneath the Elevated Railway.  English Prince George Duke of Kent begins 19 year affair with Noël Coward.  English editor Dorothy Todd becomes editor of Vogue (to 1925).  French writer René Crevel excluded from the surrealist movement for being homosexual.  German sexologist Magnus Hirschfeld ends Jahrbuch für sexuelle Zwischenstufen (Yearbook on Sexual Intermediaries). German writer and rights campaigner Friedrich Radszuweit founds Bund für Menschenrecht (League for Human Rights) and (to 1933) publishes bi-monthly magazine Zeitschrift / Blätter für Menschenrecht (Journal / Paper for Human Rights).  German Hans Kahnert founds magazine Der Hellasbote (The Greek Messenger). French writer Louis Estève’s Les Grandes aberrations de l’amour romantique (Great Aberrations of Romantic Love).   American sociologist Nels Anderson's The Hobo uses the word ‘fag’ first in print.  Shanghai newspaper Jingbao (Crystal) begins a series of articles and correspondence on same-sex relations.  English academic Oscar Browning’s autobiography Memoirs of Later Years. Letters and Papers of John Addington Symonds by Horatio F. Brown.  English courtier Viscount Esher’s biography of poet schoolmaster William (Johnson) Cory, Ionicus.  English author Arthur Annesley Ronald Firbank’s novel The Flower Beneath the Foot.  American writer Carl van Vechten’s novel The Blind Bow-Boy.  English writer E.F. Benson’s novel Colin.  English writer D.H. Lawrence’s novella The Fox.  French novelist Marcel Proust’s novel La Prisonnière (The Prisoner). French novelist Suzanne de Calliac’s novel L’Ersatz d’Amour (Erzatz Love).  French novelist André Couvreur’s novel L’Androgyne (The Androgyne).  French novelist Henry-Marx’s novel Ryls: Un amour hors la loi (Ryls: A Love Outside the Law).  Chinese writer Lu Yin’s novel Lishi’s Diary.  Chinese writer Huang Shenzhi’s short story ‘Ta’ (‘Him’) in journal Chuangzao (Creation Quarterly).  English poet Reverend Edwin Emmanuel Bradford’s poems The True Aristocracy.  English poet Francis Edwin Murray (A. Newman)’s poems Rondeaux of Boyhood.  English merchant seaman poet Dr. John Leslie Barford’s poems Fantasies.   English writer John Moray Stuart-Young’s poems Who Buys My Dreams? American poet Countee Cullen’s poem ‘To a Brown Boy’.  Canadian poet Elsa Gidlow’s poems On A Grey Thread.  English playwright Frederick Lonsdale’s play Spring Cleaning.  English translation of Polish Yiddish play Got fun nekome (God of Vengeance) banned in the USA.  American film The Soilers. Russo-American actress Alla Nazimova and Natacha Rambova star in American film of Oscar Wilde’s Salome.  German Der Steinachfilm  (The Steinach Film) shows effects of hormones and discusses hermaphroditism.  Swedish painter Gösta Adrian-Nilsson (GAN)’s painting Bains (Baths). 

1924 American writer James Baldwin, English art historian Sir John Patrick Richardson, Armenian film director Sergei Parajanov, American writer James Kirkwood Jr., English screenwriter Gavin Lambert, American actor Marlon Brando, American actor Wally Cox, American activist Phyllis Ann Lyon, English spy William John Christopher Vassall, Irish author and lawyer Michael Mussen Campbell, 4th Baron Glenavy, American director Edward Davis (Ed) Wood, English politician Denzil Kingston Freeth, English drag artist Rex Coster (Mrs Shufflewick), English biographer Desmond Stewart, American composer Mark Bucci, French journalist Yves Salgues, American painter and activist William R. Christopher, American writer on Japan Donald Richie, English Conservative politician Sir William Radcliffe van Straubenzee, Japanese artist Tsuyoshi Yoshida (Goh Mishima), American writer Calvin Kentfield, American writer and actor Paul Moor, English composer Alexander Galbraith (Sandy) Wilson, Slovak Cardinal Jozef Tomko and American writer Truman Capote b. English author Marie Corelli, English art historian and critic Sir Claude Phillips, Austro-Hungarian German-Jewish writer Franz Kafka and Romanian actor Édouard de Max d. Dutch poet Jacob Israël de Haan murdered by Zionists in Jerusalem. English mountaineers George Herbert Leigh Mallory and Andrew (Sandy) Comyn Irvine killed on Mount Everest.  Panama and Peru legalize homosexuality.  Chinese Cheng Ke Beijing Government Minister of the Interior.  French publisher Gustave Léon Beyria and editor Gaston Lestrade found magazine Inversions, France’s first gay paper, which is banned after 5 issues (to 1925).  U.S. Society for Rights to Work/Human Rights founded by German American rights campaigner Henry Gerber in Chicago with a shortlived periodical  Friendship and Freedom but disbands under police pressure after a few months.  Berlin periodical Die Freundin (The Girlfriend) founded (to 1933). German activists Max Danielsen and Kurt Neuburger found journal Die Fanfare (The Fanfare) (to 1926).  Shanghai newspaper Jingbao (Crystal) attacks Cao Kun and Li Yanqing.  Cao Kun resigns as President of Beijing Government and Li Yanqing is executed after having his fingernails pulled out.  Feng Shuluan attacks Wu Yulin, Minister of Transport, and Cheng ke, Minister of Justice, for affairs with boy actors Shang Xiaoyun and Zhu Qinxin respectively. Newspaper Jingbao (Crystal) publishes story ‘Xin pengjiaojia mishi’ (‘A New Secret History of a Supporter’).  English reformer Edward Carpenter’s British Society for the Study of Sex Psychology pamphlet Some Friends of Walt Whitman: A Study in Sex Psychology.  German physician and writer on sex Karl-Günther Heimsoth’s thesis ‘Hetero- und Homophilie’ (‘Heterophile and Homophile’) makes first use of word ‘homophilia’.  English Anon’s Catalogue of Selected Books from the Private Library of a Student of Boyhood, published by poet Francis Edwin Murray.  English writer A.C. Benson’s autobiography Memories and Friends.  André Gide’s autobiography Si le grain ne meurt (If it Die) published.  English writer Thomas Burke’s autobiography The Wind and the Rain: A Book of Confessions. English writer Hector Hugh Munro (Saki)’s novel The Square Egg.  English writer E.F. Benson’s novel David of Kings.  English writer Arthur Annesley Ronald Firbank’s novel Prancing Nigger (Sorrowful in Sunlight). American writer Carl van Vechten’s novel The Tattooed Countess.  English writer E.M. Forster’s novel A Passage to India.  American writer Robert McAlmon’s novel The Village.  French writer André Birabeau’s novel La débauche (translated as Revelation in 1930). French novelist Suzanne de Calliac’s novel Le Naufragé (The Marooned).  American author Herman Melville’s novella Billy Budd.  English writer Vita Sackville West’s novel Challenge. American Herman Edward Prime-Stevenson (Xavier Mayne)’s Dramatic Stories to be Read Aloud.  French writer Pierre Guyolot-Dubasty (Axerios)’s stories Platoniquement (Platonically). English poet Charles Philip Castle Kains Jackson’s poems Lysis. American Uranian anthology of poems Men and Boys. An Anthology edited by Edward M. Slocum (William Elphinston).  English poet Francis Edwin Murray (A. Newman)’s poems From a Lover’s Garden.  English poet Ralph Nicholas Chubb’s poems Manhood.  English playwright Noël Coward’s play The Vortex. Barbadian author and actor Terence Lucy Greenidge, British producer John Sutro and English author Evelyn Waugh’s films Scarlet Woman: An Ecclesiastical Melodrama and City of the Plain: A Story of the Oxford Underworld starring Hugh Lygon and Evelyn Waugh.  German film Michael based on Danish author Hermann Bang’s 1902 novel.  English artist Sidney James Hunt’s illustration Saturday Afternoon in Artwork.

1925 Japanese writer Yukio Mishima, American writer Gore Vidal, American radical Malcolm X, American actor Farley Granger, American producer Julian Beck, American artist Robert Rauschenberg, American activist Franklin Edward (Frank) Kameny, Canadian academic Louis Crompton, English Liberal politician Michael Steel, French editor Jean-Pierre Lacloche, American film star John Uhler (Jack) Lemmon III, English artist John Vere Brown, English-Australian playwright and poet Laurence Collinson, American publisher and writer George Paul Solomos (Themistocles Heretis), French painter Bernard Saby, American pianist Eugene George Istomin, French actor Jean Leauvrais, American painter Alexander Jensen (Jens) Yow, American gay magazine editor Boyd Emmett McDonald, American artist Edward St. John Gorey, Ghanaian-English actor Joseph Paul Walcott (Paul Danquah), American artist Robert R. Bliss, Italian priest and activist Marco Bisceglia and American film star Roy Harold Scherer (Rock Hudson) b.  King Vajiravudh (Rama VI) of Thailand, English writer Arthur Christopher (A.C.) Benson, Finnish painter Magnus Knut Enckell, American poet Amy Lowell, Belgian-French poet and photographer Pierre Félix Louis (Pierre Louÿs) and American painter John Singer Sargent d.  Russian poet Sergei Alexandrovich Yesenin commits suicide. American artist Paul Cadmus meets French painter Jared French.  British magazine John Bull’s article attacking London’s Coventry Street Lyons Corner House for housing ‘painted and scented boys’.   English writer Virginia Woolf’s affair with writer Vita Sackville-West.  German painter Walter Spies visits Bali.  German publisher Adolf Brand founds Cartel for the Reform of the Law against Sexual Offences.  German activist Friedrich Radszuweit publishes journal Das Freundschaftsblatt (The Friendship Paper) (to 1933).  Chinese woman Liu Jingzhu imprisoned in Wuxi county near Shanghai for ‘seduction with consent’ and ‘illicit sex by rubbing’ with another woman.  Shanghai paper Jingbao (Crystal) complains that Chinese victim in a male rape case, Jiang Lianwen, raped by an Indian policeman in Shanghai, had to post bail; also that the Chinese victim of male rape by four American soldiers in Beijing, Zhao Changhai, had to do the same.  German magazine Die Insel (The Island) founded.  Japanese novelist Nobuko Yoshiya edits journal Kuroshoubi (Black Rose), which closes after eight months.  German physicians Ernst Joël and Fritz Fränkel’s article ‘Kokainismus und Homosexualitität’ (‘Cocainism and Homosexuality’).  English Oliver, 2nd Earl Baldwin’s autobiography Six Prisons and Two Revolutions. French novelist Proust’s novel La Fugitive (Albertine disparue) (The Fugitive (Albertine Gone)). French diplomat Georges Soulié de Morant’s Bijou de Ceinture, ou le jeune homme qui porte robe, se poudre et se farde (Jewel Belt, or the Young Man who Wears a Dress, and Powders and Paints Himself). English writer E.F. Benson’s novels Mother and Colin II. American writer Robert McAlmon’s novel Distinguished Air: Grim Fairy Tales.  English writer Virginia Woolf’s novel Mrs. Dalloway.  English writers G.D.H. and Margaret Cole’s novel Death of a Millionaire.  American novelist Carl van Vechten’s novel Firecrackers.  American writer Clarkson Crane’s novel The Western Shore.  French writer Georges Anquetil’s novel Satan conduit le bal (Satan Leads the Dance).  French novelist Charles-Étienne’s novel Notre-Dame de Lesbos.  Roman de moeurs (Our Lady of Lesbos.  A Novel of Manners).  French writer René Crevel’s novel Mon Corps et moi (My Body and Me). Chinese writer Bao Tianxiao’s unfinished novel Liu Fangji (The Record of a Fine Reputation Handed Down Through History).  American writer Robert McAlmon’s stories The Distinguished Air.  English poet Reverend Edwin Emmanuel Bradford’s poems The Tree of Knowledge.  American poet Countee Cullen’s poem ‘Tableau’. English poet Ralph Nicholas Chubb’s poems The Sacrifice of Youth and A Fable of Love and War.  American poet Kay Boyle’s poem ‘In Defence of Homosexuality’. English playwright Noël Coward’s plays Hay Fever and Easy Virtue.  English writer J.R.Ackerley’s play The Prisoners of War.  American film The Monster.  German film Der Geiger von Florenz (The Violinist from Florence).  Polish painter Maria Górska (Tamara de Lempicka)’s painting Portrait of the Duchesse de la Salle.  English artist Sidney James Hunt’s painting Pictură (Contimporanul, October 1925.  

1926 American poet Alan Ginsberg, English director John Schlesinger, American poet James Ingram Merrill, English musician George Melly, English writer James (Jan) Morris, English Edward, 3rd Baron Montagu of Beaulieu, English entertainer Kenneth Williams, Algerian poet Jean Sénac, American writer Francis Russell (Frank) O’Hara, American composer Lee Holby, American choreographer Murray Louis, American actor Tom Tryon, American journalist and sailor Ricardo J. Brown, Canadian writer David Arthur Watmough, American actor Paul Edward Lynde, English film producer Kenneth Hume, German composer Hans Werner Henze,  American playwright Charles Boltenhouse, American pianist Julius Katchen, French writer Daniel Mauroc, English politician Humphrey Berkeley, American Cardinal William Wakefield Baum  and French thinker Michel Foucault b. Scottish historian Horatio Robert Forbes Brown, American film star Rudolph Valentino, English Lord Arthur Somerset, English writer Arthur Annesley Ronald Firbank, English poet and soldier Lieutenant-Colonel Sydney Frederick McIlree Lomer (Sydney Oswald), Anglo-Irish poet and activist Eva Gore-Booth and Iranian Prince Iraj Mirza, Jalal-ol-Mamalek d.  French publisher Gustave Léon Beyria and editor Gaston Lestrade prosecuted for magazine Inversions (with the edition L’Amitié) and imprisoned for 10 and 6 months respectively.  German magazine Frauenliebe (Woman Love) founded. German Magnus Hirschfeld introduces term ‘total transvestitism’ to mean ‘transexualism’.  American writer recorder Samuel Steward visits film star Rudolph Valentino.  French scholar André Georges Roulot (Lorulot)’s La Véritable Éducation sexuelle.  Bréviaire complet de la santé et du Bonheur en amour. (The Real Sex Education.  Complete Breviary of Health and Happiness in Love).  English rights campaigner George Ives’s talk for the British Society for the Study  of Sex Psychology ‘Graeco-Roman View of Youth’ published as a pamphlet.  American poet and painter Richard Bruce Nugent’s ‘Smoke, Lilies and Jade’ in journal Fire!! published by the Niggerati Manor group (the first published defence of negro homosexual love).  English poet Richard le Gallienne’s The Romantic Nineties.  English writer John Moray Stuart-Young’s autobiography Johnny Jones Guttersnipe.  Irish novelist Forrest Reid’s autobiography Apostate.  English arabist soldier T.E. Lawrence’s autobiographical Seven Pillars of Wisdom.  English writer Beverley Nichols’s autobiography Twenty Five.  South African writer Olive Schreiner’s autobiographical and unfinished novel From Man to Man.   French writer Andre Gide’s novel David.  French novelist Charles-Étienne’s novel Les Épices libertines (Libertine Spices).  Austrian writer Stefan Zweig’s novella Verwirrung der Gefühle (Confusion of Feelings or Confusion: The Private Papers of Privy Councillor R. Von D initially published in Verwirrung der Gefühle: Drei Novellen.  English writer D.H. Lawrence’s novel The Plumed Serpent.  English writer Ronald Firbank’s novel Concerning the Eccentricities of Cardinal Pirelli.  French novelist Jacques Élie Henri Ambrose Ner (Han Rymer)’s novel l’Autodidacte (The Autodidact). French writer Pierre Guyolot-Dubasty (Axerios)’s novel Les Solitudes inquiètes (Worried Solitudes).  French writer Maurice Betz’s novel Le Démon impur (The Impure Demon).   Scottish German writer John Henry Mackay (Sagitta)’s novel Der Puppenjunge (The Hustler).  English poet Philip Gillespie Bainbrigge’s obscene Latin dialogue Dialogus. Jocundus: Robertus.  English schoolmaster poet Arnold W. Smith’s The Isle of Mistorak and Other Poems.  American poet Hart Crane’s poems White Buildings.  French playwright Édouard Bourdet’s play La prisonnière (The Captive); when staged in New York in translation, the play was closed and the entire cast arrested.  Austrian playwright Ferdinand Brückner’s play Krankheit der Jugend (Sickness of Youth). American film Exit Smiling starring Franklin Pangborn.  American film Irene starring George K. Arthur.  Wilhelm Heinrich Otto Dix’s portrait of Sylvia von Harden.  Swedish painter Gösta Adrian-Nilsson (GAN)’s painting Tjur och Matador III (Bull and Matador III). English painter Duncan James Corrowr Grant’s paintings The Bathers (to 1933) and Portrait of a Male Nude Seated on a Drapery (to 1928).

1927 American lawyer Roy Cohn, Roy Cohn’s lover Gerard David Schine, English writer Simon Raven, English writer Peter Nichols, American filmmaker Kenneth Anger, American singer Johnnie Ray, American novelist Marijane Meaker (Vin Packer), English activist Anthony Edgar Gartside Wright (Anthony Grey), English activist Allan Horsfall, American poet John Lawrence Ashbery, English critic Kenneth Peacock Tynan, French fashion designer Comte Hubert James Marcel Taffin de Givenchy, French poet Olivier Larronde, English art historian and dealer Hugh David Graham Carritt, American food writer Richard Olney, English writer and broadcaster Daniel Negley Farson, English politician Sir William Fergus Montgomery, American artist Raymond Edward (Ray) Johnson, English journalist David Allan Chipp, American director Robert Moore, South African choreographer John Cyril Cranko, German priest Joseph Aloisius Ratzinger (Pope Benedict XVI), Italian Cardinal Angelo Raffaele Sodano and Irish drag artist Daniel Patrick Carroll (Danny La Rue) b. English bibliographer Christopher Sclater Millard, English American musician and composer Jesse Shepard, Belgian writer Georges Eekhoud, French writer Pierre Guyolot-Dubasty (Axerios), French collector Alphonse Kahn, German painter Rudolph Karl Alexander (Sascha) Schneider, and English schoolmaster poet Arnold W. Smith d.  German magazine Transvestit published.  German activist Adolf Brand publishes journal Eros (to 1931). German painter Walter Spies settles in Bali. Scottish Captain Neil Boyd Watson McEachern’s ‘Impersonation’ party in Brook Street, London.  Polish composer Karol Maciej Szymanowski appointed chief of Fryderyk Chopin Music Academy.  Lionel Fielden becomes Director of Talks for the B.B.C. (to 1935).  Anglo-French actress and theatre producer Eva Le Gallienne named as correspondent with American actress Josephine Hutchinson in latter’s divorce proceedings.  Swiss anthropologist Henri Alexandre Junod observes same-sex marriage ceremonies among Mozambique miners.  Shanghai newspaper Jingbao (Crystal) reports Indian night guard in Shanghai murdered Qin Xinyi, who had resisted his advances. Pan Guangdan’s essay ‘Feng Xiaoqing’, in which he translates ‘homosexuality’ as ‘tongxinglian’.    French publisher Henri Gauthier-Villars (Willy)’s Le Troisième Sexe (The Third Sex).  French writer Louis Estève’s L'Enigme de I'androgyne (The Enigma of the Androgyne).  English writer H.E. Wortham’s Oscar Browning.  English diplomat writer Sir Harold Nicolson’s memoirs Some People.  English writer John Moray Stuart-Young’s autobiography What Does It Matter?  English courtier Reginald, 2nd Viscount Esher’s autobiography Cloud-Capp’d Towers.  French novelist Marcel Proust’s novel Le Temps retrouvé (Time Regained).  Scottish writer Sir Compton Mackenzie’s novel Vestal Fire.  English writer E.F. Benson’s novel Lucia in London.  American writer Edward Perry (Ned) Warren (Arthur Lyon Raile)’s novel A Tale of Pausanian Love.  English writer Virginia Woolf’s novel To the Lighthouse.  English writer Sylvia Townsend Warner’s novel Mt. Fortune’s Maggot.  English novelist Sir Hugh Seymour Walpole’s novel Jeremy at Crale: His Friends, His Ambitions and His One Great Enemy. French writers Albert Nortal and Charles-Étienne’s novel Les Adolescents passionnés (Passionate Adolescents).  German writer Hans Siemsen (Pfarrer Silesius)’s novel Verbotene Liebe (Forbidden Love).  Chinese writer Ye Dingluo’s collected stories Boyfriend.  English poet Reverend Edwin Emmanuel Bradford’s The Kingdom within You and Other Poems.  English writer Ralph Nicholas Chubb’s book The Cloud and the Voice. English poet Philip Gillespie Bainbrigge’s verse play Achilles in Scyros.  American actress Mae West’s play Drag.  Anglo-French actress Eva Le Gallienne in Alison’s House, a play about Emily Dickinson.  German activists interrupt play Streng Verboten (Strictly Forbidden) at the Berlin Komische Oper (Berlin Comic Opera) to protest its stylised portrayal of gay men as effeminate. German sexologist Magnus Hirschfeld and Austian director Richard Oswald’s film Das Gesetze der Liebe: Aus der Mappe eines Sexualforchers (The Laws of Love: From the Portfolio of a Sex Researcher).  American films With Love and Hisses, Wings and A Wanderer of the West.  Otto Dix’s painting Eldorado.  Australian painter Agnes Goodsir’s painting Type of the Latin Quarter.  German painter Jeanne Mammen’s water colour She Represents.

1928 American artist Andy Warhol, American playwright Edward Franklin Albee, Lithuanian actor Zvi Mosheh Skikne (Laurence Harvey), American director James Ivory, English actor director Roddy Andrew Anthony McDowall, English director Cecil Antonio (Tony) Richardson, American author Alfred Chester, English academic, critic and activist Anthony Edward (Tony) Dyson, English artist John Michael Wishart, American playwright and writer Hillyer Speed Lamkin, Danish dancer Erik Belton Evers Bruhn, English actor Peter Paul Wyngarde, American co-founder of the Mattachine Society John (James) Gruber, French actor Claude Romain, American journalist and historian Elliott Stein, American actor Richard Allen (Dick) York, Anglo-Jewish Londoner David Levy (Litvinoff), Ulster Unionist politician Sir James Alexander Kilfedder and Japanese photographer Tamotsu Yato b. American writer Edward Perry (Ned) Warren (Arthur Lyon Raile), English poet John Francis Bloxam, English critic Sir Edmund Gosse, English George Merrill, English Sir James Tynte Agg Gardner M.P., German dancer prostitute Anita Berber, (after) German activist Max Danielsen and Anglo-American critic Alfred J. Cohen (Alan Dale) d.  Guomindang criminal code in China removes crime of ‘seduction with consent’ except for minors.  Second International Congress for Sex Reform in Copenhagen.  World League for Sexual Reform established by German sexologist Magnus Hirschfeld, with Swiss psychiatrist Auguste-Henri Forel and English Havelock Ellis as Honorary Presidents.  British section of the League founded with Australian sexologist Norman Zions (Norman Haire) chairman and feminist Dora Russell, Countess Russell secretary.  Science historian activist Aldo Mieli (‘Proteus’) forced into exile by Italy’s Fascist government.  English poet Stephen Spender meets writer Christopher Isherwood.  Christopher Isherwood arrives in Berlin.  German activist Max Danielsen founds journal Neue Freundschaft (New Friendship), which is immediately censored and banned.   Anglo-Irish actors and producers Hilton Edwards and Micheál Mac Liammóir found the Gate Theatre in Dublin.  American writer Edward Perry (Ned) Warren (Arthur Lyon Raile)’s Defence of Uranian Love.  Ruth Margarete Roellig’s guidebook Berlin’s Lesbische Frauen (Berlin’s Lesbian Women).  Chinese educational reformer and writer Chen Dongyuan’s Zhongguo funii shenhuo shi (History of the Lives of Chinese Women).  German SA Chief of Staff Ernst Röhm’s autobiography Die Geschichte eines Hochverräters (The Story of a Traitor).  Chinese writer Guo Moro’s autobiographical Wo de tongnian (My Childhood).  French writer, artist and actor Jean Cocteau’s autobiographical novel Le Livre blanc (The White Paper). English writer Christopher Isherwood’s novel All the Conspirators.  English writer Virginia Woolf’s novel Orlando.  English writer Marguerite Radclyffe Hall’s novel The Well of Loneliness; obscenity trial and book banned.  Compton Mackenzie’s novel Extraordinary Women.  English writer Siegfried Sassoon’s autobiographical novel Memoirs of a Fox Hunting Man.  English writer Alec Waugh’s novel The Loom of Youth causes scandal at Sherborne School.  English writer Ernest Milton’s novel To Kiss the Crocodile.  American writer Claude McKay’s novel Home to Harlem.  Benjamin Musser (J.A. Nocross/Samuel Roth)’s novel The Strange Confessions of Monsieur Montcairn.  American writer Djuna Barnes’s novel Ladies Almanack. French writer Pierre Guyolot-Dubasty (Axerios)’s novel Les Miettes de banquet (Banquet Crumbs).  English poet E.K. Linton’s poems Opals and Pebbles.  American poet Edward M. Slocum (William Elphinston)’s Lads o’ the Sun: The Poems.  English writer A.J.A. Symons’s An Anthology of Nineties Verse.  English explorer Sir Richard Burton’s translation of Sa’di’s poem Tales from the Gulistan, or Rose Garden of Sheikh Sa’di of Shiraz.  English writer Robert Cedric Sherriff’s play Journey’s End. Norwegian female impersonators and male courtesans, the Rocky Twins (Leif and Paal Roschberg) debut at the Casino de Paris in Les Aisles de Paris and at the Concert Mayol impersonating the Dolly Sisters in La Volupte de Paris.  Austrian playwright Ferdinand Brückner’s play Der Verbrecher (The Criminal) closed by SA atack on Hamburg theatre.  Austrian (Bohemian) director Georg Wilhelm Pabst’s film Pandora’s Box based on Frank Wedekind’s plays of 1895 and 1904.  German film Geschlecht in Fesseln: Die Sexualnot der Gefangenen (Sex in Chains:  The Sexual Frustration of Prisoners). Gertrude Ma Rainey’s song ‘Prove It on Me’.  American dancer and artist Hubert Julian (Jay) Stowitts’s painting Prince Suwarno in Mahabharata Role.

