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LGBTQI WORLD HISTORY:

A CHRONOLOGY FROM THE 27th CENTURY B.C.E.  TO THE 21st CENTURY C.E.

by Nigel A. Collett

INTRODUCTION

This is a chronology of persons, events and culture of interest to LGBTQI people.  It is not a history in itself, nor is it a fully comprehensive list of everyone and everything of LGBTQI interest in the history of the world.  It is meant to be a list of items of some importance in some way to LGBTQI history.  Readers seeking the meaning or implication of each entry will need to do their own research to discover it.

Not everyone listed here is LGBTQI. Many are those whose work or associations make them of interest to LGBTQI themes. No attempt has been made to identify who or who is not LGBTQI.  Readers seeking that information, if it exists, will need to research it for themselves.

The chronology includes much from the non-English speaking world, but most of the entries are Anglo-centric.  This is not to say that there is more LGBTI history in the English-speaking world.  It merely reflects the linguistic limitations of the compiler.

This chronology has been compiled with the aim of helping LGBTQI people realise that their sexual orientation and gender identity is neither new nor unusual.  The chronology makes clear that LGBTQI people have been part of humankind since the beginning of recorded history and that many of them have made huge contributions to human civilisations.

Above all, it is meant as a tool to provide students of LGBTQI history with a launching pad from which to explore and understand the vast depth and complexity of the past of what Christopher Isherwood happily labelled ‘our tribe’.  

 

Nigel Collett

Hong Kong

22 February 2021

TABLE OF CONTENTS

Introduction                                                                        

Organisation of the Entries                                                 

Abbreviations                                                                        

Part One – The Ancient World (27th to 10th Centuries B.C.E.)

Part Two – The Classical World of the Mediterranean         

(9th Century B.C.E. to 3rd Century C.E.)                                

Part Three – Christianity, Islam and the Dark Ages in Europe (4th to 11th Centuries C.E.)                                        

Part Four – The European Middle Ages and the

Continued Spread of Islam (12th to 14th Centuries C.E.)      

Part Five - European Renaissance, Reformation and Counter Reformation; the Start of European Colonialism; Islam at Its Greatest Extent (15th to 17th Centuries C.E.)

Part Six - The European Enlightenment and                

Revolution (18th Century to 1 C.E.)

Part Seven - Aesthetic and Artistic Change, Medical Interpretations, Legal Repression and the Beginnings of Self-Realisation and Activism (1836 to 1918 C.E.)

Part Eight - Between The Wars – False Dawn of the Bright Young Things (1919 to 1945 C.E.)

Part Nine – The Cold War and Repression (1946 to 1966 C.E.)

Part Ten – Gay Liberation (1967 to 1979 C.E.)

Part Eleven – The Age of AIDS and Reaction        (1980 to 1992 C.E.)

Part Twelve – Integration in the West (1993 to 2020 C.E.)

ORGANISATION OF THE ENTRIES

Each entry covers one year.  Years are shown in bold and are grouped in centuries.  Entries are organised as follows:

·      Birth.

·      Death.

·      Living.

·      Legal - legislation is shown in bold.

·      Religion.

·      Theory.

·      Politics.

·      Event.

·      Media.

·      Organisation.

·      Activism.

·      Personal.

·      Non-fiction.

·      History.

·      Biography.

·      Autobiography.

·      Diary.

·      Journal.

·      Letters.

·      Novel

·      Novella.

·      Story.

·      Essay.

·      Poetry.

·      Drama.

·      Dance.

·      Film.

·      Radio.

·      TV.

·      Music.

·      Art.

ABBREVIATIONS

b – born

B.C.E. – Before the Common Era (B.C.)

bf – boyfriend

C -  circa (about)

C.E. – Common Era (A.D.)

d – dies/died

? – date uncertain or approximate

PART ONE – THE ANCIENT WORLD

Same-sex activity seems to have been common in the ancient world, prohibited by law between certain classes of people, perhaps, but not something seen as immoral or irreligious.  Same-sex cultural practices continued similarly in many regions until the coming of Christianity after the 3rd Century C.E., Islam after the 7th Century C.E. and European colonisation in the 16-20th Centuries.   The earliest Chinese Emperor, the Yellow Emperor, was noted for his boy concubines, setting a precedent of tolerance in Chinese civilisation that lasted, with exceptions, for nearly 4,000 years.  

35th CENTURY B.C.E.

 

3,400-3,100 (?)

Religion - Foundation of the temple of Inanna / Ishtar in Eanna, Erech / Uruk, where priests known as gala took female names, spoke in the eme-sal dialect, which was traditionally reserved for women, and appear to have engaged in homosexual intercourse. In one Akkadian hymn, Ishtar is described as transforming men into women.

27TH CENTURY B.C.E.

2,697 (?) 

Birth - The Yellow Emperor of China; he enjoys many boy concubines.

 

26TH CENTURY B.C.E.

2,597 (?) 

Death -The Yellow Emperor of China d,

2,500 (?) 

Living - Gilgamesh, 5th King of Uruk.

25TH CENTURY B.C.E.

2,453-2,422 (?) 

Death - Egyptian royal servants Khnumhotep and Niankhkhnum of the Fifth Dynasty are buried together.

24TH  CENTURY B.C.E.

2,300 (?) 

Personal - Pharaoh Pepi II Neferkare of Egypt makes nocturnal visits to his General Sasanet.

(?) 

Legal - The lost law code of Sumerian King of Lagash, Uru-ka-gina, Uru-inim-gina, or Iri-ka-gina, the first known law code, makes no mention of same-sex activity.

22ND CENTURY B.C.E.

2,150 (?) (to 2,000?) 

Poetry - Poem The Epic of Gilgamesh composed in Mesopotamia, the first recorded story with same-sex love, that of the semi-divine king Gilgamesh for his companion Enkidu.

2,112-2,095

Legal - The first extant recorded law code, that of Ur-Nammu, King of Ur, makes no mention of same-sex activity.

18TH CENTURY B.C.E.

 

1,754 (?) 

Legal - The Code of Hammurabi, King of Babylon, one of the first codes of law, influential for centuries in the Middle East, does not adversely mention same-sex activity, though it mentions both female and male prostitution.

11TH CENTURY B.C.E.

1,075

Legal - The Middle Assyrian Law Codes state: ‘If a man has intercourse with his brother-in-arms, they shall turn him into a eunuch.’ 

1,040 (?) (or 1,012?)

Birth - King David of Israel.

10TH CENTURY B.C.E.

970 (?) (or 872?) 

Death - King David of Israel, his companion Prince Jonathan, son of Saul, King of Israel, having d earlier.

(Post) 931

Religion - Male temple prostitutes mentioned in Judah in the time of King Rehoboam (?931-913).

(Post) 911

Religion - King Asa of Judah expels male prostitutes.

PART TWO – THE CLASSICAL WORLD OF THE MEDITERRANEAN

The classical world saw the spread of Greek, then Roman, culture around the Mediterranean and in much of the Near and Middle East.  Greek customs of, and laws pertaining to, same-sex love were added to by later Roman systems, differing but still largely tolerant of same-sex acts as long as they were confined within set class and status boundaries.  Poetry, literature and religious myth contained many stories of same-sex encounters, usually between older men and youths, or between gods and boys.  Monotheistic Judaism and Persian Zoroastrianism developed religious prohibitions that came to conflict with the cultures of the classical world.

Cultural practices regarding same-sex acts in the rest of the world largely remained undisturbed.

9th CENTURY B.C.E.

(Post) 870 (?)

Religion - King Jehoshaphat of Judah expels male prostitutes.

820 (?)

Living - Lycurgus King and lawgiver of Sparta.

800 (?) (to 730 or 700?)

Poetry - Homer’s Greek poems The Iliad (including stories of Achilles and Patroclus, and Zeus’s rape of Ganymede) and The Odyssey.

8TH CENTURY B.C.E.

8th Century B.C.E. to 5th Century C.E. (?) 

Religion - Phrygian great mother goddess Cybele’s cult requires its Galli (priests) to be castrated to become a third gender or Galliae (feminised).

C 764 or 763

Poetry - Cinaethon of Sparta’s Odyssey includes story of paederastic relationship of Laius and Chrysippus.

728

Personal - Diocles is victor at the Olympic Games then elopes with his lover Philolaus.

714

Birth - Greek poet Archilochus, on Paros.

(Late) 8thCentury B.C.E.

Death - Cleomachus of Pharsalus falls in battle having been kissed and armed by his lover; he dies in battle and is commemorated by an obelisk at Chalcis.

700 (?) 

Art - Boeotian brooches show Heracles and his helper Iolaus.

7TH CENTURY B.C.E.

7th Century B.C.E.

Religion - Inscription on Thera records bonds sealed between men at a religious festival.

(?) (or post 538) 

Religion - Biblical Book of Leviticus written, including passages, probably referring to priestly piety or part of a Holiness Code distinguishing Israelites from others : "You shall not lie with a male as with a woman; it is an abomination”, and "If a man lies with a male as with a woman, both of them have committed an abomination; they shall surely be put to death; their blood is upon them.”

676

Death - Greek poet Archilocus killed.

668-631

Living - Ashurbanipal, King of Assyria, five hundred years later characterised (under the name Sardanapalus) by Greek writer Diodorus as a cross dressing, effeminate man with male and female concubines, but this is a highly unreliable and disputed account.  

(Mid) 7th Century B.C.E.

Poetry - ‘Homeric poems’ refer to Zeus’s adduction of ‘the blond Ganymede’.

640/638 (?) 

Birth - Athenian statesman and poet Solon.  

Legal - Solon’s laws prohibit slaves from loving or pursuing freeborn boys and prohibit from civic participation those who have given themselves in prostitution.

(Post) 640 (?)

Religion - King Josiah of Judah expels kadeshim (male temple prostitutes).

630 (C ?) 

Birth - Greek poet Stesichorus of Himera.

Event - (?) Dorian aristocrats in Crete adopt formal relations between adult aristocrats and adolescent boys; an inscription from Crete is the oldest record of the social institution of paiderasteia among the Greeks. 

(Post) 630 (?)

Living - Greek poet Mimnermus of Colophon or Smyrna.

620 (?) (or ? 612)

Birth - Poetess Sappho of Lesbos and poet Alcaeus Lyricus of Mytilene/Lesbos (whose boyfriend is Lycus).

(Pre) 609 (?)

Religion - Biblical Book of Deuteronomy states: “None of the daughters of Israel shall be a kedeshah, nor shall any of the sons of Israel be a kadesh, prohibiting Israelites from serving as temple prostitutes.

(Late) 7th Century B.C.E.

Religion - A terracotta plaque found at Perachora in Greece, representing Aphroditus emerging from severed male genitals, representing the cult of the male form of Aphrodite, which had originated in Cyprus. Aphroditus was later termed Hermaphroditus.

600 (?) 

Poetry - Sappho of Lesbos writes love poetry addressing younger women.

6TH CENTURY B.C.E.

6th Century to 150 B.C.E. (?)

Religion - Kingdom of Ma'in in Yemen maintains lists of male temple prostitutes.

582 / 572 / 570 (?) 

Birth - Greek lyric poet Anacreon of Teos.

570

Birth - Greek lyric poet Theognis of Megara, lover of Cyrnus, and Greek tyrant Polycrates of Samos, lover of Smerdis.

570 – 554 (?)

Living - Possibly mythical lovers Chariton and Melanippus of Agrigentum.

560 (?) 

Death - Poetess Sappho of Lesbos.

558

Death - Athenian statesman and poet Solon.

555

Death - Greek poet Stesichorus of Himera.

550 (?) (to 520?) 

Religion - Persian Zoroastrian Zend Avesta prescribes damnation for those guilty of homosexuality.

Art - Greek potter ‘the Affecter’ illustrates pots with same-sex love.  

540s (?)

Personal - Polycrates becomes Tyrant of Samos; he erects a statue of his lover Bathyllus in the temple of Juno.

540 (to 530)

Living - (?) Greek lyric poet Theognis of Megara writing.

Art - Wall paintings in the Etruscan Tomb of the Bulls, the tomb of Aranth Spurianus or Arath Spuriana, show same-sex love.  

540 (?) to 522 (?)

Living - Greek poet Ibycus of Rhegium, lover of Euryalus and Gorgias.

(Post) 538

Religion - Biblical Book of Genesis written with story of Sodom and Gomorrah, the sins of which cities were originally viewed as lack of charity, not same-sex love or lust.

534 

Birth - Chinese Ling, Duke of Wei (later lover of Mizi Xia / Zia, who gave him a ‘bitten peach’).

530

Birth - Athenian statesman Aristides ‘The Just’, lover of Stesileus.

(Post) 525

Drama - Aeschylus’s tetralogy Lycurgeia based on stories of the Dionysus myth, including the God’s mixed gender nature.

C 524 (?)

Birth - Athenian politician and general Themistocles, lover of Stesileus.

522

Death - Polycrates, Tyrant of Samos d.

522/518 (?)

Birth - Greek poet Pindar of Thebes, devotee of Paidon Eros (pederasty).

518 (?) 

Birth - Greek poet Bacchylides of Keos.

515

Death - Greek tyrant Polycrates.

514

Politics - Lovers Harmodius and Aristogeiton attack tyrant Hippias in Athens by assassinating his brother, Hipparchus, and are commemorated by statues in the marketplace.

C 510

Art - Cup by Peithinos depicts youth couples.

 

500 (?) (or ?480)  

Birth - Greek sculptor and painter Phidias b.

5TH CENTURY B.C.E.

5th Century B.C.E. (?) 

Religion - Biblical stories of David and Jonathan composed in I Samuel and of Ruth and Naomi in the Book of Ruth.

497/496 (?) 

Birth - Greek tragedian Sophocles, lover of Demophon and Smikrines.

(Post) 494 (?)

Theory - Philosopher Empedocles of Akragas discusses mixed beings.

493

Death - Chinese Ling, Duke of Wei, lover of Mizi Xia, who gave him a ‘bitten peach’.

490

Death - Greek lyric poet Theognis of Megara.

485

Death - Greek lyric poet Anacreon of Teos.

484 (?) 

Birth - Greek historian Herodotus of Halicarnassus.

480 (?) 

Birth - Athenian tragedian Euripides, lover of the poet Agathon b; his play Cyclops a satyr comedy including same-sex.  

Art -  (?) Cup by Douris depicts beautiful Hippodamas being courted.  Cup by Makron depicts male prostitution.  Wall painting in Paestum tomb of the Diver depicts man embracing a youth.

478

Politics - Hieron / Hiero I, lover of Daedochus, becomes Tyrant of Syracuse.

477

Art - Kritios and Nesiotes bronze figures of Harmodius and Aristogeiton.

C 475

Living - Greek philosopher Parmenides of Elea, lover of Zeno of Citium; he states that feminine men are created during conception.

471

Birth - Athenian historian and general Thucydides.

C 470

Death - Spartan general Pausanias, lover of Argilius.

470/469 (?)

Birth - Athenian philosopher Socrates.

468

Death - Athenian statesman Aristides ‘The Just’.

467

Death - Hieron / Hiero I, Tyrant of Syracuse.

465

Death - Greek ephebe Leagros.

460 (?)

Birth - Athenian tyrant Critias, lover of Euthydemos, and (or 450) Athenian playwright Aristophanes.

(Post) 460 (?)

Theory - Greek Hippocratic medical corpus ascribes effeminacy and cross dressing of many Scythian men to continual horseback riding and mentions amazon-type Scythian women whose right breast was deliberately stunted to allow them to fight and hunt; it discusses the origin of androgyny.

459

Death - Athenian politician and general Themistocles.

451 (?)

Death - Greek poet Bacchylides of Keos.

450 (? or 448) 

Birth - Athenian tragic poet Agathon and Athenian statesman and general Alcibiades, lover of many men including Antylus.

449

Event - Roman Appius Claudius accused of giving a freeborn girl to the man he slept with.

445 (?) 

Birth - Athenian orator Lysias of Syracuse, author of a logos eroticus (love dialogue).

444/443

Birth - Agesilaus II, King of Sparta; his most famous lovers are general Lysander and Megabathes.

443/438 (?)

Death - Greek poet Pindar of Thebes d in the arms of his lover, Tenedos.

436  

Birth - Greek orator and philosopher Isocrates, author of an eroticus (love dialogue), a panegyric to Epicrates. 

Event Greek sculptor and painter Phidias’s lover Pantarkes is victor in youth wrestling at the 86th Olympiad.

433

Personal - Athenian tragic poet Agathon and Pausanias become lovers.

430 (?) 

Birth - Athenian historian, philosopher and soldier Xenophon. Death - Greek sculptor and painter Phidias.

427 (?) 

Birth - Athenian philosopher Plato, lover of Dion and Phaedrus. Drama - Athenian Aristophanes’s first comedy performed.

425

Death - Greek historian Herodotus of Halicarnassus.

424

Event - Boeotian 300 heniochoi (reins-holders) and parabatai (chariot fighters) fight at the Battle of Delium.

418 (?) 

Birth - Theban general Epaminondas, lover of Asopichus.

413

Politics - King Archelaus of Macedon ascends to the throne.

416

Event - Athenian tragic poet Agathon’s banquet, attended by his lover Pausanias, celebrated in Plato’s Symposium, which introduces the term ‘pederasty’ and mentions that Ionian laws forbid same-sex love.  Plato also author of the dialogue Lysis discussing Hippothales’s love for Lysis, and Charmides, centred on a youth of that name.

411

Drama - Athenian playwright Aristophanes’s play Thesmophoriazousae (Women Celebrating the Festival of the Thesmophoria, also known as The Poet and the Women).

406

Death - Athenian tragedian Euripides.

406/405

Death - Greek tragedian Sophocles.

404

Death - Athenian statesman and general Alcibiades.

403

Death - Athenian tyrant Critias.

401-394 (?)

Living - Persian general Ariaeus, lover of boys.

401

Event - Menon, lover of Aristippus, later of Tharypas, commands mercenary troops against the Persians and is murdered after the Battle of Cunaxa by Tissaphernes.

400

Death - Athenian historian and general Thucydides.

400-399 (?)

Event - Episthenes of Olynthus offers to die to save a beautiful boy in Thrace.

(Post) 400 (?)

History - Historian Ephorus of Cyme writes of same-sex rites in Crete.

4TH CENTURY B.C.E.

399

Death - Athenian tragic poet Agathon.  Athenian philosopher Socrates tried for corrupting youth and forced to commit suicide, leaving behind Phaedo of Elis, who, redeemed from prostitution, he had befriended and who carries on Socrates’s work after his death.  King Archelaus of Macedon murdered by two former male lovers.

 

396 (or 395)

Birth - Philosopher Xenocrates of Chalcedon, lover of Polemon.

395

Death - Spartan admiral Lysander.

393

Politics - Amyntas III becomes King of Macedon.

390 (?)

Birth - Greek astronomer Eudoxus of Knidos, lover of Theomedon the physician, and Macedonian general Attalus.

389 (?) 

Birth - Athenian statesman Aeschines.

386

Death - Athenian playwright Aristophanes.

385 (?)

Theory - Athenian philosopher Plato’s Symposium.

384

Birth - Athenian statesman Demosthenes and Athenian philosopher Aristotle of Stagira, lover of Hermias, ruler of Atarneus and Assos in Mysia; Palaiphatus; and Theodectes of Phaselus.  History - Aristotle records male bonds sealed at a festival before the tomb of the hero Iolas, companion of Heracles.

382

Birth - Antigonus I Monophthalmus, general of, and one of the successor kings to, Alexander the Great, and lover of zither player Aristocles.

380 (?) 

Birth - Greek historian Theopompus of Chios.  

Death - Athenian orator Lysias of Syracuse.

378

Event - Theban general Gorgidas raises the Sacred Band of Thebes.

375 (?)

Birth - Greek philosopher Aristoxenus of Tarentum.  

Theory - (C) Plato’s Politeia (Republic).

371 (?)

Birth - Alexander I (Alexander Molossus) King of Epirus.  

Event - Theban general and statesman Epaminondas and the Sacred Band of Thebes defeat the Spartans at Leuctra.

370

Death - Amyntas III King of Macedon.  

Theory - (?) Athenian philosopher Plato’s dialogue the Phaedrus, which for the first time includes the words para physin (against nature).  

Novel - Xenophon’s novel Cyropaedia (The Education of Cyrus), the first Greek novel, tells of the love between Cyrus, Emperor of Persia and Artabazus.

369 (to 340)

Personal - King Xuan of Wu loves An Ling.

362

Death - Theban general and statesman Epaminondas killed defeating the Spartans at Mantinea, his lover Caphisodorus dying longside him.

360 (?)

Death - Agesilaus II, King of Sparta.

356

Birth - Alexander the Great, King of Macedon and his Macedonian companion Hephaestion b; Alexander’s other lovers were Craterus, Hector, Excipinus and Bagoas.  

Living - (?) Greek poet Phanocles.

354

Death - Athenian historian, philosopher and soldier Xenophon.  Living - (post) Greek comic dramatist Damoxenus.

350 (?)

Birth - Athenian statesman Demetrius Phalereus / of Phalerum / Phaleron, lover of Theognis.  

Theory - Athenian philosopher Plato’s Laws.

347

Death - Athenian philosopher Plato d.

345

Event - Trial of Athenian statesman Aeschines; Timarchea (Against Timarchus), his speech against Timarchus, friend of Demosthenes and lover of Hegesandrus, lists Athenian laws on the conduct of pederasty, the prohibition of procuration of freeborn boys and the ending of civic rights for men engaging in passive sex or prostituting themselves.

341 (or 340)

Death - Hermias, ruler of Atarneus and Assos in Mysia.

338

Death - Greek orator and philosopher Isocrates d.  

Event - The Sacred Band of Thebes destroyed by King Philip II of Macedon at Chaeronea; he erects a monument in their honour.  

338-332 (?)

Theory - Aristotle’s Politeia (Constitutions) discusses Athenian law on same-sex. His Politika (Politics) discusses same-sex attraction and its consequences.

337

Birth - Demetrius Poliorcetes, King Demetrius I of Macedon.

Death - (?) Greek astronomerEudoxus of Knidos d.

336

Death - King Philip II of Macedon murdered by his ex-lover, Pausanias. Macedonian general Attalus executed.

Politics - Alexander the Great becomes King of Macedon.  

(Post) 335

Death - Greek philosopher Aristoxenus of Tarentum.

334 (?)

Birth - Greek philosopher Zeno of Citium, who declares both heterosexual and homosexual acts morally neutral.  

Living - (?) Greek poet Likymnios of Chios, lover of Hypnus and Endymion.

Event - King Alexander the Great visits the tomb of Achilles.  

331

Death - Alexander I (Alexander Molossus) King of Epirus.   

Event - Macedonian Hephaestion is Leader of the Bodyguards of King Alexander the Great at Gaugamela.

326 

Legal - In a legal case, the Roman Senate prefers to limit the application of slavery rather than limit the sexual use of slaves.

Event - King Alexander the Great completes conquest of most of the then known Western world.  

324

Death - King Alexander the Great’s companion Hephaestion d of a fever at Ecbatana.

323

Death - Alexander the Great, King of Macedon.

322

Death - Athenian statesman Demosthenes, Athenian philosopher Aristotle and (?) Athenian statesman and general Aeschines.

Theory - (pre) Aristotle’s Inquiries on Animals, Nichomachean Ethics and Rhetoric discuss same-sex, love and friendship in animals and humans.