1929 Anglo-American poet Thom Gunn, American poet Adrienne Cecile Rich, English politician John Jeremy Thorpe, American figure skater Dick Button, Japanese photographer Aizawa Keizo, English author Brigid Brophy, Lady Levey, American activist David McReynolds, Welsh actor Vittorio Giorgio Andrea Spinetti, English interior designer David Nightingale Hicks, American actor Tom Hatcher, English pop manager Laurence Maurice ‘Larry’ Parnes, English actor Basil William Hoskins, English autobiographer Joseph Hucknall, American Howard Austen (companion to Gore Vidal), English politician Norman St. John-Stevas, English writer David (Loopy) Lutyens,  English barrister George Alfred Carman, Lithuanian-Australian actor and writer Jurgis Mikelaitis (George Mikell), English record producer Robert George (Joe) Meek, German Cardinal Walter Brandmüller, Colombian Cardinal Darío del Niño Jesús Castrillón Hoyos and English actor Nigel Hawthorne b. English painter Henry Scott Tuke, English reformer Edward Carpenter, English Prime Minister Archibald, 5th Earl of Rosebery, American songwriter Katherine Lee Bates, Anglo-French poet, librarian and medical biographer Victor Gustave Plarr, American novelist Henry Blake Fuller,  Imperial German Chancellor  Bernhard Heinrich Karl Martin Fürst von Bülow, Maharaja Sir Kishan Singh of Bharatpur and Russian impresario Sergei Diaghilev d.  Amir Amanullah Khan of Afghanistan deposed. Third International Congress for Sex Reform in London.  German Jewish writer and activist Kurt Hiller (Keith Lurr and Klirr (Thule)) succeeds Magnus Hirschfeld as Chairman of the Wissenschaftlich-humanitäres Komitee (Scientific Humanitarian Committee).  Reichstag committee votes to eliminate Paragraph 175 but change is not carried through. Chinese sexologists Yang Youtian’s ‘Tongxing’ai de wenti’ (‘’The Issue of Homosexuality’) and Hu Qiuyuan’s  ‘Tongxing’ai de yanjiu’ (‘Research on Same-sex Love’) in journal Xin nuxing (New Women).  German physician and sex writer Karl-Günther Heimsoth’s Charakter-Konstellation: Mit besonderer Berücksichtigung der Gleichgeschlechtlichkeit (Character Constellation: With Particular Reference to Homosexuality).  English Lord Alfred Douglas’s Autobiography.  English writer Norman Douglas’s autobiographical One Day.  English novelist W. Somerset Maugham’s autobiographical The Gentleman in the Parlour.  English magus and writer Aleister Crowley’s The Confessions of Aleister Crowley: An Autohagiography.  English writer Virginia Woolf’s novel A Room of One’s Own. Belgian French writer Marguerite Yourcenar’s novel Alexis ou le traité du vain combat - Le Coup de grâce (Alexis). English poet Stephen Spender writes novel The Temple.  French artist, actor and writer Jean Cocteau’s novel Les Enfants terribles (Children of the Game or The Holy Terrors). French novelists Charles-Étienne and Albert Nortal’s novel Les Hermaphrodites (The Hermaphrodites).  English reformer Edward Carpenter’s final version of poem ‘Towards Democracy.  English poet Reverend Edwin Emmanuel Bradford’s poems Strangers and Pilgrims.  American poet Countee Cullen’s poem ‘The Black Christ’.  English writer Ralph Nicholas Chubb’s book An Appendix.  English playwright Noël Coward’s play Bitter Sweet. Spanish poet Federico del Sagrado Corazón de Jesús García Lorca writes play The Public.  American film Liberty. American film The Desert Song starring Johnny Arthur. American film The Broadway Melody.  Austrian film maker Richard Oswald’s film Spring Awakening.  American dancer and artist Hubert Julian (Jay) Stowitts’s painting Ammed Yar Khan, Rampur Lancers.  German artist Christian Schad’s painting Loving Boys.

1930 San Francisco politician Harvey Milk, American composer and lyricist Stephen Joshua Sondheim, American novelist Aaron Roy Weintraub (Harold Brodkey), American actor Richard Stanford Cox (Dick Sargent), American playwright Lorraine Hansberry, American painter Jasper Johns, English MI5 officer Alex Kellar, English Deputy Treasurer of the Liberal Party David Holmes, English Treasurer and Vice President of the Liberal Party Philip George Watkins, Anglo-Russian ballet critic and writer Oleg Kerensky, English photographer Antony Charles Robert Armstrong-Jones, 1st Earl of Snowdon and Viscount Linley, English writer and composer Lionel Bart, American dancer, singer and actor Frederick Lawrence (Larry) Kert, French industrialist Pierre Bergé, American conductor Thomas Schippers, American conservationist James (Jimmy) Biddle, English rake John Wilkins, English writer Julian Penkivil Slade, English music producer Kenneth (Ken) Pitt, American geneticist Frank Lilly, American Cardinal Theodore Edgar McCarrick, French CardinalPaul Joseph Jean Poupard, Chilean priest Fernando Karadima, American actor Robert Benevides and American historian Martin Bauml Duberman b.  English courtier Reginald Brett, 2nd Viscount Esher, English writer David Hervert (D.H.) Lawrence, English Edward (Ned) William Bootle-Wilbraham, 3rd Earl of Lathom, English owner of The Ladies Review, impresario and writer Roy Horniman, Neapolitan-English socialite Donna Maria Beatrice Olga Alberta Caracciolo and Scottish translator, German photographer Wilhelm von Plüschow (Guglielmo Plüschow), German Lieutenant General Georg Albrecht Wilhelm Graf von Hohenau, English stockbroker Sydney Russell-Cooke and writer Charles Kenneth Scott-Moncrieff d. English painter John Christopher (Kit) Wood commits suicide.  Kenyan Penal Code outlaws homosexual acts.  Manuel Azaña Díaz becomes Prime Minister of Spain (to 1933).  Fourth International Congress for Sex Reform in Vienna.  German magazine Frauenliebe (Woman Love) renamed Garçonne (to 1932). Austrian Wilhelm Stekel publishes his views on treatment of homosexuality, which he considered a disease, in the American Psychoanalytic Review.  English spy Anthony Blunt meets spy Guy Burgess at Cambridge. English writer Sylvia Townsend Warner meets poet Valentine Ackland.  French art dealer Pierre Colle opens the Galerie Pierre Colle in Paris.  Danish painter Einar Magnus Andreas Wegener becomes Lili Elbe and has sex reassignment surgery and marriage to Gerda Gottlieb annulled.  American female impersonator and entertainer Victor Eugene James Malinovsky (Gene Malin/Jean Malin/Imogene Wilson) becomes star at Club Abbey in New York, starting the ‘Pansy Craze’ with Karyl Norman and others.  Chinese sexologist Hu Qiuyuan’s Tongxing’ai wenti taolun ji (A Collection of Discussions on the Issue of Homosexuality).  Japanese historian Iwata June’ichi’s article ‘Honcho Nanshoku Ko’ (‘Reflections on Love Between Men in Our Country’) in Showa.  Scottish lawyer and criminologist William Roughead’s true crime stories Bad Companions.  English writer E.F. Benson’s autobiography As We Were.  English writer Arthur Symons’s autobiographical Confessions: A Study in Pathology.  English actor Terence Greenidge’s memoir Degenerate Oxford? A Critical Study of Modern University Life.  French artist, actor and writer Jean Cocteau’s Opium. Journal d'une intoxication (Opium: The Diary of His Cure).  French writer Julien Green’s novel L’Autre Sommeil (The Other Sleep).  English writer Evelyn Waugh’s novel Vile Bodies. American writer John (J.) Keith Winter’s novel Other Men’s Saucer.  English poet Siegfied Sassoon’s autobiographical novel Memoirs of an Infantry Officer.   American writer and recorder Samuel Steward’s short stories and poems Pan and the Fire-bird.  English poet Reverend Edwin Emmanuel Bradford’s poems Boyhood.  English poet Reverend Samuel Elsworth Cottam closes Uranian poetry with Cameos of Boyhood. American poet Hart Crane’s poem The Bridge.  English writer Ralph Nicholas Chubb’s books Songs of Mankind and The Book of Visions of Nature and Supernature, Solar and Lunar. English playwright Noël Coward’s play Private Lives. German Hungarian novelist playwright Christa Winsloe, Baroness Hatveny’s play Gestern und heute (Yesterday and Today) renamed Ritter Nérestan (Knight Nérestan) in Leipzig and Krankheit der Liebe (Sickness of Love) in Berlin.  German film actress singer Marlene Dietrich’s film  Morocco. American film Way Out West starring William Haines.  American films The Office Wife and The Dude Wrangler.  English painter Glyn Warren Philpot’s paintings Guardian of the Flame and The Great Pan withdrawn from the Royal Academy due to their homosexual subjects. American artist Richard Bruce Nugent’s painting Untitled (John the Baptist?).  German painter Jeanne Mammen’s illustrations for  Les Chansons de Bilitis, lesbian love poems by Pierre Louÿs (to 1932) and for Gräfin Agnes Esterházy’s Das lasterhafte Weib (The Vices of Woman).  

1931 American choreographer Alvin Ailey, American film star Arthur Andrew Kelm (Tab Hunter), English broadcaster writer Ned Sherrin, American actor Nick Adams, French actress Capucine, Scottish actor John Fraser, American philosopher Richard Alpert (Ram Dass), American actor Charles Nelson Reilly, Canadian writer Jane Rule, English journalist, writer and B.O.S.S. spy Gordon Winter, English actor Frank Williams, English dancer Henry Lionel Blair Ogus (Lionel Blair), English art critic Brian Sewell, English playwright director Donald Haworth, Italian Cardinal Camillo Ruini, Italian Bishop Alessandro Maggiolini and American actor James Byron Dean b.  English poet John Gambril Francis Nicholson, German director Friedrich Murnau, Hungarian film star Lya de Putti, English tutor to Queen Victoria Canon John Neale Dalton and German photographer Baron Wilhelm von Gloeden d. Danish painter Einar Magnus Andreas Wege / Lili Elbe has fourth sex reassignment surgery and d.  Italian penal code introduces crimes against integrity and sanity of the stock.  Münchener Post (Munich Post) article ‘Homosexuality in the Brown House; Sexual Life in the Third Reich’.  Shanghai newspaper Jingbao (Crystal) attacks Japanese sexual perversions and prints story of divorce of Chinese Emperor Pu Yi, whose concubine Wenxiu alleged he had slept, not with her, but with eunuchs.  English William Lygon, 7th Earl Beauchamp goes abroad to avoid scandal when divorced by his wife, escaping a warrant for his arrest issued on the insistence of her brother, Bendor, Duke of Westminster, perhaps at the instigation of King George V.  Conference on Homosexual Crimes held in London. Anglo-American socialite Robert Gould Shaw III imprisoned in London for six months for homosexual acts.  Australian politician Albert Augustine (Bert) Edwards, Member of the South Australian House of Assembly, convicted of ‘an unnatural offence’ with John Gaunt (Jack) Mundy, 16, and sentenced to five years' jail; his appeals failed but he was released in 1933.  English opera director Sir David Webster meets Jimmy Cleveland Bell. Swiss adventurer and writer Annemarie Schwarzenbach meets Erika Mann in Berlin.  American writer Paul Bowles reaches Tangiers. Scottish Captain Neil Boyd Watson McEachern buys villa ‘la Crocetta' in Pallanza, Lake Maggiore.  English biographer the Honourable Evan Charteris’s The Life and Letters of Sir Edmund Gosse.  English writer Norman Douglas’s autobiographical Paneros.  English art expert Sir William Rothenstein’s memoirs Men and Memories: 1872-1900.  English Air-Commodore L.E.O. Charlton’s autobiography Charlton.  English Artist W. Graham Robertson’s autobiography Life Was Worth Living.    Scottish writer and translator Charles Kenneth Scott-Moncrieff’s Memories and Letters.  American actor Whitford Kane’s autobiography Are We All Met?  English novelist William Plomer’s novel Sado.  American novelist Blair Niles’s novel Strange Brother.  American novelist André Tellier’s novel Twilight Men.  American editor George Davis’s novel The Opening of a Door. English novelist James Hanley’s novel Boy published and banned after obscenity trial.  Scottish German writer John Henry Mackay’s novella Der Unschuldige (The Innocent).  German novelist Hanns Heinz Ewers’s novel Reiter in Deutscher Nacht (Knights of/Riders in the German Night). English writer Ralph Nicholas Chubb’s book The Sunday Spirit: A Visionary Phantasy.  English poet John Henry Gray’s Poems.  English poet W.H. Auden’s poems Legend.  English writer Arthur Symons’s Jezebel Mort, and Other Poems.  Austro-Hungarian film director Leontine Sagan’s film Mädchen in Uniform (Girls in Uniform).  French artist, actor and writer Jean Cocteau’s film Le Sang d'un Poète (The Blood of a Poet). German director Freidrich Wilhelm Murnau’s film Tabu. American film Penrod and Sam starring Johnny Arthur.  American film Manhattan Parade.  Russian artist Pavel Tchelitchew’s paintings The Juggler and Portrait of a Young Man.  English artist Sidney James Hunt’s illustrations in The Island.

1932 Argentine author Manuel Puig, American author Michael Rumaker, American singer songwriter Richard Wayne Penniman (Little Richard), English artist Sir Gordon Howard Eliot Hodgkin, American activist Barbara Gittings, American actor Robert Reed, English painter Edgar (Teddy) Louis Vanderstegen Millington-Drake, Moroccan painter Mohamed Hamri, French pianist and conductor Jean-Pierre Marty, American activist Margaret (Midge) Costanza, American Democrat politician Joseph F. Crangle, American dancer Swen Swenson, American underground film maker Jack Smith, American actor Joel Grey, American music producer Clive Jay Davis,  English Conservative politician Peter Edward Walker, Baron Walker of Worcester, American photographer Duane Michals, American publisher David B. Goodstein, Italian Cardinal Renato Raffaele Martino and American actor Anthony Perkins b.  English academic Goldsworthy Lowes Dickinson, English writer Lytton Strachey, Indian Vishwanath Singh, Maharaja of Chhatarpur, German writer and rights campaigner Friedrich Radszuweit, English poet Francis Edwin Murray, English William Welsford Ward (Ward the Choirboy - Oxford friend of Wilde), Richard Reginald Harding (‘Kitten’ – Oxford friend of Wilde), English actor Norman Forbes-Robertson and Scottish writer Kenneth Grahame d.  American poet Hart Crane commits suicide.  Swiss magazine Schweizerisches Freundschaftsbanner (Swiss Friendship Banner) founded in Zurich.  Shanghai newspaper Jingbao (Crystal) attacks Chinese Emperor Pu Yi for Japanese links and for sleeping with eunuchs.  Fifth International Congress for Sex Reform in Brno. French Sexological Society founded.  English spy Anthony Blunt recruits Donald Maclean as a Soviet spy at Cambridge.  Cabaret bar New Yorker opens in Christie Hotel Hollywood with the Rocky Twins, Leif and Paal Roschberg, Norwegian female impersonators and male courtesans, appearing.  Articles and correspondence on homosexuality in Tianjin newspaper Tianfeng bao (Heavenly Wind).  Chinese writer Wang Dingjiu’s Shanghai menjing (Key to Shanghai) describes male prostitution. Helene Deutsch's paper ‘On Female Homosexuality’ translated in the Psychoanalytic Quarterly. English writer J.R. Ackerley’s autobiographical Hindoo Holiday.  English Oliver, 2nd Earl Baldwin’s autobiography The Questing Beast.   English art expert Sir William Rothenstein’s memoirs Men and Memories: 1900-1922.  English writer Christopher Isherwood’s novel The Memorial.  American novelist Myron Brinig’s novel This Man Is My Brother.  English eccentric Gerald 14th Lord Berners (Adela Quebec)’s novel The Girls of Radcliff Hall.  English author W. Somerset Maugham’s novel The Narrow Corner.  Chinese writer Ba Jin’s short story ‘Dier de muqin’ (‘The Second Mother’). English writer poet Terence Ian Fytton Armstrong (John Gawsworth)’s poetry anthology Known Signatures.  English poet Sir John Betjeman’s poem ‘The Arrest of Oscar Wilde at the Cadogan Hotel’ (or 1933).  Austro-Hungarian Leontine Sagan directs Children in Uniform at the Duchess Theatre in London, starring Jessica Tandy and Cathleen Nesbitt.  Norwegian female impersonators and male courtesans, the Rocky Twins (Leif and Paal Roschberg) star at the Ship Café, Venice Beach, Los Angeles.  American film starring actress Clara Bow, Call Her Savage. American films The Sign of the Cross, Hell’s Highway and The Sport Parade. Noël Coward’s song ‘Mad about the Boy’. English painter Glyn Warren Philpot’s portait of Karl Heinz Muller as St Sebastian. 

1933 English playwright Joe Orton, English writer and artist Colin Spencer, English gangsters Ronny and Reginald Kray, English musical manager Brian Epstein, American poet and composer Rod McKuen, American Jesuit Father Mychal Judge, American writer and film maker Susan Sontag, American artist and film maker Jim Bidgood, American writer Edward Reynolds Price, English playwright David Rhames Storey, Belgian singing nun Jeanine Deckers (Sœur Sourire - Sister Smile), British neurologist Oliver Wolf Sacks, New Zealand neurologist Professor William Ian McDonald, English artist Michael Leonard, English opera producer John Michael Harold Copley, Dutch dancer and choreographer Rudi van Dantzig, South African-American physician Joseph Adolph Sonnabend, German Cardinal Joachim Meisner, Chilean Archbishop Francisco José Cox Huneeus and American writer activist Lorenzo Jackson Milam b.  German poet Stefan George, Greek Egyptian poet Constantin Cavafy, Irish novelist George Augustus Moore, Anglo-German poet Theodore William, Graf Wratislaw, English poet Charles Kains Jackson, Scottish German writer John Henry Mackay (Sagitta), Russian poet Sophia Yakovlena Parnok, American female impersonator and entertainer Victor Eugene James Malinovsky (Gene Malin/Jean Malin/Imogene Wilson), German Prinz Aribert Joseph Alexander von Anhalt, American theatrical and literary agent Elisabeth (Bessy) Marbury,  German sexologist Richard Linsert, English politician, educationalist and writer Sir Philip Magnus, 1st Baronet and Australian poet and critic John Le Gay Brereton d.  American poet Sara Teasdale commits suicide.    Homosexual acts decriminalised in Denmark, Greenland, the Faroe Islands and the Philippines.  Publisher Adolf Brand writes to his contacts ending his participation in the German movement for sexual reform.  Dutch (possible) homosexual Marinus Van der Lubbe instigated by Nazis to burn down Reichstag, allowing suspension of civils rights in Germany.  Nazis begin to send homosexual men to concentration camps.  German Jewish writer and activist Kurt Hiller (Keith Lurr and Klirr (Thule)) Chairman of the Wissenschaftlich-humanitäres Komitee (Scientific Humanitarian Committee) sent to a concentration camp.  In Berlin, Nazis destroy the Institute for Sexual Sciences and the offices of the Human Rights League and its publications. German gay bar begin to be closed. Stalin orders mass round up of homosexuals in Moscow, Leningrad, Kharkov and Odessa.  Shanghai newspaper Jingbao (Crystal) alleges homosexuality rife in Manchukuo.  Chinese newspaper Tian fengbao (Heavenly Wind) sued by actor Zhu Qinxin for a report alleging he had had to have an artificial intestine installed.   Irish General Eoin O’Duffy first leader of Fine Gael (to 1934).  English sexologist Havelock Ellis’s Psychology of Sex.  German historian Otto Kiefer’s Kulturgeschichte Roms, unter besonderer berucksichtigung der romischen sitten (Sexual Life in Ancient Rome, with Special Consideration of Roman Mores).  The World League for Sexual Reform publishes one edition of the journal Sexus, which is burned by the Nazis.  Berlin periodical Die Freundin (The Girlfriend) closed.  Edmund Bergler’s first contribution to the psychoanalytic theory of homosexuality in ‘Der Mammakomplex des Mannes’, an article co-authored with L. Eidelberg published in the Internationale Zeitschrift fuer Psychoanalyse.  American writer Gertrude Stein’s The Autobiography of Alice B. Toklas. American author Mabel Dodge Luhan Oliver’s autobiography Intimate Memoirs.  Oliver, 2nd Earl Baldwin’s autobiographical Unborn Son.  English broadcaster and writer Naomi Jacob’s autobiography Me: A Chronicle about Other People.   English writer Ivy Compton-Burnett’s novel More Women than Men.  Barbadian actor Terence Lucy Greenidge’s novel The Magnificent banned.  Robert McAlmon (Robert Scully)’s novel A Scarlet Pansy.  American writers Charles Henri Ford and Parker Tyler’s novel The Young and the Evil published and banned.  English writer Richard Rumbold’s novel The Little Victims causes scandal and Roman Catholic church refuses him communion. German Hungarian writer Christa Winsloe, Baroness Hatveny’s novel Das Mädchen Manuela (The Child Manuela). Swiss adventurer and writer Annemarie Schwarzenbach’s novel Lyrische Novelle (Lyrical Novella).  American puppeteer and novelist Forman Brown (Richard Meeker)’s novel Better Angel.  American novelist Kennilworth Bruce’s novel Goldie. American writer Kay Boyle’s novel Gentlemen, I Address You Privately.   American novelist Lew Levenson’s novel Butterfly Man.  American writer Rex Stout’s novel Forest Fire.  French writer Jacques Dorien’s story ‘L’Enfant blond’ (‘The Blond Child’) published in Les Oeuvres Libres (Free Works).   English artist Sidney James Hunt’s prose poem on 18 year old hermaphrodites in Seed.  English playwright Noël Coward’s play Design for Living.  English dramatist Mordaunt Shairp’s play The Green Bay Tree.  American producer Leonard Stillman’s review in Pasadena Low and Behold starring the Rocky Twins and Chuck Walters.  American actors Gary Cooper and Franklin Pangborn in film Design for Living. Swedish actress Gretta Garbo’s American film Queen Christina. French director Jean Vigo’s film Zero de Conduite (Zero for Conduct).  American films Stage Mother, Ladies They Talk About, Double Harness, Cavalcade (based on Noël Coward’s 1931 play of that name) and Our Betters.  German film Viktor und Viktoria (Victor and Victoria).  Russian painter Konstantin Andreyevich Somov’s paintings The Boxer, The Slumber, Male Nude with Cigarette and Portrait of a Man.  Tamara de Lempicka’s portrait of Suzy Solidor.