320 (?)

Birth - Greek poet Asclepiades of Samos (Sicelidas; or Gamo?).

319

Birth - Antigonus II Gonatas, King of Macedon.

317 (or 291/290)

Event - Roman Tribune Marcus Laetorius Mergus posthumously condemned for stuprum, a shameful sexual advance on a freeborn subordinate soldier.

315

Birth - (? 0r 310) Greek poet Aratus of Soli.  

Death - Greek historian Theopompus of Chios. 

314 (or 313)

Death - Philosopher Xenocrates of Chalcedon.

310/305/301 (?)

Birth - Greek poet Callimachus of Cyrene.

308

Birth - Greek bucolic poet Theocritus of Syracuse; his Idylls mention Megara’s Diocleia, games held in honour of Athenian Diocles, who died saving his lover in battle, and which included a male-male kissing contest.

304

Event - Prince Demetrius Poliorcetes of Macedon liberates Athens from Cassander then rapes several youths including Democles ‘the fair’.

301

Death - Antigonus I Monophthalmus.

3RD CENTURY B.C.E.

294

Politics - Demetrius Poliorcetes becomes King Demetrius I of Macedon.

289

Personal - Roman Centurion Cornelius imprisoned for sex with a noble boy.

283

Death - King Demetrius I Poliorcetes of Macedon.

281

Politics - Antiochus I Soter ascends to the throne of Seleucid Syria.

280 (?) 

Birth - Chinese philosopher Han Fei Zi.        

Death - Athenian statesman Demetrius Phalereus / of Phalerum / Phaleron.

278

Death - Chinese poet politician Qu Yua commits suicide in the Miluo River, perhaps because he has lost the love of the King of Chu.

276

Politics - Antigonus II Gonatas ascends to the throne of Macedon. Personal - (? to 243) Chinese Lord of Longyang is male lover of the Duke of Wei.

275 (?)

Birth - Hamilcar Barca /Barcas, Carthaginian general.

(Post) 275

Living - Greek poet and grammarian Rhianus of Crete.

270 (?) 

Poetry - Greek Theocritus of Syracuse writing poems.

265/255/(?)

Birth - King Cleomenes III of Sparta, lover of Xenares and Panteus.

(Post) 263 

Death - Greek poet Asclepiades of Samos (Sicelidas; or Gamo?).

262 (?) 

Death - Greek philosopher Zeno of Citium.

261

Death - King Antiochus I Soter of Seleucid Syria killed.

256 (or 247) 

Birth - Chinese Emperor Gao (Gaozu) of Han.

 

254

Birth - Roman comedy playwright Titus Maccius Plautus.

250 (?) 

Death - Greek poet Theocritus of Syracuse.

Personal - (or ?260) Chinese Anxi King of Wei loves the minister Lord Long / Lung Yang.

247

Birth - Hannibal, Carthaginian general.

(Post) 246

Living - Greek poet Dioscorides of Alexandria.

245

Birth - Hasdrubal Barca, Carthaginian general.

240 

Death - Greek poet Aratus of Soli and (?) Greek poet and scholar Callimachus of Cyrene.

239

Death - King Antigonus II Gonatas of Macedon.

233

Death - Chinese philosopher Han Fei Zi.

228

Death - Hamilcar Barca /Barcas, Carthaginian general.

226 (?) (or 149, 227?)

Legal - Roman Lex Scantinia penalizes both penetrator and passive victim willingly committing a stuprum (a shameful crime involving a free victim); named after Tribune Caius Scantinius Capitolinus, who was accused of soliciting another aristocrat’s son.  Other Tribunes refuse to assert his inviolability, leaving him to face prosecution.

 

222/220/219

Death - King Cleomenes III of Sparta, with his lover Panteus, commits suicide.

221

Politics - Ptolemy IV Philopator becomes Pharaoh of Egypt.

210

Birth - Chinese Emperor Hui of Han.

207

Death - Hasdrubal Barca, Carthaginian general.

206

Politics - Chinese Emperor Gao (Gaozu) of Han founds Han dynasty; his ‘pillow companion’ is Jiru.

205

Death - Pharaoh Ptolemy IV Philopator of Egypt.

202

Birth - Chinese Emperor Wen of Han b.

2ND CENTURY B.C.E.

200 (to 200 C.E.) 

Legal - Manusmiti (Laws of Manu) compiled in India prescribes taking a bath while wearing clothes after sexual intercourse with a man.  

195 (or 185) 

Birth - Roman playwright Publius Terentius Afer (Terence).

Death - Chinese Emperor Gao (Gaozu) of Han.  

Politics - (or 194) Chinese Emperor Hui of Han ascends to throne; his favourite is Hong Yu / Hongru.

188

Birth - Chinese Emperor Jing of Han. 

Death - Chinese Emperor Hui of Han d.

186

Event - Bacchanalian scandal in Rome, involving sexual penetration of freeborn youth and the sacrifice of those who resisted, leads to repression of the cult of Dionysus / Bacchus and a purge of adherents across Italy lasting two years.

184

Death - Roman comedy playwright Titus Maccius Plautus. 

Event - Consul Lucius Quinctius Flamininus expelled from the Roman Senate by Censor Marcus Porcius Cato for murdering a Gaulish noble at a banquet held to entertain his lover, the prostitute Philippus.

183/181

Death - Hannibal, Carthaginian general.

180 (?)

Birth - Roman satirist Gaius Lucilius.

Politics - (or 179) Chinese Emperor Wen of Han ascends to throne and loves Deng Tong, a boatman, and Zhao Tan and Beiging Bizi, eunuchs.

159

Death - Roman playwright Publius Terentius Afer (Terence). 

157

Death - Chinese Emperor Wen of Han.  

Politics - Emperor Jing of Han takes the throne; his favourite is Zho Ren.

156

Birth - Chinese Emperor Wu-di of Han (Liu Che).

149 (?)

Birth - Roman poet Quintus Lutatius Catulus.

145 (?) 

Politics - Pharaoh Ptolemy VII Neos Philopator of Egypt ascends the throne and is then killed by, or rules with, his brother Ptolemy VI.

141

Death - Chinese Emperor Jing of Han.  

Politics - Chinese Emperor Wu-di of Han (Liu Che) becomes seventh Emperor of the Han Dynasty of China.  His lovers are Han Yan (illegitimate grandson of a marquis, forced to commit suicide), Han Yue, Li Yannan/Yannian (a castrated singer), Wei Zifu and Wei Qing.

138 (?) 

Birth - Roman general and dictator Lucius Cornelius Sulla Felix.

126

Personal - Roman Fabius Maximus Servilianus kills his son for taking the passive role in homosexual acts.

124

Personal - Roman Caius Sempronius Gracchus’s speech on return from Quaestorship in Sardinia includes lines boasting of his sexual forbearance towards young men.

120

Birth - Roman Governor of Sicily Gaius Verres.

118

Birth - Roman politician and general Lucius Licinius Lucullus.

116

Birth - Roman scholar and writer Marcus Terentius Varro.

Death - (?) Pharaoh Ptolemy VII Neos Philopator of Egypt.

111 (?) 

Event - Roman Valerius Valentinus loses court case because his poem reveals a love affair with a freeborn boy.

108

Birth - Roman politician Lucius Sergius Catilina (Catiline).

104

Event - Roman general Gaius Marius rules justifiable homicide in case of a freeborn soldier who had killed his Tribune, who had made sexual advances towards him.

103/4

Death - Roman satirist Gaius Lucilius.

102

Politics - Roman poet Quintus Lutatius Catulus is Consul.

100

Birth - Roman statesman and general Gaius Julius Caesar, lover of Nicomedes of Bithynia and Rufio.  

Living - (?) Greek poet Bion of Smyrna.  

Event - (C) High Priest and historian Jacob of Cyrene said to have built a gymnasium below the Jerusalem temple and to have placed attractive young men in a brothel.

Poetry - (or 60?) Greek Meleager of Gadara (lover of Mysikus)’s poems Στέφανος (Garland). 

(Post) 100 to 100 C.E.

Religion – Jewish Pseudo-Phocylides rails against male Cyprians (prostitutes) and warns parents to guard their sons against ‘the male bonding of Eros’.

1ST CENTURY B.C.E.

99 (?) 

Birth - Roman poet Titus Lucretius Carus (Lucretius).

94

Birth - Chinese Emperor Zhao of Han.  

Politics - (?) Nicomedes IV Philopator becomes King of Bithynia.

93 (?) 

Birth - Roman politician Publius Clodius Pulcher.

91

Birth - Emperor Xuan of Han.

90 (?) – 80 (?)  

Poetry - Roman poet Quintus Lutatius Catulus’s Epigrams.

87

Death - Chinese Emperor Wu-di of Han (Liu Che) and Roman poet Quintus Lutatius Catulus.  

Politics - Chinese Emperor Zhao of Han takes the throne; his lover is Jin Shang.

87/84 (?) 

Birth - Roman poet Gaius Valerius Catullus (Catullus).

83

Birth - Roman general and statesman Marcus Antonius (Mark Anthony).

80

Event - (to 78?) Roman general and statesman Gaius Julius Caesar’s possible affair with Nicomedes IV, King of Bithynia.

79

Event - Roman general and dictator Lucius Cornelius Sulla Felix retires, mentioning his lover Metrobius in a farewell speech to the Senate.  

78

Death - Roman general and dictator Lucius Cornelius Sulla Felix.

 

75

Birth - Chinese Emperor Yuan of Han.

74

Death - Chinese Emperor Zhao of Han and King Nicomedes IV Philopator of Bithynia.  

Politics - Chinese Emperor Xuan of Han succeeds to throne; his lover is Zhang Pengxu.

(Pre) 72

Birth - Parthenius of Nicaea, author of Erotica Pathemata (Of the Sorrows of Love).

70

Birth - Roman poet Publicus Vergilius Maro (Virgil), Greek poet Crinagoras of Mytilene and (or 69/68) Roman politician Gaius Cilnius Maecenas.

65

Birth - Roman poet Quintus Horatius Flaccus (Horace).

64 (?) 

Birth - Roman author and librarian Gaius Julius Hyginus.

63

Birth - Roman Emperor Caesar Divi Filius Augustus (Augustus); as Gaius Octavius  (Octavian).

62

Death - Roman politician Lucius Sergius Catilina (Catiline) killed after his conspiracy to overthrow the Republic.

60

Event - Roman politician Marcus Tullius Cicero prosecutes Gaius Verres, Governor of Sicily, for offences including violence against freeborn youths.

57 (or 56)

Death - Roman politician and general Lucius Licinius Lucullus.

57 – 54 

Poetry - Roman poet Catullus’s poems Carmina.

55 (?) 

Birth - Roman poet Albius Tibullus.

Death - Roman poet Titus Lucretius Carus (Lucretius).

54 (?) 

Death - Roman poet Gaius Valerius Catullus (Catullus).

52

Death - Roman Tribune Publius Clodius Pulcher murdered.

51

Birth - Chinese Emperor Cheng of Han.

50 (? to 45?)

Birth - Roman elegiac poet Sextus Propertius.  

Event - Roman politician Marcus Tullius Cicero accuses Catiline of crimes including passive homosexuality and Publius Claudius Pulcher of being debauched by men as a youth.

49

Death - Chinese Emperor Xuan of Han. Roman statesman and orator Gaius/Quintus Scribonius Curio killed.  

Politics - Chinese Emperor Yuan of Han succeeds to throne; his lovers are Hong Kong and Shi Xian.

48 (or 47)

Death - Roman politician and general Aulus Gabinius.

44

Death - Roman general and statesman Gaius Julius Caesar assassinated.  

Event - Roman politician Marcus Tullius Cicero attacks Marcus Antonius (Mark Anthony) for selling himself to men in his youth and living as wife to Gaius Scribonius Curio.

43

Birth - Roman poet Publius Ovidius Naso (Ovid).  

Death - Roman Governor of Sicily Gaius Verres.

42

Birth - Roman Emperor Tiberius Julius Caesar Augustus (Tiberius).

Poetry - (to 39) Roman poet Virgil’s poems the Eclogues. 

33

Death - Chinese Emperor Yuan of Han.  

Politics - Emperor Cheng of Han succeeds to throne; his lovers are Zhang Fang and Chungyu Zhang.

30

Death - Roman general and statesman Marcus Antonius (Mark Anthony) commits suicide.

29 (to 19?) 

Poetry - Roman poet Virgil’s epic poem the Aeneid.

27

Birth - Chinese Emperor Ai-ti of Han.  

Death - Roman writer Marcus Terentius Varro.  

Politics - Octavian becomes Augustus, 1st Emperor of Rome.

26 (to 25? and 18?)

Poetry - Roman poet Tibullus’s Elegies.

20 (?) 

Poetry - Roman poet Ovid’s poems Amores (Loves).

19

Death - Roman poets Publicus Vergilius Maro (Virgil) and Albius Tibullus.

15 (?) 

Death - Roman poet Sextus Propertius.

10 (?)

Event - Alexander, son of Herod, King of Judea, accused of sex with his father’s eunuchs.

8

Death - Roman politician Gaius Cilnius Maecenas and poet Quintus Horatius Flaccus (Horace).  

7

Death - Chinese Emperor Cheng of Han.

6

Politics - Chinese Emperor Ai-ti of Han (Liu Xin) ascends to the throne.   His lover Dong Xian falls asleep on Liu’s robes, so the Emperor cuts off his sleeve instead of waking him.

4 (?) 

Birth - Roman statesman and writer Lucius Annaeus Seneca (Seneca the Younger).

3

Birth - Roman Emperor Servius Sulpicius Galba Caesar Augustus (Galba).  

1ST CENTURY C.E.

1

Death - Chinese Emperor Ai-ti of Han  (Liu Xian).  

Poetry - Roman Ovid’s poems Ars Amatoria (The Art of Love).

8

Event - Roman poet Ovid banished to Tomis on the Black Sea.

9

Birth - Roman Emperor Titus Flavius Vespasianus.

12

Birth - Roman Emperor Gaius Caesar Augustus Germanicus (Caligula).

14

Death - Roman Emperor Caesar Divi Filius Augustus (Augustus) and Greek writer Parthenius of Nicaea.  

Politics - Tiberius becomes second Roman Emperor.

15

Birth - Roman Emperor Aulus Vitellius Germanicus Augustus (Vitellius).

17 

Death - Roman author and librarian Gaius Julius Hyginus and (or 18?) Roman poet Publius Ovidius Naso (Ovid).

18

Death - Greek poet Crinagoras of Mytilene.

26

Event - Roman Emperor Tiberius resides in Capri (till his death).

27

Birth - Roman courtier and writer Gaius Petronius Arbiter (Petronius), author of the novel Satyricon.  

Event - Roman Emperor Tiberius completes Villa Jovis on Capri.

29

Event - Roman Emperor Tiberius accuses his adopted grandson, Nero Julius Caesar Germanicus, of love affairs with young men and exiles him.

30

Birth - Roman Emperor Marcus Cocceius Nerva Caesar Augustus (Nerva).  

Religion - (to 40?)  Jewish philosopher Philo of Alexandria defends Levitical penalties for homosexuality in De Specialibus Legibus (The Special Laws) and calls for the death penalty for effeminate men and lovers of boys. 

Theory - (?) Roman writer Valerius Maximus’s handbook Factorum ac dictorum memorabilium libri IX (Nine Books of Memorable Deeds and Sayings).

31

Event - Roman Emperor Tiberius accuses his adopted grandson Drusus Caesar Germanicus of passive same-sex acts and has him exiled; he and his brother Nero are then killed.

32  

Birth - Roman Emperor Marcus Salvius Otho Caesar Augustus (Otho) and Chinese historian Ban Gu Mengjian.

35 (?) 

Birth - Roman Praetorian Prefect Gaius Nymphidius Sabinus.

37 

Birth - Roman Emperor Nero Claudius Caesar Augustus Germanicus (Nero).  

Death - Roman Emperor Tiberius Julius Caesar Augustus (Tiberius).

Politics - Caligula becomes third Roman Emperor; he has sex with pantomime artist Marcus Lepidus Mnester and Valerius Catullus, who boasts of ‘violating’ him.

39

Birth - Roman Emperor Titus Caesar Vespasianus (Titus), who keeps a group of b0y favourites and castrated males when young.

39/40/41 (?) 

Birth - Roman poet Marcus Valerius Martialis (Martial).

41

Death - Roman Emperor Gaius Caesar Augustus Germanicus (Caligula) murdered.

45 (?)

Birth - Roman poet Publius Papinius Statius.

46 (?) 

Birth - Greek historian and philosopher Lucius Mestrius Plutarchus (Plutarch) of Chaeronea.

(By) 50

Religion – Jewish writer Philo asserts the sin of Sodom was homosexual sex.

51

Birth - Roman Emperor Titus Flavius Domitianus (Domitian).

53

Birth - Roman Emperor Marcus Ulpius Nerva Traianus Augustus (Trajan).

53-57 

Religion - Christian Saint Paul writes First Epistle to the Corinthians containing the passage: “Be not deceived: neither fornicators, nor idolaters, nor adulterers, nor effeminate, nor abusers of themselves with mankind (arsenokoitai, a term the meaning of which is disputed, perhaps merely ‘soft’ in morals), nor thieves, nor covetous, nor drunkards, nor revilers, nor extortioners, shall inherit the kingdom of God.” 

54  

Politics - Nero becomes fifth Roman Emperor.

55 (?) 

Birth - Roman poet Decimus Iunius Iuvenalis (Juvenal).

55-58 (?) 

Religion - Christian Saint Paul writes Epistle to the Romans including the passage: “For this cause God gave them up unto vile affections: for even their women did change the natural use into that which is against nature: And likewise also the men, leaving the natural use of the woman, burned in their lust one toward another; men with men working that which is unseemly, and receiving in themselves that recompence of their error which was meet.

64

Event - Roman Emperor Nero marries freedman Pythagoras (Dolyphorus), the Emperor taking the role of wife.

65

Death - Roman statesman and philosopher Lucius Annaeus Seneca (Seneca the Younger) commits suicide.

66

Death - Roman courtier and writer Gaius Petronius Arbiter (Petronius) commits suicide.

67

Event - Roman Emperor Nero castrates then marries freedman puer delicatus (boy toy) Sporus.  Tigellinus, with whom Nero had earlier had sex then made commander of the Praetorian Guard, pays the dowry.

68

Death -Roman Emperor Nero Claudius Caesar Augustus Germanicus (Nero) commits suicide, finished off by Doryphorus.  Politics - Emperor Galba becomes sixth Roman Emperor for seven months, kissing his male concubine Icelus in public at his accession.

Event - Praetorian prefect Gaius Nymphidius Sabinus takes Sporus and marries him as Nero is burning on his funeral pyre, calling him ‘Poppaea’.  Sabinus is then killed by his troops.

69

Death - Roman Emperor Servius Sulpicius Galba Caesar Augustus (Galba) killed by Otho’s troops. 

Politics - Emperor Marcus Salvius Otho Caesar Augustus (Otho) becomes seventh Roman Emperor for three months.  He takes on Nero’s catamites and lives intimately with Sporus, then commits suicide.  Emperor Aulus Vitellius Germanicus Augustus (Vitellius) begins his reign as eighth Roman Emperor by honouring his old paramour, freedman Asiaticus, then is killed eight months later. Vespasian becomes ninth Roman Emperor.

Event - Sporus is captured by the Emperor Vitellius and commits suicide before he can be forced to act as Proserpine in an enactment of The Rape of Proserpine in the arena.

76

Birth - Roman Emperor Publius Aelius Traianus Hadrianus Augustus (Hadrian).  

Living - (?) Greek poet Straton of Sardis.

79

Death - Roman Emperor Titus Flavius Vespasianus.  

Politics - Titus Caesar Vespasianus (Titus), becomes tenth Roman Emperor and no longer consorts with b0y favourites and castrated males.  

Event - Eruption of Mount Vesuvius buries two men in an embrace at Pompeii.

81

Death - Emperor Titus Caesar Vespasianus (Titus).

Politics - Domitian becomes eleventh Roman Emperor and creates his lover Earinos, a castrated slave, his cup bearer.

82 (to 90?) 

Legal - ? Roman Lex Scantinia revived by Emperor Domitian. 

85

Personal - Roman Emperor Hadrian becomes ward of Emperor Trajan.

92

Death - Chinese historian Ban Gu Menjian.

96

Death - (?) Roman poet Publius Papinius Statius.  Roman Emperor Titus Flavius Domitianus (Domitian) murdered.

Politics - Nerva becomes twelfth Roman Emperor, reportedly having ravished Domitian.  

98

Death - Roman Emperor Marcus Cocceius Nerva Caesar Augustus (Nerva).  

Politics - Marcus Ulpius Caesar Nerva Traianus (Trajan), adopted by Nerva and a lover of boys, becomes thirteenth Roman Emperor.

(By) 100

Religion - Jewish writer Josephus’s assertion that the sin of Sodom was homosexual sex is by now an idea generally accepted in Judaism.  The Christian treatise the Didache (The Teaching of the Twelve Apostles) states that “you shall not commit pederasty.”

2ND CENTURY

(Early) 2nd Century

Novel - Greek writer Achilles Tatius’s novel Ta Kata Leukippēn kai Kleitophōnta (The Adventures of Leucippe and Clitophon).

2nd Century

Novel - Greek writer Longus of Lesbos’s pastoral novel Daphnis kai Chloē (Daphnis and Chloe).

101 (?) 

Birth - Greek philosopher and Roman Senator Lucius Vibullius Hipparchus Claudius Herodes Atticus (Herod Atticus) and Lucius Ceionius Commodus (Lucius Aelius Verus), handsome ward and designated successor of the Emperor Hadrian.

104 (?) 

Death - Roman poet Marcus Valerius Martialis (Martial).

110 (to 112 ?) 

Birth - Antinous, Bithynian Greek lover of the Emperor Hadrian.  Theory - (?) Greek historian Plutarch’s ρωτικός – Eroticus or Amatorius (Dialogue on Love).

117

Death - Roman Emperor Marcus Ulpius Nerva Traianus Augustus (Trajan) d.  

Politics - Hadrian becomes fourteenth Roman Emperor.  

120 (?) (125 ?) 

Birth - Greek rhetorician and satirist Lucian of Samosata.

Death - Greek historian Lucius Mestrius Plutarchus (Plutarch).  

Poetry - (?) Greek Strato of Sardis’s poems Musa paidika (The Muse of Boy Love).

125 (?) 

Birth - Roman Numidian writer Lucius Apuleius.

Poetry - Greek Strato of Sardis writes paederastic epigrams.  

130

Death - Antinous, Greek lover of the Emperor Hadrian, drowns in the River Nile. Roman Emperor Hadrian deifies him and creates a cult, commissioning sculptures of him throughout the Roman Empire.

(By) 134

Religion - Christian Saint Aristides the Athenian (Marcianus Aristides)’s Apology of Aristides attacks Greek gods of whom " some polluted themselves by lying with males."

138

Death - Lucius Ceionius Commodus (Lucius Aelius Verus) and Roman Emperor Publius Aelius Traianus Hadrianus Augustus (Hadrian).

140 (?) 

Death - Roman poet Decimus Iunius Iuvenalis (Juvenal).

150 (?) 

Novel - Greek Xenophon of Ephesus’s novel The Ephesian Tale of Anthia and Habrocomes. (or 300?) Greek Achilles Tatius of Alexandria’s novel Leucippe and Clitophon.

(Pre) 155 (?)  

Religion - Unknown Christian (‘Saint Paul’)’s 1st Epistle to Timothy includes passage stating that arsenokoitai are wrongdoers (a term the meaning of which is disputed, either ‘soft’ in morals or ‘abusers of themselves with mankind’).

161

Birth - Roman Emperor Marcus Aurelius Commodus Antoninus Augustus (Commodus).

165  

Religion - Christian apologist Saint Justin the Martyr of Flavia Neapolis, Palestine, writes: We have learned that is an evil thing to show newborns, since we see that almost everyone, not only the girls but boys too, are forced into prostitution.

170/172 (?) 

Birth - Greek sophist Lucius Flavius Philostratus ‘the Athenian’ of Lemnos.

173/4 (?) 

Death - Greek Polydeukes, disciple of Herod Atticus, who is proclaimed a Hero.

177

Death - Greek philosopher and Roman Senator Lucius Vibullius Hipparchus Claudius Herodes Atticus (Herod Atticus).  

Religion - Christian church father and apologist Athenagoras characterizes pederasts as foes of Christianity and advocates their excommunication.

180 (?) 

Death - Roman Numidian writer Lucius Apuleius and (post) Greek rhetorician and satirist Lucian of Samosata.  

Politics - Commodus becomes nineteenth Roman Emperor and attempts to abuse the son of Salvinus Julianus, who has command of the Army.  He openly kisses his lover, Anteros, in public in his chariot.

(By) 185

Religion - Theophilus, Christian Patriarch of Antioch’s Apology to Autolycus states:  “To the unbelieving, who despise and disobey the truth but obey unrighteousness, when they are full of adulteries and fornication and homosexual acts and greed and lawless idolatry, there will come wrath and anger, tribulation and anguish, and finally eternal fire.”

187

Birth - Cao Pi, Emperor Wen of Western Wei.

191

Death - Murder of Athenaeus of Naucratis, author of Deipnosophistae (The Sophists’ Banquet).

192

Death - Roman Emperor Marcus Aurelius Commodus Antoninus Augustus (Commodus) assassinated.

198

Religion - Christian Saint Titus Flavius Clemens (Clement) of Alexandria’s Paedagogus rebukes heathens for worshipping gods who indulge in debauching of boys and advises avoidance of homosexuality.

(End of) 2nd Century

Novel - Greek writer Xenophon of Ephesus’s novel Ephesiaka (Ephesian Tale of Anthia and Habrocomes).

3RD CENTURY

(Early) 3rd Century

Theory - Greco-Egyptian author Athenaeus of Naucratis’s Deipnosophistae (The Dinner Sophists/Philosophers/Experts).

200 (?) 

Religion - African Christian writer Tertullian in his book Ad nationes (To the Nations) and Christian father Clement of Alexandria in his book Paedogogus (Boys’ Chaperone) write of ‘the third sex’, the androgyne.  

(Pre) 202

Religion - Christian church father Saint Clement of Alexandria condemns homosexuality as contrary to nature.

203/5 (?) 

Birth - Roman (Syrian) Emperor Marcus Aurelius Antoninus Augustus, Heliogabalus (Elagabalus).

210

Birth - Chinese poet and musician Ruan Ji of the Eastern Han, lover of philosopher Xi Kang.

218

Politics - Elagabalus becomes twenty-fifth Roman Emperor.

219

Event - Roman Emperor Elagabalus tries to have his lover, the bond slave charioteer Hierocles from Caria, declared Caesar, calling him husband.  He appoints another lover, the Smyrna athlete Aurelius Zoticus, Cubicularius (Master of the Chamber) and marries him publicly.

220

Politics - Cao Pi becomes  Emperor Wen of Cao Wei.

222

Death - Roman Emperor Marcus Aurelius Antoninus Augustus, Heliogabalus (Elagabalus) murdered.  

Event - Emperor Marcus Aurelius Severus Alexander takes measures against male prostitutes, exiling a party who all drown when their ship sinks.

223

Birth  - Chinese author, poet and philosopher Xi Kang, lover of poet Ruan / Yuan Ji.

226

Death - Cao Pi,  Emperor Wen of Cao Wei.

237

Birth - Chinese scholar official Pei Kai.

244–249

Event - Roman Emperor Marcus Julius Philippus 'Arabus' (Philip the Arab) tries but fails to outlaw homosexual prostitution.

247/250 (?) 

Death - Greek sophist Lucius Flavius Philostratus ‘the Athenian’ of Lemnos.

 

250 (?) 

Theory - Roman writer Pseudo-Lucian’s Amores (The Loves).

(Post) 250

Religion - Indian Kama Sutra collected in one volume.

262

Death - Chinese author, poet and philosopher Xi Kang, lover of Ruan Ji.

263

Death - Chinese poet and musician Ruan Ji of the Eastern Han, lover of Xi Kang.

265 (to 420?)  

Poetry - Chinese poet  Zhang Hanbian of the Jin dynasty writes in praise of actor Zhou Xiaoshi.

280 (?) 

Birth - Roman Saints Serge and Bacchus.

283 (?) 

Poetry - Roman Carthaginian poet Marcus Aurelius Olympius Nemesianus writing poetry.

291

Death - Chinese scholar official Pei Kai.

PART THREE – CHRISTIANITY, ISLAM AND THE DARK AGES IN EUROPE

Christianity, which inherited and expanded Judaism’s opposition to same-sex acts, was adopted by the Roman Empire as the official religion of the state in the 4th Century.  This led to an increasingly violent series of legal prohibitions against same-sex activity which survived the fall of the Roman Empire and lasted throughout the Dark Ages in Europe.  Christianity spread beyond the bounds of the old Roman Empire to East and North Europe during the period, taking with it its prohibitions of same-sex love. There is little record, though, of actual persecution, and same-sex relations are found in some, particularly monastic, literature.  The eruption of Islam into Arabia, the Near and Middle East, Africa and finally the western Mediterranean from the 7th Century brought the prohibitions of the Koran into the countries of Muslim conquest, though systematic persecution of same-sex activity seems to have occurred nowhere in the Muslim world at this time.  Literature in many Muslim countries continued to include poetry and stories of same-sex love.  There is a continuing record of same-sex relations in China and the first record of such relations in Japan and Korea.

4TH CENTURY

305- 306  

Religion - Christian Western Church Council of Elvira bars paederasts from the sacrament of extreme unction.

310

Birth - Roman poet and rhetorician Decimius Magnus Ausonius (Ausonius) of Burdigala, Gaul.  

Death - (?) Roman Christian Saints Serge and Bacchus martyred.

(Post) 313

Religion - Christian Saint Pachomius the Great founds a monastery in the Thebaid in Egypt and his rule (the first for cenobites which influenced those of Saint Basil, John Cassian, Caesarius of Arles, Saint Benedict, and that of ‘the Master’) lays down that no monk may sleep on the mattress of another or come closer to one another whether sitting or standing than one cubit (about 18 inches), even when they take meals together.

Event - Emperor Constantine I closes the temple of Venus at Baalbek because its priests engaged in same-sex acts; he also executes eunuch priests in Egypt for similar reasons.

314 

Religion - Christian Eastern Church Council of Ancyra bans the Sacraments for 15 years to unmarried men under the age of 20 caught in homosexual acts, and excludes the man for life if married and over the age of 50.

(C) 315/323

Birth - Emperor Flavius Julius Constans Augustus (Constans I) b.

336

Legal - Emperor Constantine decrees that those indulging in ‘love mutated into another form’ be subject to ‘the sword of vengeance’.

337

Politics - Flavius Julius Constans Augustus (Constans I) created 60th Roman Emperor.

(Pre) 340

Religion - Eusebius, Christian Bishop of Caesarea (Eusebius Pamphili) states that God forbade “all unlawful marriage, and all unseemly practice, and the union of women with women and men with men.”

342 

Legal - Roman Emperors Constantius II and Constans issue a decree imposing an ‘exquisite punishment’ for the crime ‘when a male gives himself in marriage to an effeminate [femina, literally 'a woman'] and what he wants is for the effeminate to play the male role in sex [project the male parts].’  

350

Death - Emperor Flavius Julius Constans Augustus (Constans I) overthrown and murdered, in part for his scandalous lifestyle involving handsome barbarian youths.

353

Birth - Roman African Paulinus, Christian Bishop of Nola.

354

Birth - Roman African Christian church father and theologian Aurelius Augustinus (Saint Augustine), Bishop of Hippo.

375

Religion - Greek Christian Saint Basil of Caesarea Mazaca demands of homosexuals a 15-year penitential of self-mortification while going without the sacrament.

(Pre) 379

Religion - Saint Basil, Christian Bishop of Caesarea (Basil the Great) states that: “He who is guilty of unseemliness with males will be under discipline for the same time as adulterers.”

386  

Event - Roman African Christian church father and theologian Saint Augustine and Roman Christian Saint Alypius, Bishop of Thagaste (in Africa) convert to Christianity.

390

Legal - Roman Emperors Valentinian II, Theodosius I and Arcadius decree that homosexual acts are illegal and condemn the guilty to be burned alive in public.  

Religion - Christian theologian Gregory, Bishop of Nyssa in Cappadocia, demands of homosexuals a 15-year penitential of self-mortification while going without the sacrament.

Event - In Thessalonica, Emperor Theodosius’ Gothic general, Butheric, arrests a popular Christian charioteer for same-sex offences and is in his turn torn to pieces by an irate mob, leading to Theodosius ordering the massacre of 7,000 people in the local arena; Theodosius is forced to do public penance in Milan by its bishop, Ambrosius.  

390

Religion - Christian Saint Gregory Bishop of Nyssa (Gregory Nyssen)’s Canonical Letter to Letoius of Mytilene prescribes the same period of penance for adultery and for "craving for the male".

390 (? or 405 or 450?)

Poetry - Greek Nonnus of Panopolis in Egypt’s Thebaid 's epic poem Dionysiaca.

395

Death - Roman rhetorician and poet Decimius Magnus Ausonius (Ausonius ).

5TH CENTURY

400 (?) 

Theory - Roman Caelius Aurelianus of Sicca in Numidia’s De morbis acutis et chronicis (On Chronic Diseases).

(Pre) 407

Religion Christian Saint John Chrysostom, Archbishop of Constantinople’s Homilies states: “All of these affections then were vile, but chiefly the mad lust after males; for the soul is more the sufferer in sins, and more dishonored than the body in diseases. ... [The men] have done an insult to nature itself. And a yet more disgraceful thing than these is it, when even the women seek after these intercourses, who ought to have more shame than men.”

(Pre) 418

Event - Anglo-Irish Christian Saint Patrick refuses sex to seamen rescuing him from Ireland.

(By) 427

Religion - Jewish Babylonian Talmud states: “Non-Jews accepted upon themselves thirty mitzvot [divinely ordered laws] but they only abide by three of them: the first one is that they do not write marriage documents for male couples.

430

Death - Roman African theologian and Christian church father Saint Augustine, Bishop of Hippo.

431

Death - Roman African Paulinus, Christian Bishop of Nola.

432/434 (?) 

Religion - Christian regulations on homosexuality introduced to Hibernia (Ireland) and the Picts (Scotland).

(Pre) 480

Legal - Visgothic Codex Euricianus (Code of Euric) does not prohibit same-sex acts.

498  

Religion - Christian regulations on homosexual practices introduced to western Germany and the southern Netherlands as the Kingdom of the Franks converts to Christianity.  

Event - Byzantine Emperor Anastasius I abolishes tax on male brothels in favour of sampling the best men.

6TH CENTURY

500-506 (?) 

Legal - Lex Burgundionum (Burgundian Law) does not prohibit same-sex acts.

503

Birth - Chinese Emperor Jianwen of Liang, second Liang Emperor.

505

Legal - Lex Romana (Roman Law) in Visigoth Breviary of King Alaric II prescribes death by burning for same-sex acts.

507

Birth - Chinese editor and poetry compiler Xu Ling.

513

Birth - Chinese poet Yu Xin of the Liang and Northern Zhou dynasties.

(Post) 525

Religion - Umbrian Christian Saint Benedict of Nursia’s monastic rule prescribes that monks should sleep in separate beds, clothed and with lights burning in the dormitory and that young men are not to sleep next to one another but be separated by the cots of elders.

528

Event - Byzantine Emperor Justinian I mounts a pogrom against homosexuals.  Greek Christian Bishops Isaiah of Rhodes and Alexander of Diospolis in Thrace, and others, are castrated and paraded through the streets of Constantinople.

529 

Event - Byzantine Emperor Justinian I blames homosexuals for famines, earthquakes and pestilences.

530

Birth - Italian poet Venantius Fortunatus, Christian Bishop of Poitiers.

533

Legal - Byzantine Emperor Justinian’s Institutes of the Corpus Iuris Civilis includes Institutes IV. xviii .4; in criminal cases public prosecutions for homosexual offences take place under various statutes, including the Lex Julia de adulteris, ‘…which punishes with death (gladio), not only those who violate the marriages of others, but also those who dare to commit acts of vile lust with [other] men (qui cum masculis nefandum libidinem exercere audent)’.

536-544

Legal - Morals decree of Ostrogoth King Athalrich does not prohibit same sex acts.

537

Legal - Cassiodorus’s compilation of Ostrogothic laws in his Variae epistolae (Various Letters) does not prohibit same-sex acts.

538

Legal - Byzantine Emperor Justinian legislates against homosexuality in New Constitution 77, creating a crime of ‘corruption of males’, but reduces penalty to death by the sword.

540

Event - From the reign of Korean King Chinhung (ruled to 576) hwarang (flower boys) serve as sexual partners to courtiers.

544

Legal - Byzantine Emperor Justinian legislates against homosexuality in New Constitution 141.

545

Poetry - Chinese Xu Ling’s compilation of poems New Songs from a Jade Terrace.

549

Politics - Chinese Crown Prince Jianwen of Liang becomes second Liang Emperor.

551

Death - Chinese Emperor Jianwen of Liang, second Liang Emperor.

576

Death - Byzantine Greek Christian Anastasia the Patrician, who had spent much of her life living disguised as a male monk in a monastery in Alexandria.

581

Death - Chinese poet Yu Xin of the Liang and Northern Zhou dynasties.

583

Death - Chinese editor and poetry compiler Xu Ling.

(Pre) 590

Religion - Irish Christian Penitential of Finnian prescribes penance for homosexual acts.

(Pre) 597 

Religion - Arab scholar Abu'l-Faraj ibn al-Jawzi records Muhammad as cursing sodomites in several hadith, and recommending the death penalty for both the active and passive partners in same-sex acts.

7TH CENTURY

600/603 (?) 

Death - Italian poet Venantius Fortunatus, Christian Bishop of Poitiers.  

Religion - Irish Christian Penitential of Columban prescribes penance for homosexuality.

628

Legal - Islamic laws on homosexuality introduced to Bahrain, Qatar, the area of the U.A.E. and Oman.

 

630

Legal - Islamic law on homosexuality introduced in Mecca and parts of Yemen.

(Pre) 632

Religion - Prophet Muhammad recites Koran and blames people of Sodom and Gomorrah (Lut) for homosexuality: Do you commit an indecency which any one in the world has not done before you? Most surely you come to males in lust besides females.

 

(Pre) 634

Religion - Abdullah ibn Abi Qhuhafah (Abu Bakr) recommends toppling a wall on a homosexual evil-doer, or else burning him alive.

(Pre) 636

Religion - Saint Isidore, Archbishop of Seville, presides over several councils in Visigothic Spain and writes the encyclopaedic Etymologiae (Etymologies) which condemns non-procreative sexuality.

636

Legal - Islamic laws on homosexuality introduced to Kuwait.

637

Legal - Islamic law on homosexuality introduced in Palestine and Syria.

639

Legal - Islamic law on homosexuality introduced in the Horn of Africa (Somalia), Egypt, Mesopotamia and Armenia.

642/643/644

Legal - Lex Visigothorum (Visigothic Code) of King Chindasvind/Chindasuinth the Younger in Spain stipulates castration and excommunication for homosexual behaviour. 

Religion - Irish Christian Penitential of Cummean prescribes penance for homosexual acts.

643

Legal - Edictum Rothari (compilation of Lombard law by King Rothari) does not prohibit same-sex acts.

647

Legal - Islamic law on homosexuality introduced in Tripolitania (Libya).

651

Legal - Islamic law on homosexuality introduced in Persia and Turkmenistan.

652

Legal - Islamic law on homosexuality introduced in Herat (Afghanistan).

654

Legal - Islamic law on homosexuality introduced in Cyprus.

(Pre) 661

Religion - Arab Ali ibn Abi Talib orders death by stoning for one "luti" (homosexual) and has another thrown head-first from the top of a minaret.

665

Legal - Islamic law on homosexuality introduced in Cyrenaica (Libya).

670

Legal - Islamic law on homosexuality introduced in Tunisia.

(Pre) 683 (?)

Religion - Muslim scholar Abd Allah ibn Abbas (Ibn Abbas; Al-Hibr; Al-Bahr; The Doctor; The Sea) states that throwing a homosexual from the top of a minaret must be followed by stoning.

693  

Religion - Visigoth King Egica of Hispania and Septimania demands a Church council to deal with homosexuality. The Sixteenth Council of Toledo issues a decree that homosexual acts be punished by exclusion from Communion, hair shearing, one hundred stripes of the lash, and banishment into exile. King Egica adds castration.

698

Legal - Islamic law on homosexuality introduced in Tangiers, the Maghreb (Algeria, Morocco, Mauretania and Western Sahara) and in the Songhai Empire (Niger).

8TH CENTURY

701

Birth - Chinese poet scholar Li Bai / Bo / Po.

711

Legal - Islamic law on homosexuality introduced in southern Hispania (Spain).

712

Legal - Islamic law on homosexuality introduced in Sindh and the southern Punjab.

713

Legal - Islamic law on homosexuality introduced in Transoxiana.

718

Birth - Byzantine Emperor Constantine V Copronymus.

732/5 (?) 

Birth - Northumbrian Christian scholar and poet Alcuin of York.

736

Legal - Islamic law on homosexuality introduced in Georgia.

741

Legal - Byzantine Emperors Leo III and Constantine V’s Eclogue reduces the penalty for homosexuality to castration.

Politics - Constantine V Copronymus becomes Byzantine Emperor.

751

Legal - Islamic laws on homosexuality introduced to Central Asia, including Kazakhstan, Kyrgistan, Uzbekistan (Tashkent, Samarkand and Bukhara) and Tajikistan.

756/7

Birth - Persian-Arab poet Abu-Nuwas al-Hasan ben Hani al-Hakami of Ahvaz  (Abu Nuwas).

759

Event - Japanese Crown Prince Funado is exiled for having sex with ? boy-attendants during the mourning period for his grandfather.

762

Death - Chinese poet scholar Li Bai / Bo / Po.

772

Birth - Chinese poet Bai / Bo / Po Juyi / Chu-i.

774

Birth - Japanese Buddhist Grand Master Kukai (Kobo Daishi).

775

Birth - Chinese official and writer on sex Bo Xingjian.

Death - Byzantine Emperor Constantine V Copronymus.

776

Birth - Frankish theologian Hrabanus Maurus, Abbot of Fulda and Archbishop of Mainz.

779

Birth - Arab writer Abū ʿUthman ʿAmr ibn Baḥr al-Kinānī al-Baṣrī (al-Jahiz) of Basra.

(Pre) 781/2

Poetry - Northumbrian Scholar Alcuin of York’s poetry.

786

Event - Abu Nuwas becomes lover of his teacher, poet Waliba ibn al-Hubab, who d the same year.

787

Birth - Caliph Muhammad ibn Harun al-Amin of Baghdad.

789

Legal - Frankish Emperor Charlemagne endorses anti-homosexual pronouncements of the Synod of Ancyra in his Admonitio generalis (General Admonition).

794

Birth - Caliph Abu Ishaq 'Abbas al-Mu'tasim ibn Harun of Baghdad.

9TH CENTURY

(By) 800

Legal - Islamic law on homosexuality introduced in north of Chad.

802

Legal - Emperor Charlemagne’s Capitulare generale (General Ordinances) threatens dire punishment for same-sex acts.

804

Death - Northumbrian Christian scholar and poet Alcuin of York. Religion - Christian regulations on homosexuality introduced to Frisia (the northern Netherlands) and Saxony (north west Germany).

806

Event - Kukai (Kobo Daishi) returns to Japan from China.

808/809

Birth - Frankish monk and theologian Walafrid Strabo, Abbot of Rechnau.

809

Politics - Caliph Muhammad ibn Harun al-Amin ascends to the throne of Baghdad.

 

811

Birth - Byzantine Emperor Basil I.

Death - (or to 815) Persian-Arab poet Abu-Nuwas al-Hasan ben Hani al-Hakami of Ahvaz in Persia (Abu Nuwas).

813

Death - Caliph Muhammad ibn Harun al-Amin of Baghdad killed. Religion - Council of Châlons orders old Christian penitentials lenient on homosexuality to be destroyed.

816

Event - Japanese tradition ascribes the introduction of homosexuality to Japanese monasteries to Kukai (Kobo Daishu) founder of Shingon Buddhism’s founding of Mount Koya monastery.  

820

Legal - Islamic law on homosexuality introduced in Crete.

826

Death - Chinese official and writer on sex Bo Xingjian.

827

Legal - Islamic law on homosexuality introduced in Sicily and southern Italy.

829

Religion - The Sixth Council of Paris, under Emperor Louis the Pious, blames natural disasters and attacks of the Carolingian Empire’s enemies on sodomy, which it prohibits, and orders homosexuals to be burned.

833

Politics - Abu Ishaq 'Abbas al-Mu'tasim ibn Harun becomes Caliph of Baghdad.

835

Death - Japanese Buddhist Grand Master Kukai (Kobo Daishi).

840

Birth - Swiss poet and monk Notker Balbulus (‘the Stammerer’) of St. Gall and Byzantine Emperor Michael III.

841

Event - Frankish Grimold, Chancellor to King Louis the Pious of France, becomes Abbot of St. Gall, Switzerland.

842

Death - Caliph Abu Ishaq 'Abbas al-Mu'tasim ibn Harun of Baghdad.  

Politics - Michael III becomes Byzantine Emperor.  

846

Death - Chinese poet Bai / Bo / Po Juyi / Chu-i.

849

Death - Frankish monk and theologian Walafrid Strabo, Abbot of Rechnau.

850

Birth - Abu Ishaq Ibrahim II ibn Ahmad, 9th Aghlabid Emir of Ifriqiya (Tunisia).

856

Death - Frankish theologian Hrabanus Maurus, Abbot of Fulda and Archbishop of Mainz.

858

Birth - Persian sufi poet Abu al-Mujit Husayn Mansur al-Hallaj (Mansur al-Hallaj).

860

Birth - Frankish cleric Salamo, Abbot of St Gall, and Andalusian Moorish poet Ibn `Abd Rabbihi - Ahmad ibn Muhammad ibn `Abd Rabbih (Ibn `Abd Rabbih) of Cordoba.

862

Birth - Chinese Emperor Xizong of Tang.

863

Religion - Christian prohibitions of homosexuality begin to be introduced in Moravia.

866

Event - Byzantine Emperor Michael III falls in love with Basil the Macedonian and makes him Chamberlain then Co-Emperor as Basil I.  

867

Death - Byzantine Emperor Michael III killed by his Co-Emperor Basil I (the Macedonian), who becomes sole Emperor.  