1934 English writer Alan Bennett, English television presenter Russell Harty, American writer John Rechy, English art forger Eric Hebborn, Indian artist Bhupen Khakar, American artist Don Bachardy, American poet Audre Lorde, Australian music producer Sir Robert Stigwood, American psychiatrist Richard A. Isay, English journalist and spy Jeremy Wolfenden, American actor Charles Elmer (Rip) Taylor Jr., English bf of Francis Bacon, George Dyer,  English director Edward Bond, English journalist and author Frederick Mark Frankland, English actor Sir Alan Bates, American comedian Charles Elmer (Rip) Taylor, Jr., American activist James (Jim) M. Foster, American activist publisher Bob Ross, Italian Cardinal Giovanni Battista Re, Italian Cardinal Tarcisio Pietro Evasio Bertone and American actor Richard Chamberlain b. English poet Marc-André Raffalovich, English poet John Henry Gray, English theosophist Charles Webster Leadbeater, French director Jean Vigo, Irish composer Norman Houston O’Neill, English academic Francis Fortescue (Sligger) Urquhart, English poet St. John Welles Lucas-Lucas, Anglo-Irish composer Norman Houston O'Neill and French Marshal Hubert Lyautey d.  Dutch (possible homosexual) Marinus Van der Lubbe executed for ‘burning down the Reichstag’ in Germany.  Murder of German S.A. leader Stabschef Ernst Röhm, Deputy SA Leader SA-Obergruppenführer (Gruppe Schlesien) Edmund Heines, SS Oberführer Emil Sembach and German physician and writer on sex Karl-Günther Heimsoth in the Night of the Long Knives.  Homosexual acts decriminalised in Uruguay, recriminalised in the USSR (for muzhelozhstvo) with a sentence of five years’ hard labour.   Zanzibar Criminal Code prohibits homosexual acts.  Prince Paul of Yugoslavia becomes Prince Regent of Yugoslavia (to 1941).  Chinese Emperor Pu Yi beomes Kangde Emperor of Manchukuo.  (to 1936) Chinese Cheng Ke becomes Mayor of Tianjin.  Soviet writer Maxim Gorky links homosexuality and fascism in Pravda.  In a speech to the Reichstag, Hitler justifies the Night of the Long Knives by the homosexual depravity prevalent in the SA.   English surrealist poet Edward James’s divorce from Tilly Losch reveals his bisexuality.  Welsh poet Evan Frederic Morgan becomes 2nd Viscount and 4th Baron Tredegar.  English film director Robert James Hamer sent down from Cambridge after a homosexual scandal. Chinese writer Wang Shunu’s Zhongguo changji shi (History of Prostitution in China). American anthropologist Ruth Benedict’s Patterns of Culture.  American rights activist Henry Gerber’s essay ‘In Defense of Homosexuality’ in The Modern Thinker. English journalist and biographer Robert Harborough Sherard’s Oscar Wilde Twice Defended from André Gide’s Wicked Lies and Frank Harris’s Cruel Libels, etc.  Romola Nijinsky’s Nijinsky.  English Gerald, Lord Berners’s autobiography First Childhood.  English writer Norman Douglas’s autobiography Looking Back.  English Maurice Brett’s Journals and Letters of Reginald, Viscount Esher (4 vols. to 1938).  English writer A.J.A. Symons’s The Quest for Corvo.  English writer Frederick Rolfe (Baron Corvo)’s novel The Desire and Pursuit of the Whole.  English writer E.F. Benson’s novel The Raven’s Brood.  English writer Arthur Annesley Ronald Firbank’s novel The Artificial Princess.  English writer Louis Umfreville Wilkinson (Louis Marlow)’s novel Swan’s Milk.  English writer Richard Hull’s novel The Murder of My Aunt.  Barbadian actor Terence Lucy Greenidge’s novel Brass and Paint banned.  American writer Lew Levenson’s novel The Butterfly Man. English poet Dr. John Leslie Barford’s poems Whimsies.  English writer Ralph Nicholas Chubb’s  book The Heavenly Cupid.  English poet.  American playwright Lillian Florence (Lilly) Hellman’s play The Children’s Hour. American films The Gay Divorcee and Wonder Bar.  French director Jean Vigo’s film L’Atalante.  Spanish painter Gabriel Morcillo Raya’s painting Esclavos (Slaves). Russian painter Konstantin Andreyevich Somov’s painting Amour Senilis (Senile Love).

 

1935 English writer Tom Wakefield, English writer Peter Moss, American artist and screenwriter Elliot Teichberg (Elliott Tiber), American singer Johnny Mathis, American singer Elvis Presley, German novelist Hubert Fichte, American playwright Mart Crowley, American actor playwright Frederick Combs, English playwright Charles Julian Humphrey Mitchell, American activist and therapist Dr. Charles S. Silverstein, English actor Frederick John Inman, American writer and producer Jane Wagner, American actor Ray Foster, English model and restaurateur George Jamieson (April Ashley), English director Anthony Page, English record producer Christopher Sebastian (Kit) Lambert, American journalist and literary historian Roger Austen, English journalist Julian Pettifer, Colombian Cardinal Alfonso López Trujillo, Polish Archbishop Juliusz Paetz, Italian Cardinal Giovanni Lajolo and American writer activist Larry Kramer b. English soldier arabist Thomas Edward (T.E.) Lawrence, German sexologist Magnus Hirschfeld, Chinese literatus He Gangde, American campaigner Jane Addams, Chinese writer Zhang Chunfan, French author René Crevel, American artist Charles Demuth, American teacher suffragette Martha (M.) Carey Thomas, American judge Oliver Wendell Holmes, Jr., Australian poet and writer Frederic Manning, English writer Francis Frederick Locker Birrell and English writer Violet Paget (Vernon Lee) d.  French surrealist writer René Crevel commits suicide.  Germany enacts draconian anti-sodomy statute extending Paragraph 175 to all expressions of same-sex attraction.  Austrian psychiatrist Sigmund Freud writes to a mother saying homosexuality is ‘nothing to be ashamed of, no vice, no degradation, it cannot be classified as an illness.’ British Society for the Study of Sex Psychology wound up. English writer Maurice Denton Welch injured in road accident. English writer W.H. Auden marries German psychiatrist Erika Mann. Tokyo lovers Saijõ Eriko and Masuda Yasumare fail to carry out suicide pact.  German sexologist Magnus Hirschfeld’s Women East and West.  English biographer Sir Peter Courtney Quennell’s Byron; the Years of Fame, the first biography to openly describe Byron’s bisexuality.  Russian art writer Walter Feodorovich Nouvel and Arnold Haskell’s Diaghileff. His Artistic and Private Life.  English critic James Agate’s diary/autobiography Ego.  English broadcaster and writer Naomi Jacob’s autobiography Me – in the Kitchen.   American decorator Elsie de Wolfe, Lady Mendl’s autobiography After All. English writer Christopher Isherwood’s novel Mr Norris Changes Trains.  English writer James Hanley’s novel A Passion before Death.  Engish novelist E.F. Benson’s novels Mapp and Lucia and Lucia’s Progress.  American author Henry James’s story The Turn of the Screw.  American writer Alvah Cecil Bessie’s novel Dwell in the Wilderness. English Lord Alfred Douglas’s poems Lyrics and Sonnets.  American play Till the Day I Die.  American films Top Hat and Sylvia Scarlett. French film of Victor Margueritte’s 1922 novel La Garçonne (The Boy Girl) starring Suzy Solidor.  Russian artist Pavel Tchelitchew’s painting The Green Straw Hat (Giovanni).  American artist Paul Cadmus’s painting Gilding the Acrobats.

1936 Canadian poet William Daryl Hine, French fashion designer Yves Henri Donat Mathieu-Saint-Laurent, American director James Bridges, Indian film maker Ismael Merchant, American actor Burton Leon (Burt) Reynolds Jr., English writer Angus John Mackintosh Stewart, American porn director Walter Wakefield Poole III and English artist, American musician Charles Henry (Chuck) Turner, American politician Barbara Charline Jordan,  English banker Adrian Stanford, Chilean painter Claudio Bravo Camus, American footballer Roger Duane (Zeke) Smith, American dermatologist Marcus Augustine Conant, American TV executive and activist Louis Phillip (Lou) Maletta Jr., Northern Irish Bishop John Magee, Spanish Cardinal Antonio María Rouco Varela, American Cardinal William Joseph Levada, Cuban Cardinal Jaime Lucas Ortega y Alamino, Cuban priest Monsignor Carlos Manuel de Céspedes y García-Menocal and writer Graham David Smith b.  English poet Alfred Edward (A.E.) Housman, Soviet foreign policy statesman Georgi Vasilevich Chicherin, Chinese writer Cheng Ke, German zoologist and anthropologist Ferdinand Karsch-Haack, French Princesse Eugène (Violette) Murat, American film producer Irving Grant Thalberg, German writer Hermann Breuer (Bill Forster), the Honourable Hugh Patrick Lygon, English diplomat Sir Louis du Pan Mallet, German ambassador to London Leopold von Hoesch, English writer Osman Edwards (student friend of Wilde) and Russian poet and musician Mikhail Alekseyevich Kuzmin d. Spanish poet Federico del Sagrado Corazón de Jesús García Lorca tortured and murdered.  British Mandate law criminalises homosexuality in Palestine.  Edward, Prince of Wales becomes King Edward VIII of England then abdicates to marry Wallis Simpson, becoming the Duke of Windsor.  Manuel Azaña Díaz becomes Prime Minister then 2nd President of Spain. German S.S. leader Heinrich Himmler establishes Reich Central Office for Combatting Homosexuality and Abortion and pledges in a speech to eliminate homosexuality in Germany.   Italian Fascist government commences confinement of homosexuals for political reasons.  Warrant for the arrest of the 7th Earl Beauchamp revoked and he returns to England briefly to bury his son the Honourable Hugh Lygon.  Homosexual scandal of Leopold Ries, Chief Treasurer of the Netherlands, accused of sex with under-age boys; Dutch colonial newspapers take up theme in Batavia.  English prosecution and conviction of journalist Michael Davidson for paedophilia. American composer Henry Cowell sentenced to 15 years imprisonment on a morals charge. Mona's 440 Club, the first lesbian bar in America, opened in San Francisco.  Lionel Fielden founds All India Radio and becomes Controller of Broacasting (to 1940). English writer John Lehmann starts journal New Writing.  American Joseph Fishman’s Sex in Prisons.  Cyril Bailey’s Francis Fortescue Urquhart: a Memoir.  English critic James Agate’s diary/autobiography Ego-2.  English Oliver, 2nd Earl Baldwin’s autobiographical Oasis. English burglar, criminologist and later Chicago sociology professor Henry Ernest Degras (Mark Benney )’s autobiographical Low Company, Describing the Evolution of a Burglar.  English soldier and arabist T.E. Lawrence’s autobiographical The Mint printed in the U.S. in a few copies. Jack Macnamara’s autobiography The Whistle Blows.   Anglo-Polish author and Islamist Romauld (Rom) Landau’s autobiography Seven: An Essay in Confession. American writer Djuna Barnes’s novel Nightwood.  American writer and recorder Samuel Steward’s novel Angels on the Bough.  American writer John Evans’s novel Shadows Flying.  English writer Leonard (L.A.G.) Strong’s novel The Last Enemy: A Study of Youth.  English poet Siegfried Sassoon’s autobiographical novel Sherston’s Progress.  English poet A.E. Housman’s More Poems.  English poet W.H. Auden’s poems Funeral Blues.  English writer poet Terence Ian Fytton Armstrong (John Gawsworth)’s poetry anthology Edwardian Poets.  Spanish poet Federico del Sagrado Corazón de Jesús García Lorca writes Sonnets of Dark Love.  American director William Wyler and playwright Lillian Hellman’s film The Children’s Hour censored and re-appears as These Three.  English director James Whale’s film Dracula’s Daughter.  Austrian painter Albert Janesch’s painting Water Sport.  Russian painter Konstantin Andreyevich Somov’s painting Reclining Man.  American dancer and artist Hubert Julian (Jay) Stowitts’s painting Briggs Hunt and William Golden and collection Fifty Portraits of American Athletes.

1937 American writer Alan Helms, English painter David Hockney, English actor Sir Antony Sher, Taiwanese writer Kenneth Pai Hsien-yung, American decathlete Dr. Tom Waddell, American actor George Takei, Japanese poet Takahashi Mutsuo, Japanese Tate Shiro, American Congressman Robert Bauman, American Congressman Gerry Studds, American producer Allan Carr, American playwright Bob Randall, American playwright Lanford Wilson, English painter and lover of art forger Eric Hebborn, Graham David Smith, American playwright Robert Patrick O'Connor (Robert Patrick), American activist Howard L. Wallace, American child star Robert Cletus (Bobby) Driscoll, American playwright Jane Chambers and English writer Paul Bailey b. Polish musician Karol Szymanowski, French composer Maurice Ravel, English aesthete the Honourable Desmond Parsons, Lina Schafer (companion to Princess Catherine Hilda Duleep Singh of the Punjab),  Anglo-German Graf Harry Clément Ulrich Kessler, Grossherzog Ernst Ludwig Karl Albrecht Wilhelm von Hessen und bei Rhein, English painter Glyn Warren Philpot, American blues singer Bessie Smith, Maharajah Jai Singh Prabhakar of Alwar, English painter William Park (Gabriel) Atkin and English writer James Matthew Barrie d.  English painter and poet Vivian Forbes commits suicide.  Heinrich (Heinz) Rutha accused of homosexual acts and loses post as Sudeten German ‘foreign minister’; imprisoned before trial he commits suicide.  First use of pink triangle in Nazi concentration camps.  German artist Marcus Michael Douglas Behmer arrested in Freiburg and imprisoned for two years.  Swiss magazine Schweizerisches Freundschaftsbanner (Swiss Friendship Banner) renamed Menschenrecht (Human Rights).  American writer Samuel Steward visits English Lord Alfred Douglas and French writer André Gide, and meets American writer Thornton Wilder.  American artists Paul Cadmus and Jared French and American artist Margaret Hoening French form photographic collective PAJAMA on Fire Island.  English bar owner Donald Kimfull (Joseph Dean) opens Dean’s Bar in Tangiers.  English spy Guy Burgess tried for soliciting in Paddington Station toilet but cleared.  Australian Sidarthur Affleck and friends arrested in Brisbane for abducting a boy and running a club.  English painter Sir Stanley Spencer’s wife Hilda divorces him to live with her lover, his second wife Patricia Preece; the three live together in the village of Cookham.  English journalist and biographer Robert Harborough Sherard’s Bernard Shaw, Frank Harris and Oscar Wilde.  Bernard Falk’s Five Years Dead includes an account of British painter Simeon Solomon.  English writer Thomas Burke’s For Your Convenience: A Learned Dialogue Instructive to all Londoners and London Visitors.  English playwright Noël Coward’s autobiography Present Indicative.  Gerald Hamilton’s autobiography As Young as Sophocles.  English writer Laurence Housman’s autobiography The Unexpected Years.  American actor Claude McKay’s autobiographical A Long Way from Home.  The Yale Edition of Horace Walpole’s Correspondence edited by W.S. Lewis (42 vols. to 1980).  English poet Siegfried Sassoon’s three autobiographical novels published as The Complete Memoirs of George Sherston.  American writer James M. Cain’s novel Serenade.   American actor (?) Eugene O’Brien’s novel He Swung and He Missed Me.  Chinese writer Lao She’s short story ‘Tu’ (‘Rabbit’).  English writer Ralph Nicholas Chubb’s book Water Cherubs.  American actor Tyron Power in film Thin Ice.   Russian painter Konstantin Andreyevich Somov’s paintings Naked Young Man and Cauchemar de la fièvre brulante (Nightmare of Burning Fever).

1938 Russian ballet dancer Rudolph Nureyev, English actor Sir Derek Jacobi, Virgin Islands boxer Emile Griffith, American activist John Richard (Jack) Nichols, American playwright Terrence McNally, American psychiatrist and activist John E. Fryer, English antiques dealer and dandy Christopher Gibbs, Irish Roman Catholic priest Keith Michael Patrick O'Brien, American psychologist Bertram Joseph Cohler, American Virgin islands boxer Emile Griffith, American activist Harry Britt, English dancer Lindsay Keith Kemp, Italian Cardinal Carlo Caffarra, Italian Cardinal Francesco Coccopalmerio and Chinese opera singer spy Shi Pei Pu b. Turkish leader Mustafa Kemal Ataturk, English musical hall artist Frederick (Fred) Jester Barnes, English activist Esther Roper, German activist Karl Geise,  Maharaja Sir Bhupinder Singh of Patiala and Chinese General Cao Kun d.  English William Lygon, 7th Earl Beauchamp d in New York.  English author and aesthete Reginald ‘Reggie’ Turner d in Italy.  Cuba passes Public Ostentation law outlawing homosexual acts or public displays. Nazis order homosexuals to be sent to concentration camps.  German tennis star Gottfried Alexander Maximilian Walter Kurt Freiherr von Cramm imprisoned for homosexuailty.  Dutch right wing press campaigns against homosexual sex with young boys in the colonies, arrests in the Dutch East Indies and arrest of German artist Walter Spies in Bali.  Irish actor, playwright and theatrical agent Arthur John Perry meets English actor John Gielgud.  American writer Samuel Steward meets American playwright, artist and dancer Charles Sebree.  English writer Christopher Isherwood and poet W.H. Auden decide to emigrate to the USA.  Tianjin newspaper Tianfeng bao (Heavenly Wind) prints biography of Li Yanqing.  Shanghai newspaper Jingbao (Crystal) reports link of actor Cheng Yanqiu with republican official for cultural affairs, Li Shizeng.  Edmund Bergler publishes ‘Preliminary Phases of the Masculine Beating Fantasy’, a response to Freud‘s ‘A Child Is Being Beaten’, in Psychoanalytic Quarterly.  Angus Davidson’s Edward Lear, Landscape Painter and Nonsense Poet.  English poet Siegfried Sassoon’s autobiography The Old Century and Seven More Years.  English writer W. Somerset Maugham’s autobiographical The Summing Up.  English critic Cyril Vernon Connolly’s autobiography Enemy of Promise.  American writer Robert McAlmon’s autobiographical Being Geniuses Together.  English Lord Alfred Bruce Douglas’s autobiography Without Apology.  English critic James Agate’s diary/autobiography Ego-3. American poet, essayist and critic Logan Pearsall Smith’s autobiography Unforgotten Years.  English ballet dancer and choreographer Sydney Francis Patrick Chippendall Healey-Kay (Sir Anton Dolin)’s autobiography Ballet Go Round.  English writer Lawrence Durrell’s novel The Black Book published in France. English writer Christopher Isherwood’s novel Lions and Shadows.  Scottish writer Frederick Burrows Urquhart’s novel, Time Will Knit.  American writer Elliot Paul’s novel Concert Pitch.  French writer André Fraigneau’s short stories La Grace Humaine (Human Grace).  New Zealand writer James Francis Courage’s play Private History closed by the censor in London. Egyptian film maker Ahmed Galal’s film Bint el-bacha el-moudir (Daughter of the Pasha in Charge).  Russian painter Konstantin Andreyevich Somov’s painting Reclining Male Nude.  Russian artist Pavel Tchelitchew’s painting Bathers.  Russian artist Andrey Avinoff’s illustrations for George V. Golokhvastoff’s poem The Fall of Atlantis. 

1939 American actor Sal Mineo, American writer and activist Arthur Bell, English interior designer Nicholas Ponsonby (Nicky) Haslam, Australian judge Michael Kirby, English singer Mary Isobel Catherine Bernadette O'Brien (Dusty Springfield), English song writer Vicki Heather Wickham, English journalist and activist Ray Gosling, American evangelist and fraud James (Jim) Bakker, American playwright Terence McNally,  American film maker Joel T. Schumaker, Anglo-American playwright Martin Sherman, American actress Mary Jean (Lily) Tomlin, American dancer Tommy Tune, American journalist and activist Arthur Bell, American playwright William Moses Hoffman, English drag queen and activist Peter (Bette) Bourne, Spanish writer Agustín Gómez-Arcos, English Conservative politician Leon Brittan, Baron Brittan of Spennithorne, American academic and writer Jeffrey Weeks, American president of the Andy Warhol Foundation for the Visual Arts Joel Wach, Welsh American architect Frederick (Fred) Maddox, English writer Jeremy Seabrook, American director Tom DeSimone, American playwright Doric Wilson, English music producer Simon Robert Napier-Bell, American sculptor Scott Burton, Swiss skater Heinz Wirz, Polish Cardinal Stanisław Dziwisz, American Cardinal Edwin Frederick O'Brien, Polish Cardinal Zenon Grocholewski and English actor Sir Ian McKellen b. American explorer Richard Halliburton, English writer and trader John Moray Stuart-Young, American adventurer Richard Halliburton, American journalist Paul Mooney, American blues singer Gertrude Malissa Nix Pridgett (Ma Rainey), English politician Sir Philip Albert Gustave David Sassoon, 3rd Baronet, Russian painter Konstantin Andreyevich Somov, Australian painter Agnes Goodsir, English Russophile and antiques dealer Albert Henry Stopford and American author and poet Wallace deGroot Cecil Rice d.  Eugenio Maria Giuseppe Giovanni Pacelli becomes Pope Pius XII.  President Manuel Azaña Díaz of Spain deposed.  British section of the World League for Sexual Reform goes into abeyance at outset of war.  Trial of German painter Walter Spies in Surabaya; he is sentenced to 8 months jail.  English writer Christopher Isherwood and poet W.H. Auden emigrate to the U.S.  Auden meets Chester Kallman.  American writer Samuel Steward meets English photographer Cecil Beaton and English painter Sir Francis Cyril Rose, 4th Baronet.  Swedish anthropologist Felix Bryk’s Dark Rapture: The Sex Life of the African Negro.  English poet Siegfried Sassoon’s autobiography The Old Century.  English actor Sir John Gielgud’s autobiography Early Stages.  English art expert Sir William Rothenstein’s memoirs Since Fifty: Men and Memories: 1922-1938.  English literatus and civil servant Sir Edward Marsh’s reminiscences A Number of People.  French philosopher Peter Stephen Du Ponceau’s The Autobiography of Peter Stephen Du Ponceau, edited by James L. Whitehead (to 1940). American teacher Frances V. Rummell’s Diana: A Strange Autobiography.  English writer Christopher Isherwood’s novel Goodbye to Berlin.  English author E.F. Benson’s novel Trouble for Lucia.  English writer Mary Renault’s novel The Purposes of Love (The Promise of Love).  English writer Ralph Nicholas Chubb’s book The Secret Country: or, Tales of Vision.  English photographer Cecil Beaton’s satirical book My Royal Past.  American film starring actress Julie Garland, The Wizard of Oz.  American director George Dewey Cukor’s film The Women.

1940 American writer Arnie Kantrowitz, English writer Bruce Chatwin, American Congressman Barney Frank, American novelist David Robert Plante, American cleric Reverend Troy Leroy Perry, Rodger Webb (Sir Cliff Richard ), American designer Perry Ellis, American academic Lillian Faderman, American activist lawyer Paul Israel Rapoport, American clergyman James Melville (Mel) White,  English Conservative politician David Glynn Ashby, American photographer Arthur Tress, American disco proprietor Jewel Thais-Williams, American televangelist and fraud James (Jim) Orson Bakker, American activist Craig L. Rodwell, American judge Richard Failla, Argentinian Bishop Juan Carlos Maccarone, Chilean priest Cristián Precht Bañados, Italian Archbishop Silvano Maria Tomasi and American writer Edmund White b.  English writer Edward Frederic (E.F.) Benson, Swedish author Selma Lagerlöf, English peer Captain Napier (Naps) George Henry Sturt, 3rd Baron Alington, English barrister and author Christopher Hobhouse, German writer and cultural historian Hans Otto August Ostwald, English diplomat Sir Francis Edmund Hugh Elliot, English broadcaster Hilda Matheson, English artist Sidney James Hunt, American poet John Wheelwright and Manuel Azaña Díaz, President of Spain d.  English Conservative politician Major John Ronald Hamilton Cartland killed in action at Dunkirk.  English Master of Wellington College Robert (Bobby/Bobbie) Paton Longden killed by a German bomb. Russian leader of the N.K.V.D. Nikolai Ivanovich Yezhov executed.  Homosexual acts decriminalised in Iceland.  American publisher George Davis founds February House commune in New York.  German painter Walter Spies interned in Bali.  Americans Danny Brown and Frank W. (Doc) Benner start revues that were to become the Jewel Box Revue in Miami with lesbian drag king Stormé DeLarverie.  Sandor Rado criticizes Freud's theory of innate bisexuality in his article ‘A Critical Examination of the Concept of Bisexuality’. English writer John Lehmann’s journal New Writing ends. English Lord Alfred Douglas’s Oscar Wilde: A Summing-Up (1940).  English writer E.F. Benson’s autobiography Final Edition.  English mathematician G.H. Hardy’s memoir A Mathematician’s Apology.  Irish writer Forrest Reid’s autobiography Private Road.  American actor Claude McKay’s autobiographical Harlem: Negro Metropolis.  English critic James Agate’s diary/autobiography Ego-4.  American writer Carson McCullers’s novel The Heart is a Lonely Hunter. American writer Glenway Wescott’s novella The Pilgrim Hawk.  Scottish writer Fred Urquhart’s stories, I Fell for a Sailor.  Drag shows in Chicago; Dick ‘Mae West’ Barrow in Joe’s Deluxe bar. American film Turnabout.