Personal - Basil I grants intimacy to John, son of widow Danelis, with whom he had shared life earlier in a ceremonial union.  

868

Birth - Arab theologian Abu Bakr Muhammad bin Dawud al-Zahiri (Muhammad Ibn Dawud) of Baghdad.

869

Death - Arab writer Abū ʿUthman ʿAmr ibn Baḥr al-Kinānī al-Baṣrī (al-Jahiz) of Basra.

870

Legal - Islamic law on homosexuality introduced in Kabul and eastern Afghanistan.

872

Death - Frankish Grimold, Chancellor to King Louis the Pious of France and Abbot of St. Gall.

872-893

Religion - Hadith collection Jami` at-Tirmidhi (Sunan at-Tirmidhi) of Abu `Isa Muhammad ibn `Isa at-Tirmidhi writes that Muhammad prescribed the death penalty for both the active and the passive partner: "Whoever you find committing the sin of the people of Lut, kill them, both the one who does it and the one to whom it is done."

873

Politics - Xizong of Tang becomes Chinese Emperor; his lover is Zhang Langgou.

875

Politics - Abu Ishaq Ibrahim II ibn Ahmad becomes 9th Aghlabid Emir of Ifriqiya (Tunisia).

884

Religion - Christian prohibitions of homosexuality begin to be introduced in Bohemia.

886

Death - Byzantine Emperor Basil I.

888

Birth - Emir Abdallah ibn Muhammad of Cordoba.

Death - Chinese Emperor Xizong of Tang.

889 (or 891) 

Birth - Emir and Caliph Abd al-Rahmān ibn Muhammad ibn Abd Allāh (Abd-ar-Rahman III) of Cordoba b.

10TH CENTURY

902

Death - Abu Ishaq Ibrahim II ibn Ahmad, 9th Aghlabid Emir of Ifriqiya (Tunisia).

909

Death - Arab theologian Abu Bakr Muhammad bin Dawud al-Zahiri (Muhammad Ibn Dawud) of Baghdad.  

Religion - Christian Council of Trolsy warns of “pollution with men or animals".

912

Death - Swiss poet and monk Notker Balbulus (‘the Stammerer’) of St. Gall and Emir Abdallah ibn Muhammad of Cordoba.

Politics - Abd-ar-Rahman III becomes Emir of Cordoba.

917 (?) 

Birth - Andalusian Moorish poet Yusuf Ibn Harun Al-Ramadi (Al-Ramadi) of Cordoba. 

Poetry - Byzantine editor Constantinus Cephalas compiles poetic epigrams in The Greek Anthology.

918 (to 1392)

Event - Several Korean kings of the Koryo dynasty have relationships with boys.

920

Death - Frankish cleric Salamo, Abbot of St Gall.

922

Death - Persian sufi poet Abu al-Mujit Husayn Mansur al-Hallaj (Mansur al-Hallaj).

929

Politics - Emir Abd-ar-Rahman III of Cordoba declares himself Caliph.

934 

Legal - Islamic laws on homosexuality introduced to Turkic Kara-khanid Khanate of Central Asia (including Uyghurs of Kashgar, Xinjiang).

940

Death - Andalusian Moorish poet Ibn `Abd Rabbihi - Ahmad ibn Muhammad ibn `Abd Rabbih (Ibn `Abd Rabbih) of Cordoba.

942

Birth - Amir Nasiru-d din Subuktigin of Ghazni.

950

Politics - King Kshemagupta becomes King of Kashmir.

951

Poetry - Japanese waka poems Ise monogatari (The Tales of Ise).

955

Politics - Octavianus made Pope John XII (to 964).

958

Birth - Byzantine Emperor Basil II. 

Death - King Kshemagupta of Kashmir.

960

Birth - Byzantine Emperor Constantine VIII.

Legal - Islamic law on homosexuality introduced in Zanzibar and the Swahili Coast (Kenya, Tanzania and northern Mozambique).

Religion - Christian prohibitions of homosexuality begin to be introduced in Denmark.  

961

Death - Caliph Al-Hakam II ibn ʿAbd al-Raḥmān III of Cordoba.

964

Death - Pope John XII.

966

Birth - Hisham II, 3rd Caliph of Cordoba.

Religion - Christian prohibitions of homosexuality begin to be introduced in Poland.

971  

Birth - Sultan Yamīn ad-Dawlah Abul-Qāṣim Maḥmūd Ibn Sebüktegīn of Ghazni (Mahmud of Ghazni).

976

Death - Caliph al-Ḥakam II ibn ʿAbd al-Raḥmān III (Al-Hakam II) of Cordoba.  

Politics - Hisham II becomes Caliph of Cordoba.  Co-Emperors Basil II and Constantine VIII become Byzantine Emperors.  

978

Story - Taiping Guangji (Extensive Records of the Taiping Era), stories compiled by Li Fang, includes the tale of the love of Prince Wang Zhongxian of Chu for scholar Pan Zhang.

(Pre) 981

Religion - Arab scholar Abu Bakr Al-Jassas argues that the two hadiths on killing homosexuals "are not reliable by any means and no legal punishment can be prescribed based on them".

985

Religion - Japanese Tendai priest Genshin’s Ojoyoshu (Teachings Essential for Rebirth) condemns to hell one who has accosted and violated another’s acolyte and one who loves and violates another man.

988 (?) 

Religion - Christian regulations on homosexuality introduced into Kievan Rus (Ukraine and Russia).

994

Birth - Andalusian polymath Abū Muḥammad ʿAlī ibn Aḥmad ibn Saʿīd ibn Ḥazm (Ibn Hazm) of Cordoba.

995

Religion - Christian prohibitions of homosexuality begin to be introduced in Norway, Shetland, the Orkneys, the Faroe Islands, Iceland and Greenland.

997 (or 998)

Death - Amir Nasiru-d din Subuktigin of Ghazni.  

Politics - Sultan Maḥmūd ascends to the throne of Ghazni.

 

11TH CENTURY

1000 (?) 

Birth - Byzantine Emperor Constantine IX Monomachos b. Religion - Christian prohibitions of homosexuality begin to be introduced in Sweden and (or 1001) Hungary.

1001

Legal - Islamic law on homosexuality introduced in Gandhara and Peshawar.

1007 

Religion - German canon lawyer Burchard Bishop Worms’s Decretum equates homosexual acts with other sexual transgressions such as adultery and argues that they should have the same penance (generally fasting).

1010

Legal - Islamic law on homosexuality introduced in Lahore and the northern Punjab.

Novel - (or 1020 to 1030) Japanese noblewoman Lady Murasaki’s novel Genji Monogatari (The Tale of Genji) contains one tale of Genji preferring a boy to his sister.

1012 (?) 

Birth - Italian Theophylactus of Tusculum, Pope Benedict IX.

1013

Death - Hisham II, 3rd Caliph of Cordoba.

1021 (?) 

Birth - Andalusian Hebrew poet Solomon ibn Gabirol (Solomon ben Judah) of Malaga.  

Event - Sultan Mahmud of Ghazni raises his lover, Turkish slave Malik Ayaz, to be Sultan of Lahore.

1022

Death - Andalusian Moorish poet Yusuf Ibn Harun Al-Ramadi (Al-Ramadi) of Cordoba.

1025

Death - Byzantine Emperor Basil II.  

Politics - Constantine VIII sole Byzantine Emperor.  

1028

Death - Byzantine Emperor Constantine VIII.

1030

Death - Sultan Yamīn ad-Dawlah Abul-Qāṣim Maḥmūd Ibn Sebüktegīn of Ghazni (Mahmud of Ghazni).

1031

Birth - Japanese Tendai abbot Fujiwara no Zoyo.

1032

Politics - Italian Theophylactus of Tusculum becomes Pope Benedict IX.

1033/4

Birth - Saint Anselm of Aosta, Archbishop of Canterbury.

1035 (?) 

Birth - French poet and teacher Bishop Marbod of Rennes.

1036

Birth - Chinese poet Su Shi / Dongpo. 

Politics - Italian Theophylactus of Tusculum, Pope Benedict IX forced to flee Rome but is restored.

1038

Death - Persian poet at court of Mahmud of Ghazni, Abul Hasan Ali ibn Julugh Farrukhi Sistani (Farrokhi Sistani).

1040

Birth - Emir Muhammad Ibn Abbad Al Mutamid, 3rd and last Abbadid ruler of Seville, and Japanese Oe Tadafusa, diarist in Heian court. 

Death - (or 1041) Persian royal poet Abu Najm Ahmad ibn Ahmad ibn Qaus Manuchehri (Manuchehri Damghani).

1042

Politics - Byzantine Empress Zoe marries Constantine IX Monomachos, who becomes Emperor.

1043

Religion - Christian regulations on homosexuality introduced to Obotrite confederacy on the Elbe (north east Germany).

 

1044

Politics - Italian Theophylactus of Tusculum, Pope Benedict IX deposed.

1045

Politics - Italian Theophylactus of Tusculum, Pope Benedict IX restored but then sells papacy to his godfather, whom he then overthrows to resume the papacy.

1046

Birth - Persian poet Mas'ud-i Sa'd-i Salmān (Maslud Sa’d Salman) and French poet Abbot Baudri (Baldric) of Bourgeuil, Archbishop of Dol-en-Bretagne.

Politics - Italian Theophylactus of Tusculum, Pope Benedict IX ejected from Rome and is deposed by the Council of Sutri.

1047

Politics - Italian Theophylactus of Tusculum, Pope Benedict IX reoccupies the papacy.

1048

Birth - Persian polymath and poet Ghiyāth ad-Dīn Abu'l-Fatḥ ʿUmar ibn Ibrāhīm al-Khayyām Nīshāpūrī (Omar Khayyam).

Religion - (or 1049-1051) Italian monk and doctor of the church Saint Peter Damian’s Liber Gomorrhianus (The Book of Gomorrah), in which he argues for stricter punishments for clerics failing their duty against vices of nature”. 

Politics - Italian Theophylactus of Tusculum, Pope Benedict IX driven from Rome by German troops.

1049

Religion - Synod of Reims prescribes measures against same-sex acts.

Politics - Italian Theophylactus of Tusculum, Pope Benedict IX excommunicated.  

1050

Birth - Rudolfo (Ralph), Archbishop of Tours.

1051 (?) 

Birth - Robert II, Duke of Normandy ‘Curthose’.

1053

Birth - Sicilian Arab poet Abd, al-Jabbar Ibn Hamdis (Ibn Hamdis) and Japanese Heian Emperor Shirakawa.

1055

Birth - French writer Hildebert of Lavardin, Bishop of Le Mans, Archbishop of Tours and (or 1060) Jewish philosopher Rabbi Moses ben Jacob ibn Ezra (ha-Sallah) (Moses Ibn Ezra) of Granada.   Death - Byzantine Emperor Constantine IX Monomachos.

1056

Birth - Norman King William II of England.

Death - (?) Italian Theophylactus of Tusculum, Pope Benedict IX.

1057

Death - Andalusian Hebrew poet Solomon ibn Gabirol (Solomon ben Judah) of Malaga.

1064

Death - Andalusian polymath Abū Muḥammad ʿAlī ibn Aḥmad ibn Saʿīd ibn Ḥazm (Ibn Hazm) of Cordoba.

1068

Legal - Islamic law on homosexuality introduced in eastern Anatolia.

1069

Politics - Emir Muhammad Ibn Abbad Al Mutamid becomes the 3rd and last ruler of the taifa of Seville in Al-Andalus.

1073

Politics - Japanese Heian Emperor Shirakawa ascends to throne.

1075

Birth - Spanish Jewish physician and philosopher Judah Halevi (Yehuda Halevi).

1076

Legal - Islamic law on homosexuality introduced in parts of Empire of Ghana (Guinea, Guinea-Bissau, Mauritania, Mali and Senegal).

1078 (or 1080?)

Birth - Andalusian Moorish poet Abu Bakr Abd al-Malik ibn Quzma (Ibn Quzman). 

Theory - ‘Onsor-al-Ma’ali Kay-Kavur, Prince of Gurgan and Tabarestan’s Qabus-nameh (Mirror for Princes).

1081

Birth - King Louis VI (Louis the Fat) of France.

1085

Legal - Islamic laws on homosexuality introduced to Duguwa (part of Chad).

1087

Death - Japanese Heian Emperor Shirakawa.  

Politics - Norman King William II of England ascends to the throne.

1090

Birth - French abbot Saint Bernard of Clairvaux.

1093

Politics - Saint Anselm becomes Archbishop of Canterbury.

1094

Birth - Saint Malachy, Archbishop of Armagh.

1095

Birth - Andalusian polymath Abū-Bakr Muhammad ibn Yahya ibn al-Sāyigh Al-tujibi, (Ibn Bajja).

Death - Emir Muhammad Ibn Abbad Al Mutamid the 3rd and last ruler of the taifa of Seville in Al-Andalus.

1097

Politics - Abbot Baudri of Bourgeuil loses the bishopric of Orléans to John, nicknamed ‘Flora’, the lover of the Archbishop of Tours.  Marbod becomes Bishop of Rennes.

1098

Death - ‘Onsor-al-Ma’ali Kay-Kavur, Prince of Gurgan and Tabarestan.

PART FOUR – THE EUROPEAN MIDDLE AGES AND THE CONTINUED SPREAD OF ISLAM

The 12th Century began a period of increasing oppression of those committing same-sex acts which lasted in legal form well into the modern Christian world.  Penalties became ever more severe and condemnation of same-sex acts, now classified as ‘sodomy’, ever more hysterical.  Legal enactments incorporating these trends spread throughout Europe and led to much suffering and many deaths often by gruesome methods.  Islamic society was largely more tolerant, and the flowering of Islamic civilisation in Granada, North Africa, Iraq and Persia included much literature of same-sex love.  Islam spread to its largest extent in Europe, Africa and Asia.

The attitudes of Chinese society remained much as they had always been.  In Japan and Korea, the record of male same-sex intimacy grows during the period and there is an additional growth of accepted male same-sex relations in Japanese Buddhist monasteries, with the beginnings of Japanese literature mentioning the subject.  

12TH CENTURY

1100 

Birth - (?) Nicholas Breakspear (Pope Adrian IV).  

Death - Norman King William II of England.  

Religion - French canon lawyer Saint Ivo, Bishop of Chartres tries to convince Pope Urban II about risks of homosexuality and accuses Rodolfo (Ralph), Archbishop of Tours, of persuading Louis VI (Louis the Fat) King of France to appoint the King’s and Rodolfo’s lover, Giovanni, as Bishop of Orléans.

1102

Death - Chinese poet Su Shi / Dongpo.  

Religion - The Council of London promulgates that homosexuality is sinful but refuses to legislate against offenders on advice of Archbishop Saint Anselm.

1103

Birth - Japanese Heian Emperor Toba.

 

1107

Death - English poet Geoffrey/Godfrey of Winchester (Martialis Coccus).

Politics - Japanese Heian Emperor Toba ascends to throne.  Abbot Baudri of Bourgeuil becomes Archbishop of Dol.

1108

Politics - King Louis VI (Louis the Fat) of France ascends to throne.

1109 

Death - Saint Anselm, Archbishop of Canterbury.

1110

Birth - English writer Saint Aelred, Abbot of Rievaulx and Persian poet and writer Ahmad ibn Umar ibn Alī, known as Nizamī-i Arūzī-i Samarqandī (Nizami ‘Aruzi).

1111

Death - Japanese diarist in Heian court Oe Tadafusa.  

Legal - (to 1118) Chinese Song Emperor Zhenghe prescribes punishment for male prostitution as caning and fine.

1116

Death - Japanese high priest of Kyoto temple, Tendai abbot Fujiwara no Zoyo.

1117

Birth - Rudolfo (Ralph), Archbishop of Tours.

1118

Birth - Byzantine Emperor Manuel I Komnenos (Porphyrogennetos).

1120 

Birth - Japanese courtier at Heian court Fujiwara no Yorinaga (author of diary Taiki)  and (?) Bishop John of Salisbury.  

Death - English Prince William Etheling drowned in the shipwreck of the Blanche Nef.  

Legal - King Baldwin II of Jerusalem convenes the Council of Nablus, which institutes the burning of individuals who perpetually commit sodomy.  The Laws of the Kingdom of Jerusalem attribute plagues of field mice to heaven’s disgust at homosexuals.

Story - (post) Japanese story collection Konjaku Monogatari (Anthology of Tales from the Past / Collection of Tales Old and New).

1121

Death - Persian poet Mas'ud-i Sa'd-i Salmān (Maslud Sa’d Salman).

1123

Death - French poet and teacher Bishop Marbod of Rennes and Japanese Heian Emperor Toba.

1126

Birth - Persian poet Awhad ad-Din 'Ali ibn Mohammad Khavarani or Awhad ad-Din 'Ali ibn Mahmud (Anvari/Anwari).

1127

Birth - Japanese Emperor Go-Shirakawa.

1130

Death - French poet Abbot Baudri (Baldric) of Bourgeuil, Archbishop of Dol-en-Bretagne.

1133 (or 1126?) 

Birth - Japanese Fujiwara Nobuyori, lover of Emperor Go-Shirakawa and Abu Mansur Isma'il al-Zafir bi-Amr Allah, twelfth Fatimid Caliph of Egypt and the 23rd Imam of the Hafizi Ismaili sect.  

Death - Persian polymath and poet Ghiyāth ad-Dīn Abu'l-Fatḥ ʿUmar ibn Ibrāhīm al-Khayyām Nīshāpūrī (Omar Khayyam), Ibn Hamdis and French writer Hildebert of Lavardin, Bishop of Le Mans, Archbishop of Tours.

1134

Death - Robert II, Duke of Normandy ‘Curthose’.

1137

Death - King Louis VI (Louis the Fat) of France.

1138

Death - Jewish philosopher Rabbi Moses ben Jacob ibn Ezra (ha-Sallah) (Moses Ibn Ezra) of Granada.

1139

Death - Andalusian polymath Abū-Bakr Muhammad ibn Yahya ibn al-Sāyigh Al-tujibi, (Ibn Bajja).

1140

Birth - Anglo-Norman cleric William Longchamp, Chancellor of England and Bishop of Ely.  

Religion - (to 1150?) Italian Monk Gratian compiles his work Concordia Discordantium Canonum (or Decretum) in which he argues that sodomy is the worst of all the sexual sins because it involves using the member in an unnatural way, introducing the concept of natural law, which becomes important for sodomy.

1141

Death - Spanish Jewish physician and philosopher Judah Halevi (Yehuda Halevi).

1143

Politics - Byzantine Emperor Manuel I Komnenos (Porphyrogennetos) accedes to the throne.  

Religion - (?) English writer Saint Aelred, Abbot of Rievaulx, writes Speculum Caritatis (Mirror of Love).

1147

Birth - Japanese Shogun Minamoto no Yoritomo and Japanese diarist at Heian court Fujiwara Kanezane.  

Theory - (to 1164) Saint Aelred, Abbot of Rievaulx writes De spiritali amicitia (On Spiritual Friendship) giving love between persons of the same gender a profound expression.

1148

Death - Saint Malachy, Archbishop of Armagh, d in the arms of Saint Bernard of Clairvaux, who puts on Malachy’s habit.  

Biography - Saint Bernard writes Liber De vita et rebus gestis Sancti Malachiae Hiberniae Episcopi (The Life and Deeds of Saint Malachy, Bishop of Ireland); Malachy is canonized in 1190 .

1149

Politics - Abu Mansur Isma'il al-Zafir bi-Amr Allah becomes twelfth Fatimid Caliph of Egypt and the 23rd Imam of the Hafizi Ismaili sect.

1150 (?) 

Death - English Latin poet and/or playwright Hilary of Orleans (Hilary the Englishman).

1151 (or 1152)

Religion - German Abbess Saint Hildegard von Bingen’s Scivias (Know the Ways of the Lord), an account of visions, some attacking same-sex practice.

1153

Death - French doctor of the church Saint Bernard, Abbot of Clairvaux, campaigner against same-sex practices in the church, but writer  of homophilic poems, buried in the habit of Saint Malachy, Archbishop of Armagh.

1154

Death - Abu Mansur Isma'il al-Zafir bi-Amr Allah, twelfth Fatimid Caliph of Egypt and the 23rd Imam of the Hafizi Ismaili sect murdered at an orgy by his male favourite Nasr ibn Abbas.  Nasr is then mutilated by the caliph’s wives and hanged.

Politics - Englishman Nicholas Breakspear becomes Pope Adrian / Hadrian IV.

1156

Death - Japanese Heian Emperor Toba and Japanese diarist at Heian court Fujiwara no Yorinaga.  

Politics - Japanese Emperor Go-Shirakawa ascends to the throne; his lover is Fujiwara Nobuyori.

1157

Birth - Anglo-Norman King Richard I Coeur de Lion of England.

1158

Death - Japanese Emperor Go-Shirakawa.

1159

Death - Englishman Nicholas Breakspear, Pope Adrian / Hadrian IV.  Japanese Fujiwara Nobuyori, lover of Emperor Go-Shirakawa, executed for rebelling against his Emperor.

1160

Death - Andalusian Moorish poet Abu Bakr Abd al-Malik ibn Quzma (Ibn Quzman).

1161

Death - Persian poet and writer Ahmad ibn Umar ibn Alī, known as Nizamī-i Arūzī-i Samarqandī (Nizami ‘Aruzi).

1164

Legal - Norwegian Gulathingslog legal code outlaws sodomites.

1165

Birth - King Philip Augustus of France.

1166 (C) 

Birth - Humphrey IV, Lord of Toron in the Kingdom of Jerusalem.

1167

Death - English writer Saint Aelred, Abbot of Rievaulx.

1175 (C)

Religion - The Christian concept of sodomia (sodomy) appears in medieval Latin possibly in the Iberian peninsula on the model of Arabic liwãt (sodomite).

1179 

Religion - The Third Lateran Council of Rome issues a decree for the excommunication of sodomites and rules that clerics guilty of ‘that incontinence which is against nature’ leave the Church or be perpetually confined in a monastery.

1180

Death - John of Salisbury, Bishop of Chartres and Byzantine Emperor Manuel I Komnenos (Porphyrogennetos).

1184

Birth - Persian poet Abū-Muhammad Muslih al-Dīn bin Abdallāh Shīrāzī, Saadi Shirazi (Saadi Shirazi - Sa’di of Shiraz) and Algerian Arab poet and writer Ahmad al-Tifashi or Ahmad ibn Yusuf al-Tīfāchī (Ahmad al-Tifashi) b.

1186-88 (?) 

Non-fiction - Welsh monk and writer Giraldus Cambrensis’s Topographia Hibernica (Topography of Ireland) reveals Irish same-sex practices.

1187

Personal - Anglo-Norman King Richard I of England (as Duke of Aquitaine) and King Philip Augustus of France meet and create emotional bond.

1189

Death - Persian poet Awhad ad-Din 'Ali ibn Mohammad Khavarani or Awhad ad-Din 'Ali ibn Mahmud (Anvari/Anwari).  

Politics - King Richard I Coeur de Lion ascends to the throne of England. Anglo-Norman  William Longchamp becomes Chancellor of England and Bishop of Ely.

1190

Event – Enforced annulment of the marriage of Humphrey IV, Lord of Toron in the Kingdom of Jerusalem, partly on the grounds of non-consummation.

Novel - (?) Japanese novel Ariake no Wakare(Partings at Dawn).

1191

Legal - Islamic law on homosexuality introduced in Delhi and the Doab. 

Event - Anglo-Norman King Richard I Coeur de Lion of England makes public confession and penitence.

1192

Death - Japanese Emperor Go-Shirakawa.  

Politics - Japanese Minamoto no Yoritomo becomes first Kamakura Shogun and takes young officer Yoshino as his lover.

1193

Religion - Christian prohibitions of homosexuality begin to be introduced in Estonia and Latvia.

1195

Birth - (?) Imperial Marshal, Italian noble Riccardo Filangieri.  

Event - Anglo-Norman King Richard I Coeur de Lion of England makes second public confession and penitence.

1197

Death - Anglo-Norman William Longchamp Chancellor of England and Bishop of Ely.

1198 

Death - Humphrey IV, Lord of Toron in the Kingdom of Jerusalem.

1199

Death - Anglo-Norman King Richard I Coeur de Lion of England and Japanese Shogun Minamoto no Yoritomo.

13th CENTURY

1205 (or 1400) 

Legal - Islamic law on homosexuality introduced in Aceh.

1207

Birth - Persian poet Jalal ad-Din Muhammad Balkhi (Jalal-ad-Din Muhammad Rumi).

Death - Japanese diarist at Heian court Fujiwara Kanezane.

1212 (to 1221)

Story - Japanese Uji shui monogatari (Tales Gleaned from Uji) contains tale of a monk who may have committed a same-sex act.

1213

Birth - Persian Sufi writer Fakhr al-dīn Ibrahīm ‘Irāqī (Fakhr-al-Din Iraqi) and Andalusian Marrakesh poet Ali ibn Musa ibn Said al-Maghribi (Ibn Said al-Andalusi).

1215

Theory - Japanese reference work Kojidan (Talks on Ancient Matters).

Biography - Korean cleric Kakhun’s Lives of Eminent Korean Monks discusses King Chinhung’s hwarang (flower boys).  

1220 (or 1210?) 

Birth - Italian philosopher, poet and writer Brunetto Latini of Florence and Italian soldier Conte Guido Guerra V.  

Legal - (or 1235?) German jurist Eike von Repgow’s Sachsenspiegel (Code of Saxony) outlaws homosexuals but enforces no capital penalty.

1221

Birth - Sultan al-Malik al-Adil Sayf ad-Din Abu Bakr ibn Nasir ad-Din Muhammad of Egypt.

1223

Death - King Philip Augustus of France.

1225

Birth - Itaian Jurist Francesco d'Accorso.

1230 (?)

Birth - Italian poet Guido Guinizelli.  

Theory - Guillaume d’Auvergne, Bishop of Paris, writes that sodomites know each other as they stick out their penises at each other.

1232/1233

Legal - Some Italian cities called for banishment and/or amputation as punishments for 1st- and 2nd-offending sodomites and burning for the 3rd or habitual offenders.

Religion - Pope Gregory IX starts the Dominican Inquisition in the Italian City-States and France.  He equates homosexuals to heretics.     Inquisitors in certain regions extend their jurisdiction to sodomites. French biblical commentator Cardinal Hugh of Saint-Cher’s commentary on the Vulgate asserts that grass will not grow on a place where sodomy has so much as been mentioned, and that while an incubus may assume a man's shape, and a succubus a woman's, a succubus would never take on male form because even devils would be ashamed to take the passive role in sodomy.  Society of the Blessed Mary establishes branch in Perugia to hunt down sodomites.

1233

Religion - Pope Gregory IX’s bull Vox in Rama (Voice in Rama) equates German heretics with sodomites.

Event - scandal of relationship between Imperial Marshal, Italian noble Riccardo Filangieri, Regent in Tyre, and his lover, Syrian noble Philippe de Maugastel.  The latter, appointed Bailli of Acre, was ejected by the barons.

1235 (?) 

Birth - Benedetto Gaetani Pope Boniface VIII.  

Religion - (C) The twelfth century term Bulgarus (Bulgarian), whence French bougre and English bugger, becomes generally used for both heretic and sodomite.  

Poetry - French scholar and poet Guillaume de Lorris starts the Roman de la Rose (Romance of the Rose) which advocates castration for sodomites.

(Post) 1235

Legal - Islamic law on homosexuality introduced in the Gambia and north-eastern Côte d’Ivoire.

1237

Religion - Japanese monk Samon Shusei makes religious vow of faithfulness to his male partner at Todaiji Temple in Nara.

1238

Event - Al-Malik al-Adil Sayf ad-Din Abu Bakr ibn Nasir ad-Din Muhammad becomes Sultan of Egypt.  He gives government of the state to his black African lover.  

1240

Event - Sultan al-Malik al-Adil Sayf ad-Din Abu Bakr ibn Nasir ad-Din Muhammad overthrown and imprisoned by his half brother as-Salih Ayyub.  

1241

Religion - Decretales (Decrees) of Pope Gregory IX codifies penalties against homosexual clergy.

1242

Legal - Statutes of Perugia appoint forty men to hunt sodomites.

1243

Poetry - Andalusian Marrakesh poet Ali ibn Musa ibn Said al-Maghribi (Ibn Said al-Andalusi) ’s anthology of poems Rayat al-mubarrizin waghayat al-mumayyizin (Penants of the Champions).

1246 (?) 

Legal - Touraine-Anjou legal code prescribes burning for bougrerie (buggery).

1248

Birth - Egyptian Arab shadow playwright Ibn Daniyal of Cairo.

Death - Sultan al-Malik al-Adil Sayf ad-Din Abu Bakr ibn Nasir ad-Din Muhammad of Egypt.  

1249

Religion - Christian prohibitions of homosexuality begin to be introduced in Finland.

(By) 1250

Legal - Islamic law on homosexuality introduced in Bengal and Central India. (?) Islamic laws on homosexuality introduced to Patani (southern Thailand).  Bologna enacts death by burning for sodomy.  

Poetry - Persian poet Jamal al-Din Khalil Shirvani’s collection Nozhat al-Majales (Joy of the Gatherings).

1252

Religion - Dominican inquisition permitted to use torture in sodomy cases.

1253

Death - Algerian Arab poet and writer Ahmad al-Tifashi or Ahmad ibn Yusuf al-Tīfāchī (Ahmad al-Tifashi).

1254

Death - (or 1263) Imperial Marshal, Italian noble Riccardo Filangieri.  

 

1255

Legal - King Alfonso X (the Wise) of Castille issues Fuero Real legal code prescribing castration followed by hanging by the legs till death three days later for sodomites.  

Religion - The Blessed Humbert of Romans, French Grand Master of the Dominican Order, urges his members in Bologna to be diligent in pursuit of sodomites.

1257

Birth - Italian philosopher, astrologer and medical professor at Padua, Pietro d’Abano.  

Politics - Saint Peter Ordinski becomes Khan of the Tatars.  

Poetry - Saadi Shirazi’s poems Bustan/Bostan (The Orchard).

1258

Legal - Islamic law on homosexuality introduced in the khanates of Timur’s Mongol empire and the Golden Horde.  Story - Saadi Shirazi’s stories Gulistan (The Rose Garden).

1259  

Legal - Bologna adopts death penalty for sodomy.  (By) Islamic laws on homosexuality introduced to north eastern Nigeria and northern Cameroon.  

1260 (?) (or 1270?)  

Legal - Orléans legal code Livres de jostice et de plet prescribes first-offending sodomites to lose their testicles, second offenders to lose their member, and third offenders to be burned; women caught in same-sex acts can be mutilated and executed.

1262

Death - Italian politician Aldobrandi Tegghiaio. 

Legal - (to 1270) Siena enacts penalties for sodomites.  

1264 (?) 

Birth - Ponç Hug IV Count of Empúries (Asturias).

1265  

Legal - King Alfonso X of Castile (the Wise) issues legal encyclopaedia  Las Siete Partidas blaming natural catastrophes on sodomites. 

Religion - (to 1274) Italian theologian Saint Thomas Aquinas’s Summa Theologiae/Theologica (Summary of Theology)  argues that sodomy is second only to murder in the ranking of sins.

1266

Death - Saint Peter Ordinski, Khan of the Tatars.

(Post) 1266

Death - Italian politician Jacopo Rusticucci.

1269

Birth - Japanese Confucian monk Gen’e.

1270  (or 1271?) 

Birth - Persian poet Awhaduddin Awhadi Maragheie (Awhadi of Maragha).

1271

Event - English Franciscan friar and philosopher Roger Bacon reports that many academics are banished from Paris for sodomy.

1272

Death - Italian soldier Conte Guido Guerra V. 

Legal - (?) French legal code Établissements de Saint Louis prescribes burning for bougrerie.

1273

Death - Persian poet Jalal ad-Din Muhammad Balkhi (Jalal-ad-Din Muhammad Rumi).

1276

Death - Italian poet Guido Guinizelli. 

1277

Religion - Étienne Tempier (Stephanus of Orléans), Chancellor of the Sorbonne and Bishop of Paris, condemns the idea that “the sin against nature” is one against the nature of the species but not against that of the individual.

Politics - Ponç Hug IV becomes Count of Empúries (Asturias).

Event - First recorded execution for sodomy in Western Europe by King of the Romans Rudolf I of Hapsburg, who burns Lord Haspisperch at the stake for sodomy.  Expulsion of sodomitical theologians and students from Paris.  

1280

Legal - Bishop Brynjul’s Statute in Sweden gives financial penalties for sodomy.

1283 

Legal - Philip de Remi, Lord of Beaumanoir, sets forth Beauvais law in Coutumes de Beauvais prescribing that convicted sodomites are to be burned and their property forfeited.

1284

Birth - King Edward II of England and Piers Gaveston, 1st Earl of Cornwall.

1286

Death - Andalusian Marrakesh poet Ali ibn Musa ibn Said al-Maghribi (Ibn Said al-Andalusi).  

Legal - Pisa prescribes fines for sodomy.

1288

Birth - English Hugh Despenser the Younger, 1st Lord Despenser.  Legal - Bologna replaces penalty of fine with burning for sodomites.

Politics - Japanese Emperor Go-Daigo (rules to 1339) has lover Kumawaka (Hino Kunimitsu).

1289 (?)

Birth - Frederick the Handsome or Fair (Friedrich der Schöne), Duke of Austria and Styria, King of the Romans.  

Death - Persian Sufi writer Fakhr al-dīn Ibrahīm ‘Irāqī (Fakhr-al-Din Iraqi).

1290 (?)

Birth - Italian Perugian poet and notary Cecco Nuccoli.  

Death - Moor burned at Arguedas in Navarre for sodomy.

Legal - Three English legal treatises: Britton prescribes death by burning for sodomites; Fleta prescribes burying  sodomites alive if taken in the act; Mirror of Justices.  (?) 

Religion - Italian chronicler the Blessed Jacopo da Varagine’s Legenda aurea (The Golden Legend) repeats French theologian Peter the Chanter's fantasy that all the world's sodomites had died at Jesus's birth, adding that, according to Saint Augustine, because human nature was defiled with this vice, the Son of Man repeatedly postponed his incarnation and even thought of renouncing the project altogether.

Poetry - Saadi Shirazi’s poems Ghazaliyat (Lyrics).  

1291 (or 1283?)

Death - Persian poet Abū-Muhammad Muslih al-Dīn bin Abdallāh Shīrāzī, Saadi Shirazi (Saadi Shirazi - Sa’di of Shiraz) d.

1292

Death - Flemish Jan de Wertre burned at Ghent for sodomy.

1293

Death - Italian Jurist Francesco d'Accorso.

1294

Politics - Italian Benedetto Gaetani becomes Pope Boniface VIII.

1295 (or 1294?) 

Death - Italian philosopher, poet and writer Brunetto Latini of Florence.

(By) 1297

Legal- Islamic law on homosexuality introduced in Pasai (north Sumatra).

1299

Legal - Fuero juzgo (Judicial Code of Law) for Cordova promulgated by Ferdinand II of Castile imposes penalty of castration for homosexual acts.

14th CENTURY

(By) 1300

Legal - Islamic law on homosexuality introduced in Malwa and the northern Deccan.

1300

Birth - Persian poet and satirist Nezam od-Din Ubeydollah Zâkâni (Ubayd-i Zakani).

Personal - (or 1301) English King Edward II and Piers Gaveston become sworn brothers.

1303

Death - Italian Benedetto Gaetani Pope Boniface VIII.

Legal - Islamic laws on homosexuality introduced to Terengganu.

Religion - Japanese Hojo regent Sadatoki issues legal document to a Kamakura Zen monastery regulating resident acolytes.

1306

Legal - Byzantine Emperor Andronikos II Palaiologos issues a decree reminding of prohibitions on obsessions with males.

1307

Politics - King Edward II ascends to the throne of England.

Personal - English King Edward II and Piers Gaveston, 1st Earl of Cornwall, swear vows to each other upon God’s body.  

Event - Piers Gaveston exiled.   Suppression of the Knights Templar in France and accusations of their practices of sodomy.

1308

Legal - Lucca prescribes fines for sodomy.  

Religion - French Ramond Bertrand de Got, Pope Clement V’s papal bull Faciens misericordiam (Granting Forgiveness) against the Templars cites the “frightful evil of the sodomites”.

Event - Englishman Piers Gaveston 1st Earl of Cornwall exiled a second time.  

1310

Event - King Philip IV of France lays charges including sodomy against the late Pope Boniface VIII.

Non-fiction - Italian philosopher, astrologer and medical professor at Padua Pietro d’Albano’s commentary on the pseudo-Aristotelian Problemata (The Problems).  

1311

Death - Egyptian scatological and satirical playwright Muhammad Ibn Daniyal.

1312

Death - English Piers Gaveston, 1st Earl of Cornwall killed by barons.

1313

Death - Ponç Hug IV Count of Empúries (Asturias), accused of sodomy.

1314

Legal - Italian professor of law Cina da Pistoia’s Commentary on the Code of Justinian uses Lex foedissimam of 287 to extend penalties to lesbians.

1315

Legal - Islamic law on homosexuality introduced in Makuria and Nobatia (lower and central Nubia – Sudan).

1315/16?

Death - Italian philosopher, astrologer and medical professor at Padua Pietro d’Abano.

1316

Birth - King Magnus Eriksson of Sweden and Norway b.

1317

Event - Burnings for sodomy at Laon.

1319

Birth - King Jean II le Bon of France.

Politics - King Magnus Eriksson becomes King of Sweden and Norway.

1320 (?)

Legal - Inca Capac Yupanqui decrees that pederasts be burned at the stake.

1321 

Poetry - Italian poet Dante's Inferno places sodomites in the Seventh Circle.  

Art - (?) Chigo no soshi (Acolyte’s Notebook / Scroll) paintings in Daigo temple, Kyoto.

1323

Legal - Islamic law on homosexuality introduced in southern India.

Event - Trial for sodomy of Arnold Verniolle at Pamiers imprisoned for life.

1325 (or 1319, 1320 or 1326) 

Birth - Persian poet Khāwaja Shamsu Dīn Muhammad Hāfez-e Shīrāzī (Hafez or Hafiz).  

Legal - Florence enacts penalties for sodomites, including castration for intercourse with a younger person.  Islamic law on homosexuality introduced in western Anatolia.

1326

Death - English Hugh IV le Despenser the Younger, 1st Lord Despenser executed.  

Event - French Arnaud de Verniolles, Subdeacon of Pamiers, prosecuted for male rape.

1327

Death - The deposed King Edward II of England is killed, allegedly by having a red-hot poker forced through his rectum.

1328

Legal - German Land und Stadtrechtsbuch (County and City Law Code) based on the Schwabenspiegel (Swabian Code) prescribes death by burning for same-sex intercourse and sex with Jews.

1329

Legal - Padua adopts death penalty by burning for active sodomy.

1330

Birth - Korean King Gongmin of Goryeo.  

Death - Frederick the Handsome or Fair (Friedrich der Schöne), Duke of Austria and Styria, King of the Romans.  

Essay - Japanese writer Yoshida Kenko’s Tsure-zuregusa (Idle Writings).

1332

Politics - King Magnus Eriksson of Sweden and Norway becomes King of Scania (to 1360).

(Pre) 1333

Religion - Arab historian Al-Nuwayrī (Shihāb al-Dīn Ahmad 'Abd al-Wahhāb al-Nuwayri’)’s Nihaya states that Muhammad is alleged to have said that what he feared most for his community were the practices of the people of Lot (Sodom and Gomorrah).

1336

Legal - Siena prescribes fines and torture for non-payment for sodomy.

1337

Death - Persian poet Awhaduddin Awhadi Maragheie (Awhadi of Maragha).

1338

Politics - Japanese shogun Ashikaga Takauji (rules to 1358)

1342

Legal - Perugia enacts penalties for sodomites.  

Event - First execution for sodomy in Venice by burning alive.

1344

Event - Burnings for sodomy at Dorche in Savoy.

1345

Death - Juce Abolfaça and Simuel Nahamán burned for sodomy at Olite in Pamplona.

1346

Death - Pascal de Rojas burned in Tudela for sodomy.

1347 

Event - Roman transvestite prostitute Rolandino Roncaglia tried for sodomy in Italy.

1349

Politics - Duke Wilhelm V of Jülich deposed by his sons for sodomy.

1350 (?)

Death - Italian Perugian poet and notary Cecco Nuccoli.

Legal - Inca Roca burned pederasts at his accession and imposed the death penalty on the towns in which they lived.   

Politics - King Jean II le Bon becomes King of France.

1351

Legal - Carpi adopts death penalty for sodomy.

Politics - Gongmin of Goryeo becomes 31st King of the Goryeo dynasty of Korea (rules to 1374).

1352

Death - Japanese Confucian monk Gen’e.  

Personal - King Gongmin of Korea appoints at least five youths as chajewi  (little brother attendants).

1354 (or 1360) 

Birth - Bayezid I, Ottoman Sultan.  

Death - King Jean II le Bon of France’s lover, Charles de La Cerda, murdered by French barons.  Venetian Judges of Public Morals burn hermaphrodite Rolandino (Rolandina) Ronchaia.

1356

Birth - Persian sufi poet Mu'in al-Din 'Ali Husayni Sarabi Tabrizi (Qasim-al-Anwar).

1357

Death - Boatman Nicoleto Marmagna and his lover of four years, Giovanni Braganza, burned in Venice.

1358

Birth - Japanese 3rd Ashikaga Shogun Yoshimitsu.

1360 (?) 

Birth - Ulrich von Jungingen, Grandmaster of the Teutonic Knights.  

Death - Duke Bengt Algotsson, Stateholder of Scania, Count of Finland, favourite of King Magnus Eriksson, murdered by nobles.  Legal - (?) Italian jurist Luca da Penne, in his Commentaria in tres libros Codicis Justiniani imperatoris (Commentary in Three Books on the Codes of Emperor Justinian), writes that sodomites destroy the human race.  

Poetry - Italian poet Giovanni Boccaccio’s Genealogia deorum gentilium (On the Genealogy of the Gods of the Gentiles). 

1361

Event - Saint Bridget discloses King Magnus Eriksson of Norway and Sweden’s homosexuality in a text written in Rome.  

1363

Birth - Japanese actor and playwright Zeami Motokiya.  

Death - Egyptian poet Aybak al-Safadi.  

Legal - Rome adopts death penalty by burning for sodomy.

1364

Death - King Jean II le Bon of France.  

Politics - Folkung Magnus Eriksson King of Norway and Sweden forced to abdicate after being accused of sodomy with the knight Bengt Algotsson.

1365

Death - Mutilation and execution of 15 year old Giovanni di Giovanni for sodomy in Florence.

Legal - Florence adopts death by burning for sodomy;   Florence Council declares sodomy will bring God’s wrath on the city. 

Event - Avignon innkeeper Raymond Pascal charges lodger Arnauld Guilhermus with attempted homosexual rape.

1368

Birth - Japanese Yoshimuchi, 4th Ashikaga Shogun and Holy Roman Emperor Sigismund of Luxemburg, King of Hungary.  Religion - Christian prohibitions of homosexuality begin to be introduced in Lithuania and Samogitia. 

Event - Messenger Benedictus Capello charged with seducing 13 year old apprentice Anthorius Gasparinus in Venice.

1369

Death - Holy Roman Emperor Charles IV castrates and burns a sodomite at Lucca.

1370 (?) 

Birth - Neapolitan (Ischian) Baldassame Cossa, Anti-Pope John XXIII.

Death - Jan van Aersdone and Willem Case executed for sodomy in Antwerp.

1371

Death - Persian poet and satirist Nezam od-Din Ubeydollah Zâkâni (Ubayd-i Zakani) and (?) Italian notary and poet Marino Ceccoli of Perugia.  

Legal - Islamic law on homosexuality introduced in Thrace and Macedonia.

1372

Event - Burnings for sodomy at Reims.

1373

Death - Servant burned for sodomy at Olite in Pamplona.

1374

Birth - Sultan Yusuf III, 13th Nasrid ruler of the Emirate of Granada.  Death - King Gongmin of Goryeo, 31st King of the Goryeo dynasty of Korea, and King Magnus Eriksson of Sweden and Norway.  

Event - No performer Zeami Motokiya performs before 3rd Ashikaga Shogun Yoshimitsu.

1375

Death - (C) Numerous homosexuals burned in Bologna.

Event - Albrecht von Braunschweig-Göttingen, Archbishop of Hamburg-Bremen, accused by Dean Johann von Zesteflet of being a hermaphrodite and is forced to show his genitals.  

(Pre) 1377

Story - Japanese stories Aki no yonaga monogatari (A Long Tale for an Autumn Night), the first of a series of chigo monogatori (tales of monastic same-sex relations).

1381

Death - Two monks of the Beghard brotherhood and a peasant burned for sodomy in Augsburg.

1383 (?) 

Birth - Man of letters and poet Shams Al-Din Muhammad Bin 'Alî Bin 'Uthman Al-Qahirï Al-Nawajî (Muhammad al-Nawadji) of Cairo.

1385

Legal - Islamic law on homosexuality introduced in Albania.

1386

Birth - King Henry V of England and Florentine painter and sculptor Donato di Niccolò di Betto Bardi (Donatello).  

Personal - King Richard II of England creates his favourite Richard de Vere Duke of Ireland and is accused of sodomy with him.

1387

Legal - Islamic law on homosexuality introduced in Greece.  Cremona adopts death penalty for sodomy.  

Politics - Holy Roman Emperor Sigismund of Luxemburg, King of Hungary, becomes King of Croatia.

1388

Religion - French prelate Guy de Roye (Guido de Monte Rocherii), Archbishop of Tours and of Reims, in his Manipulus curatorum  (The Manual of the Curate) writes that the sin of sodomy is far greater than carnal knowledge of one's own mother.

1389 (or 1390)

Death - Persian poet Khāwaja Shamsu Dīn Muhammad Hāfez-e Shīrāzī (Hafez or Hafiz).  

Politics - Bayezid I ‘The Thunderbolt’ becomes Ottoman Sultan and orders troops to collect boys for his harem.

1390

Legal - Lodi adopts death penalty for sodomy.

1391 

Death - English knights Sir William Nevill and Sir John Clanvow buried and commemorated together in the same grave in Constantinople, Nevill having died of grief two days after Clanvow.

1392

Birth - Filippo Maria Visconti, Duke of Milan. 

Legal - Basano adopts death penalty for sodomy.