1941 American novelist Robert Ferro, English comedian Graham Arthur Chapman, English Archbishop David Hope, American director Colin Higgins, English actress Miriam Margolyes, American Private Soldier Oliver Sipple, American footballer Jerry Smith, American biographer Donald Spoto, Australian-American director Colin Higgins, American AIDS activist Paul Graham Popham, English actor Gordon (Gorden) Irving Kaye, Anglo-American producer and director Edward David (Ed) Berman, Canadian wrestler Pierre Clermont (Pat Patterson), American TV star Norman Jay (Dack) Rambo, American activist Virginia (Ginny) Apuzzo, American illustrator Robert W. Richards, American pornographic filmmaker Fred Halsted, English biographer John William Dominic Hibberd, Anglo-Canadian singer John William (Long John) Baldry, British director Richard Digby Day, English theatre designer Peter Farmer, French psychotherapist and priest Tony Anatrella, Italian Cardinal Angelo Scola and Canadian writer Stan Persky b.  English Lieutenant-General Lord Robert Baden-Powell, Dublin Herald Francis Richard Shackleton, English writer Alphonse James Albert (A.J.A.) Symons, Irish socialite  Dorothy Ierne (Dolly) Wilde, Japanese author Minakata Kumagusu, Russian poet Marina Tsvetaeva, English travel writer Robert Byron, Scottish painter William Bruce Ellis Ranken, German Maximilian Egon II, Prinz zu Fürstenberg, German Kaiser Wilhelm II (Friedrich Wilhelm Viktor Albert von Preußen), English conservative politician and colonial governor George Ambrose Lloyd, 1st Baron Lloyd, English seller of political honours John Arthur Maundy Gregory and English writer Sir Hugh Walpole d. British Guianian jazz band leader Kenrick Reginald Hijmans (Snakehips) Johnson killed by a German bomb that destroys the London Café de Paris. English writer Virginia Woolf commits suicide. ‘Transsexuality’ first used in reference to homosexuality and bisexuality.  English Major Sir Herbert Paul Latham, 2nd Baronet, M.P. disgraced for homosexual offences in the Army and imprisoned for two years with hard labour after a failed suicide attempt crashing his car and the loss of a leg.  American editor and writer Darrell Berrigan arrives in Bangkok.  German sexologist Magnus Hirschfeld’s Sittensgschichte des ersten Weltkrieg (The Sexual History of the World War).  English author Angela du Maurier’s novel The Little Less.  American author Harlan Cozad McIntosh’s novel This Finer Shadow. American author Carson McCullers’s novel Reflections in a Golden Eye.  Chinese writer Qin Shou’ou’s novel Qiu Haitan (Begonia).  American Film The Maltese Falcon.

1942 American science fiction writer Samuel R. Delany, American footballer David Marquette Kopay, American economics academic Donald (Deirdre Donald) McCloskey, Syrian painter and film director Ali al-Jabri, American Congressman Jon Hinsman, American designer Calvin Klein, American producer Barry Diller, American musician Lewis Allan (Lou) Reed, American activist journalist Elijah Hadyn (Lige) Clarke, American activist comedian Robin Tyler, American director David Weismann, English Liberal politician Bernard Greaves, English drag artist and musician Patrick Fyffe, American writer Michael Grumley, American writer Arthur Scott Evans, American artist Barton Lidice Beneš,  German film maker and pornographer Armin Hagen Freiherr von Hoyningen-Huene (“Peter Berlin”), English activist Michael Launder, American Pentecostal theologian James S. Tinney, Japanese artist Seiji Inagaki and English artist, film maker and writer Derek Jarman b. American writer Edward Irenaeus Prime-Stevenson (Xavier Mayne), American architect Ralph Adams Cram, German director Holger Mitschwitzky (Rosa von Praunheim), English art expert and editor More Adey, English designer Charles Robert Ashbee, the Prince George Edward Alexander Edmund (Babe), Duke of Kent, Princess Catherine Hilda Duleep Singh of the Punjab, American actor John Barrymore, Baltic German poet and writer Elisar von Kupffer (Elisarion), Anglo-Irish playboy Herbert Frank (Adrian) Bishop, English actor Charles Maitland Hallard, English art patron and female impersonator Herbert Charles [Jerome] Pollitt [Diane de Rougy] and Japanese author and poet Yosano Akiko d.  German painter Walter Spies killed by Japanese sinking of Dutch prison ship. Homosexual acts decriminalised in all Swiss cantons.  Germany enacts death penalty for homosexuality.   Vichy France recriminalizes same-sex relations under 21 with six month to three year penalty (Article 334).  U.S. Senator David Walsh accused of frequenting male brothels.   Australian politician Albert Augustine (Bert) Edwards unsuccessfully accused of gross indecency.  Welsh photographer Angus McBean imprisoned for four years for homosexual offences in Bath.  English actor Tom Gill is paid to go to jail for actor Emlyn Williams who was arrested along with Angus Bean but extracted from the case by Hugh ‘Binkie’ Beaumont. Swiss magazine Menschenrecht (Human Rights) renamed Der Kreis / Le Cercle (The Circle).  Swiss adventurer Annemarie Schwarzenberg meets American writer Carson McCullers.  German Jew Felice Schragenheim meets Lilly Wust.  English rake the Honourable Henry Eric Patrick Mountjoy Spalding Upton cashiered from the Indian Army for homosexual offences.  Chinese sexologist Pan Guangda’s study ‘Zhongguo wenxian zhong tongxinglian juli’ (‘Examples of Homosexuality in Chinese Documents’).  German writer Klaus Mann’s autobiography Turning Point.  English historian A.L. Rowse’s autobiography A Cornish Childhood. English writer W. Somerset Maugham’s autobiographical Strictly Personal.  English poet Siegfried Sassoon’s autobiography The Weald of Youth. English scholar and forger Sir Edmund Trelawny Backhouse’s memoirs The Dead Past and Décadence Mandchoue written for Reinhard Hoeppli, unpublished (to 1943).  English Spitfire pilot Wing Commander Ian F. Gleed’s memoir Arise to Conquer.  New Zealand writer Hector Bolitho’s memoir War in the Strand.   English critic James Agate’s diary/autobiography Ego-5.  English writer Evelyn Waugh’s novel Put Out More Flags. American female impersonator George Francis Peduzzi (Karyl Norman)’s All American Male Review at the Castle Farms Night Club in Lima, Ohio starring female impersonator Niles Marsh.  Italian director Luchino Visconti’s film Ossessione (Obsession).

1943 Cuban writer Reinaldo Arenas, American scientist Simon Le Vay, English prostitute Richie McMullen,  American poet and essayist Alfred Corn, American activist Technical Sergeant Leonard P. Matlovich, American director and choreographer Michael Bennett (DiFiglia), American director Emile Ardolino, English singer Sir Michael Philip (Mick) Jagger, American producer David Geffen, American singer Janis Joplin, American actor and playwright Charles Braun Ludlam, American activist Carl Wittman, Australian academic and activist Dennis Patkin Altman, American porn star John Calvin Culver (Casey Donovan), American director Arthur J. Bressan, American playwright Robert Chesley, English stage manager and screenwriter Trevor Bentham, American political analyst Alan Baron,  American owner of Studio 54 Steve Rubell, English Labour politician Allan Roberts, English Conservative politician Keith Hampson, English tailor Tommy Nutter, American singer Barry Manilow, American actress Holland Taylor, American journalist Joseph (Joe) H. Nicholson, American activist Martin (Marty) Robinson, American dancer Ian Horvath, French Cardinal Jean-Louis Pierre Tauran, Argentinian Archbishop Héctor Rubén Aguer, French Archbishop Jean-Louis Bruguès, Argentinian Cardinal Leonardo Sandri, Italian Cardinal Angelo Bagnasco, Italian Cardinal Crescenzio Sepe, American activist and film maker Len Richmond and American tennis star Billy Jean King b. English writer Marguerite Radclyffe Hall, American artist Marsden Hartley, American heiress Winnaretta Singer, Princesse Edmond de Polignac English journalist and biographer Robert Harborough Sherard Kennedy and American musician Lorenz Milton Hart d.  English Conservative politician Colonel Victor Alexander Cazalet killed in a military aircraft crash. Dutch artist and author Willem Arondeus killed by the Germans.  English Spitfire pilot Wing Commander Ian F. Gleed DFC shot down and killed in Libya.  American actor Gaspar Griswold (David) Bacon Jr. stabbed to death.  Nationalist China  prohibits ‘wearing of odd/inappropriate outfits’ (‘qizhuang yifu’) under Article 66 of the Law for Punishment of Police Offences (weijing fafa).  German S.S. leader Heinrich Himmler orders castration of homosexuals followed by their conscription in the armed forces.  Sumner Welles forced to resign as U.S. Under Secretary of State due to investigation into his homosexuality.  Scottish peer Captain Ian Colin Maitland, 15th Earl of Lauderdale charged with indecency for mutual masturbation with kitchen porter Robert Wilson in an alleyway in Soho; the Earl was acquitted, the porter got nine months.  American activist Prescott Townsend convicted of ‘an unnatural and lascivious act’ with a man in Falls River Shipyard and sentenced to eighteen months’ jail.  Swiss magazine Menschenrecht (Human Rights) renamed Der Kreis / Le Cercle (The Circle).   English writer William Plomer’s autobiography Double Lives. English writer Sir Osbert Sitwell, 5th Baronet starts autobiography Left Hand Right Hand.  American writer Hallett Abend’s memoir My Life in China 1926-1941.  American writer Gore Vidal’s A Novel. French criminal writer Jean Genet’s novel Notre-Dame des Fleurs (Our Lady of the Flowers). French writer Roger Peyrefitte’s novel Les amitiés particulières (Special Friendships).  English writer Maurice Denton Welch’s novel Maiden Voyage.  American writer John Cheever’s novel The Way Some People Live.  English academic Professor Frederick William Clayton (Frank Clare)’s novel The Cloven Pine.  Chinese playwright Wu Zuguang’s play Fenxueye guiren (The Man Who Returned on a Snowy Night).  Miss Valde Grey’s drag show in the Cabin Inn, Chicago Six Girls Named Flo, including Dixi Lee and Jo-Ann Crawford.  American film The Seventh Victim.

1944 American writer Richard Rodriguez, American writer Eric Garber (Andrew Holleran), American writer Armistead Maupin, American writer Felice Picano, New Zealand writer Witi Ihimaera, American Dr. Jay Brown, English entertainer Kenny Everett, Spanish director Eloy de la Iglesia, Austrian actor Helmut Steinberger (Helmut Berger), American author Rita Mae Brown, American conductor Michael Tilson-Thomas, American writer Alice Walker, English activist Aubrey Walter, American director Tim Kincaid (Joe Gage), English playwright Noël Anthony Miller Greig, French director Jean Daniel Cadinot, Irish scholar and Senator David Norris, English drag artist and musician George Logan, Hungarian chef Martin Hensler, German singer Klaus Sperber (Klaus Nomi), American biologist Anne Fausto-Stirling, American journalist Richard Goldstein, American AIDS activist Richard Dunne, American physician and AIDS activist Stephen S. Caiazza, Italian essayist Francesco Gnerre, Canadian Cardinal Marc Armand Ouellet, Chilean security agent and killer Enrique Arancibia Clavel and Australian song writer Peter Richard Woolnough (Peter Allen) b. English poet Reverend Edwin Emanuel Bradford, English composer suffragette Dame Ethel Mary Smyth, French writer Maurice Sachs, Sri Lankan musician Lionel Wendt, Irish General Eoin O’Duffy, Anglo-Irish thief and murderer Captain Richard Gorges, German Hungarian novelist playwright Christa Winsloe, Baroness Hatveny, American actress Mildred Harris, English academic the Reverend Frederick William Bussell,  Anglo-Irish M.P. Captain John Henry Thorpe (Thorpey), English poet Robert Malise Bowyer Nichols, French writer and physician Henri-Léon Vengeon (Henri Ghéon), American actor Samuel Laird Cregar and English scholar forger Sir Edmund Trelawny Backhouse d. English painter Reginald John ‘Rex’ Whistler killed in action in France.  Irish Conservative politician Colonel John (Jack) Robert Jermain Macnamara killed in action in Italy.  French poet, painter and author Max Jacob d while being deported from France to a German concentration camp. German Jew Felice Schragenheim murdered in Bergen-Belsen concentration camp.  Homosexual acts decriminalised in Sweden and Surinam.  American writer Jack Kerouac, poet Allen Ginsberg and writer William Burroughs meet. English writer George Frederick Green court-martialled in Ceylon and sentenced to two years in prison for sex with a Sinhalese rickshaw boy. English critic James Agate’s diary/autobiography Ego-6.  Hungarian British writer Adam De Hegedus’s Don’t Keep the Vanman Waiting: A Chapter of Autobiography.  English writer Godfrey Winn’s autobiographical Home from the Sea.   Irish American parapsychologist Eileen J. Garrett (Jean Lyttle)’s novel Sheila Lacey.  American novelist William Maxwell’s novel The Folded Leaf.  Chinese Szechuan scholar Sun Cizhou’s poem ‘Li Sao’ (‘Departing in Sorrow’) relates love of poet Qu Yuan for the King of Chu.  American films Greenwich Village, The Uninvited and Laura, the last starring Clifton Webb.

1945 American poet and writer Paul Monette, English Director Terence Davies, English writer publisher Peter William Burton, German director Rainer Werner Fassbinder, English editor and restaurateur Denis Edward Lemon, Welsh historian and sociologist Jeffrey Weeks, American poet and critic Joseph Donald (Sandy) McClatchy Jr., American author John Preston, American lawyer Bruce Lehman, American musician William S. Levise Jr. (Mitch Ryder), Welsh reporter and barman Terrence (Terry) Higgins, American socialite Conway Wilson-Young, Scottish academic, playwright and poet Ian Brown, English historian David Starkey, English painter Maggi Hambling, American science fiction writer David Drake, American actor and director Martin Worman, English designer Antony Price, American dance critic Charles Jurrist, Japanese artist Sadao Hasegawa, African American drag activist Marth P. Johnson, Canadian actor Gordon Thomson, American AIDS activist Martin (Marty) Delaney, American judge Rand Schrader, English music producer and journalist Michael Aldred, Guinean Cardinal Robert Sarah, Spanish Cardinal Antonio Cañizares Llovera and American actor Harris Glenn Milstead (Divine) b.  English Lord Alfred Douglas, English art expert Sir William Rothenstein, English writer Thomas Burke, French writer Maurice Sachs, American painter Russell Cheney, English writer Arthur William Symons, English poet Reverend Samuel Elsworth Cottam, Chinese writer Yu Dafu, Japanese historian Iwata Jun’ichi, Russo-American actress Alla Nazimova, German Generalfeldmarschall Wolfram Freiherr von Richthofen and German rights campaigner and anarchist Adolf Brand d.  English Liberal politician Robert Hamilton Bernays dies in military plane in the Adriatic.  English pilot Percy (Eddie) Bates shot down in a bomber over Germany.  German diplomat and anti-Nazi Andreas Theodor Albrecht Graf von Bernstorff shot by the S.S. Adolf Hitler commits suicide. Portugal decriminalises homosexuality.  Provisional Government of France repeats Vichy legislation criminalising homosexual relations below age of 21 (Article 331).  Tanganyika Penal Code prohibits homosexual acts. American anti-sodomy law introduced to the Northern Marianas (Saipan).  Chinese Emperor Pu Yi of Manchukuo deposed.  Centre for Culture and Recreation (C.O.C.) established in the Netherlands. Four U.S. gay veterans form the Veterans Benevolent Association, the first U.S. L.G.B.T. veterans' group, in New York. French photographer Claude Cahun and Suzanne Malherbe sentenced to death on Jersey by the Germans but reprieved by the end of the war.  English museum curator Sir Arthur Leigh Bolland Ashton appointed Director of the Victoria and Albert Museum (to 1955). French editor Jean-Pierre Lacloche meets poet Olivier Larronde. American composer John Milton Cage and American choreographer Merce Cunningham become partners.  English poet Siegfried Sassoon’s autobiography Siegfried’s Journey.  English eccentric Gerald, 14th Lord Berners’s autobiography A Distant Prospect.  English Anthony Butts’s memoirs Curious Relations: The Private Lives of a Fabulous Family of English Eccentrics edited by writer William Plomer.  Anglo-Polish author and Islamist Romauld (Rom) Landau’s autobiography The Wing: Confessions of an R.A.F. Officer.  English critic James Agate’s diary/autobiography Ego-7.  English writer Maurice Denton Welch’s novel In Youth is Pleasure.  English writer Evelyn Waugh’s novel Brideshead Revisited.  English writer Robin Maugham’s novel Come to Dust.  American editor and writer William Keepers Maxwell’s novel The Folded Leaf. Richard Brooks’s novel The Brick Foxhole.  American playwright Tennessee Williams’s play The Glass Menagerie. Sexual confusion cut from American film The Lost Weekend.  American films Mildred Pierce and The Picture of Dorian Gray.

PART NINE - THE COLD WAR AND REPRESSION

After the 2nd World War, the struggle between western liberal democracies and Soviet communism was waged for the next forty years of the Cold War.  Stalinist repression of homosexuality was spread through eastern Europe. In the west, fears for national  security led to an increasing penalisation of homosexuals, which in turn led to a reaction, as a very few brave gay men and lesbians began to fight back and to stand up for their civil rights.  Liberally-minded democrats in the West, too, saw the injustice of the repressive campaigns and laws against homosexuals, and started to work to liberalise the state, but were opposed by Christian churches, especially in Roman Catholic countries.  Colonialism began to recede, but left in its wake states that continued to retain western anti-homosexual legislation and religious organisations that were immensely powerful and almost universally hostile to homosexuals.   Japan under American domination lost its right-wing nationalism but remained a very conservative society.  China, conquered by Mao’s brand of communism, became a society tightly controlled in all aspects, and same-sex activity was regarded as deviant and became dangerous.  This was a dark period in modern LGBT history.

1946 American film maker and actor John Samuel Waters, French writer Renaud Camus, American photographer Robert Mapplethorpe, American physician activist Lawrence D. Mass, American civil rights activist David Mixner, French writer and queer theorist Guy Hocquenghem, English producer Sir Cameron Anthony Mackintosh, Italian fashion designer Gianni Versace, English singer Marianne Faithfull, American singer Lesley Gore, American musician Billy Preston, American publisher Jann Wenner, American actress Holly Woodlawn, Welsh Labour politician Ronald Davies, American writer George Whitmore, American glam rock singer Bruce Wayne Campbell (Jobriath), American Democrat politician Peter Houston Kostmayer, Welsh equestrian Norman van de Vater, English Conservative politician Richard John Grenville Spring, Baron Risby, Scottish Conservative politician Sir Michael William Hirst, American black feminist Barbara Smith, American writer Walter Rico Burrell, American activist Robert Anthony Martin Jr (Stephen Donaldson), American architect David Webster, American activist and spokesman Robert (Bob) Rafsky, English drag queen Reginald Sutherland Bundy (Regina Fong), Chilean Catholic lawyer Jaime Jorge Guzmán Errázuriz, Italian Cardinal Fernando Filoni and Zanzibari Parsi/Gujerati British singer Farokh Bulsara (Freddie Mercury ) b.  American writer Gertrude Stein, English economist Lord John Maynard Keynes, Spanish composer Manuel de Falla, Welsh writer Ernest Percival Rhys, American poet, essayist and critic Logan Pearsall Smith, German Scottish photographer [Baron?] Adolphus (Adolph) de Meyer and American poet Countee Cullen d.  British anti-sodomy law introduced in Sarawak.  Anglo-Irish physician Laurence Michael Dillon (Laura Maud Dillon) commences 13 surgeries (to 1949) and becomes the first British transsexual man to undergo phalloplasty; he publishes Self: A Study in Ethics and Endocrinology.   Dutch C.O.C. organises dance nights.  French writer André Gide wins Nobel prize for literature. American tennis star Bill Tilden arrested for acts with a male prostitute on Sunset Boulevard. Chinese sexologist Pan Guangdan publishes Chinese translation of Havelock Ellis’s Psychology of Sex appending essay ‘Examples of Homosexuality in Chinese Documents’.  English biographer Hesketh Pearson’s The Life of Oscar Wilde.  English writer Sir Osbert Sitwell, 5th Baronet’s autobiography The Scarlet Tree.  French writer Maurice Sachs’s memoir Le Sabbat. Souvenirs d'une jeunesse orageuse (The Sabbath. Memories of a Stormy Youth).   English writer Christopher Isherwood’s novel Prater Violet.  American writer Carson McCullers’s novel Member of the Wedding.  American writer Charles Reginald Jackson’s novel The Fall of Valor.  American author Gore Vidal’s novel Williwaw.  American writer Janet Schane’s novel The Dazzling Crystal.  American writer Paul Bowles’s story ‘Pages from Cold Point’.  American film Gilda.

1947 American writer Andrew Tobias, English singer David Robert Jones (David Bowie), American historian John Boswell, English impresario Jeremy Norman, American Bishop Gene Robinson, Australian singer Judi Connelli, American singer Sylvester James, Jr. (Sylvester), American politician Dale McCormick, English playwright and director Drew Griffiths, French music creator Jacques Morali, American activist Henry (Hank) Wilson, English actor Peter John Denyer, American writer Allan Gurganus, English actor Nickolas Grace, Isle of Man politician Alan Bell, English Conservative politician Keith Harvey Proctor, American Executive Director of S.A.G.E. Ken Dawson, Japanese artist Ben Kimura, American ballet marketer Donald J. Krintzman, English guitarist and singer David (Dave) Russell Gordon Davies, American Archbishop John Clayton Nienstedt, Italian priest Monsignor Tommaso Stenico, German Bishop Josef Clemens, German Cardinal Gerhard Ludwig Müller and English musician Reginald Kenneth Dwight (Sir Elton John) b. English magus and writer Aleister Crowley, Irish writer Forrest Reid, English critic James Agate, English mathematician G.H. Hardy, Venezuelan composer Reynaldo Hahn, Danish American manager and aide to ex-President Herbert Hoover Lauritz (Lawrence) Waldemar Tonner, American Governor and Senator David Walsh, American female impersonator George Francis Peduzzi (Karyl Norman), English economist Gerald Frank Shove, English poet Richard Le Gallienne and American writer Willa Cather d.  Prince Paul becomes King of Greece.  French writer André Gide is given the Nobel Prize for Literature.  Norman Haire revives the Sex Education Society (the renamed British section of the World League for Sexual Reform) with himself as President.  German art dealer Erica Brausen opens the Hanover Gallery in London financed by American collector Arthur Jeffress.  American writer Paul Bowles settles in Tangiers.  Oliver Baldwin becomes 2nd Earl Baldwin of Bewdley and Governor of the Leeward Islands, taking his partner John Boyle with him and causing a small local  scandal. Vice Versa, the first North American lesbian publication, written and self-published by American editor and songwriter Edith Eyde (Lisa Ben) in Los Angeles.  American poet Édouard Roditi’s Oscar Wilde: A Critical Study.  Detective-Sergeant Alec J. Comryn’s autobiographical Your Policemen are Wondering.  English writer Robert Hichens’s autobiography Yesterday.  Irish writer Forrest Reid’s autobiography The Apostate.  English writer Godfrey Winn’s autobiographical Going My Way.  English critic James Agate’s diary/autobiography Ego-8.  French poet Max Jacobs’s autobiographical Méditations religieuses : derniers cahiers 1942-1943 (Religious Meditations: Last Notebooks 1942-1943).  American writer Stuart Engstrand’s novel The Sling and the Arrow.  American author John Horne Burns’s novel The Gallery. American novelist  Calder Willingham’s novel End as a Man.  American novelist Gore Vidal’s novel In a Yellow Wood.  English novelist Francis King’s novel Never Again.  American author Willard Francis Motley’s novel Knock On Any Door.   American writer Larry Barretto’s novel The Great Light.  American writer Vance Bourjally’s novel The End of My Life.  Indian Irish writer Aubrey Menen’s novel The Prevalence of Witches.   English poet James Kirkup’s poems The Drowned Sailor. American playwright Tennessee Williams’s play A Streetcar Named Desire wins a Pullitzer Prize.  Gay bashing cut from American film Crossfire.  American experimental fim maker Kenneth Anger’s film Fireworks causes his arrest; the U.S. Supreme Court rules in his favour.