1394

Birth - Bolognese poet, writer and diplomat Antonio Beccadelli ‘Panormita’, Japanese poet priest Ikkyu and Japanese 6th Ashikaga Shogun Yoshinori.  

Politics - (or 1395) Japanese shogun Ashikaga Yoshimochi (rules to 1428); his lover is Akamatsu Mochisada, to whom he gives three provinces but whose misrule forces Ashikaga Yoshinori to order him to commit suicide.

1395

Death - John Rykener, known also as Johannes Richer and Eleanor, a transvestite prostitute in London and Oxford, arrested, interrogated and burned at the stake.  

Religion - Tract Twelve Conclusions of the Lollards posted to door of Parliament bewailing sodomy in England.

Art - King Richard II of England commissions painting the Wilton Diptych.

1396

Legal - Islamic law on homosexuality introduced in Bulgaria.

1398

Event - Johann Wasmud von Homburg, Priest of Mainz Cathedral and Inquisitor, accuses lay members of the orders of the Beguines and Beghards of same-sex acts ‘against nature’.

1399

Politics - King Richard II of England deposed.

PART FIVE – EUROPEAN RENAISSANCE, REFORMATION AND COUNTER REFORMATION; THE START OF EUROPEAN COLONIALISM; ISLAM AT ITS GREATEST EXTENT

Medieval prohibitions against ‘sodomy’ increased in severity whilst increasing knowledge of the classical world, with its attitude to same-sex love, spawned the outburst of art and literature of the Renaissance.  The decadent Roman Catholic Church saw many same-sex scandals, one factor in the reaction that caused the Reformation, then the Roman Catholic recovery of the Counter Reformation. Neither movements were of benefit to homosexuals as both produced fanaticism that continued and enforced penalties against same-sex activities. Europeans began to export their prejudices and laws around the globe as colonialism began and they started to discover many cultures with same-sex practices in the Americas, Africa and Asia, and to eradicate them where they could.  Islamic power reached it highest peak with the Ottoman Turkish conquest of Constantinople and the Balkans, and in India with the establishment of the Moghul Empire.  Both empires were tolerant of homosexual acts.  China and Korea remained as before, but in Japan in the 16th Century begins the flowering of same-sex relations and the literature describing it that lasted until the 19thCentury.

15TH CENTURY

15th Century

Story - Japanese Gikeiki (Tale of Yoshitsune).

1400 (?) 

Birth - Italian poet and scholar Pacifico Massimi (Massimo-Pacifico d’Ascoli).  

Death - English King Richard II killed, accused among other things of sodomy.  Johans Rorer executed for sodomy at Strasbourg.  Legal - Bolognese jurist Barthomoeo de Saliceto’s Lectures extends Italian professor of law Cina da Pistoia’s Commentary to prescribe death penalty for lesbians.  (Post) Islamic law on homosexuality introduced in Malacca, Negeri Sembilan, Selangor and the Moluccas (Maluku Islands).

1401

Religion - English tract Twelve Conclusions of the Lollards expanded to link Lollardy with sodomy.

1402-1472

Legal - King Nezahualcoyotl of Texcoco in Mexico enacts a law making sodomy for both partners a capital offence; the active suffocated with ashes whilst tied to a stake; the passive tied to a stake, his bowels ripped through his anus, covered in ashes then wood and burned.

1403

Death - Ottoman Sultan Bayezid I.  

Event - Florence establishes Officers of Decency to open brothels in order to limit same-sex activity.

1404

Birth - French Gilles de Montmorency-Laval, Baron de Rais.

1405

Birth - King Juan II of Castille and León.

1406

Death - (or 1407) Fifteen to Sixteen noble youths and eighteen commoners tried in Venice for sodomy and burned.

Religion - Byzantine Emperor Manual Paleologus II’s Chrysobull prohibits monks from forming same-sex relations with laity.  

Politics - Juan II becomes King of Castille and León.

Event - Venice offers cash rewards for informants against sodomy.

1408

Death - Japanese Ashikaga Shogun Yoshimitsu.  

Politics - Sultan Yusuf III becomes 13th Nasrid ruler of the Emirate of Granada.

1409

Birth - Neapolitan Italian humanist, writer and poet Giannantonio de’ Pandoni ‘Il Porcelio’.  

Death - Four priests hanged till death in a metal cage and one tanner burned for heresy and sodomy in Augsburg.

1410 (?)

Birth - Italian (Ascoli) humanist, Latinist and writer Pacifico Massimi (or Massimo-Pacifico d’Ascoli).  

Death - Ulrich von Jungingen, Grandmaster of the Teutonic Knights.  

Politics - Neapolitan (Ischian) Baldassame Cossa becomes Anti-Pope John XXIII.  

Non-fiction - (or 1434?) Berber Abu Abdullah Muhammad ben Umar Nafzawi (Sheikh Muhammad Ibn Umar al-Nafzawi)’s Arabic erotic manual Ar-rawd al-atir fi nuzhatil khatir (The Perfumed Garden) compiled at the request of the Hafsid ruler of Tunis, Abû Fâris `Abd al-`Azîz al-Mutawakkil.

1412

Birth - Jeanne d'Arc (Joan of Arc).  

Legal - Islamic law on homosexuality introduced in Makuria (Nubia – Sudan).

1414

Birth - Ligurian Francesco Della Rovere, Pope Sixtus IV b.  

1415

Death - English Richard Courtenay, Bishop of Norwich, d at the siege of Harfleur and King Henry V washes his body.  

Legal - Florence removes death penalty by burning for first offence of sodomy and prevents removal from office for first offenders.

Politics - Neapolitan (Ischian) Baldassame Cossa, Anti-Pope John XXIII accused of sodomy amongst many other things by the Council of Constance and deposed.

1417

Birth -Venetian Pietro Barbo, Pope Paul II.

Death - Sultan Yusuf III 13th Nasrid ruler of the Emirate of Granada.

1418

Death - Neapolitan (Ischian) Baldassame Cossa, Anti-Pope John XXIII.

Event - Venice establishes Collegium contra sodomitas/sodomitarum (College against Sodomy/Sodomites). Florence Council declares sodomy will bring God’s judgement on the city.

1419

Religion - Japanese Ashikaga shogun forbids monks to dress acolytes in gorgeous apparel.

Politics - Holy Roman Emperor Sigismund of Luxemburg, King of  Hungary and Croatia, becomes King of Bohemia.  

1420 (?) 

Birth - Italian Paduan teacher and poet Niccolo Lelio Della Comare (Nicolo Cosmico).  

Legal - (or 1425) Portuguese introduce anti-sodomy laws to Madeira.

1421

Birth - Italian writer and librarian Bartolomeo Sacchi ‘Platina’ of Piadena and Japanese poet priest Sogi.  

Personal - English esquires Nicholas Molyneux and John Winter make a compact as ‘freres darmes’ (’brothers in arms’) in Harfleur.

1422

Death - Henry V, King of England, d and asks to be buried with Richard Courtenay, Bishop of Norwich, rather than with his wife.  A priest burned to death in a thatched hut in Bologna for sodomy.  Event - English John, Duke of Bedford writes to Prior of Durham monastery demanding punishment for a sodomitical monk.  Venice uncovers circle of sodomitical customers of apothecary shops.

(Pre) 1423

Drama - Japanese noh plays Kagetsu, Jinen koji, Togan koji, Seigan Koji deal with monk-acolyte relations.

1423

Birth - French King Louis XI (le Prudent).

1424

Birth - Vladislas III of Varna (Wladyslaw III Warneñczyk, Ulaszlo I), King of Poland.

Legal - Venice begins to view youths or boys not as victims but as willing partners and prescribes jail and lashes, with torture to obtain confessions.  

Religion - Franciscan Saint Bernardino of Siena preaches one of several sermons in Florence, calling for sodomites to be ostracised.  

1425

Birth - King Enrique IV of Castille, French noble Louis Bastet de Crussol Seigneur de Crussol et de Beaudisner and (or 1428) Italian humanist Giulio Pomponio-Leto.

Poetry - Bolognese poet, writer and diplomat Antonio Beccadelli (‘Panormita’)'s satire Hermaphroditus or L’ermafrodito (The Hermaphrodite).

1426

Death - Antonio Masi (Cantarino) castrated and burned for sodomy in Bologna.

1427 (or 1428)

Death - Japanese Yoshimochi, the 4th Ashikaga Shogun.

Religion - Franciscan preacher Bernadino of Siena preaches such a vividly graphic sermon against sodomy that female members of the congregation flee the church to prevent their daughters hearing it.

Exile - Swiss Basel fisherman Peter Keller exiled for sodomy (styled heresy).

 

1428 

Event - Chinese Ming Xuande Emperor appoints Gu Zuo Censor of the Right Capital; he bans officials from visiting male brothels.

1429

Politics - Japanese Ashikaga Yoshinori becomes 6th Shogun and invites temple entertainers to share his bed.  

1430 (? or post 1432)

Art - Florentine sculptor and painter Donatello’s bronze sculpture David.

1431

Birth - French poet and criminal François Villon.  

Death - Jeanne d'Arc (Joan of Arc) burned at the stake for heresy and cross dressing.

Event - Cologne Council bans Rhine boat salt measurers from forcing young men to have their genitals weighed.

1432  

Birth - Ottoman Mehmed bin Murad Khan, Sultan Mehmet II the Conqueror b.  

Legal - Florence enacts laws against sodomy prescribing fines and creates the Ufficiali di Notte (Officers of the Night).

1433

Birth - Italian humanist, astrologer and Neo-Platonist Marsilio Ficino.

Death - Persian sufi poet Mu'in al-Din 'Ali Husayni Sarabi Tabrizi (Qasim-al-Anwar).

Legal - Portuguese introduce anti-sodomy laws to the Azores. 

Politics - Sigismund of Luxemburg, King of Hungary, Croatia and Bohemia, becomes Holy Roman Emperor.

1434

Politics - Vladislas III of Varna (Wladyslaw III Warneñczyk, Ulaszlo I), becomes King of Poland.

1435 (to 1440?)

Birth - Florentine sculptor and medallist Bertoldo di Giovanni.  

History - (to 1493) Japanese monastic record Inryoken nichiroku (Daily Record of the Cool Shady Eaves).

1437

Birth - Italian humanist and politician Filippo Buonaccorsi (Callimaco Esperiente) of San Gimignano.

Death - Holy Roman Emperor Sigismund of Luxemburg, King of Hungary, Croatia and Bohemia.

1438

Event - Investigation into allegations at English Markby Priory of canons, especially John Alforde, sleeping with youths.

1440

Death - French Gilles de Montmorency-Laval, Baron de Rais, executed for murder and sodomy.

Politics - Vladislas III of Varna (Wladyslaw III Warneñczyk, Ulaszlo I), King of Poland becomes King of Hungary.  

Event - English John Dey, Canon of New College, Leicester, excluded from the College for sodomy.  

Art - Florentine painter and sculptor Donato di Niccolò di Betto Bardi (Donatello) ’s bronze statue David.

1441

Death - Japanese 6th Shogun Ashikaga Yoshinori plans to bestow three provinces on his male lover, Akamatsu Sadamara, and is killed.

1442 (?) 

Birth - Florentine poet Filippo Scarlatti.

1443

Birth - Genoese Giuliano Della Rovere, Pope Julius II.

Death - Japanese actor and playwright Zeami Motokiya.

1444

Birth - Florentine poet Giovanni Cavalcanti. 

Death - Vladislas III of Varna (Wladyslaw III Warneñczyk, Ulaszlo I), King of Poland and Hungary killed at the battle of Varna, the night before which he had been to bed with his page.

Politics - (to 1446) Sultan Mehmet II the Conqueror becomes Sultan of the Ottoman Empire for the first time.  

Event - Venetian Council of Ten closes establishments for young persons at night.

1445

Birth - Florentine painter Alessandro di Mariano di Vanni Filipepi (Sandro Botticelli) b.  

Legal - Portugal introduces anti-sodomy laws to Cape Verde Islands.  

Event - Venice considers, but rejects, a proposal to make executions for sodomy ‘less painful’ by tying victims to a wooden board with a chain round the neck that would strangle them while being burned.

1446

Legal - Venice alters penalty for sodomy to decapitation then burning of the body.  

Personal - French Jean Rey makes an affrèrement contract with friend Colrat, agreeing to live and work together for life.

1447

Birth - French writer and diplomat Philippe de Commines.  

Death - Filippo Maria Visconti, Duke of Milan.  

Legal - Islamic law on homosexuality introduced in Majapahit (Java).  Russian law for the first time prohibits anal intercourse, punished by death by fire.

1448

Birth - Japanese poet priest Socho.  

Death - Gozewijn de Wilde, Stadhouders van Holland, Zeeland en Utrecht executed for sin against nature.

1449

Politics - Japanese shogun Ashikaga Yoshimasa (rules to 1473).

1450 (or 1460?) 

Birth - Venetian humanist and poet Girolamo Balbi, Bishop of Gurk.

1451

Politics - Sultan Mehmet II the Conqueror becomes Sultan of the Ottoman Empire for the second time.

1452

Birth - Italian polymath, painter and sculptor Leonardo di ser Piero da Vinci (Leonardo da Vinci).

1453

Birth - Florentine poet Girolamo Benivieni and Spanish general Gonzalo Fernández de Córdoba y Enríquez de Aguilar, 1st Duke of Santángelo, Terranova, Andría, Montalto and Sessa.  

Legal - Islamic law on homosexuality introduced in Constantinople which is conquered by Sultan Mehmet II the Conqueror, who is alleged to demand the son of Lukas Notaras; when this is refused, he executes the father and his family.

1454

Birth - Tuscan (Montepulciano) humanist and poet Angelo Ambrogini Bassi ‘Poliziano’.

Death - King Juan II of Castille and León.

Politics - Enrique IV becomes King of Castille.

1455

Death - Man of letters and poet Shams Al-Din Muhammad Bin 'Alî Bin 'Uthman Al-Qahirï Al-Nawajî (Muhammad al-Nawadji) of Cairo.  Event - Venice elects nobles to monitor wine shops for pederasty.

1456

Event - Venetian astrologer and occultist Fortunatius Affaydatus reports marriage of hermaphrodite Aemilia, whose trousseau is returned; she then becomes male, Aemilius.  

Art - (to 1459) Paduan artist Andrea Mantegna’s painting St Sebastian.

1457

Legal - Islamic law on homosexuality introduced in Sulu (southern Philippines).

1458

Birth - Sienese page Alessandro Cinuzzi, ‘the most beautiful boy’. Religion - Venice Council declares sodomy was the cause of the Flood. Florence Council declares sodomy will cause harm to the Republic.  

Poetry - (to 1465) Italian humanist Francesco Filelfo’s epigrams about Porcellus Porcellius (Piggy Pig), Giannantonio de’ Pandoni (Il Porcelio).

1459 (?) 

Birth - Florentine painter Lorenzo di Credi.  

Death - French memoirist Jacques du Clerq, Sieur de Beauvoir records death of man at stake who wore women’s clothes and claimed to be both man and woman.

Legal - Islamic law on homosexuality introduced in Serbia, Pahang and Kedah. 

1460 (?) 

Birth - Portuguese Jewish physician and writer Judah Leon Abravanel (Leone Ebreo).

Event - Ludovicus Segato acquitted of wounding in Venice as his alleged victim Antonius Pavanus had made sexual advances to him.

1461

Politics - French King Louis XI (le Prudent) accedes to the throne. He sleeps with Philippe de Commines and Louis de Crussol.

1462 (or 1464)

Birth - English Cardinal Christopher Bainbridge.

Death - French poet and criminal François Villon.  

Poetry - Japanese poet Tosho Shugen’s poem Ryusuishu.

1463

Birth - Italian philosopher Giovanni Pico della Mirandola, Count Mirandola.  

Legal - Islamic law on homosexuality introduced in Bosnia.  Religion - Japanese shogun Yoshimasa orders confinement of a beautiful acolyte making monks unruly.

1464

Politics - Italian Pietro Barbo becomes Pope Paul II.  

Art - (to 1470) Venetian painter Giovanni Bellini’s triptych paintings San Sebastiano (St Sebastian).  (to 1475) Florentine artist Antonio del Pollaiuolo’s engraving The Battle of the Nudes.

1466

Birth - Japanese warlord Hosokawa Masamoto.

Death - Florentine painter and sculptor Donato di Niccolò di Betto Bardi (Donatello).  

Politics - German Konrad von Murach accused of sodomy by the Count Palatine and forced to confess and hand over castle of Tännesberg.  

1467

Legal - Venice requires all barber surgeons to report cases of anal penetration to the authorities.  

Art - Florentine painter Bartolomeo di Giovanni Corradini (Fra Carnevale)’s painting Presentation of the Virgin. 

1468

Event - Italian humanist Giulio Pomponio-Leto accused of seducing his students in Venice, but escapes death due to Roman extradition request.

Poetry - Italian humanist and politician Filippo Buonaccorsi (Callimaco Esperiente)’s homosexual poems found on his flight from Rome.

1469

Birth - Venetian writer and classicist Lodovico Ricchieri (Caelius Rhodiginus) and Dutch humanist Herasmus Gerritszoon (Erasmus of Rotterdam, Desiderius Erasmus).

Theory - Italian humanist, astrologer and Neo-Platonist Marsilio Ficino’s Commentarium in Platonis Convivium (Commentary on Plato’s Symposium).

1470  

Birth - German (Nuremberg) lawyer and humanist Willibald Pirckheimer and (?) Italian humanist Mario Equicola.

1471

Birth - German (Nuremberg) painter and engraver Albrecht Durer.

Death - Bolognese poet, writer and diplomat Antonio Beccadelli (Panormita).  Venetian Pietro Barbo, Pope Paul II d of a heart attack in the arms of a page.

Politics - Ligurian Francesco Della Rovere becomes Pope Sixtus IV.  Event - English William Smyth publicly boasts of sodomy with Thomas Tunley in London but the case against him is dropped.  Germans George Semler, Fritz Röttel, Stefan Karl and Anndre Vetter arrested for being part of sodomitical circle in Regensburg.

1472

Birth - French (Sedan) Érard de la Marck / Eberhard von der Mark, Cardinal de Bouillon, Prince Bishop of Liège.

1473

Death - French noble Louis Bastet de Crussol Seigneur de Crussol et de Beaudisner.

1474

Death - King Enrique IV of Castille and Sienese page Alessandro Cinuzzi, ‘the most beautiful boy’.  Venice decapitates then burns active members of a homosexual ring, whipping a ten year old boy who had played the passive part, and giving twenty five lashes and ordering his nose cut off for a similar eighteen year old.  Eighteen Lombardy mercenaries burned in Basel for sodomy.

Event - Filippo Buonaccorsi (Callimaco Esperiente) becomes Secretary to the King of Poland.   

Art - Florentine artist Sandro Botticelli’s painting St Sebastian.

1475

Birth - Roman Michelangelo di Lodovico Buonarroti Simoni (Michelangelo) and Florentine Giovanni di Lorenzo de' Medici, Pope Leo X.  

Event - Swiss Johannes Stocker, curate of Basel, exiled for raping a choir boy.  

Art - Florentine artist Antonio del Pollaiuolo’s painting The Martyrdom of St Sebastian and bronze sculpture Hercules and Antaeus.

1476

Legal - Milan adopts death penalty for sodomy.  Islamic law on homosexuality introduced in Wallachia (Rumania).  Event - Italian Leonardo Da Vinci and three other young men accused in an open anonymous denunciation before the Palazzo Vecchio and charged with sodomy of prostitute Jacopo Saltarelli in Florence, then freed on technical grounds.

1477

Birth - Italian (Vercelli) painter Giovanni Antonio Bazzi (Il Sodoma).  

Death - Trial in Speyer of Katherina Hetzeldorfer, sentenced to drowning for sex with women.

Event - Italian humanist and poet Angelo Amrogini ‘Poliziano’ becomes Prior of San Paolo.

1478

Religion - Tribunal del Santo Oficio de la Inquisición (Tribunal of the Holy Office of the Inquisition) founded in Spain by King Ferdinand II of Aragon and Queen Isabella I of Castille.

1479

Birth - Grand Prince Vasili III of Moscow.  

Legal - French Jean Boutelier’s Somme royale (Rural Compendium) prescribes three penalties for homosexual acts: for the first offence, castration; for the second, loss of limbs; for the third, being burned alive.

1480

Birth - Bolognese engraver  Marcantonio Raimondi (Marcantonio) and (?) Italian painter Gian-Giacomo Caprotti da Oreno (Salai).   Poetry - Italian humanist Angelo Poliziano’s poem Favolo Di Orfeo (The Fable of Orpheus).  

Art - Paduan artist Andrea Mantegna’s painting St Sebastian.

1481

Death - Sultan Mehmet II the Conqueror of the Ottoman Empire, Japanese poet priest Ikkyu and Italian writer and librarian Bartolomeo Sacchi ‘Platina’. 

Legal - Portuguese introduce anti-sodomy laws to Elmina (Gold Coast/Ghana), São Tomé and Príncipe.  

1482

Death - Swiss Richard Puller von Hohenburg burnt at the stake in Zurich for sodomy and murdering the witnesses with his last lover, his servant Anton Mätzler.

Legal - Islamic law on homosexuality introduced in Herzegovina.   

Essay - Japanese essayist Ijiri Chusuke’s The Essence of Jakudo.

1483

Birth - Zahir-ud-din Muhammad Babur, 1st Mughal Emperor of India.  

Death - French King Louis XI (le Prudent).  Roman professor of law Giovanni Battista Capranica ‘Flavius Pantagathus’, Bishop of Fermo murdered.

Event - Venice uncovers circle of sodomitical customers of apothecary shops.  

Art - Florentine painter Alessandro di Mariano di Vanni Filipepi (Sandro Botticelli)’s painting Madonna of the Magnificat.

1484

Birth - Italian poet Francesco Maria Molza and Japanese warlord Hosokawa Takakuni.  

Death - Pope Sixtus IV (Francesco Della Rovere).

Event - Cologne city council establishes secret commissions to investigate the ‘spread of sodomy’.  Cologne man alleges he had been molested in 1481/2 by Councillor Johann Greveroide. 

Diary - Italian humanist and lawyer Stefano Infesura’s diary Diarium urbis Romae (Diario della Città di Roma – Diary of the City of Rome) accuses Pope Sixtus IV  of sodomy.  

1485 (or 1490?)

Birth - Sicilian diplomat and classicist Gian Matteo Giberti, Bishop of Verona and Italian poet Vincilao Boiano.  

Death - (post) Neapolitan Italian humanist, writer and poet Giannantonio de’ Pandoni ‘Il Porcelio’.

1487

Birth - Roman Giovanni Maria Ciocchi del Monte, Pope Julius III.  Death - (?) Florentine poet Filippo Scarlatti.  

Art - Michelangelo’s statue Bacchus.

1489

Death - Mayor of Zurich executed for crimes including sodomy.  Poetry - Pacifico Massimi of Ascoli's Hecatelegium (The Hundred Elegies).

1490 (to 1491)

Event - Italian humanist and poet Girolamo Balbi accused of sodomy and flees the University of Paris.  

Art - Paduan artist Andrea Mantegna’s painting St Sebastian.

1491

Birth - Chinese Emperor Zhengde (Wuzong) of Ming.  

Death - Florentine sculptor and medallist Bertoldo di Giovanni.  

Poetry - (to 1493) University of Paris’s Publio Fausto Andrelini’s eclogue against Girolamo Balbi, De Fuga Balbi (On the Flight of Balbi).