1948 English historian Alan Bray, English playwright Christopher James Hampton, American author Lars Eighner, English photographer Michael Allan Warren, Dutch politician Pim Fortuyn, American actor Joe Dallesandro, American activist Stephen Robert (Steve) Endean, Canadian actor Greg Malone, English actor Christopher Kenneth Biggins, English businessman Edmund John Philip Browne, Baron Browne of Madingley, American writer Philip Gambone, American playwright Victor Bumbalo, American director Gary Tucker, American activist publisher Charles Lee Morris, American artist George Stavrinos, Swiss comic artist Oliver Frey (Zack), American racing car driver Hurley Haywood, Dutch performer and nightclub owner Edouard Frans Verbaarsschott (Romy Haag), American writer and activist Darrell Yates Rist, American Cardinal Raymond Leo Burke, Polish Archbishop Józef Wesołowski and American historian John D’Emilio b.  English writer Maurice Denton Welch, Russian director Sergei Mikhailovich Eisenstein, English writer W. Graham Robertson, American actor Festus Claudius (Claude) McKay, King (Tsar) Ferdinand I of Bulgaria, Austrian photographer Rudolph Franz Lehnert, American anthropologist Ruth Benedict, Zulu gang leader Nongoloza Mathebula, English journalist and editor Benjamin Guy (B.G.) Horniman, English art historian Campbell Dodgson, American prostitute Louis Denham Fouts, French art dealer Pierre Colle, English courtesan (Jessie) Doris Delevingne, Viscountess Castlerosse, Scottish poet, translator, critic and diplomat Grant Duff Douglas Ainslie (student friend of Wilde) and English cleric Montague Summers d.  Prince Wilhelm von Hapsburg murdered by the Russians in the Ukraine.  Canadian laws against homosexuals extended to allow indefinite sentences.  Homophile group Forbundet af 1948 – F48 (League of 1948), founded by Axel Axgil in Denmark.  Homophile group Bachelors for Wallace founded in California by Harry Hay to support Progressive Party candidate for President, Henry Wallace.  English Field-Marshal Sir Claude Auchinleck moves to Marrakech.  Australian politician Albert Augustine (Bert) Edwards wins seat on Adelaide City Council. American writer James Baldwin goes to Paris.  American writer John (Jack) Paul Dunphy meets American writer Truman Capote.  American artist Gray Foy meets editor and writer Leo Lerman.  (to 1950) English boxer Frederick Percival (Freddie) Mills world light heavyweight boxing champion. Australian fashion editor Madge Garland founds British School of Fashion.  English bar owner Donald Kimfull (Joseph Dean) closes Dean’s Bar in Tangiers.  English Muriel Belcher founds the Colony Club in Soho, London. English activist Norman Haire starts Journal of Sex Education in the U.K. Dr. Alfred Kinsey, Wardell Pomeroy and others’ Sexual Behavior in the Human Male.  English writer H. Montgomery Hyde’s The Trials of Oscar Wilde. English writer  Sir Harold Acton’s autobiography Memoirs of an Aesthete.  English Sir Osbert Sitwell, 5th Baronet’s autobiography Great Morning.  English critic James Agate’s diary/autobiography Ego-9.  English ballet dancer and designer William Evelyn Chappell’s autobiographical Studies in Ballet.  American author Gore Vidal’s novel The City and the Pillar. American writer Truman Capote’s novel Other Voices, Other Rooms.  American writer and poet Hubert Creekmore’s novel The Welcome. English writer  Robin, 2nd Viscount Maugham’s novel The Servant.  English writer Francis King’s novel The Air that Kills.  English writer George Frederick Green’s novel Land without Heroes.  English socialite Sir Charles (Michael) Robert Vivian Duff, 3rd Baronet’s novel The Power of a Parasol.  Japanese writer  Yukio Mishima’s novel Kamen no Kokuhaku (Confessions of a Mask).  English writer Ralph Nicholas Chubb’s book The Child of Dawn: or, the Book of the Manchild.  American film Red River starring actor Montgomery Clift.  American film Rope. Greek painter Yannis Tsarouchis’s painting Seated Sailor and Reclining Nude.

1949 English actor Simon Philip Hugh Callow, Canadian skater Toller Shalitoe Montague Cranston, English disc jockey Paul Gambaccini, Spanish director Pedro Almodovar, English writer Peter Ackroyd, Columbian American poet and writer Jaime Manrique, English politician and commentator Matthew Parris, American writer Ethan Mordden, English director Nigel Finch, English figure skater John Curry, American photographer Greg Gorman, American photographer Anna-Lou (Annie) Leibovitz, Scottish actor Ian Charleson, English mathematician, activist and author Andrew Hodges, English director and activist Gerald Chapman, Scottish playwright Glenn Chandler,  American T.V. personality Bruce (Caitlyn) Jenner, English playwright and writer Peter Scott-Presland (Eric Presland), English director Stuart Marshall, British-South African T.V. executive Michael Attwell, American Executive Director of Lambda Legal Defence Thomas B. Stoddard, American entertainer George Edgerly Harris III (Hibiscus), English painter John Kirby, British art historian and AIDS activist Simon Watney, American fashion journalist André Leon Talley, Canadian-American actor Victor Joseph Garber, American librettist Bill Russell and American actor Brad Davis b. Irish novelist Edith Somerville, Welsh poet Evan Frederic Morgan, 2nd Viscount and 4th Baron Tredegar, French artist and designer Christian (Bébé) Bérard, Russian art writer Walter Feodorovich Nouvel, American historian Gaillard Thomas Lapsley, Russian artist Andrey Avinoff and American psychiatrist Harry Stack Sullivan d.  German writer Klaus Mann commits suicide.  English fighter pilot Wing Commander John Simpson DFC commits suicide.  English actor Kenneth (Kenny) Morgan commits suicide.  Homophile group Forbundet af 1948 (League of 1948) founded in Sweden.  Dane Helmer Fogedgaard publishes magazine Vennen (The Friend) until 1953.  American sexologist Alfred Kinsey meets writer recorder Samuel Steward and novelist Glenway Wescott. American tennis star Bill Tilden arrested for second time for advances to a hitchhiker.  French writer Roger Peyrefitte’s biography of German photographer Baron Gloeden, Les amours singulières (Singular Loves).  American writer James Baldwin’s essay on homosexuality in a Moroccan journal.  English writer Richard Rumbold’s autobiography My Father’s Son.  English writer Sir Osbert Sitwell, 5th Baronet’s autobiography Laughter in the Next Room.  English writer Christopher Isherwood’s travel journal The Condor and the Cows.  English economist Lord John Maynard Keynes’s memoirs Two Memoirs.  English writer W. Somerset Maugham’s autobiographical A Writer’s Notebook. English writer  Godfrey Winn’s autobiographical The Bend of the River.  American author Gore Vidal’s novel The Season of Comfort.  English author Ivy Compton-Burnett’s novel Two Worlds and Their Ways.  English writer Robin, 2nd Viscount Maugham’s novel the Intruder.  American writer Nial Kent’s novel The Divided Path. American novelist Ward Thomas’s novel Stranger in the Land.  American novelist Michael de Forrest’s novel The Gay Year.   American novelist John Horne Burns’s novel Lucifer with a Book.  English novelist and poet Ernest Frost’s novel The Dark Peninsula.   American novelist Paul Bowles’s novel The Sheltering Sky.  American writer George Sylvester Viereck (Stuart Benton)’s novel All Things Human.  French criminal and writer Jean Genet’s novel Journal du voleur (Diary of a Thief).  English novelist Nancy Mitford’s novel Love in a Cold Climate. American novelist Isabel Bolton’s novel The Christmas Tree. American writer Theodora Keogh’s novel Meg. Frederick Buechner’s novel A Long Day’s Dying. English writer Sir Angus Wilson’s short stories The Wrong Set.  Russian artist Elie Grekoff illustrates Arthur Rimbaud’s Poemes. Les Stupra. Album dit Zutique.  

1950 Hong Kong Chinese writer Timothy Peter Mo, American poet Francis Timothy (Tim) Dlugos, American playwright and lyricist Howard Elliott Ashman, English actor, activist and M.E.P. Michael Cashman, Australian playwright Nick Enright, Norwegian politician Per-Kristian Foss, Mexican singer Juan Gabriel, English singer and song-writer Tom Robinson, American actor Howard Rollins, English activist Bob Mellors, Swiss director Léa Pool, American writer, photographer and publisher James Spada, American comedian and actor Terry Sweeney, English comedienne and novelist V.G. Lee, American writer and academic David Bergman, American academic and poet Melvin Dixon, American writer Mark Merlis, American anti-gay activist John Terrence (Terry) Dolan, English Labour politician Nicholas Hugh Brown, American AIDS activist Melvin (Mel) L. Rosen, American artist Mel Odom, French artist Patrick Gerbier, French photographer Pierre Commoy, American AIDS activist Thomas (Tom) Hannan, American founder of the Dallas Buyers Club Ronald (Ron) Dickson Woodroof, French diplomat Jean-Loup Kuhn Delforge, Italian Bishop Enrico dal Covolo and American queer theorist Eve Kosofsky Sedgwick b.  English activist George Cecil Ives, English writer Robert Hichens, Polish dancer Vaslav Nijinski, American politician Nancy Wechsler American poet and playwright Edna St. Vincent Millay, King Gustav V of Sweden, American decorator Elsie de Wolfe, Lady Mendl, American playwright & poet Blanche Marie Louise Oelrichs (Michael Strange), French courtesan Anne Marie Chassaigne (Liane de Pougy), Fürstin Ghica/Ghika, American mentor Henry Wadsworth Longfellow Dana and English eccentric Gerald, Lord 14th Berners d.   American critic Francis Otto (Matty) Matthiessen commits suicide. Ugandan Penal Code outlaws homosexual acts between men.  American Senator Joseph McCarthy’s speech identifies ‘205 communists in State Department.’ U.S. Senate appoints investigation into the employment of homosexuals and perverts by the Government led by Senator Clyde Hoey.  U.S. State Department announces firing of 91 homosexuals and issues document ‘Employment of Homosexuals and other Sex Perverts in Government’.  About 100 other U.S. civil servants fired, the beginning of ‘the Lavender Scare’.  F.B.I. commences surveillance of homosexuals. American actor Tab Hunter arrested at a gay party but it does not go public.  The Swedish Forbundet af 1948 independent under the name Riksförbundet för sexuellt likaberättigande (R.F.S.L., Federation for Sexual Equality) led by Allan Hellman.  Knights of the Clock founded in Los Angeles by American landscape architect and homophile movement founder William Dorr Lambert Legg (W. Dorr Legg) and his partner African-American Merton Bird.  Mattachine Society founded in Los Angeles by Harry Hay, Robert Hull, Charles Dennison Rowland and others from Bachelors for Wallace.  Japanese magazine Kitan kurabu (Strange-talk Club) founded.  English writer Faith Compton Mackenzie’s William Cory: A Biography.  English writer Sir Osbert Sitwell, 5th Baronet’s autobiography Noble Essences: A Book of Characters. American writer Gertrude Stein’s novel Q.E.D. first published as Things As They Are.  English writer Maurice Denton Welch’s novel A Voice through a Cloud.  American writer James Fugaté (James Barr)’s novel Quatrefoil.  American writer Loren Wahl’s novel The Invisible Glass.  American novelist Thomas Hal Phillips’s novel The Bitterweed Path.  American writer Theodora Keogh’s novel The Double Door.  American writer Harrison Dowd’s novel The Night Air.  American writer Stuart Engstrand’s novel The Sling and the Arrow.  Scottish writer A.J. Kronin’s novel The Spanish Gardener.  English writer Sir Angus Wilson’s short stories Such Darling Dodos.  American writer Paul Bowles’s stories The Delicate Prey and Other Stories includes ‘Pages from Cold Point’ and ‘The Delicate Prey’.  Sri Lankan photographer Lionel Wendt’s photographs, Lionel Wendt’s Ceylon.  French criminal and writer Jean Genet’s film Un Chant d’amour (A Song of Love).  French actor Jean Marais in artist, poet and producer Jean Cocteau’s film Orphée (Orpheus) dedicated to French artist and designer Christian (Bébé) Bérard.  American film Caged from the story ‘Women Without Men’ by Virginia Kellogg and Bernard C. Schoenfeld.  American actress Bette Davis in film All About Eve. American film So Young, So Bad. French composer Francis Poulenc dedicates Stabat Mater to French artist and designer Christian (Bébé) Bérard.  Ivor Novello’s musical Gay’s the Word.  American dancer and artist Hubert Julian (Jay) Stowitts’s painting The Crucifixion in Space.  American artist Robert R. Bliss’s painting Seated Boy.

1951 American writer activist Randy Shilts, Republican Congressman Steven Craig (Steve) Gunderson, American basketball umpire David Michael Pallone, English heavy metal musician Robert John Arthur (Rob) Halford, American director Norman René, Japanese artist Yasumasa Morimura, American film maker Jeffrey Friedman, English science fiction writer Geoffrey Charles Ryman, English interior designer John Beswick, English writer, broadcaster and Liberal politician John Fryer, English playwright Kevin Elyot, South African writer Tony Peake, American playwright Craig Lucas, Slovak skater Ondrej Nepela, American psychologist Mitchell (Mitch) Lynn Walker, Welsh Liberal politician Sir Simon Henry Ward Hughes, English Conservative politician Michael Russell Brown, American journalist Mark Allan Segal, American musician Steven D. Grossman, American poet activist Tede Matthews, American artist activist Gilbert Baker, American playwright Paula Vogel, American AIDS activist Nathan Kolodner, Scottish police officer John MacLennan, American astronaut Sally Kristen Ride, American writer and activist James (Jim) Eigo, Italian Archbishop Salvatore (Rino) Fisichella, English poet and writer Jeremy Reed and American writer Bernard Cooper b. French writer André Gide, American poet Benjamin Musser, German philosopher Ludwig Wittgenstein, Japanese novelist Miyamoto Yuriko, Anglo-South African writer and art historian Henry Currie (Harry - H.C.) Marillier (schoolboy and student friend of Wilde), American actor John Lennox Arthur Williams (Johnny Arthur), Chilean painter Álvaro Guevara, German writer Guido Hermann Eckardt (Fritz Geron Pernauhm),  English diplomat Archibald Clark Kerr, 1st Baron Inverchapel and Welsh composer, singer and actor Ivor Novello d.  Homosexual acts decriminalised in Greece and Jordan. English fighter pilot and racing driver Roberta Elizabeth Marshall Cowell (Robert Marshall Cowell) becomes the first British transexual woman to have sex reassignment surgery.  British spies Guy Burgess and Donald Maclean defect to the USSR. English gardener Alvilde Bridges, Viscountess Chaplin marries English diarist James Lees-Milne.  American sexologist Alfred Kinsey’s affair with writer Glenway Wescott.  Anna Freud publishes ‘Clinical Observations on the Treatment of Male Homosexuality’ in The Psychoanalytic Quarterly and ‘Homosexuality’ in the American Psychoanalytic Association Bulletin insisting on the attainment of full object-love of the opposite sex as a requirement for cure of homosexuality.  American criminologist and sociologist Edward Sagarin (Donald Webster Cory)’s The Homosexual in America: A Subjective Approach.  R.F. Harrod’s The Life of John Maynard Keynes.  James Pope-Hennessy’s Monckton Milnes: The Years of Promise and the Flight of Youth.  English poet Sir Stephen Spender’s autobiography World within World.  Japanese author Minakata Kumagusu’s letters published.  French writer Marguerite Yourcenar’s novel Mémoires d'Hadrien (Memoirs of Hadrian). English writer Robin, 2nd Viscount Maugham’s novel The Rough and the Smooth.  Japanese writer Yukio Mishima’s novel Kinchiki (Forbidden Colours).  American writer Carson McCullers’s novel The Ballad of the Sad Cafe. Fritz Peters’s novel Finistère.  American poet, playwright, writer Paul Goodman’s novel Parents’ Day.  American writer John Horne Burns’s novel A Cry of Children.  French criminal and writer Jean Genet’s novel Le Miracle de la rose (The Miracle of the Rose). American writer Truman Capote’s novel The Grass Harp.  American writer Grace Zaring Stone’s novel The Grotto.  American writer Ralph Leveridge’s novel Walk on the Water.  French writer Henry Marie Joseph Frédéric Expedite Millon de Montherlant’s novel La Ville don’t Le Prince ets un Enfant (The Land Whose King is a Child) illustrated by Raymond Carrance.  American writer James Baldwin’s story ‘The Outing’.  American film of playwright Tennessee Williams’s play A Streetcar Named Desire starring actor Marlon Brando. American film of English writer Patricia Highsmith’s Strangers on a Train starring Farley Granger.  French illustrator Jean Boullet’s Les Beaux Gars (The Beautiful Guys).  American artist Paul Cadmus’s painting Manikins.  American artist George Quaintance commences covers for Physique Pictorial magazine, published by American photographer Robert (Bob) Henry Mizer.

1952 American film director Gus Van Sant Jr., American novelist Christopher Bram, American writer Michael Cunningham, American academic David Halperin, French fashion designer John Paul Gaultier, English activist Peter Tatchell, American baseball star Glenn Burke, American writer Brad Gooch, Thai entrepreneur Khun Toc, American musician and film director William Charles Patrick (Bill) Sherwood, Japanese poet Ishii Tatuhiko, English novelist and director Clive Barker, French actress Maria Schneider, Italian activist Mario Mieli, Indian writer and poet Vikram Seth, Singapore activist Alex Au Waipang, American website designer and historian Keith Alan Stern, American right wing political consultant Roger J. Stone, Jr., American cabaret singer and activist David Paul Summers, American AIDS activist Robert Boyle (Bobbi) Campbell Jr., Chicana American writer Cherríe Lawrence Moraga, Japanese artist Hideki Koh, English activist and writer Nigel Anthony Collett, English fashion designer Frederick Burrett (Freddie Burretti), Moroccan Cardinal Dominique François Joseph Mamberti, Italian journalist Dino Boffo and English TV presenter Michael Barrymore b. English rights activist Norman Haire, Spanish writer and philosopher Jorge Agustín Nicolás Ruiz de Santayana y Borrás (George Santayana), English actress Gertrude Lawrence, American actress Hattie McDaniel, American pianist Richard Moritz Buhlig, American writer Margaret Wise Brown and English writer Norman Douglas d.  Canada immigration law bans gay men.  Roman Catholic Church places all André Gide’s books on the Index of Forbidden Books. English inventor Jeremy Joseph Fry charged with gross indecency.  Dale Jennings arrested in Westlake Park, now MacArthur Park, Los Angeles for allegedly soliciting a police officer, his trial drawing national attention to the Mattachine Society, which sets up The Citizen’s Committee to Outlaw Entrapment and publishes leaflets ‘Are You Left Handed?’ and ‘An Anonymous Call to Arms’; the charges were dismissed.  American Christine Jorgensen becomes the first widely publicized person in the U.S. to have undergone sex reassignment surgery.  American writer Samuel Steward visits French writer Julien Green and meets American photographer George Platt Lynes.  English academic John Sparrow becomes Warden of All Souls College, Oxford (to 1977).  English writer Christopher Isherwood meets American artist Don Bachardy.  English photographer Antony Armstrong-Jones has an affair with Tom Parr. Australian fashion editor Madge Garland marries museum curator Sir Leigh Ashton.  British Sunday Pictorial publishes a series on homosexuality entitled ‘Evil Men’.  Church of England’s Moral Welfare Council initiates a study of homosexuality.  The Mattachine Society publishes ONE Magazine: The Homosexual Viewpoint. End of the British Journal of Sex Education.  American Psychiatric Association’s first The Diagnostic and Statistical Manual lists homosexuality as a socio-pathic personality disturbance.  Adonis Kai (Adonis Organization) founded in Japan and publishes Adonis magazine.  English social researcher and campaigner Michael Schofield (Gordon Westwood)’s Society and the Homosexual.  French writer Jean Paul Sartre’s Saint Genet.  Romola Nijinsky’s The Last Years of Nijinsky.  American singer Gladys Bentley’s article ‘I Am a Woman Again’ in Ebony magazine.  English Brigadier Michael Calvert publishes autobiographical Prisoners of Hope; he is later court-martialled, accused of homosexual offences in Germany and dismissed the service.  English writer and socialite Violet Trefusis’s autobiography Don’t Look Around. English broadcaster and writer Naomi Jacob’s autobiography Robert, Nana and – Me.   American actress Tallulah Bankhead’s Tallulah: My Autobiography.  English writer Rupert Croft-Cooke’s autobiographical The Life for Me.  English The Journals of Denton Welch edited by English writer Jocelyn Brooke. George Sylvester Viereck (Stuart Benton)’s novel Men into Beasts.   English writer Sir Angus Wilson’s novel Hemlock and After.  American writer John Horne Burns’s novel A Cry of Children.  English writer George Frederick Green’s novel First View.  English writer Patricia Highsmith’s novel Carol published as The Price of Salt.  English writer Daphne du Maurier’s novel My Cousin Rachel.  English writer John Robert Liddell’s novel Unreal City. American novelist Marijane Meaker (Vin Packer)’s novel Spring Fire. American writer Theodora Keogh’s novel Street Music.  English playwright Rodney Ackland’s play The Pink Room panned by critics, stopping him writing for nearly 40 years. American artist George Quaintance’s painting Siesta.   

1953 American poet and writer Mark Doty, English Labour politician Peter Benjamin Mandelson, Baron Mandelson of Foy, German politician Klaus (Wowi) Wowereit, American actor Tom Hulce, German director Rolf Silber, English Conservative politician Michael Denzil Xavier Portillo M.P., Welsh Anglican priest Jeffrey Philip Hywel John, American actor, director and writer Keith McDermott, English academic and poet Gregory Woods, America’s first AIDS casualty Robert Rayford, Canadian flight attendant Gaëtan Dugas (Patient Zero), American guitarist Ricky Helton Wilson, English Conservative politician Jeremy Joseph James Hayes, American novelist Darryl Pinckney, American literary agent Jed Mattes, Spanish artist Joan Sastre García (Joan Sasgar), French painter Gilles Blanchard, American playwright Peter Parnell, American psychiatrist Justin Richardson, American journalist and activist Andy Humm, Japanese writer Ita Satoru, South African Judge Edwin Cameron, Portuguese Bishop Bishop Carlos Alberto de Pinho Moreira Azevedo and English writer Christopher Fowler b.  American writer John Horne Burns, American actress Maud Adams, American tennis star Bill Tilden, American dancer and choreographer Lester Horton, Anglo-Irish peer  Arthur Paul John James Charles Gore, 7th Earl of Arran,  Scottish peer Captain Ian Colin Maitland, 15th Earl of Lauderdale, American dancer and artist Hubert Julian (Jay) Stowitts and English literatus and civil servant Sir Edward Howard Marsh d. English Labour M.P. William T. Field found guilty of soliciting and resigns seat.  English Conservative M.P. Ian Horabin disgraced for homosexuality.  English Trials of Edward Douglas-Scott-Montagu, 3rd Baron Montagu of Beaulieu, Peter Wildeblood and Michael Pitt-Rivers (to 1954) for importuning Corporal Edward McNally and John Reynolds.  English actor Sir John Gielgud arrested in Chelsea lavatory, prosecuted and convicted.  English writer Rupert Croft-Cooke and his companion Joseph Sussainathan (Alexander) imprisoned for homosexuality.  English Labour politician William James Field M.P. convicted and fined for importuning in a London public lavatory.  American Republican official Arthur Hendrick Vandenberg, Jr. resigns as Appointments Secretary to President Eisenhower due to homosexuality.  American rights activist Bayard Rustin charged for ‘sex perversion’ in a car with a man.  American psychiatrist Evelyn Hooker begins gay research. U.S. President Eisenhower issues Executive Order 101405 making ‘sexual perversion’ reason for blocking federal employment. Lawyer Roy Cohn becomes U.S. Senator Joe McCarthy’s chief counsel.  American dancer Jerome Robbins gives House Un-American Activities Committee names of communist artists to prevent exposure of his homosexuality.  Mattachine Society’s sponsored corporation One, Inc publishes ONE Magazine.  Mattachine Society convention sees its Fifth Order members including Harry Hay resign, ousted by anti-communists led by Hal Call who publishes magazine Mattachine Review in San Francisco. Dr. Alfred Kinsey, Wardell Pomeroy and others’ Sexual Behavior in the Human Female.  Japanese magazines Fûzoku kagaku [Sex-customs Science) and Fûzoku zôshi (Sex-customs Storybook) founded.  English and French writers Angus Wilson and Philippe Jullian’s For Whom the Cloche Tolls: A Scrap Book of the Twenties.  German Wandervogel leader Hans Blüher’s: Werke und Tage (Geschichte eines Denkers). Autobiographie (Works and Days (History of a Thinker). Autobiography). English writer E.M. Forster’s autobiographical  The Hill of Devi. English soldier Adrian Liddell Hart’s autobiographical Strange Company.  English labour politician Hugh Dalton’s Call back yesterday: memoirs, 1887–1931.  English Tom Driberg M.P.’s diary The Best of Both Worlds.  American writer James Baldwin’s novel Go Tell It on the Mountain.  English writer L.P. Hartley’s novel The Go-Between.  Hungarian British writer Rodney Garland’s novel The Heart in Exile.  American writer and poet James M. Smith (William Talsman)’s novel The Gaudy Image.  French criminal and writer Jean Genet’s novel Querelle de Brest.  American writer John Horne Burns’s novel A Cry of Children.  American writer William Burroughs’s novel Junky. Franco-American novelist Julien Green’s novel Sud (South). English writer Louis Umfreville Wilkinson (Louis Marlow)’s novel Seven Friends.  English writer Audrey Erskine-Lindop’s novel The Singer Not the Song.  American writer Edward Hamilton Waldo (Theodore Sturgeon)’s science fiction story ‘The World Well Lost’ published in Universe Science Fiction.  American writer J.D. Salinger’s story ‘Seymour: An Introduction’ in Nine Stories. American sociologist Edward Sagarin (Donald Webster Cory)' s story collection Twenty-one Variations on a Theme. Japanese writer Yukio Mishima’s Manatsu no Shi (Death in Midsummer and Other Stories).  The Collected Poems of Lionel Johnson edited by Ian Fletcher.  American actors Ben Gazzara and James Dean in Calder Willingham’s play End as a Man.  American playwright Tennessee Williams’s play Camino Real.  American Robert Anderson’s play Tea and Sympathy.  American film Gentlemen Prefer Blondes. American director Ed Wood’s film Glen or Glenda.  American artist George Quaintance’s painting Moonlight.   French artist Raymond Carrance (Czanara)’s painting May 4.

1954 English writer Alan Hollinghurst, American attorney and writer Michael Angel Nava, English musician composer Neil Tennant, American journalist George Hadley-Garcia (Boze Hadleigh), American actor John Joseph Travolta, American actor Dan Butler, American playwright Harvey Forbes Fierstein, Israeli director Amos Guttman, American historian George Chauncey, American comedian and actor Danitra Vance, English writer Adam Mars-Jones, Australian historian Robert Aldrich, American lawyer Geoffrey F. Bowers, American female impersonator and playwright Charles Louis Busch, American LGBT activist Cleve Jones, American art magazine editor Jeffrey Schaire, American journalist Frank Broderick, African-American activist Joseph F. Beam, American photographer and activist Barbara May Cameron, American artist David Michael Wojnarowicz and Taiwanese director Ang Lee b. French writer Sidonie Gabrielle Colette, Spanish playwright Jacinto Benavente, Mexican painter Frida Kahlo, French photographer Lucy Mathilde Renée Schwob (Claude Cahun), Scottish schoolmaster John Ferguson Roxburgh, English writer Louis Golding and American philosopher Professor Alain LeRoy Locke d. English mathematician Alan Turing commits suicide. Church of England’s Moral Welfare Council’s report The Problem of Homosexuality.  French homophile organisation Arcadie formed by French activist André Baudry with journal of same name.  British Wolfenden Committee starts work.  English actor Dennis Price attempts suicide.  Plaque to Oscar Wilde unveiled at No. 34 Tite Street, London.  American Senator Joe McCarthy censured by U.S. Senate.  American psychiatrist Evelyn Hooker gets a grant from U.S. National Institute for Mental Health to study homosexuality.  New York the Veterans Benevolent Association disbanded.  Harry Hay labelled ‘a pinko’ by Confidential magazine’s article ‘America on Guard – Homosexuals Inc’ and is called before U.S. Senate House Un-American Activities Committee.  English art forger Eric Hebborn meets partner Graham Smith. English painter and writer Brion Gyson opens restaurant 1001 Nights in Tangiers with Moroccan painter Mohamed Hamri as cook.  Japanese magazine Fûzoku zôshi (Sex-customs Storybook) closes. English writer Richard Aldington’s memoir of Norman Douglas, Pinorman.  English playwright Noël Coward’s autobiography Future Indefinite.  English writer David Garnett’s autobiography The Golden Echo.  English writer, broadcaster and actress Naomi Eleanor Clare Jacob’s autobiographical Me – Likes and Dislikes.  English fighter pilot and racing driver Roberta Elizabeth Marshall Cowell (Robert Marshall Cowell)’s autobiography Roberta Cowell’s Story.  English playwright Rodney Ackland’s memoirs The Celluloid Mistress, or The Custard Pie of Dr. Caligari. English writer Francis King’s novel The Dark Glasses.  English writer Christopher Isherwood’s novel The World in the Evening.  English book maker Ralph Nicholas Chubb’s book Flames of Sunrise: a Book of the Man Child Concerning the Redemption of Albion.  English writer Agatha Christie’s play The Mousetrap.  English playwright Terence Rattigan’s play Separate Tables. English writer Julian Penkivil Slade’s musical Salad Days. Egyptian director Fatin Abdel Wahab’s film Miss Hanafi.  French illustrator Jean Boullet’s Antinous.  American artist Paul Cadmus’s painting Male Nude.  American artist George Quaintance’s painting Eduardo.   French artist Raymond Carrance (Czanara)’s painting Paris.

1955 English comedian Paul James Michael O’Grady, English T.V. presenter and D.J. Dale Winton, American actor and playwright Leslie Allen Jordan, American director Bill Condon, American actress Sandra Bernhard, German American director Roland Emmerich, English musician Pete Shelley, English AIDS activist Jonathan Grimshaw, American director Robert P. (Rob) Epstein, American actor Jim J. Bullock, American writer Stephen McCauley, American novelist Jim Grimsley, American female impersonator John Epperson (Lypsinka),  American actor producer David Marshall Grant, American AIDS activist writer Richard (Rich) Berkowitz, American songwriter and activist Michael Callen, American activist Rodger McFarlane, American physician and producer Neal Baer, American activist historian Will Roscoe, Malaysian-American activist Malaysian Siong-Huat Chua, American politician James (Jimmy) Vacca, American journalist Michael Musto, Italian writer Pier Vittorio Tondelli, Dutch activist and politician Boris Ottokar Dittrich and Irish writer Colm Tóibín b.  American actor James Byron Dean, English writer Horace Annesley Vachell, American photographer George Platt Lynes, English Major Sir Herbert Paul Latham, 2nd Baronet, M.P., English colonial civil servant Sir Ronald Henry Amherst Storrs, Norwegian female impersonator and male courtesan, one of the Rocky Twins (Paal Roschberg), German writer Hans Blüher, English novelist John Frederick Norman Hampson Simpson (John Hampson), American writer Hallett Abend, English colonial governor Sir Ronald Henry Amherst Storrs, American actress Owena Wolcott (Ona Munson) and German writer Thomas Mann d. English eye surgeon and activist Patrick Trevor-Roper, English museum curator Carl Winter and English writer Peter Wildeblood the only three men to state they were gay to the Wolfenden Committee.  French poet Adrienne Monnier commits suicide. U.S. Boise scandal in the US commences (to 1957). Daughters of Billitis founded in San Francisco in by four lesbian couples including Dorothy Louise Taliaferro (Del) Martin and Phyllis Ann Lyon.  Mattachine Society New York chapter founded.  American Law Institute proposes reform of laws on homosexuality.  American magazine Confidential threatens to expose Rock Hudson's homosexuality;  his agent Henry Willson discloses information about Rory Calhoun's years in prison and Tab Hunter's arrest at a gay party in 1950 in exchange for the tabloid not printing the Hudson story and Hudson marries Willson's secretary Phyllis Gates.  Dutch Centre for Culture and Recreation opens a gay bar, the DOK Bar, in Amsterdam. Japanese magazine Fûzoku kagaku (Sex-customs Science) closes.  English psychologist D.J. West’s Homosexuality.  English J.T. Rees and H.V. Usill’s They Stand Apart: A Critical Survey of Homosexuality.  English theologian Dr. Derrick Sherwin Bailey’s Homosexuality and the Western Christian Tradition.  Richard Aldington’s T.E. Lawrence: A Biographical Enquiry.  Lord David Cecil’s Walter Pater.  English journalist Peter Wildeblood’s autobiographical Against the Law.  English writer Rupert Croft-Cooke’s autobiographical The Verdict of You All.  English soldier and arabist  T.E. Lawrence’s autobiography The Mint published. English designer  Sir Norman Hartnell’s autobiography Silver and Gold.  English writer John Lehmann’s autobiography Whispering Gallery.  English writer David Garnett’s autobiography The Flowers of the Forest.  English writer Godfrey Winn’s autobiographical One Man’s Dog. English writer William Beckford, The Journals of William Beckford in Portugal and Spain 1787-1788 edited by B. Alexander.  American writer William Laurence (Lonnie) Coleman’s novel Ship’s Company.  English writer Robin, 2nd Viscount Maugham’s novel Behind the Mirror.  English writer Patricia Highsmith’s novel The Talented Mr. Ripley. French writer Eric Jordan’s novel Les mauvais anges (Wicked Angels) censured and banned (to 1985).  Italian writer director Pier Paolo Pasolini’s novel Ragazzi di vita (Hustlers).   American poet Allen Ginsberg’s poem ‘Howl.  English writer William Plomer’s Borderline Ballads. American playwright Tennessee Williams’s play Cat on a Hot Tin Roof wins a Pullitzer Prize.  English playwright John Furnell’s play The Stringed Lute: An Evocation in Dialogue of Oscar Wilde. American dramatist Arthur Miller’s play A View from the Bridge.  American actors James Dean and Sal Mineo in film Rebel Without a Cause.  American American film adaptation of Calder Willingham’s End as a Man planned as The Strange One to star actor James Dean.  American films The Big Combo and Women’s Prison.  Greek painter Yannis Tsarouchis’s painting Seated Nude with Red Carpet.

1956 American tennis player Martina Navratilova, American writer David Sedaris, Hong Kong Chinese star Leslie Cheung Kwok-wing, American actor Nathan Lane, Welsh director Sean Gerard Mathias, American musician Michael Feinstein, American author Patricia Cornwell, English director Nicholas Hytner, American playwright Tony Kushner, English director Sean Mathias, American dancer and choreographer Mark Morris, American activist teacher Robert (Rob) Birle, American writer Robert Rodi, Irish poet Cathal Ó Searcaigh, Australian academic Peter Jackson, American writer Kevin Sessums, American actor Mark Fotopoulos, Norwegian billionaire businessman Stein Erik Hagen, American artist Robert Flynt, American artist Mark Beard, German Archbishop Georg Gänswein, American AIDS activist Griffin Gold, Italian priest Battista Mario Salvatore Ricca and American writer and activist David Barish Feinberg b.  English essayist, caricaturist Sir Max Beerbohm, American writer Robert McAlmon, German playwright Bertolt Brecht, American sexologist Alfred Kinsey, American track athlete and golfer Babe Didrikson Zaharias, French painter Marie Laurencin, Freifrau von Waëtjen,  American lyricist John Treville La Touche, Irish American actor Whitford Kane, American editor of Musical America Cecil Michener Smith, English socialite Dorothy (Dotty) Violet Wellesley, Duchess of Wellington, German writer Ewald Tscheck, French decorator and costumier Étienne Jacques Alexandre Marie Joseph, Comte Bonnin de la Bonninière de Beaumont, Italian Jesuit Pietro Tacchi Venturi and English diver Lionel (Buster) Crabb d.   English art collector and editor Victor William (Peter) Watson drowns in his bath.  Homosexual acts decriminalised in Thailand.  China criminalises liumangzui (hooliganism) – used to include any form of same-sex behaviour but officially intended to involve violence, coercion or minors.  American psychiatrist Evelyn Hooker delivers paper ‘The Adjustment of the Male Overt Homosexual’ at the A.P.A. in Chicago. Daughters of Bilitis publish journal The Ladder.  English Daily Mirror alleges that Liberace had acknowledged that he was gay; Liberace sues.  English actor Peter Wyngarde starts a 10 year relationship with English actor Alan Bates.  American female impersonator Hal Wadell (or Waddell) or Ramón Ícarez (Ray (Rae) Bourbon) arrested in New Orleans and claims to have had a sex change operation.  English band manager Brian Epstein arrested for cruising in Piccadilly in an officer’s uniform. English journalist  Peter Wildeblood’s A Way of Life.  English politician Tom Driberg’s biography Guy Burgess: A Portrait with Background.  English cad Gerald Hamilton’s autobiography Mr Norris and I.  Scottish writer Sir Compton Mackenzie’s novel Thin Ice.  English writer Sir Angus Wilson’s novel Anglo-Saxon Attitudes.  English writer Francis King’s novel The Firewalkers.  American writer James Baldwin’s novel Giovanni’s Room.  American writer Jerry M. Tschappat (Gerald Tesch)’s novel Never the Same Again.  American writer Nelson Algren’s novel A Walk on the Wild Side.  English writer Rupert Croft-Cooke’s novel The Tangerine House.  French novelist Suzanne de Callias’s novel L’étrange passion de Junot, duc d’Abrantès (The Strange Passion of Junot, Duke of Abrantes).   American director Vincente Minnelli’s film adaptation of American Robert Anderson’s 1953 play Tea and Sympathy.  American photographer Bruce Bellas (Bruce of Los Angeles) publishes The Male Figure photographic magazine.

1957 English musician Marc Almond, American Governor James McGreevey, American gay sex symbol James Kenneth Melson, South African apartheid, gay and AIDS activist Simon Tseko Nkoli, American director Marlon Riggs, American playwright Paul Rudnick, American footballer Roy Simmons, French director Cyril Collard, American novelist Paul Reed, British porn director and actor Kristen Bjorn, English director Richard Kwietniowski, Canadian comedian Thomas (Tommy) Sexton, American writer and activist Essex Hemphill, American film writer Ed Sikov, Hong Kong director Stanley Kwan, American biographer and historian Stuart Timmons, American diplomat Michael Guest, Canadian director Rodrigue Jean, American actress Kelly Ann McGillis, Welsh Conservative politician Nigel Martin Evans, Greek poet and art publisher Nikos Stangos, English historian Stephen Bourne, Haitian poet Yves François Lubin (Assotto Saint), American legal activist Evan Wolfson, Anglo-American artist Philip McCammon Core, American photographer Bill Travis, American basketball player Kevin Edward McHale, American AIDS activist Jeff Getty, Chinese filmmaker Cui Zi’en, Peruvian politician Carlos Ricardo Bruce Montes de Oca and English writer, T.V presenter and actor Stephen Fry b.  English teacher and poet Fabian Strachan (F.S.) Woodley, American editor and novelist George Davis, English army officer and poet Kenneth Searight, Russian painter Pavel Tchelitchew, Italian poet Umberto Poli (Saba), American arts sponsor Arthur Everett (Chick) Austin, Jr.,  George Arthur Maurice Hamilton-Gordon, 2nd Baron Stanmore, English Conservative politician and colonial governor Colonel John Jestyn Llewellin, 1st Baron Llewellin, English Liberal politician Leslie Hore-Belisha, 1st Baron Hore-Belisha, English Anglican priest Ronald Arbuthnott Knox, American artist George Quaintance  and American Senator Joe McCarthy d.  English director James Whale and English painter Francis John Minton commit suicide. East Germany stops prosecuting men for sex with other men aged over 18.  British Wolfenden report published and debated in the House of Lords. The Federal Constitutional Court of West Germany upholds Nazi laws against homosexuality and suggests that the penalty be doubled from five to ten years imprisonment.  American journalist Joseph Wright Alsop V photographed in bed with a man by K.G.B. in sting in Moscow; he writes report for the C.I.A.  American psychiatrist Evelyn Hooker publishes ‘The Adjustment of the Male Overt Homosexual’, the results of her study of homosexuality, in Journal of Projective Techniques (to 1959).  Psychoanalysts Curran and Parr's Homosexuality: An Analysis of 100 Male Cases reports no significant increase in heterosexual behaviour. The word ‘transsexual’ is coined by German American sexologist and endocrinologist Harry Benjamin.  Japanese magazine Ura mado (Rear Window) founded.  English poet James Kirkup’s autobiography The Only Child.  English labour politician Hugh Dalton’s The fateful years: memoirs, 1931–1945. English writer Nancy Mitford’s novel The Blessing.  English writer Francis King’s novel The Man on the Rock.  American author Jack Kerouac’s novel On the Road.  English author Colin MacInnes’s novel City of Spades.  American author Hubert Selby Jr.’s novel Last Exit to Brooklyn.  English writer Evelyn Waugh’s novel The Ordeal of Gilbert Pinfold.   English writer Peter Wildeblood’s novel The Main Chance. American writer John Cheever’s novel The Wapshot Chronicles.  English author and bibliophile Martyn Goff’s novel The Plaster Fabric.  English book maker Ralph Nicholas Chubb’s book Treasure Trove: Early Tales and Romances with Poems.  American poet Thom Gunn’s poem ‘On the Move “Man You Gotta GO”’ in poems The Sense of Movement.  American actor Sal Mineo in film Dino. American film The Strange One, based on Calder Willingham’s novel End as a Man. American films Voodoo Island and Designing Woman. British T.V. channel Granada’s programme Homosexuality and the Law.  Greek painter Yannis Tsarouchis’s painting The Forgotten Guard.  American artist George Quaintance’s painting Hercules. 

1958 American performance artist Tim Miller, American T.V. actress Ellen Degeneres, American actress Amanda Bearse, American entertainer Lea Delaria, American basketball player Nancy Lieberman, American singer Madonna Louise Ciccone (Madonna), American producer Scott Rudin, Irish actress Fiona Shaw, Canadian director Michel Marc Bouchard, English policeman and politician Brian Leonard Paddick, English director Gregory Doran, Vietnamese writer Dang Thuong Nguyen, American writer and director Joe Keenan, American artist Keith Allen Haring, Brazilian singer Agenor Miranda Araújo Neto (Cazuza), American activist Sean O’Brien Strub,  French author and activist Didier Lestrade, Dutch-American painter Peter Schuyff, English producer Charles Andrew "Charlie" Parsons, American photographer Rick Castro, Scottish cyclist Philippa York, Israeli writer Gal Uchovsky, American AIDS activist Tim Bailey, Italian priest Monsignor Cesare Burgazzi, Maltese Archbishop Alfred Xuereb and English playwright and director Neil Vivian Bartlett b.  American actor Tyrone Power, English Oliver, 2nd Earl Baldwin of Bewdley, English aesthete Brian Howard, American poet and author Angelina Weld Grimké, American actor Franklin Pangborn, Hungarian British writer Adam De Hegedus (Rodney Garland), German actor Hans Heinrich von Twardowski, English historian Richard Pares, Austrian playwright Theodor Tagger (Ferdinand Brückner), Anglo-Irish politician Brendan Bracken, 1st Viscount Bracken, English film actor and diplomat Sir Charles Ferdinand Mendl, Scottish doctor and politician Walter Elliott, English jazz composer Reginald Foresythe, German artist Marcus Michael Douglas Behmer, Eugenio Maria Giuseppe Giovanni Pacelli (Pope Pius XII) and Anglo-American politician Sir Henry (Chips) Channon d.  Iraqi Crown Prince and Regent Abd al-Ilah of Hejaz murdered in a military coup.  Anglo-Irish aristocrat Arthur Paul John James Charles Gore, 7th Earl of Arran commits suicide.  Angelo Giuseppe Roncalli becomes Pope John XXIII.  Wolfenden report debated in the British House of Commons.  Conservative Minister Ian Harvey M.P. prosecuted for gross indecency and resigns. Homosexual Law Reform Society (H.L.R.S.) founded in the United Kingdom by academic, critic and activist Anthony Edward (Tony) Dyson (Vice Chairman) and the Reverend Canon Andrew Hallidie Smith (Secretary) with sexologist Kenneth Walker Chairman.  Albany Trust founded as the H.L.R.S.’s charity arm.  British Lord Chamberlain lifts ban on plays with gay themes.  The United States Supreme Court rules against the U.S. Postal Service in favour of the First Amendment rights of a gay and lesbian magazine, the first time it had ruled on a case involving homosexuality, in the case of the magazine ONE Magazine’s corporation One, Inc. v. Olesen.  Activist Barbara Gittings founds the New York chapter of Daughters of Bilitis.  Prosecution in San Francisco of owner of City Lights Bookstore for selling Allen Ginsberg’s poem ‘Howl.  Scottish psychiatrist Isaac Chesarkie (Dr. Eustace Chesser)’s Live and Let Live: The Morality of the Wolfenden Report.   American psychoanalyst Edmund Bergler’s The Counterfeit Sex.  American biographer Frances Winwar’s Oscar Wilde and the Yellow Nineties.  English Robert Hutton’s autobiography Of Those Alone.  English Field Marshal Viscount Montgomery of Alamein’s Memoirs.  English writer Beverley Nichols’s memoir The Sweet and Twenties.  English soldier and writer Frank Baines’s memoir Look Towards the Sea.   English writer Michael Nelson’s novel A Room in Chelsea Square.   English writer Sir Angus Wilson’s novel The Middle Age of Mrs Eliot. American author Dennis Murphy’s novel The Sergeant. American writer Truman Capote’s novel Breakfast at Tiffany’s. English writer Robin, 2nd Viscount Maugham’s novel The Man with Two Shadows.  English writer Iris Murdoch’s novel The Bell.  English writer Peter Wildeblood’s novel West End People.  Irish writer Kate O’Brien’s novel As Music and Splendour.  American writer Lonnie Coleman’s novel The Southern Lady.  American playwright Tennessee Williams’s play Suddenly Last Summer.  British dramatist Shelagh Delaney’s play A Taste of Honey.  British playwright Terence Rattigan’s play Variations on a Theme. American film of playwright Tennessee Williams’s play Cat on a Hot Tin Roof.

1959 English actor Rupert Everett, Amercan playwright Anthony Robert (Tony) Kushner, English musician Chris Lowe, English novelist Jeanette Winterson, American writer and poet Carl Phillips, British singer and lyricist Steven Patrick Morrissey, American actor David Hyde Pierce, American director Don Roos, English musician Paul Rutherford, American director Greg Araki, American director Nicole Conn, American novelist Matthew Stadler, Canadian actor and comedian Scott Thompson, American playwright Douglas Carter Beane, American companion to Liberace, Scott Thorson, English Royal Navy Lieutenant Commander Duncan Lustig Prean, African-American poet Craig G. Harris, American writer and publisher Jeff Nardi (Thomas Avena), Serbian artist Nebojsa Zdravkovic, American actor Kevin Spacey Fowler, American writer and filmmaker David France, American actor David Hyde Pierce, American HIV researcher and activist Mark Harrington (or 1960), American AIDS activist Michael Anthony Petrelis, Hong Kong writer and playwright Edward Yik Wah / Lin Yihua Lam, English theologian James Alison and Australian actor, writer and activist Timothy Conigrave b.  English playwright and writer Laurence Housman, English director Edmund Goulding, American singer Billie Holliday, Polish musician Wanda Landowska, French director Jean Grémillon, English Conservative politician Samuel John Gurney Hoare, 1st Viscount Templewood and English historian, economist and Cooperativist George Douglas Howard (G.D.H.) Cole d.  English composer Stanley Bate commits suicide. British Obscene Publications Act allows artistic merit and social importance to be considered.  English Conservative politician Derick Heathcoat-Amory, 1st Viscount Amory and 4th Baronet resigns as Chancellor of the Exchequer after being reported partying with teddy boys.  Ulster politician and historian Harford (H.) Montgomery Hyde deselected by his party as Ulster Unionist M.P. for Belfast North due to his speech in Parliament supporting reform of the law on homosexuality.  South African choreographer John Cyril Cranko fined for gross indecency in London.  Liberace wins GBP 8,000 from English Daily Mirror for alleging he acknowledged he was gay. American art collector Joseph F. McCrindle founds the Transatlantic Review (to 1977).  Scottish psychiatrist Isaac Chesarkie (Dr. Eustace Chesser)’s Odd Man Out: Homosexuality in Men and Women.  Irish diplomat Sir Roger Casement’s Black Diaries 1903-1910.  English poet James Kirkup’s autobiography Sorrows, Passions and Alarms.  English writer John Lehmann’s autobiography I Am My Brother.  American producer Leonard Sillman’s autobiography Here Lies Leonard Sillman: Straightened Out at Last.  The Journals and Papers of Gerard Manley Hopkins edited by Humphrey House.   English writer Eileen Mary Challans (Mary Renault)’s novel The Charioteer. New Zealand writer James Francis Courage’s novel The Way of Love banned by the censor in London.  American writer William Burrough’s novel Naked Lunch. English author Colin MacInnes’s novel Absolute Beginners.  American novelist John Knowles’s novel A Separate Peace.  American novelist Allen Drury’s novel Advise and Consent, which wins a Pullitzer Prize in 1960.  American writer James Otis Purdy’s novel Malcolm.  American writer Edwina Mark’s novel The Sinful One.  French novelist Roger Peyrfitte’s novel L’Exile de Capri (The Exile of Capri).  American writer William Laurence (Lonnie) Coleman’s novel Sam.  Italian writer director Pier Paolo Pasolini’s novel Una vita violenta (A Violent Life).  Japanese poet Takahashi Mutsuo’s poems Mino watashi no oushi (Mino, My Bull).  French criminal writer Jean Genet’s play Les Negres (The Negroes).  American actor Rock Hudson stars in film Pillow Talk.  American writer Gore Vidal script writes film Ben Hur. American film Some Like it Hot.  American actor Montgomery Clift in film Suddenly Last Summer based on the play by playwright Tennessee Williams with Gore Vidal as screenwriter. Franco-American novelist Julien Green’s novel Sud (South) made into a British Garnada T.V. production starring Peter Wyngarde, the first TV production with an overtly homosexual theme.  American artist Robert R. Bliss’s painting Swinging Boy.