1492 

Birth - Chinese Zhu Houzhao, Ming Emperor Wuzong and Italian playwright, poet and satirist Pietro Aretino.  

Personal - Dutch humanist Desiderius Erasmus writes a series of love letters to Servatius Rogerus, a fellow monk, while at a monastery in Steyn.  

Letter - Italian humanist and Neo-platonist philosopher Marsilio Ficino’s Epistulae (Letters) include ones to his lover, Italian poet Giovanni Cavalcanti.

1493

Birth - Florentine humanist writer Agnolo Firenzuola, Abbot of San Salvatore and (or 1494) Ottoman Ibrahim Pasha, Grand Vizier.  Legal - Columbus introduces Spanish anti-sodomy laws to Hispaniola (Haiti & the Dominican Republic) and St. Kitts.

1494

Birth - Ottoman Sultan Suleiman I ‘The Magnificent’, Italian Florentine mannerist painter Jacopo Carucci da Pontormo and French classicist, humanist and satirist writer François Rabelais. Death - Italian philosopher Giovanni Pico della Mirandola, Count Mirandola and Tuscan (Montepulciano) humanist and poet Angelo Ambrogini ‘Poliziano’, the latter perhaps of syphilis.  

Legal - Parma adopts death penalty by burning for sodomy.  (post) In Florence, Dominican Friar Girolamo Savonarola ensures enactment of laws against sodomy:  a 500 Florin fine  and exclusion from all public office, and sometimes a public flogging with 25 strokes of the lash, for a first offence; for a second offence public humiliation and branding or exile; for a third offence death by fire.

Personal - Italian painter Gian-Giacomo Caprotti (Salai) accompanies Leonardo da Vinci around Italy.  

Letter - Columbus expedition’s doctor, Dr. Diego Alvarez Chanca, writes letter with first written detail of New World same-sex activity, stating that Carib men castrated and sexually used captured enemy boys.

Art - German (Nuremberg) painter and engraver Albrecht Durer’s drawing of ‘Orpheus, the First Sodomite’ and woodcut Hercules.  

 

1495 (to 1497)

Event - Pogrom against sodomites in Florence.

1496

Death - Italian humanist and writer Filippo Buonaccorsi (Callimaco Esperiente) d.

1497

Birth - Italian (Florentine) poet Francesco Berni.

Event - Girolamo Balbi accused of sodomy and flees Prague.

Personal - Pope Sixtus IV’s epitaph on the tomb of his favourite, Cardinal Giovanni Sclafenato, Bishop of Parma, who d this year, mentions his ingenuousness, loyalty and his other gifts of soul and body.  

Art - German (Nuremberg) painter and engraver Albrecht Durer’s woodcut The Men’s Bath.

1498

Death - Italian humanist Giulio Pomponio-Leto.  Dominican Friar Girolamo Savonarola burned for heresy in Florence, stopping pogrom against sodomites.  

Theory - French physician and diplomat Jacques Despars’s commentary on Avicenna’s Canon.  

1499 (? or 1492)

Birth - Italian painter Giulio Pippi (Romano).

Death - Italian humanist and Neo-platonist philosopher Marsilio Ficino.  

Legal - Islamic laws on homosexuality introduced to Kelantan.

16TH CENTURY

1500

Birth - Florentine goldsmith and sculptor Benvenuto Cellini.

Death - Italian Paduan teacher and poet Niccolo Lelio Della Comare (Nicolo Cosmico) and (?) Italian (Ascoli) humanist, latinist and writer Pacifico Massimi (or Massimo-Pacifico d’Ascoli).  

Legal - Spanish introduce anti-sodomy laws to Cubagua Island, Venezuela. Venice applies sodomy laws to both active and passive men.  (by) Islamic law on homosexuality introduced in Brunei and north Borneo and in some states in Upper Volta (Burkina Fasu).   Reggio enacts death by hanging then burning for sodomy.  

Event - Accusations of sodomy made in Regensburg.  

Art - (C) Zoan Andrea’s engraving Woman and Her Maid.  Italian painter Cima da Conegliano’s painting Saint Sebastian.

1501

Birth - Italian (Pavia) physician, mathematician and astrologer Girolamo Cardano. 

Legal - (?) Spanish introduce anti-sodomy laws to Aruba.  Art - Michelangelo starts sculpture David.

1502

Death - Japanese poet priest Sogi.  

Legal - Spanish introduce anti-sodomy laws to coastal areas of Colombia and Darien (Panama).  

Event - Florence abolishes ‘Office of the Night’ for the investigation of homosexual crimes, which remain punishable.  Painter Sandro Botticelli accused of ‘keeping a boy’ in Florence.

1503

Birth - Italian Pier Luigi Farnese, 1st Duke of Parma and Piacenza (illegitimate son of Pope Paul III), Florentine poet and diplomat Giovanni Della Casa, Florentine author Anton Francesco Grazzini (Il Lasca), Johann Friedrich I der Großmütige (the Magnanimous), Elector of Saxony, (?) French poet Nicolas Bourbon, English peer Walter Hungerford, 1st Baron Hungerford of Heytesbury, Florentine artist and poet Agnolo di Cosimo (Bronzino) and Florentine poet, humanist and historian Benedetto Varchi.  

Politics - Giuliano della Rovere made Pope as Julius II.  

Art - German (Nuremberg) painter and engraver Albrecht Durer’s drawing of German humanist Willibald Pirckheimer “with erect penis into the man’s anus”.

1504

Birth - English cleric, playwright and teacher Nicholas Udall and French aristocrat and diplomat Jean de Dinteville.  Legal - Islamic law on homosexuality introduced in Dotawa (Nubia – Sudan).  

Theory - Bolognese physiognomer and astrologer Bartolommeo della Rocca (Cocles)’s Chyromantie ac physionomie anastasis (Resurrection of Chiromancy and Physiognomy).  

Art - Michelangelo finishes statue David.

1505

Birth - Dutch physician and writer Levinus Lemnius.

Legal - Portugal introduces anti-sodomy laws to Portuguese Indian and Ceylon colonies.  

Politics - Chinese Emperor Zhengde (Wuzong) of Ming ascends to throne.  He takes Sayyid Husain from Hami as a lover during a border campaign.

1506

Death - Ten homosexuals burned in Seville.

Legal - Portugal introduces Christian anti-sodomy laws to Socotra and Muscat.  

Poetry - Scurrilous sonnet written about Pope Julius II as he conquers Bologna.

1507

Death - Japanese warlord Hosokawa Masamoto.  

Legal - German moralist and judge of the Prince Bishopric of Bamberg  Johann Freiherr von Schwarzenberg’s Bamberger Halsgerichtordnung (Procedure for the Judgment of Capital Crimes) – the Bambergensis - prescribes burning for sodomy.  Portugal introduces Christian anti-sodomy laws to Mozambique and Mombasa, Kenya.

1508 

Birth - Venetian theorist of painting Lodovico Dolce, French aristocrat and diplomat Bishop Georges de Selve and Italian humanist and historian Jacopo Bonfadio.

Legal - Spanish introduce anti-sodomy laws to Puerto Rico.  Art - German (Nuremberg) painter and engraver Albrecht Dürer’s woodcut Betrayal of Christ.

1509

Birth - French scholar and printer Etienne Dolet, French aristocrat and soldier Gaucher de Dinteville and the Italian lover of Michelangelo, Tommaso Dei Cavalieri.  

Death - Florentine poet Giovanni Cavalcanti.  

Diary - Venetian diarist Priuli records open sodomy in the city.

1510

Death - Florentine painter Alessandro di Mariano di Vanni Filipepi, better known as Sandro Botticelli.

Legal - Portugal introduces anti-sodomy laws to Goa.

1511

Birth - Portuguese Jewish physician and writer João Rodrigues de Castelo Branco ‘Amato Lusitano’.  

Death - French writer and diplomat Philippe de Commines. 

Legal - Portugal introduces anti-sodomy laws to Malacca.  Islamic law on homosexuality introduced in Johor.  Spain introduces anti-sodomy laws to Cuba.  

Event - Venice’s archbishop announces that female prostitutes are going out of business due to sodomy.

1512

Legal - Portugal introduces anti-sodomy laws to Timor.

Event - Florentine nobles demand that those punished for sodomy have sentences revoked; Giuliano de’ Medici, ruler of Florence and Duc de Nemours, grants their request.

1513

Death - Pope Julius II (Giuliano Della Rovere).

Legal - Portugual introduces Christian anti-sodomy laws in Aden.  Spanish spread anti-sodomy laws in countries surrounding the Caribbean in the Governorate of Castilla de Oro.  

Politics - Florentine Giovanni di Lorenzo de' Medici becomes Pope Leo X.   

Event - Conquistador and Governor of Veragua (Panama) Vasco Nuñez de Balboa’s dogs tear to pieces forty Cueva women-men in Panama, including the brother of the local king captured in women’s clothing.

1514

Birth - Austrian mathematician and cartographer Georg Joachim de Porris (Rheticus).  

Death - English Cardinal Christopher Bainbridge murdered with poison by his lover, priest Rinaldo de Modena, in Rome; Modena is later murdered in prison.  

1515

Birth - French humanist and logician Pierre de la Ramée (Petrus Ramus) and French composer Jean Maillard.  

Death - Spanish general Gonzalo Fernández de Córdoba y Enríquez de Aguilar, 1st Duke of Santángelo, Terranova, Andría, Montalto and Sessa.

1516

Birth - English protestant priest John Philpot.  

Legal - Spanish introduce anti-sodomy laws to Uruguay. Brandenburg-Franconian Halsgerichstordnung (Brandenburg-Franconian Capital Court Order) imposes penalty of burning for homosexual acts.  

Event - Venice’s Collegium contra Sodomitas (Office against Sodomy) employs agents provocateurs.

1517 (or 1519) 

Birth - Soldier and nephew of Pope Paul IV, Cardinal Carlo Carafa.

1518

Birth - French diplomat Hubert Languet.

Death - Joint memorial in Merton College Oxford to Dr. Thomas Harper and Ralph Hamsterley.

1519

Birth - French protestant theologian Théodore de Bèze (Theodore Beza) and (?) English divine and Vice Chancellor of Cambridge University Andrew Perne.

Death - Leonardo di ser Piero da Vinci (Leonardo da Vinci). 

Legal - (to 1521) Spanish introduce anti-sodomy laws to Aztec Mexico and Guatemala.  

Event - Spanish conquistador Hernán Cortés describes Aztecs as ‘all sodomites’ and calls for their ruler, Moctezuma, to eradicate sodomy in his lands.

1520

Politics - Suleiman I ‘The Magnificent’ becomes Ottoman Sultan.  Legal - Islamic law on homosexuality introduced in Java.  Poetry - Japanese poet San’eki Eiin’s poem San’eki Shik-o.  

Art - Venetian painter Titian’s painting St Sebastian in the Averoldi Polyptych.

1521

Birth - Japanese daimyo Takeda Shingen.  

Death - Pope Leo X (Giovanni di Lorenzo de' Medici), Portuguese Jewish physician, poet and philosopher Judah Leon Abravanel (Leone Ebreo) and Chinese Emperor Zhengde (Wuzong) of Ming.  Hans Vitus Völsch ‘Doctor Veit’ executed for posing as an Englishwoman in Hamburg.

1522

Birth - Illegitimate daughter of Holy Roman Emperor Charles V Margherita d’Austria (di Parma), Duchess of Parma and Piacenza. Legal - Spanish introduce anti-sodomy laws to Costa Rica.

1523

Legal - Islamic law on homosexuality introduced in Sinnar and Alodia (southern Nubia – Sudan). 

Politics - Ottoman Ibrahim Pasha becomes Grand Vizier.  Italian humanist, poet and diplomat Girolamo Balbi made Bishop of Gurk in Hungary.

Event - Florentine goldsmith and sculptor Benvenuto Cellini pays fine to settle charges of sodomy.  Italian poet Francesco Berni exiled to the Abbey of San Giovani in Venere due to a homosexual scandal.

1524

Birth - Japanese Hosso sect priest Satomura Joha.  

Death - Italian artist Gian Giacomo Caproti da Oreno ‘Salai’ and Venetian writer and classicist Caelius Rhodiginus (Lodovico Ricchieri).  

Legal - Spanish introduce anti-sodomy laws to Granada and León, Nicaragua, Cuzcatlán (El Salvador) and Honduras.

Religion - Papal brief gives Inquisition ability to prosecute for sodomy in Crown of Aragon.  

Art Roman painter and architect Giulio Romano’s paintings I Modi (The Sexual Positions).  Sienese painter Il Sodoma’s painting St. Sebastian.   Italian playwright, poet and satirist Pietro Aretino’s sexual drawings burned in Rome.

1525

Death - Italian humanist Mario Equicola.

Legal - Spain introduces anti-sodomy laws to Moluccas Islands.  

Essay - Turkish writer Abullatif (Latifi)’s Risale-i evsaf-i Istanbul (Essay in Description of Istanbul).  

Art - Florentine goldsmith and sculptor Benvenuto Cellini’s statue Ganymede.

1526

Birth - French humanist Marc-Antoine Muret (Muretus).

Legal - Portugal introduces anti-sodomy laws to Papua New Guinea.  Islamic law on homosexuality introduced in Hungary.  

Theory - Italian humanist Mario Equicola’s Libro d’Amore (Book of Love).  

History - Spanish historian Gonzalo Fernández de Oviedo y Valdés (Oveido)’s Historia general y natural de las Indias (General and Natural History of the Indies).

1527

Birth - Japanese Kosaka Masanobu (Danjo), lover of Daimyo Takeda Shingen and (or 1528) Francesco de Zanobi Bracci (Cecchino Bracci), pupil of Michelangelo. 

Legal - Florence restores laws against sodomy with stiffer penalties. Spanish introduce anti-sodomy laws to Rio de la Plata.  

Art - Veronese engraver Giovanni Jacopo Caraglio (Jacobus Parmensis or Jacobus Veronensis)’s prints Gli Amori Degli Dei (Loves of the Gods) including Apollo and Hyacinthus.

1528

Death - German (Nuremberg) painter and engraver Albrecht Durer.  Legal - Islamic laws on homosexuality introduced to Perak.

1530

Birth - Japanese warlord Uesugi Kenshin, Russian Tsar Ivan IV Vasilyevich (the Terrible), (?) English divine and Archbishop of Canterbury John Whitgift and French philosopher Étienne de La Boétie.

Death - Bolognese engraver Marcantonio Raimondi (Marcantonio), 1st Mughal Emperor Zahir-ud-din Muhammad Babur and German (Nuremberg) lawyer and humanist Willibald Pirckheimer.

Event - Spanish explorer Álvar Núñez Cabeza de Vaca finds same-sex practices amongst natives of Florida and Texas.

1531

Death - Japanese warlord Hosokawa Takakuni.  

Legal - Ferrara enacts death by hanging then burning for sodomy.  

Art - French edition of Italian poet Giovanni Boccaccio’s Genealogiae Deorum (On the Geneaology of the Gods of the Gentiles) shows Orpheus homosexuality myth.  (or 1532) Italian painter Antonio Allegri da Correggio’s painting Ganymede Abducted by the Eagle.  

1532

Birth - Italian lover of Pope Julius III Innocenzo Ciocchi Del Monte, French dramatist and poet Étienne Jodelle, Seigneur de Limodin and Franco-Flemish composer Orlando di Lasso (Orlande de Lassus).  

Death - Japanese poet priest Socho d.  

Legal - The Constitutio Criminalis Carolina or Peinliche Halsgerichtsordnung (Procedure for the Judgment of Capital Crimes) of Holy Roman Emperor Charles V  (Peinliche Gerichstordnung Kaiser Karls V und des Heiligen Römischen Reiches) makes homosexuality a serious crime, prescribes burning at stake for ‘unchaste’ behaviour between men, between women and between men with animals, and establishes an inquisition authorised to use torture.  Portugal introduces anti-sodomy laws to Brazil.   Soncino enacts death by hanging then burning for sodomy.  

Event - Trials of sodomites in Augsburg.  Sigmund Weser of Augsburg exiled for leading a ‘sodomite association’.  

Poetry - Michelangelo begins writing over 300 love poems dedicated to Tomasso de’ Cavalieri.

1533

Birth - Michel Eyquem, Seigneur de Montaigne.  

Death - Grand Prince Vasili III of Moscow.  

Legal - The Law of 25 Henry VIII of England on buggery.  

Event – French aristocrat and soldier Gaucher de Dinteville accused of sodomy with his cousin and flees to Italy (he is pardeoned in 1542).

Poetry - Italian poet Francesco Berni’s poem discusses being raped by Turkish pirates.

Art - Michelangelo’s drawing The Rape of Ganymede expressing feelings for his lover Tommaso de’ Cavalieri, to whom he dedicates it.  Hans Holbein’s portrait The Ambassadors of French aristocrats and diplomats Jean de Dinteville and Bishop George de Selve.  (?) Portrait of a Young Man as Saint Sebastian by Florentine artist and poet Agnolo di Cosimo (Bronzino).

1534

Birth - Japanese warlords Oda Nobunaga and Hosokawa Fujitaka.  Legal - French anti-sodomy law established in New France, Canada.  Spanish introduce anti-sodomy laws to Inca Peru, Bolivia and Ecuador (to 1542). 

Event - A Catholic priest, Jean Cauin, branded in Noyon for homosexual offences; this was later conflated by a French Catholic writer, Bolsec, with Protestant Reformer Jean Calvin. 

Poetry  - Lampoons written about Pope Julius II’s sodomy.  

1535

Death - Italian poet, humanist Girolamo Balbi, Bishop of Gurk and (or 1536) Ottoman poet and kadi Me’ali.  

Event - English royal minister Thomas Cromwell’s inquisitors find buggery in monasteries in Garendon in Leicestershire and Chertsey in Surrey.  Woman in France punished for transvestism and use of dildo.  Anabaptist Franz von Alsten accused of sodomy in Münster.

1536

Birth - Japanese warlord Toyotomi Hideyoshi. 

Death - Florentine painter Lorenzo di Credi and Dutch humanist Herasmus Gerritszoon (Erasmus of Rotterdam, Desiderius Erasmus).  Ottoman Ibrahim Pasha, Grand Vizier executed.  Florentine poet Francesco Berni poisoned.  

Legal - The Law of 25 Henry VIII of England on buggery re-enacted. Spanish introduce anti-sodomy laws to Buenos Aires, Argentina.

1537

Death - ‘Meister’ Franz von Alsten, connected with a network of sodomites in Hamm in Cleves, beheaded for sodomy in Münster. Legal - Spanish introduce anti-sodomy laws to Paraguay. Event - Italian Pier Luigi Farnese, 1st Duke of Parma and Piacenza, accused of rape of 24 year old Bishop of Fano, Cosimo Gheri, who d 40 days later.

(By) 1538

Legal - Islamic laws on homosexuality introduced in north-eastern Benin (Dahomey).

1538

Birth - Japanese warlord Maeda Toshiie.  

Death - French (Sedan) Érard de la Marck / Eberhard von der Mark, Prince Bishop of Liège, Cardinal de Bouillon and (or 1539) Ottoman poet Celebi of Uskub.

Legal - Spanish anti-sodomy law established along west coast of Americas in the Real Audiencia de Panama, with jurisdiction from Nicaragua to Cape Horn.  French anti-sodomy law introduced in St. Kitts.  

Event - Scandal of illegitimate daughter of Holy Roman Emperor Charles V Margherita d’Austria’s refusal to bed her husband, Ottavio Farnese, whom she marries this year.

1539

Birth - Spanish statesman Antonio Pérez.

Legal - The Law of 25 Henry VIII of England on buggery re-enacted.  Henneberg’s Landesordnung(Regional Ordnance) imposes penalty of burning for homosexual acts.

1540

Birth - (or 1545) Italian composer Giovan Leonardo Primavera.  

Death - English peer Walter Hungerford, 1st Baron Hungerford of Heytesbury beheaded for treason and buggery, the first person executed under the statute of 1533.

Art – (or 1530/1550/1555) Portrait of a Young Man with a Book by Florentine artist and poet Agnolo di Cosimo (Bronzino).

1541

Death - French aristocrat and diplomat Bishop Georges de Selve.

Legal - The Law of 25 Henry VIII of England on buggery re-enacted.  Spanish introduce anti-sodomy laws to Chile. Event - English playwright Reverend Nicholas Udall, headmaster of Eton, scandal with two schoolboys and a servant; he loses his post.  

1542

Death - Florentine poet Girolamo Benivieni buried in Italian philosopher Giovanni Mirandola’s tomb.  
Legal - Grand Duke Cosimo I de’ Medici of Florence passes stricter law against sodomy following earthquake and lightning strike on cathedral.  

Personal - Japanese Daimyo Takeda Shingen makes written contract with his lover Kosaka Masanobu (Danjo).

1543

Birth - Tokugawa Ieyasu, 1st Tokugawa Shogun of Japan (or 1542). Personal - Italian poet and man of letters Agnolo Firenzuola d. Japanese daimyo Takedo Shingen seals vow of love with page Kosaka Masanobu.  

Non-fiction - Italian mathematician, physician and astrologer Girolamo Cardano’s work on astrology and horoscopes Libelli duo, unus de supplemento almanach, alter de restitutione temporum et motuum coelestium. Item geniturae LXVII (Two Pamphlets, One an Almanach Supplement, the Other a Restoration of the Tomes and Motions of the Heavens.  In addition, 17 Horoscopes).

1544

Birth - Italian poet Torquato Tasso.

Death - Italian poet Francesco Maria Molza and Francesco de Zanobi Bracci (Cecchino Bracci), pupil of Michelangelo.

Art - Italian painter Girolamo da Carpi’s painting  The Rape of Ganymede.

1545

Event - Florentine scholar, historian and poet Benedetto Varchi arrested for rape of student in Florence.

Art - (to 1548) Benvenuto Cellini’s statue Apollo and Hyacinth.

1546

Death - Luigi del Riccio, friend of Michelangelo and Italian painter Giulio Pippi (Romano).  French scholar and printer Etienne Dolet burned on the Place Maubert in Paris for blasphemy but probably also for sodomy.

Politics - Japanese shogun Ashikaga Yoshiteru (rules to 1565).

1547

Death - Pier Luigi Farnese, 1st Duke of Parma and Piacenza and Ottoman poet Zati.

Legal - The Law of 25 Henry VIII on buggery repealed by King Edward VI of England.   

History - In Volume 4 of his Historia general de las Indias (General History of the Indies) Spanish colonialist Gonzalo Fernández de Oviedo y Valdés describes same-sex carvings in and near temples in Yucatan and Tabasco and the existence of male prostition and male harems among the Cueva, Careta and Kaziks.

1548

Birth - Italian (Neapolitan) Dominican friar, free thinker and philosopher Giordano Bruno.  

Legal - The Law of 25 Henry VIII on buggery re-enacted by King Edward VI of England with ameliorations re property. 

Event - Florentine goldsmith and sculptor Benvenuto Cellini accused of sodomy.   Scandal of Giovanni Maria Ciocchi del Monte, Bishop of Palestrina, (later Pope Julius III) falling in love with street urchin Innocenzo Del Monte.  

Poetry - French theologian Theodore Beza’s poems Juvenilia.

1549

Birth - Italian diplomat and connoisseur Cardinal Francesco Maria del Monte.