1960 American drag artist André Charles (Ru Paul), British Gibraltarian fashion designer John Galliano, English singer Holly Johnson, Hong Kong Canadian activist Dr. Alan Li, American diver Greg Louganis, American memoirist and poet Kenny Fries, Japanese writer Hiruma Hisao, English choreographer Sir Matthew Christopher Bourne, American director Rob Marshall, American musician Michael Stipe, Canadian director John Greyson, English director Duncan Roy, Polish director Wiktor Grodecki, English artist Gerard Hastings, American CEO of Apple Timothy Donald (Tim) Cook, American diplomat James (Wally) Brewster Jr., American diplomat David Huebner, American T.V. news anchor Robin René Roberts, English Labour politician Benjamin Peter James Bradshaw, Japanese artist Takato Yamamoto, American cartoonist Alison Bechdel, American painter and designer Carrie Moyer, Dutch artist Peter Colstee, American artist Michael Petry, American politician L. Scott Frantz, American actress Jane Marie Lynch, English nightclub owner (of Queer Nation) Patrick Lilley, French diplomat Laurent Stefanini, Venezuelan-Spanish activist and politician Pedro González Zerolo and English TV personality Julian Clary b. Amanullah Khan Amir of Afghanistan, English writer and book maker Ralph Nicholas Chubb, American actor Clark Gable, American actor LeRoy Melvin Radabaugh (Richard ‘Dick’/’Roy’ Cromwell), Anglo-German Alexander Albert Mountbatten, 1st Marquess of Carisbrooke (Prince Alexander Albert of Battenberg), English private secretary to Prime Minister Stanley Baldwin Sir Geoffrey Storrs Fry, 1st Baronet, English T.V. broadcaster and journalist Gilbert Charles Harding, American singer Gladys Bentley, English Admiral of the Fleet Sir Charles Edward Lambe, English colonial governor Sir Roland Evelyn Turnbull and Russian ballerina Ida Lvovna Rubenstein d.  Ghana Criminal Code prohibits same-sex activity between males. British Homosexual Law Reform Society (H.L.R.S.)’s first public meeting at Caxton Hall; publishes pamphlet ‘Homosexuality and the Law’.  English Labour M.P. Kenneth Robinson’s proposal to implement the Wolfenden report defeated in the House of Commons. Antony Charles Robert Armstrong-Jones has an affair with Nicky Haslam then becomes 1st Earl of Snowdon and Viscount Linley and marries Princess Margaret; his best man English inventor Jeremy Joseph Fry has to withdraw as he had been charged with gross indecency in 1952.  English interior designer David Nightingale Hicks marries Lady Pamela Mountbatten.  English model and restaurateur George Jamieson becomes April Ashley with gender reassignment surgery in Morocco.  German director Rainer Werner Fassbinder comes out to his father.  American literatus academic Professor Newton Arvin forced to resign at Smith University.  New York City Police Department closes more than 40 gay bars, leaving only 3 gay bars functioning.  Barbra Streisand sings at Bon Soir gay bar in New York.  Trial of Penguin Books for publishing obscene work, Lady Chatterley’s Lover.  Japanese magazine Fûzoku kitan (Strange Talk about the Sex World) founded. English social researcher Michael Schofield’s A Minority.   Richard Whittington-Egan and Geoffrey Smerdon’s biography of Richard Le Gallienne, The Quest of the Golden Boy.  English writer John Morris’s autobiography Hired to Kill.  French writer Maurice Sachs’s autobiography Le Sabbat (The Sabbath).  English broadcaster Lionel Fielden’s memoir The Natural Bent.  English writer Janet Hitchman’s memoir The King of the Barbareens.  American author George Reynolds Freedley’s autobiographical Mr Cat.  English Prime Minister Anthony Eden’s The Eden Memoirs: Full Circle.  English writer Colin MacInnes’s novel Mr Love and Justice.  English writer J.R. Ackerley’s novel We Think the World of You.  English novelist Colin Wilson’s novel Ritual in the Dark.  Japanese writer Yukio Mishima’s novel Confessions of a Mask translated.  English poet Reverend Samuel Elsworth Cottam’s Friends of My Fancy and Other Poems.  English playwright Terence Rattigan’s play Ross. French criminal and writer Jean Genet’s play Le Balcon (The Balcony).  Anglo-Irish actor, director and producer  Micheál Mac Liammóir’s one man show The Importance of Being Oscar.   American film Spartacus starring Lawrence Olivier has homosexual scenes cut.  American film Oscar Wilde. British film The Trials of Oscar Wilde, based on John Furnell’s 1955 play The Stringed Lute.

1961 American director Todd Haynes, English footballer Justin Fashanu, American novelist David Leavitt, Canadian singer Kathryn Dawn Lang (k.d. lang), Scottish singer and songwriter James William (Jimmy) Somerville, English novelist Jake Arnott, American porn star Scott O’Hara, English actor Simon Russell Beale, English director Stephen Daldry, British performer and director Richard Barrington [Rikki] Beadle-Blair, American comedian Suzanne Westenhoefer, Canadian comedian Elvira Kurt, English activist Ben Jeffrey Peter Summerskill, Anglo-Australian pianist and composer Stephen Andrew Gill Hough, American activist Peter Staley, American rock singer Melissa Lou Etheridge, English performance artist Leigh Bowery, Scottish Conservative politician Liam Fox, American composer Jake Heggie,  Scottish Nationalist M.P. and journalist John MacKenzie Nicolson, German artist Peter Knoch, Danish artist Michael Elmgreen, American playwright Jon Robin Baitz, American playwright Lisa Kron, American prison rape activist Timothy J Parsell, American weather anchor Samuel (Sam) James Champion, Canadian skater Shaun McGill, Italian activist Sergio Rovasio, Spanish priest Monsignor Lucio Ángel Vallejo Balda and English singer George Alan O’Dowd (Boy George) b. English writer Richard Rumbold, American poet Hilda Doolittle (H.D.), Chinese opera star Mei Lanfang, Beijing opera star Zhu Qinxin, American journalist Dorothy Thompson, English actor Ernest Frederic Graham Thesiger,  English law academic Philip Landon, English Conservative politician Harry Frederick Comfort Crookshank, 1st Viscount Crookshank, German politician Rudolph Katz, English diplomat Charles Archibald Walker Rose, American director Moss Hart and American diplomat Benjamin Sumner Welles d. American art collector Arthur Jeffress commits suicide.   Illinois the first US state to decriminalise homosexuality. Canadian laws against homosexuals extended.  New Zealand reduces sentence for buggery to 7 years.  English film producer Kenneth Hume and Welsh singer Shirley Bassey marry.  Hollywood Production Code revised to allow portrayal of homosexuals ‘with care, discretion and restraint.’  Activist José Julio Sarria first openly gay man to run (unsuccessfully) for U.S. office for San Francisco Board of Supervisors.  American activist John Richard (Jack) Nichols and Franklin E. Kameny start Washington branch of Mattachine Society.   Kameny takes his dismissal from the US Army Map Service to the US Supreme Court, which denies his petition.  Russian dancer Rudolf Nureyev defects to the West and meets Danish dancer Erik Belton Evers Bruhn.  English model April Ashley outed as a transgender by The Sunday People.  British Albany Trust starts journal Man and Society.  English writer Lady Una Troubridge’s The Life and Death of Radclyffe Hall.  English writer Simon Raven’s The English Gentleman.   Welsh actor Emlyn Williams’s autobiography George.  English painter Sir Francis Rose, 4th Baronet’s Saying Life: The Memoirs of Sir Francis Rose. American anthropologist, activist and writer Tobias Schneebaum’s autobiographical Keep the River on Your Right.  American author George Reynolds Freedley’s autobiographical More Mr Cat.  English writer John Rae’s novel The Custard Boys.  English writer and book maker Ralph Nicholas Chubb’s book The Golden City with Idylls and Allegories.  English writer Colin MacInnes’s essays England, Half English.  American writer and poet James M. Smith (William Talsman)’s poems Notes from the Underworld.  American playwright Doric Wilson’s play Now She Dances!  Clark Gable and Montgomery Clift in American film The Misfits.  American film The Children’s Hour based on the 1934 play by Lillian Hellman. English director Tony Richardson’s film A Taste of Honey based on Shelagh Delaney’s play.  English actor Dirk Bogarde in films The Victim and The Singer Not the Song based on the 1953 novel by Audrey Erskine-Lindop.  The Rejected, the first documentary on homosexuality, is broadcast on KQED TV in San Francisco.  American artist Robert R. Bliss’s painting Standing Boy with Red Trunks.

1962 English writer Patrick Gale, American Charles Karel Boulay, American performer and radio broadcaster Frank DeCaro, American activist Aaron Fricke, English economist and TV presenter Evan Harold Davis, American actress Jodie Foster, American director Jennie Livingston, American actor B.D. Wong, English musician Reverend Richard Coles, American director Tom Kalin, American director Maria Maggenti, French director Olivier Ducastel, American director Jim Fall, American model, actor and director Dirk Shafer, American director C. Jay Cox, American Congresswoman Tammy Baldwin, American actress and comedienne Roseann (Rosie) O'Donnell, Hong Kong Chinese singer Anthony Wong Yiu-ming, American country singer Boyd Tyrone (Ty) Herndon, Rhodesian photographer Peter Wood, American film maker and writer William E. Jones, American actor singer Curt Branom, Moroccan French director Robin Campillo, American pornographer Bryan Charles Kocis, American director Joseph (Joe) Mantello, American actress Kristy McNichol, German writer Andreas Steinhöfel and Irish author Jamie O’Neill b.  English writer Vita Sackville West, Chinese playwright and scholar Qi Rushan, American publisher Nancy Woodbridge (Sylvia) Beach, English actor Charles Laughton, American author Mabel Dodge Luhan,  American writer and Nazi activist George Sylvester Viereck (Stuart Benton), English art gallery director Arthur Bellamy Clifton, Chilean-French collector Arturo (Arturito) López Willshaw,  Scottish painter Robert Colquhoun, American artist and architect Edward (Ed) Shepard Hewitt, English Labour politician Edward Hugh John Neale Dalton, Baron Dalton, English composer John Nicholson Ireland, Anglo-Irish physician and Buddhist monk Laurence Michael Dillon (Laura Maud Dillon)/Lobzang Jivaka and American First Lady Eleanor Roosevelt d.  American chemist, musician and co-founder of the Mattachine Society Robert (Bob) Booth Hull commits suicide.  Homosexual acts decriminalised in Czechoslovakia and and Hungary.   English Labour M.P. Leo Abse’s bill to decriminalise some aspects of homosexuality defeated in the House of Commons.   English Conservative politician Sir Ian Macdonald Horobin, Warden of Mansfield House University Settlement, forced to decline a life peerage and is then imprisoned for four years for paying boys for sex.   American singer Little Richard arrested in a Long Beach, California toilet for spying on men.  San Francisco bar owners form Tavern Guild to resist attacks by authorities.  U.S. psychiatrist Irving Bieber et al report of homosexual men in psychoanalysis in ‘Homosexuality: A Psychoanalytic Study of Male Homosexuals’, which concludes that "although this change may be more easily accomplished by some than by others, in our judgment a heterosexual shift is a possibility for all homosexuals who are strongly motivated to change." Albert Ellis publishes Reason and Emotion in Psychotherapy, which claims that "fixed homosexuals in our society are almost invariably neurotic or psychotic: ... therefore, no so-called normal group of homosexuals is to be found anywhere." English civil servant William John Christopher Vassall convicted of spying in the U.K. and Admiralty Minister Sir Thomas (Tam) Galbraith resigns after links with Vassall were proven. Irish actor Wilfrid Brambell charged with importuning in a public lavatory.  Hungarian chef Martin Hensler meets John Gielgud.  Japanese magazine Adonis closes.  English sociologist Richard Hauser’s The Homosexual Society.  Anonymous’s autobiographical Street-Walker.  Booklet by English ‘Anthony Rowley Another Kind of Loving: What Is It Like to Be a Homosexual?  American poet Édouard Roditi’s De l'Homosexualité. English writer and editor Sir Rupert Hart-Davis’s The Letters of Oscar Wilde and edition of Oscar Wilde’s autobiographical De Profundis.  English writer Sir Osbert Sitwell, 5th Baronet’s autobiography Tales My Father Taught Me.  English journalist Michael Davidson’s autobiography, The World, the Flesh and Myself.  English writer David Garnett’s autobiography The Familiar Faces.  English Prime Minister Anthony Eden’s The Eden Memoirs: Facing the Dictators.  English Labour politician Hugh Dalton’s High tide and after: memoirs, 1945–1960.  English author Anthony Burgess’s novel The Wanting Seed.  American novelist James Baldwin’s novel Another Country. English writer Christopher Isherwood’s novel Down There on a Visit.  English writer Iris Murdoch’s novel An Unofficial Rose. English writer David Benedictus’s novel The Fourth of June.  English writer Arthur Annesley Ronald Firbank’s stories The New Rhythm and Other Pieces.  English poet Dame Edith Sitwell’s poem ‘The Outcasts’.  American playwright and novelist William Motter Inge’s play The Boy in the Basement.  American actor Rock Hudson in film Lover Come Back.  English film The L-Shaped Room.  American film A View from the Bridge.  American film Advise and Consent based upon Allen Drury’s novel of that name of 1959.  American film That Touch of Mink starring Cary Grant.  American film Walk on the Wild Side starring Laurence Harvey, based on the 1956 novel A Walk on the Wild Side by Nelson Algren.  American artist Robert R. Bliss’s painting Standing Boy Pulling Ropes.

1963  American actor and director John Cameron Mitchell, American designer Tom Ford, Irish T.V. presenter Graham Norton, American writer Andrew Sullivan, Welsh director producer Stephen Russell (Russell T.) Davies, Iranian director Reza Abdoh, American student Bobby Griffith, American activist Christopher T. Gonzalez, American playwright David Drake, French director Jacques Martineau, American director Todd Chadwick Wilson, Venezuelan Jewish American director Moisés Kaufman, New Zealand writer and performer Stella Duffy, Canadian activist Michelle Douglas, South African playwright Damon Galgut, American writer and activist Norman Wong, American writer William Sterling Walker, American figure skater Brian Boitano, English RAF Sergeant Graeme Grady, American producer Thomas (Tom) Joseph Kirdaly, English aristocrat Lord Ivar Alexander Michael Mountbatten, Argentinian writer Osvaldo Bazán, Mexican writer Guillermo Osorno (Covarrubias), Portuguese academic and translator Frederico Maria Bio Lourenço and English singer Georgios Kyriacos Panagiòtou (George Michael) b.  French artist, writer and performer John Cocteau, French composer Francis Poulenc, English writer Lady Una Troubridge, American academic and literatus Professor Newton Arvin, German historian Ernst Hartwig Kantorowicz, Spanish poet Luis Cernuda, German American classicist Edith Hamilton, American actor Monty Woolley, American gossip columnist and socialite Elsa Maxwell, English art historian Roger Packman Hinks, New Zealand writer James Francis Courage, Australian politician Albert Augustine (Bert) Edwards, English Tangier bar owner Donald Kimfull (Joseph Dean), Austrian film maker Richard W. Ornstein (Richard Oswald), English explorer and MP Lieutenant-Colonel Charles Kenneth Howard-Bury, Leader of the British Labour Party Hugh Todd Naylor Gaitskell, English economist Sir Dennis Holme Robertson, English film director Robert James Hamer, Jamaican valet and soldier Patrick Nelson, Angelo Giuseppe Roncalli (Pope John XXIII) and English spy Guy Burgess d.  British Brigadier Harry Butler Hitchens, headmaster of Solihull School, commits suicide after allegations of sex with school boys and in public toliets in Rugby.   Homosexual acts decriminalised in Israel.  British Minister Charles Fletcher Fletcher-Cooke forced to resign when a ‘delinquent’ boy was found driving his car.  English music producer Robert George (Joe) Meek convicted and fined £15 for importuning for immoral purposes in a London public toilet, and was blackmailed.  British Sunday Pictorial article ‘How to Spot a Homo’.  British Minorities Research Group founded for lesbians by writer Esme Ross-Langley and Diana Chapman.  Homophile organizations in New York City, Philadelphia and Washington, D.C. form East Coast Homophile Organizations (E.C.H.O.).  New York Times 5,000 word article ‘Growth of Homosexuality in the City Provokes Wide Concern’. English model April Ashley marries the Honourable Arthur Corbett.  English painter Francis Bacon meets George Dyer.  Swedish dancer and acting teacher Yat Malmgren and English director and acting teacher Christopher Fettes found Drama Centre London. English spy and art historian Anthony Blunt collaborates with Richard Hughes-Hallett on The Drawings of Nicolas Poussin: catalogue raisonné, Part IV.  English Conservative politician Robert Boothby begins an affair with East End cat burglar Leslie Holt.  Japanese magazine Bara (Rose) founded. British Quaker Alastair Heron’s pamphlet Towards a Quaker View of Sex: An Essay by a Group of Friends.  American sociologist Howard Saul Becker's Outsiders. Canadian sociologist  Erving Goffman's Stigma.  English Douglas Plummer’s Queer People: The Truth about Homosexuals in Britain.  American Sociologist Edward Sagarin (Donald Webster Cory) and J.P. Leroy’s The Homosexual and His Society: A View From Within, English writer Rupert Croft-Cooke’s Bosie: The Story of Lord Alfred Douglas. English writer Roger Lhombreaud’s Arthur Symons: A Critical Biography.  Father Brocard Sewell’s Two Friends: John Gray and André Raffalovich: Essays Biographical and Critical.  American writer Alice B. Toklas’s What Is Remembered: An Autobiography.  French writer Julien Green’s autobiography Partir avant le jour (To Leave Before Dawn). English actor Sir John Gielgud’s memoir Stage Directions.  English broadcaster Naomi Jacob’s autobiography Me – and the Swan.  English writer Sir Angus Wilson’s autobiographical The Wild Garden: Or Speaking of Writing.  English diplomat Valentine Nicholas Lawford’s autobiography Bound for Diplomacy.  English writer Simon Raven’s miscellany Boys Will Be Boys. American writer Charles Wright’s novel The Messenger.  American hustler and writer John Rechy’s novel City of the Night.  Japanese writer Yukio Mishima’s novel Gogo no Eikō (The Afternoon Towing or The Sailor Who Fell from Grace with the Sea).  American writer Charles Wright’s novel The Messenger.  English playwright Terence Rattigan’s play Man and Boy.  English playwright Joe Orton’s plays The Ruffian on the Stairs and Entertaining Mr Sloane. English film The Leather Boys.  British film The Haunting.  English film Two Left Feet.  American film version of French writer Jean Genet’s The Balcony.  American director Jack Smith’s film Flaming Creatures ruled obscene in New York.  American artist Andy Warhol’s film Blow Job. English actor Dirk Bogarde in English film of Robin Maugham’s novel The Servant.  American director Kenneth Anger’s film Scorpio Rising. Egyptian director Hassan Al-Imam’s film Alley of the Pestle.  American artist Robert R. Bliss’s painting Yellow Shirt.

1964 American baseball player William Darro (Billy) Bean, British media entrepreneur politician Waheed Alli, Baron Alli of Norbury, Japanese manga artist Gengoroh Tagame, English musician Andy Bell, Canadian boxer Mark Leduc, Australian director Stephan Elliott, American director Lisa Cholodenko, American director Thomas Gordon Bezucha, Israeli director Eytan Fox, American journalist Daniel Keenan (Dan) Savage, English Liberal politician Mark Oaten,  English Anglican Canon Giles Anthony Fraser,  English politician and media director Guy Vaughan Black, Baron Black of Brentwood, Chinese papercut artist Xiyadie, American news anchor Shepard (Shep) Smith, American actress Wanda Sykes, Israeli film maker Eytan Fox, American artist, video artist and activist Gregg Bordowitz, American epidemiologist and activist Gregg Gonsalves, Spanish activist and writer Jesús Generelo Lanaspa, English writer John R. Gordon and American author David Drake b. American composer Cole Porter, American writer and photographer Carl Van Vechten, Prince Pierre of Monaco, Duc de Valentinois, Australian costume designer John Orry-Kelly, King Paul of Greece, Italian pianist Renata Borgatti, English broadcaster and journalist Nancy Brooker Spain, English editor Joan Ann Werner (Jonny) Laurie, Scottish Captain Neil Boyd Watson McEachern, English diplomat Sir Arthur Harry Tandy, Argentine/English historian and novelist Alfredo León (Alfred) Duggan, American choreographer Louis Horst, Canadian composer Colin McPhee, English author Terence Hanbury (Tim; T.H.) White, American poet Robert Nichols Montague Hunt  and English broadcaster and writer Naomi Ellington Collinson Jacob d.  American composer and librettist Marcus (Marc) Samuel Blitzstein murdered by three Portuguese sailors.  Zambia adopts British anti-sodomy laws in its independent legal system.  San Francisco Society for Individual Rights (S.I.R.) founded by James (Jim) M. Foster, Tavern Guild et al. Council on Religion and the Homosexual founded in San Francisco by Glide Methodist Church et al.  President Lyndon Johnson’s aide Walter Wilson Jenkins dismissed after being arrested in a toilet.   English Denzil Freeth M.P., Parliamentary Secretary at the Ministry of Science, forced to resign for visiting gay parties.  Sunday Mirror reports that English Conservative politician Robert Boothby M.P. is having an affair with East End burglar Leslie Holt; Labour M.P. Tom Driberg also involved so both politcal parties hush up the scandal, costing the Sunday Mirror £40,000.  William Morris Meredith Jr. Chancellor of the Academy of American Poets (to 1987).  Gay organization ASK founded in Canada with magazine ASK Newsletter in Vancouver.  Magazine Gay published by Gay Publishing Company of Toronto, the first periodical to use the term 'Gay' in its title.  Magazine Two published by Gayboy (later Kamp) Publishing Company of Toronto.  English Daily Mail writes about Lord Boothby and Ronald Kray; sued by Lord Boothby. British sexologist and psychiatrist Kenneth Walker succeeded on death as Chairman of Homosexual Law Reform Society (H.R.L.S.) by policeman, journalist and writer C.H. Rolph (Cecil R. Hewitt); Anthony Edgar Gartside Wright (Anthony Grey) becomes its permanent Secretary.  British North-West Homosexual Reform Committee (N.W.H.R.C.) founded by Allan Horsfall. H.R.L.S. publishes pamphlet Some Questions and Answers about Homosexuality.  American magazine Life’s 26 June issue article ‘Homosexuality in America’.  American writer Jess Stearn’s The Grapevine: A Report on the Secret World of the Lesbian.  French writer Marcel Jouhandeau’s Tiresias, illustrated by Russian artist Elie Grekoff, banned.  English biographer Phyllis Grosskurth’s John Addington Symonds: A Biography.  English writer Evelyn Waugh’s autobiography A Little Learning.  English Brigadier Michael Calvert’s autobiographical Fighting Mad.  American novelist Fritz Peters’s autobiographical Boyhood with Gurdjieff.   English writer Christopher Hassall’s letters between himself and Sir Edward Marsh, Ambrosia and Small Beer.  English caricaturist Max Beerbohm’s Letters to Reggie Turner.  French author Julien Green’s autobiography Mille chemins ouvert (A Thousand Roads Open, known as The War at Sixteen).  English music entrepreneur Brian Epstein’s autobiography A Cellar Full of Noise.  English writer Richard Rumbold’s diary A Message in Code.  English writer Christopher Isherwood’s novel A Single Man.  English writer Simon Raven’s novel The Feathers of Death.  Japanese poet Takahashi Mutsuo’s poems Bara no ki: Nise no koibito-tachi (Rose Tree: False Lovers).  English playwright Joe Orton’s play The Good and Faithful Servant.  American actor Sal Mineo directs Calder Willingham’s play End as a Man.  English writer David Benedictus’s novel The Fourth of June made into a musical comedy.  British playwright Frank Marcus’s play The Killing of Sister George.  American film Lilith.  American director John Waters’s film Hag in a Black Leather Jacket.  French film of Roger Peyrefitte’s Les amitiés particulières (Special Friendships / This Special Friendship). English film producer Kenneth Hume’s film Mods and Rockers.  Bryan Magee’s British ITV two programmes 'Homosexuals' on the This Week show.  American artist Robert R. Bliss’s painting Kneeling Male Athlete.

1965 American writer Augusten Burroughs, English poet Adam Johnson, American director Bryan Jay Singer, Scottish actor Alan Cumming, Polish American director Laurence (Lana) Wachowski, American actor and screenwriter Craig Chester, English Liberal Democrat politician David Anthony Laws, American director Ira Sachs, Greek Australian writer Christos Tsiolkas, Filipino American actor Alejandro (Alec) Mapa, English writer Philip Michael Hensher, American historian Robert M. Beachy, American fitness trainer Robert (Bob) Harper, American producer Ryan Patrick Murphy,  American TV creator Jill Soloway, South African archer Karen Hultzer, English singer Gavin McGregor Rossdale, English journalist Mark Simpson and Australian rugby player Ian Roberts b.  American diarist ‘Jeb Alexander’, American poet Thomas Stearns (T.S.) Eliot, English playwright and writer Winifred Ashton (Clemence Dane), American radical activist Malcolm Little (Malcolm X), Scottish George Gordon, 2nd Marquess of Aberdeen and Temair, American composer Henry Cowell, American playwright Lorraine Hansberry, American actress Clara Gordon Bow, English journalist and spy Jeremy Wolfenden, English actress Blyth (Blythe) Daly, English music critic and writer Edward Charles Sackville-West, 5th Baron Sackville, French poet Olivier Larronde, American mezzo soprano Nell Tangeman, American organist and conductor Paul Callaway, Swedish painter Gösta Adrian-Nilsson (GAN) and English writer William (W.) Somerset Maugham d.  American journalist Darrell Berrigan murdered in Bangkok.  English boxer Freddie Mills ‘commits suicide’.  Arthur Gore, 8th Earl of Arran’s homosexual reform bill passed in the British House of Lords.  British M.P. Leo Abse’s private member’s bill to decriminalize homosexuality defeated in the House of Commons.  Psychoanalysts Mayerson and Lief's Psychotherapy of homosexuals: A follow-up study of nineteen cases reports that half of its 19 subjects were exclusively heterosexual in behaviour four and a half years after treatment.  English film producer Kenneth Hume and Welsh singer Shirley Bassey divorce.   Mattachine Society pickets White House and its two factions go to law over possession of One, Inc.  Charles Dennison Rowland founds the Church of One Brotherhood.  American activist John Richard (Jack) Nichols founds Florida Mattachine Society.  Everett George Klippert the last person imprisoned in Canada for homosexuality, sentenced to an indefinite preventive detention as a dangerous sexual offender, leading to calls for legal reform in Canada. Conservatively dressed gays and lesbians demonstrate outside Independence Hall in Philadelphia on July 4, 1965, the first in a series of Annual Reminders that took place till 1969.  British Minorities Research Group founds lesbian journal Arena Three.  British lesbian social group Kenric founded by Esme Langley and Diana Chapman.  American Del Martin of Daughters of Billitis founds 24 hour hotline in San Francisco.  American Alvert Ellis publishes Homosexuality: Its Causes and Cure.  Japanese magazine Ura mado (Rear Window) closes. English social researcher Michael Schofield’s Sociological Aspects of Homosexuality.  American psychiatrist Judd Marmor’s Sexual Inversion.  English writer Jean Overton Fuller’s biography The Magical Dilemma of Victor Neuburg.  French writer Philippe Jullians biography Robert de Montesquiou: Prince of the Nineties.  English historian A.L. Rowse’s autobiography A Cornishman at Oxford.  English jazz musician George Melly’s autobiography Owning Up.  English writer J.R. Ackerley’s autobiographical My Dog Tulip.  English Prime Minister Anthony Eden’s The Eden Memoirs: the Reckoning.  The Letters of Michelangelo translated by E.H. Ramsden.  American writer Hubert Selby’s novel Last Exit to Brooklyn.  English writers Robin Versage and Leland Gardner’s novel Tops, Bottoms and Side Pockets.  American novelist Donald Windham’s novel Two People. Italian writer and director Pier Paolo Pasolini’s novel Il sogno di una cosa (The Dream of a Thing).  English poet W.H. Auden’s poem ‘The Platonic Blow’.  English playwright John Osborne’s play A Patriot for Me.  American actor Rock Hudson in American film A Very Special Favour.  American artist Andy Warhol’s film My Hustler.   English director John Schlesinger’s film Darling starring Sir Dirk Bogarde and Laurence Harvey.  (to 1968) B.B.C. radio show Round the Horne starring Kenneth Williams and Hugh Paddick. B.B.C. Wednesday Play Horror of Darkness.  Greek painter Yannis Tsarouchis’s painting Man with Butterfly Wings Sitting on His Heels, Study from Life.

1966 American director Wash Westmoreland, Indian activist Prince Manvendrasinh Gohil of Rajpipla, American director Todd Verow, American novelist Scott Heim, American Congressman Sean Patrick Maloney, American journalist Don Lemon, English Labour politician Stephen Twigg, English PR executive Mark William Bolland, English actor and writer Mark Gatiss, English Royal Air Force Nurse Senior Aircraft Woman Jeanette Smith, American producer David Stone, English playwright Mark Ravenhill, American actress Cynthia Ellen Nixon, English DJ Tony Marnach (Fat Tony), American AIDS activist Stephen Gendin and English porn star Aiden Finbar Brady (Shaw) b.  English poet Louis Umfreville Wilkinson (Louis Marlow), English writer Evelyn Waugh, American poet Francis Russell (Frank) O’Hara (hit by  a jeep on Fire Island), German photographer Ernst Heinrich Landrock, Anglo-American businesswoman Elizabeth Arden, German writer and polymath Hans Jürgen von der Wense, American actor Clifton Webb, American writer and poet Hubert Creekmore, American actor Eugene O’Brien, American film designer Natacha Rambova, English antique expert Simon (Harry) Carnes (Simon Fleet), English museum curator Carl Winter, English photographer Leonard John French, American socialite James Paul (Jimmy) Donahue, Jr., French religious Jean Bourgoint, American writer and journalist Lucius Morris Beebe, Scottish painter Robert MacBryde,  English dancer Ernest Reginald Wollfield (Rupert Doone), Captain Sir Harold Malcolm Bullock M.P., 1st Baronet, French spy for the Soviets Eduoard Pfeiffer, English writer and naturalist Jocelyn Brooke and American actor Montgomery Clift d. British Conservative M.P. Humphrey Berkeley introduces Sexual Offenders Bill in Commons; it fails due to a general election being called.  Lord Arran reintroduces bill to the Lords, where it passes and Labour M.P. Leo Abse re-introduces it to the Commons. English eye surgeon and activist Patrick Trevor-Roper joins the male salon at Long Crichel, Dorset, with Eardley Knollys, Desmond Shawe-Taylor and Edward Sackville-West.  San Francisco Society for Individual Rights (S.I.R.) opens first L.G.B.T. centre in U.S.  National Planning Conference of Homophile Organizations formed in Kansas City to become North American Conference of Homophile Organizations (N.A.C.H.O.) later that year; it organises U.S.’s first gay motorcade.  American activist Robert Anthony Martin Jr (Stephen Donaldson)founds Student Homophile League at Colombia, the first student LGBT organisation. Compton's Cafeteria Riot in the Tenderloin district of San Francisco, one of the first recorded transgender riots.  U.S. stops post office surveillance of gay men’s mail.  U.S. Film Production Code removed.  English diplomat Sir George Lisle Clutton loses post of ambassador to Warsaw when discovered giving information to a Soviet-run male lover. Australian Methodist church resolves to investigate homosexuality.  H.I.V. virus arrives in Haiti from the Congo.  Julian Pettifer meets John Curry.  Sunday New York Times publishes Stanley Kauffmann’s article Homosexual Drama and Its Disguises.’  English writer Robin Maugham’s exposé of Gerald Hamilton in The People.  American homophile activist Jim Kepner publishes two issue magazine Pursuit and Symposium. English broadcaster Bryan Magee’s One in Twenty: A Study of Homosexuality in Men and Women.  English writer John Adlard’s Stenbock, Yeats and the Nineties. American bibliographer William Parker’s Homosexuality: Selected Abstracts and Bibliography.  English writer Beverley Nichols’s A Case of Human Bondage.  English writer Robin, 2nd Viscount Maugham’s Somerset and All the Maughams.  English writer John Lehmann’s autobiography The Ample Proposition.  English travel writer F.D.Ommanney’s The River Bank : An Autobiography of the 1920s.  English teacher T.C. Worsley’s autobiography Flannelled Fool. American composer Virgil Thomson’s Virgil Thomson.  American writer in French Julien Green’s autobiography Terre lointaine (Distant Land).  American drag artist and hooker Kenneth Marlowe’s The Gay World of Kenneth Marlowe and The Delicate World of Kenneth Marlowe.  American composer and diarist Ned Rorem’s The Paris Diaries.  Keith Vaughan. Journals & Drawings edited by Alan Ross.   American writer Paul Goodman’s diary Five Years: Thoughts During a Useless Time.  American writer Truman Capote’s In Cold Blood and novel A Christmas Memory.   English writer Simon Raven’s novels The Sabre Squadron and The Rich Pay Late.  American novelist Richard Amory’s novel Song of the Loon.  Australian novelist Patrick White’s novel The Solid Mandala.  American writer Samuel Steward (Phil Andros)’s stories $tud.  Japanese writer Yukio Mishima’s Manatsu no Shi (Death in Midsummer and Other Stories) translated.  English writer Christopher Isherwood’s stories Exhumations.  English army officer Kenneth Searight’s autobiographical poem ‘Paidikion: a Paiderastic Manuscript’ in International Journal of Greek Love.  Japanese poet Takahashi Mutsuo’s poems You Dirty Ones, Do Dirtier Things.  English playwright Joe Orton’s play Loot.  English playwright Charles Dyer’s play Staircase.  English playwright Noel Coward’s play Song at Twilight.  American playwright William Motter Inge’s play Where’s Daddy?  American film The Group.  Japanese writer Yukio Mishima’s film Yūkoku (Patriotism).  Greek painter Yannis Tsarouchis’s painting Winged Spirit Buttoning his Underpants.

PART TEN – GAY LIBERATION

Britain decriminalised homosexuality in 1967 and two years later the Stonewall riots in New York provided the generally recognised event which started gay liberation in America.  LGBT activism built on the foundations begun by activists in the previous periods and caused an explosion of LGBT organisations across the west. In the liberal democracies, state repression gradually receded and lives improved.  The arts saw a growing number of literary, musical and cinematographic works with same-sex themes and for the first time homosexuals began to come out and to write openly of their own lives.  Western societies nevertheless remained mostly conservative and homosexual rights were few, even in the most liberal countries.  Most of the remainder of the world saw little change in this period.  The Cultural Revolution in China was a source of even more repression of non-conformity of any type, and in the Soviet Union the last stages of Communism retained a firm control over all aspects of society that was largely homophobic.  As colonialism reached its final stage, few personal freedoms emerged in its place and the combination of conservative cultures and religious influence ensured the retention of colonial laws prohibiting homosexuality.

1967 English actor John Barrowman, English playwright and writer Tim Fountain, American director Kimberley Peirce, Hong Kong Chinese director Danny Cheng Wan-Cheung (Scud), American T.V, presenter Anderson Cooper, American actress writer Maria Elena Bello, English sprinter Colin Roy Jackson, American director Lilly Wachowski, American producer Alison Beth Adler, American AIDS activist Derek Link, French writer Frédéric Martel and American novelist Dale Peck b.  English poet Siegfried Sassoon, American writer James Mercer Langston Hughes, American writer Alice B. Toklas, American writer Carson McCullers, American Cardinal Francis Spellman, English music manager Brian Epstein, Chinese sociologist and eugenicist Pan Guangdan, Chinese Emperor Pu Yi, American actor singer Nelson Ackerman Eddy, American composer Billy Strayhorn, English psychoanalyst James Beaumont Strachey, Norwegian female impersonator and male courtesan, one of the Rocky Twins (Leif Roschberg), American author and critic George Reynolds Freedley, American journalist Varian Mackey Fry and English writer Joe Randolph (J.R.) Ackerley d. English film producer Kenneth Hume commits suicide.  English record producer Robert George (Joe) Meek kill his landlady then kills himself.  English writer Kenneth Halliwell murders playwright Joe Orton.  4 July British Sexual Offenders Bill passes and receives Royal assent 27 July, decriminalizing same-sex acts in private for England and Wales.  Chad decriminalizes homosexuality.  American psychiatrist Evelyn Hooker appointed to lead National Institute of Mental Health (N.I.M.H.) Task Force on Homosexuality.  American activist Craig L. Rodwell founds the Oscar Wilde Bookshop, the world's first gay bookstore, in New York City and founds the Homophile Movement in Nieghbourhoods, with its journal HYMNAL.  American actor playwright Harvey Fierstein comes out.  Police raid on the Black Cat Tavern in Los Angeles creates Personal Rights in Defense and Education (P.R.I.D.E.), the first use of ‘Pride’. The Student Homophile League at Columbia University, the first institutionally recognized gay student group in the United States.  New South Wales Presbyterian church accepts need for decriminalisation of same-sex between consenting adults.  Nuestro Mundo (Our World) the first Latino-American homosexual group, founded in Argentina.  Alan Bates and Paul Taylor begin to live together.  The Advocate published as The Los Angeles Advocate.  American magazine ONE Magazine closes. German magazine Der Kreis (The Circle) folds. American Wainwright Churchill’s Homosexual Behavior Among Males.  English academic D.J. West’s Homosexuality: Its Nature and Causes.  American John H. Gagnon and William Simon’s Sexual Deviance.  English writer Rupert Croft-Cooke’s Feasting with Panthers.  English biographer Michael Holroyd’s biography of Lytton Strachey, The Unknown Years.  Sylvia Townsend Warner’s T.H. White: A Biography.  English writer Godfrey Winn’s autobiography The Infirm Glory.  American composer Ned Rorem’s The New York Diaries.  Anglo-American politician Sir Henry (Chips) Channon’s diaries published.  Letters of John Addington Symonds edited by Herbert M. Schueller and Robert L. Peters.  English writer Graham Greene’s novel May We Borrow Your Husband?  English writer Christopher Isherwood’s novel A Meeting by the River.  English writer Simon Raven’s novels Fielding Gray and Friends in Low Places.  English writer Robin, 2nd Viscount Maugham’s novel The Wrong People.  American writer John Rechy’s novel Numbers.  English writer Francis King’s novel The Waves behind the Boat.   Michael Mussen Campbell, 4th Baron Glenavy’s novel Lord Dismiss Us.  American writer Samuel Delaney’s story ‘Aye, and Gomorrah…’  English writer Norman Douglas’s Some Limericks.  Canadian poet John Glassco’s poem Squire Hardman illustrated by Anglo-American artist Philip Core (Féllippé Fecit).  English playwright Christopher Hampton’s play When Did You Last See My Mother?  Canadian playwright John Herbert’s play Fortune and Men’s Eyes.  Japanese photographer Tamotsu Yato’s photographs Young Samurai: Bodybuilders of Japan.  American actors Marlon Brando and Montgomery Clift in film Reflections in a Golden Eye. American film of D.H. Lawrence’s 1923 novella The Fox.  French film of Alaine-Fournier’s 1913 novel Le Grand Meaulnes (The Lost Domain).  American CBS screens documentary The Homosexuals.  English singer David Bowie’s song ‘Lond0n Boys’.  American artist Paul Cadmus’s painting N.M. 53.

1968 American memoirist Marc Adams, American actor Jaye Davidson, American footballer Esera Tuaolo, Ugandan Asian Canadian writer Irshad Manji, American singer Jonathan Rashleigh Knight, Spanish artist Ignacio Goitia, French artist Benoit Prévot, American director Thom Fitzgerald, English photographer Anthony Gayton, American event producer Susanne Bartsch, American basketball coach Jennifer Lynn Azzi, Canadian politician Cecil Phillip Clarke, American activist Patrick Spencer Cox, German theologian and writer David Berger and American stripper and media personality Craig Seymour b.  English writer diplomat Sir Harold Nicolson, French author Mercedes de Acosta, American actor Nick Adams, American actress Tallulah Brockman Bankhead, French writer Maurice Rostand, American Republican official Arthur Hendrick Vandenberg, Jr., Baltic German fashion photographer Baron George Hoyningen-Huene,  American composer Leo Sowerby, American artist Thomas Dabney Mabrey, American poet Harold Witter Bynner (Emanuel Morgan), American child star Robert Cletus (Bobby) Driscoll and English director Anthony Asquith d.  American author Charles Reginald Jackson commits suicide. Mexican actor Ramón Navarro murdered by hustlers.   Homosexual acts decriminalised in Bulgaria and East Germany.  Swaziland incorporates 1907 provisions against homosexuality into its legal code.  Welsh politician Thomas George Thomas becomes Secretary of State for Wales (to 1970).  U.S. North American Conference of Homophile Organisations adopts slogan ‘gay is good’. American Psychiatric Association’s second The Diagnostic and Statistical Manual lists homosexuality as a non-psychotic mental disorder. U.S. National Institute of Mental Health appoints psychiatrist Evelyn Hooker and panel to evaluate scientific evidence on homosexuality. Reverend Troy Perry founds Metropolitan Community Church in California.  H.I.V. virus arrives in the U.S.A. from Haiti.  Spanish writer Agustín Gómez-Arcos  exiled to France from Spain after his worls are banned. English stage manager and screen writer Trevor Bentham meets actor Nigel Hawthorne. American female impersonator Hal Wadell (or Waddell) or Ramón Ícarez (Ray (Rae) Bourbon) convicted of arranging the murder of a man who had killed his dogs and imprisoned for 99 years.  Anglo-Canadian singer John William (Long John) Baldry saves Elton John from an attempt to commit suicide.  American activist journalist Elijah Hadyn (Lige) Clarke and partner activist Jack Nichols start column ‘The Homosexual World’ in Screw magazine. American psychiatrist Dr. Martin Hoffman’s The Gay World: Male Homosexuality and the Social Creation of Evil.  American Charles Socarides’s The Overt Homosexual.  English headmaster Royston Lambert’s The Hothouse Society: An Exploration of Boarding School Life.  English writer Michael Holroyd’s biography of Lytton Strachey, The Years of Achievement.  French writer Philippe Jullian’s biography Oscar Wilde.  English writer J.R. Ackerley’s autobiography My Father and Myself.  English queer celebrity Quentin Crisp’s autobiography, The Naked Civil Servant.  English civil servant writer Austen Coates’s memoir Myself a Mandarin. Japanese writer Yukio Mishima’s autobiographical essay Taiyo to testu (Sun and Steel: Art, Action and Ritual Death) and novel Kinchiki (Forbidden Colours) translated. American writer Gore Vidal’s novel Myra Breckinridge.  American writer recorder Samuel Steward’s novel Ring-around-the-Rosy.  American illustrator and author Carl Vernon Corley’s novel The Purple Ring.  English writer Robin, 2nd Viscount Maugham’s novel The Second Window.  English writer Angus John Mackintosh Stewart’s novel Sandel.   Novelist Adrian James’s novel I, Homosexual.  French writer Philippe Jullian’s novel La Fuite en Egypte (The Flight Into Egypt). Oscar Wilde. American writer Samuel Delaney’s story ‘Time Considered as a Helix of Semi-Precious Stones’.  Canadian poet John Glassco’s poem The Temple of Pederasty illustrated by Anglo-American artist Philip Core (Féllippé Fecit).  American playwright Mart Crowley’s play The Boys in the Band.  English playwright Christopher Hampton’s play Total Eclipse.  English pop manager Laurence Maurice ‘Larry’ Parnes stages Fortune and Men’s Eyes.  Japanese photographer Tamotsu Yato’s Hadaka Matsuri (Naked Festival: A Photo Festival).  American film The Sergeant.  American film Therese and Isabelle.  Andy Warhol’s film Lonesome Cowboys. American film The Detective.  Pier Paolo Pasolini’s film Teorema banned in Italy; it is denounced by the Pope and Pasolini is arrested and charged, but acquitted.  American film of Frank Marcus’s 1964 play The Killing of Sister George.  American film The Producers.  French film Candy.

1969 American skater Val Joe (Rudy) Galindo, Irish dramatist, historian and writer Emma Donoghue, daughter of U.S. Vicepresident Mary Claire Cheney, American comedian Maurice Alberto (Mo) Rocca, English designer Alexander McQueen, English artist David Haines, Norwegian artist Ingar Dragset, American writer Elizabeth M. Gilbert, English politician Justine Greening, American actress Anne Celeste Heche and English actor twins Jim and Robin (Bob) Hooper b.  American actress and singer Judy Garland, American author Jack Kerouac, English writer Ivy Compton Burnett, German writer actress Erika Julia Hedwig Mann, English poet Valentine Ackland, American soldier, activist and physician José M. Zuniga, English Sidney Herbert, 16th Earl of Pembroke, 13th Earl of Montgomery, English botanist and diplomat Mark Ogilvie-Grant, American pianist Julius Katchen, German writer Hans Siemsen (Pfarrer Silesius), German writer Ruth Margarete Roellig, English actor Eric Portman and English writer Sir Francis Osbert Sacheverell Sitwell, 5th Baronet d.  American composer William (Bill) Flanagan commits suicide.  America’s first H.I.V. casualty Robert Rayford d of AIDs.  Homosexual acts decriminalised in Canada and in West Germany for men aged over 21.  Connecticut second US state to decriminalise homosexuality. Poland decriminalizes homosexual prostitution.  South Africa extends prohibition of homosexual acts to indecent acts in the presence of others.  American National Institute of Mental Health (N.I.M.H.) publishes final report of psychiatrist Evelyn Hooker’s Task Force on Homosexuality and urges States to abolish laws against homosexual acts in private. U.K. Albany Trust sponsors First International Symposium on Gender Identity.  Vigilantes in Kew Gardens, New York, cut down trees to prevent gay men meeting there.  U.S. Stonewall riots in June following multiple police raids on, and closures of, gay bars.  New York Gay Liberation Front and Gay Activists Alliance founded at Columbia University by American writer Arthur Scott Evans, Marty Robinson and others.  Gay Liberation Front formed in Los Angeles by psychologist Don Kilhefner and activist Morris Kight.  Washington, D.C., newspaper Washington Blade founded.  American activist Craig Rodwell proposes the nation’s first gay pride march at the Eastern Regional Conference of Homophile Organisations.  Dignity USA founded as the first group for gay and lesbian Catholics, developing from ideas of Augustinian Father Patrick Xavier Nidorf. Daughters of Bilitis forms in Melbourne, Australia's first homosexual rights organisation.  British North West Human Rights Committee becomes Committee for Homosexual Equality (C.H.E.).  Scottish Minorities Group (S.M.G.) founded.  Northern Irish Elmwood Association founded.  Front Homosexuel d’Action Révolutionnaire (F.H.A.R.) founded in Paris.   Taiwanese sexologists Tseng Wen-Shing and Hsu Jing’s article ‘Chinese Culture, Personality Formation and Mental Illness’ in The International Journal of Social Psychiatry.  English Michael Turnbill, Bishop of Durham, arrested for gross indecency in a public lavatory.  English artist Derek Jarman’s first one-man show at the Lisson Gallery. Slovak skater Ondrej Nepela European champion [to 1973].  British gay magazines Timm and Jeremy (published in Carnaby Street area) and Spartacus (published in Brighton by John D. Stanford).  American writer Paul Goodman’s The Politics of Being Queer.  English international cad Gerald Hamilton’s autobiography The Way It Was with Me.  German Jewish writer and activist Kurt Hiller (Keith Lurr and Klirr (Thule))’s memoir Leben gegen die Zeit (Love against the Time) vol. 1