Death - Florentine painter Giovanni Antonio Bazzi (Il Sodoma).  Religion - Jesuit Francis Xavier rails against ‘sodomy’ in Japanese Buddhist monasteries.

1550

Birth - King Charles IX of France, Russian courtier Fyodor Alexeyevich Basmanov and Chinese playwright Tang Xianzu (Yireng).  

Death - (?) French poet Nicolas Bourbon and French aristocrat and soldier Gaucher de Dinteville.  Italian humanist and historian Jacopo Bonfadio beheaded and his body burned on a charge of sodomy in Genoa.  

Politics - Cardinal Giovanni Maria Ciochhi Del Monte, Bishop of Palestrina made Pope Julius III and makes his 17 year old lover Innocenzo Del Monte a Cardinal.  

Biography – Italian (Arezzo-Florence) Giogio Vasari’s Lives of the Artists.

Art - (C) Florentine goldsmith and sculptor Benvenuto Cellini’s statue Narcissus.

1551

Birth - King Henri III of France.  

Legal - (to 1697) Spanish introduce anti-sodomy laws to Yucatan.  

Event - Austrian mathematician and cartographer Georg Joachim de Porris (Rheticus) accused of sodomy in Leipzig.

Art - Portrait of Ludovico Capponi by Florentine artist and poet Agnolo di Cosimo (Bronzino).

1552

Birth - English poet Edmund Spenser and Holy Roman Emperor Rudolf II, King of Hungary and Croatia, King of Bohemia and Archduke of Austria.  

1553

Death - French writer, satirist and humanist François Rabelais.  Legal - The Law of 25 Henry VIII on buggery repealed by Queen Mary I of England.  

Event - French humanist Marc-Antoine Muret (Muretus) flees to Paris accused of sodomy.  

History - Spanish historian Francisco López de Gómara’s Historia general de las Indias (General History of the Indies) mentions same-sex among the natives of the province of Pànuco in Mexico.

1554

Birth - Roman lawyer and judge Prospero Farinacci, English poet, soldier and statesman Sir Philip Sidney, French noble Jean Louis de Nogaret de La Valette, Duc d’Épernon, French noble Jacques de Lévis, Comte de Caylus (Quélus) and English poet, dramatist and statesman Sir Fulke Greville, 1st Baron Brooke, 13th Baron Latimer and 5th Baron Willoughby de Broke.

Death - Johann Friedrich I der Großmütige (the Magnanimous), Elector of Saxony.  

Event - French humanist Marc-Antoine Muret (Muretus) flees to Venice accused of second offence of sodomy; condemned to death in Paris in absentia, his effigy is burned at the stake.

History - Spanish conquistador Pedro de Cieca de León’s La Cronica del Peru (The Chronicle of Peru) discusses pederasty in temples in areas outside Inca control.  

Story - Italian writer Matteo Bandello, Bishop of Agen’s short story revealing that Italian humanist and writer Giannantonio de’ Pandoni (Il Porcelio) had been a sodomite.

1555

Death - Giovanni Maria Ciocchi del Monte, Pope Julius III, French aristocrat and diplomat Jean de Dinteville and Turkish sufi poet and scholar Mehemmed Ghazali.  English protestant priest John Philpot, Archdeacon of Winchester, martyred by Queen Mary I, writing letters from prison before his death to Coventry weaver John Careless, who was also martyred.

1556

Death - English playwright Nicholas Udall and Italian playwright, poet and satirist Pietro Aretino.  

Legal - Genoa adopts death penalty for sodomy.

1557

Death - Florentine painter Jacopo Carucci da Pontormo.

Legal - Portugal introduces anti-sodomy laws to Macau.  Event - Florentine goldsmith and sculptor Benvenuto Cellini given four years’ house arrest in Florence for keeping assistant Fernando da Montepulciano as ‘wife’.

1558

Event - French humanist Marc-Antoine Muret (Muretus) flees to Rome accused of sodomy in Venice.

Autobiography - (to 1562) Florentine goldsmith and sculptor Benvenuto Cellini writes autobiography while under house arrest for sodomy.

1559

Legal - Spanish introduce anti-sodomy laws to Florida.

1560

Birth - Anne de Batarnay de Joyeuse, Baron d'Arques, Vicomte then Duc de Joyeuse (or 1561), Hungarian Countess Báthory Erzsébet (Elizabeth Báthory) de Ecsed and French Chamberlain Louis de Maugiron.  

Death - Italian diplomat Giovan Matteo Giberti, Bishop of Verona and Italian poet Vincilao Boiano.

Politics - Charles IX becomes King of France.

1561

Birth - English philosopher and politician Sir Francis Bacon and Japanese warlord Fukushima Masanori.

1563

Birth - Chinese Wanli Emperor Zhu Yijun (Shenzong) of the Ming and  English poet Michael Drayton.  

Death - French philosopher Étienne de La Boétie.  

Legal - The Law of 25 Henry VIII on buggery re-enacted by Queen Elizabeth I of England in full.

1564

Birth - English playwrights William Shakespeare and Christopher Marlowe.

Death - Italian painter and sculptor Michelangelo Buonarroti (Michelangelo).

Event - French artist Jacques Le Moyne de Morgues notes ‘hermaphrodites’ in Florida.

1565

Death - Persian miniaturist painter Reza Abbasi (Riza yi-Abbasi) and Florentine scholar, historian and poet Benedetto Varchi.

Legal - Spanish introduce anti-sodomy laws to the Philippines, Guam and the Northern Marianas.  

Non-fiction - Portuguese merchant Galeote Pereira’s report describing Chinese sodomy published in Venice by Jesuits.

1566

Birth - King James VI of Scotland and I of England.

Death - Ottoman Sultan Suleiman I ‘The Magnificent’.  Neapolitan soldier and nephew of Pope Paul IV Cardinal Carlo Caraffa and his brother Giovanni, Duke of Paliano executed in Rome for crimes including sodomy.  

Religion - Pope Pius V’s apostolic constitution Cum Primum (As Soon As) proscribes Jews, sodomites and heretics.  

1567

Birth - Ming dynasty official and writer Xie Zhaozhe.

1568

Birth - Japanese warlord Toyotomi (Hashiba) Hidetsugu.

Death - Italian theorist of painting Lodovico Dolce, Dutch physician and writer Levinus Lemnius and Portuguese Jewish physician and writer João Rodrigues de Castelo Branco ‘Amato Lusitano’.  

Religion - Pope Pius V’s Bull Horrendum illud scelus (That Ghastly Crime) decrees that clerics guilty of homosexual offences be stripped of their ecclesiastical offices and handed over to the civil authority for execution.  

Event - Geneva city authorities prosecute a woman for lesbianism.  History - Spanish conquistador Bernal Díaz del Castillo’s Historia verdadera de la conquista de la Nueva España (True Story of the Conquest of New Spain) discusses widespread sodomy among natives of the New World.

1569

Birth - Salim Nuruddin Jahangir (Jahangir), 4th Moghul Emperor and Japanese warlord Ogasawara Hidemasa.

1570

Death - (post) French composer Jean Maillard.  Scots John Swan and John Litster executed for sodomy in Edinburgh.  

Event - Italian composer Giovan Leonardo Primavera involved in scandal with boy Luigi Dalla Balla at Loreto.  

Poetry - English ballad Of the Horrible and Woful Destruction of Sodome and Gomorra published as a broadsheet.  

1571

Birth - Italian painter Michelangelo Merisi da Caravaggio and Shah ‘Abbas I ‘the Great’ of Iran.

Death - Florentine goldsmith and sculptor Benvenuto Cellini and Russian courtier Fyodor Alexeyevich Basmanov.  

Religion - Jesuit Gaspar Vilela writes letter describing monastic homosexuality in Japan.

1572

Birth - English poet John Donne.

Death - French humanist and logistician Pierre de la Ramée (Petrus Ramus) and Florentine artist and poet Agnolo di Cosimo (Bronzino).  

Event - Spanish Pedro Luis Garcerán de Borja y Castro-Pinós, 1st Marqués de Navarrés, Viceroy and Captain General of the Kingdoms of Tremecen, Tenez, Oran and Mazarquivir, imprisoned in a monastery for ten years and fined for sodomy.

Personal - English courtier Sir Philip Sidney meets French diplomat Hubery Languet.

1573

Birth - William Laud, English Archbishop of Canterbury.  

Death - Japanese daimyo Takeda Shingen, lover of Kosaka Masanobu (Danjo) and French dramatist and poet Étienne Jodelle, Seigneur de Limodin. 

Legal - Tyrol’s Landesordnung(Regional Ordnance) imposes penalty of burning for homosexual acts.

Politics -  Zhu Yijun (Shenzong) of the Ming becomes the Wanli Chinese Emperor.  Henri de France elected King of Poland and Grand Duke of Lithuania (he reigns to 1574 then abdicates).

1574

Birth - English poet Richard Barnfield and Chinese writer and poet Feng Menglong.

Death - King Charles IX of France and Austrian mathematician and cartographer Georg Joachim de Porris (Rheticus).  

Legal - Treviso prescribes pinning to a stake by the penis with a nail for one day then burning for sodomy.

Politics - Henri III becomes King of France.

1575

Birth - Bolognese painter Guido Reni.  

Legal - Portugal introduces anti-sodomy laws to Angola.  

Event - (?) The Inquisition accuses the Prince of Farnese of sodomy, but he is acquitted.  

Theory - Spanish physician and psychologist Dr. Juan Huarte’s Examen de ingenios para las ciencias (Examination of Intelligence for the Sciences).

1576

Birth - Italian art collector Cardinal Scipione Caffarelli Borghese. Death - Italian mathematician, physician and astrologer Girolamo Cardano. 

Politics - Rudolf II becomes Holy Roman Emperor; his lover is his valet, Philipp Lang.  

History - Portuguese historian and chronicler Pêro de Magalhães Gândavo describes Brazilian Indian same-sex habits.

1577

Death - Innocenzo Ciocchi Del Monte.

1578

Birth - Chinese scholar official Shen Defu, Charles d'Albert, Duc de Luynes, Constable of France and Italian art collector Cardinal Stefano Pignatelli.  

Death - Japanese warlord Uesugi Kenshin and Kosaka Masanobu (Danjo), lover of Daimyo Takeda Shingen.  French mignons Jacques de Caylus and Louis de Maugiron killed in the Duel of the Mignons; Jean d'Arcès wounded.

1579

Birth - English playwright John Fletcher.  

Personal - King James VI of Scotland falls in love with Esme, Lord Aubigny, later Duke of Lennox, then later in the 1580s with Alexander Lindsey and the Earl of Huntly.

Poetry - English poet Edmund Spenser’s poem The Shepheardes Calender.  

1580

Birth - French Charles Gonzaga, Prince d’Arches, Duc de Rethel, et de Nevers.  

Event - Woman in France punished for transvestism and use of dildo.  

Essay - French Michel de Montaigne’s Essays published in first version.  

Religion - Alessandro Valignano’s Catechismus for Japanese converts warns them against homosexuality.

1581

Death - French diplomat Hubert Languet.

Poetry - Italian Torqato Tasso’s poem Gerussaleme liberata (Jerusalem Delivered).

1582

Birth - Spanish poet Juan de Tassis, 2nd Count of Villamediana (Conde de Villamediana).  

Death - Ottoman janissary poet Yahya.  Japanese warlord Oda Nobunaga and his page Mori Ranmaru killed, perhaps, because Nobunaga plans to give Ranmaru the fief of Akechi Mitsuhide.  Legal - Revision of the Brandenburg-Franconian Halsgerichstordnung (Brandenburg-Franconian Capital Court Order) continues penalty of burning for homosexual acts.   

Event - Ottoman Sultan Murat III celebrates circumcision of his son Mehmet with 50 days of ceremonies including processions headed by male ‘beloveds’. English peer Edward de Vere, 17thEarl of Oxford, accused of ‘A buggering of a boy that is his cook and many other boys’, but no case is brought.

1583

Birth - Chinese official, scholar and social historian Qian Qianyi and Turkish writer Nev`izade `Atayi (Ataullah ibn Yahya).

Legal - English introduce anti-sodomy law to Colony of St. John’s, Newfoundland.  

Non-fiction - English pamphleteer Phillip Stubbes’s The Anatomie of Abuses. English satirist Stephen Gosson’s Plays Confuted in Five Actions.

1584

Birth - Japanese swordsman Miyamoto Musashi and English playwright Francis Beaumont.

Death - Italian writer Anton Francesco Grazzini (Il Lasca) and Russian Tsar Ivan IV Vasilyevich (the Terrible).  

Event - Tu Long, Chinese Secretary for Ministry of Rites, loses post for openly partying with boy entertainers.

History - Neapolitan Jesuit missionary Alessandro Valignano’s Historia del Principo y Progresso de la Compania de Jesus en las Indias Orientales (1542-1564) (History of the Beginnings and Progress of the Society of Jesus in the East Indies (1542-1564) comments on relationships between monks and chigo (acolytes) in Japan.

1585

Death - French humanist and classicist Marc-Antoine Muret (Muretus) and (post) Italian composer Giovan Leonardo Primavera.  Event - Zang Maoxun and Wu Yonglan, Chinese Government officials, denounced to the Emperor and removed to remote posts for intimacy with a male student.

1586

Birth - Italian priest, philosopher and satirist Antonio Rocco. Death - Margherita d’Austria (di Parma), Duchess of Parma and Piacenza and English poet, soldier and statesman Sir Philip Sidney.  Legal - Islamic law on homosexuality introduced in Kashmir.  Württemberg Landrecht (Law Code) prescribes cutting off ears for homosexuality.  

Event - English diplomat Anthony Bacon, brother of philosopher and politician Sir Francis Bacon, accused of sodomy at Montauban. He is charged with sodomy with his page Isaac Burgades, who had sodomised other pages in the household. As the result of the intervention of Henry, King of Navarre, he is allowed to leave France.

1587

Birth - (?) English Robert Carr, Earl of Somerset.

Death - Italian lover of Michelangelo, Tommaso Dei Cavalieri and Anne de Batarnay de Joyeuse, Baron d'Arques, Vicomte then Duc de Joyeuse.  English poet Father Nicholas Morton buried in tomb of Father John Seton in the English College, Rome.  

Politics - Shah Abbas I ascends to the throne of Persia.  

Poetry - Turkish poet Mustafa `Ali of Gallipoli’s Kava`idu`l-mecalis (The Etiquette of Gatherings).

1589

Death - English divine and Vice Chancellor of Cambridge University Andrew Perne.  King Henri III of France assassinated by Dominican monk.  

1590

Birth - French poet and dramatist Théophile de Viau and Italian nun Benedetta Carlini.  

Poetry - English poet John Donne writes poems to ‘T.W’’, probably Thomas Woodward.

1591

Event - Spanish statesman Antonio Pérez, Secretary to King Philip II of Spain, charged with sodomy before the Inquisition; he escapes to London.

1592

Birth - English George Villiers, Duke of Buckingham, Basque cross dressing soldier Catalina de Erauso (La Monja Alférez; The Nun Lieutenant), German Jesuit Adam Schall von Bell (Tang Ruowang)  and French poet and dramatist Abbé François le Métel de Boisrobert.

Death - French writer Michel Eyquem, Seigneur de Montaigne.  Legal - Massa Carrara enacts death by hanging then burning for sodomy.

1593

Birth - Mervyn Touchet, 12th Lord Audley, 2nd Earl of Castlehaven.  Death - English playwright Christopher Marlowe murdered.

Story - English poet, soldier and statesman Sir Philip Sidney’s stories The Countess of Pembroke’s Arcadia.   

Poetry - English playwright William Shakespeare’s poem Venus and Adonis.

Drama - Christopher Marlowe’s play Dido, Queen of Carthage.    English playwright Michael Drayton’s play Piers Gaveston.  

Art - (C) Florentine painter Michelangelo Merisi da Caravaggio’s painting Bacchus.

1594

Birth - French César de Bourbon, Légitimé de France, Duc de Vendôme, Duc de Beaufort et Duc d’ Étampes; and Gottfried Heinrich Graf zu Pappenheim, Field Marshal of the Holy Roman Empire.  

Death - Franco-Flemish composer Orlando di Lasso.  

Event - English schoolmaster named Cooke charged with sodomitical practices with students at Great Tey in Essex.

Poetry - English Richard Barnfield’s poems Greenes Funeralls and The Affectionate Shephearde.

Drama - English playwright Christopher Marlowe’s play Edward II.

1595

Birth - French poet Denis Sanguin de Saint-Pavin and Henri II, 4th Duc de Montmorency.  

Death - Italian poet Torquato Tasso and Japanese warlord Toyotomi (Hashiba) Hidetsugu.

Event - Italian lawyer and judge Prospero Farinacci charged with sodomy in Rome but pardoned by Pope Clement VIII.  

Essay - Michel de Montaigne’s Essays published in France.  

Poetry - English poet Richard Barnfield’s poems Cynthia, with Certaine Sonnets.

1596

History - Spanish writer Pedro Reyes Castañeda’s El viaje de Coronado (The Journey of Coronado) describes same-sex among the Aztecs.  

Poetry - English poet Edmund Spenser’s poem The Faerie Queen.

1597

Birth - Chinese writer Zhang Dai.  

Personal - Cardinal Francesco Maria del Monte houses painter Michelangelo Merisi da Caravaggio in Rome. 

Essay - English philosopher and politician Sir Richard Bacon’s Essayes. Religious meditations. Places of perswasion and disswasion.

1598

Birth - Englishman John Atherton, Bishop of Waterford and Lismore. 

Death - Japanese warlord Toyotomi Hideyoshi.  

Legal - Spanish introduce anti-sodomy laws in Santa Fe de Nuevo México (New Mexico; the U.S. state of New Mexico, extending into the present-day U.S. states of western Texas, southern Colorado, southwestern Kansas, and the Oklahoma panhandle).  Dutch introduce anti-sodomy laws in Komeda and Kormantsi (Gold Coast/Ghana).  

Event - Sodomy trial of baker Ludwig Boudin in Frankfurt leads to his torture, pillyoring and exile.  

Poetry - English poet, playwright and satirist John Marston attacks male ‘stews’ (brothels) in Scourge of Villanie.  English poet Richard Barnfield’s poems The Encomium of Lady Pecunia.  

Drama - English playwright Christopher Marlowe’s play Hero and Leander.

1599

Death - English poet Edmund Spenser and Japanese warlord Maeda Toshiie.

Non-fiction - English academic and puritan John Rainoldes’s Th’Overthrow of Stage Plays.  

Drama - English playwright Thomas Middleton’s Micro-Cynicon describes transvestism in London.

17TH CENTURY

17th Century  

History - anonymous Chinese Duanxiu pian (Records of the Cut Sleeve) documents fifty male-male relationships.

1600

Death - Italian (Neapolitan) Dominican friar, free thinker and philosopher Giordano Bruno burned at the stake in Rome.  

Event - French Charles Gonzaga, Prince d’Arches, Duc de Rethel et de Nevers founds the Order of the Yellow Ribbon in Nevers; the order is suppressed by the King.  

Essay - (C) Japanese Hata Soen’s Inu makura (Dog Pillow).

1601

Birth - King Louis XIII of France and Flemish sculptor Jérôme Duquesnoy.  

Religion - Jesuit communication code includes number 54 ‘amistad de muchachos’ (friendship with boys).  

Drama - English Ben Jonson’s play Poetaster.

1602

Death - Japanese Hosso sect priest Satomura Joha.  

Legal - (post) Spanish introduce anti-sodomy laws to California.  

Art - Florentine painter Michelangelo Merisi da Caravaggio’s paintings Amor Vincit Omnia (Love Conquers All) and St. Michael and the Angel.

1603

Legal - (by) Islamic law on homosexuality introduced in northern Nigeria. 

Politics - King James VI of Scotland accedes to the throne of England as James I.  Japanese shogun Tokugawa Ieyasu (rules to 1605).

Theory - Spanish physician Rodrigo a Castro’s De universa mulierum medicina (On the Universal Medicine of Women) contains section on hermaphrodites.  

Drama - English Ben Jonson’s play Sejanus His Fall.  

1604

Birth - Tokugawa Iemitsu, 3rd Tokugawa Shogun of Japan and Chinese essayist and one of the ‘four high-ranking youths’ Chen Zhenhui.  

Death - English divine and Archbishop of Canterbury John Whitgift.

1605

Birth - French musician and poet Charles Coypeau d’Assoucy, Chinese Xizong Zhu Youxiao 15th Tianqi Emperor of the Ming and Japanese poet Nishiyama Toyoichi (Nishiyama Soin).

Death - French protestant theologian Théodore de Bèze.  

Legal - Islamic law on homosexuality introduced into south Sulawesi (Celebes).   

Politics - Jahangir becomes 4th Mughal Emperor.   Japanese Tokagawa Hidetada (rules to 1623). Japanese ruler of Bitchu, Ukita Narimasa, attacked by his nephew, whose lover, a page, he had ordered killed.  Scandal in Rome of art collectors Cardinal Scipione Caffarelli Borghese and Cardinal Stefano Pignatelli.  

Non-fiction - French poet Thomas Artus Sieur d'Embry’s satire Description de l’isle des Hermaphrodites nouvellement découverte (Island of the Hermaphrodites).  

Art - Bolognese painter Guido Reni’s painting David with the Head of Goliath.  

1606

Death - Russian Tsar Dmitry I (False Dmitry I)’s body dragged through the streets by its genitals along with his male lover.  

Event - Roman Catholic priests Azeveredus and Sequerius report same-sex in Luanda.  

Drama - English dramatist John Day’s The Isle of Gulls.

1607

Birth - Dutch painter Anna Maria van Schurman.  

Legal - English colony of Jamestown, Virginia introduces anti-sodomy laws.

Event - English barber James Slater charged in Hereford with sodomy against child of a neighbour.  

Essay - English philosopher politician Sir Francis Bacon’s ‘On Friendship’.  

Drama - English dramatist Cyril Tourneur’s play The Revenger’s Tragedy.

1608

Legal - Sweden criminalizes sodomy between men.  

Theory - Italian physician Giulio Guastavini’s commentary on the pseudo-Aristotelian Problemata (Problems).  

Drama - (or by 1610?) English dramatists Thomas Middleton and Thomas Dekker’s play The Roaring Girl, with female transvestite character Moll Cutpurse.

1609

Birth - Chinese poet, one of the Three Masters of Jiangdong, Wu Meicun.

Legal - English introduce anti-sodomy laws to Bermuda. 

Event - Richard Finch of London charged with abusing his servant Nicholas Wheeler and whipping him while naked.

History - Spanish soldier Antonio de Morga’s Sucesos de las Islas Filipinas (Events in the Philippines) discusses same-sex activities among the natives.  

Poetry - English playwright William Shakespeare’s Sonnets.  Drama - English Ben Jonson’s play Epicoene, or the Silent Woman.  

1610

Birth - Ferdinando II de’Medici, Mare Duce de Tuscana.  

Death - Florentine painter Michelangelo Merisi da Caravaggio and Japanese warlord Hosokawa Fujitaka. 

Legal - Colony of Virginia enacts law against sodomy.  

Politics - Louis XIII becomes King of France; his lovers include the Marquis de Cinq-Mars and the Duc de Luynes.  

Event - Hungarian Countess Báthory Erzsébet (Elizabeth Báthory) de Ecsed arrested for the torture and murder of many girls.  

Journal - (pre) Italian Jesuit Matteo Ricci describes in his journal Fonti Ricciane Chinese boy actors in Beijing who practise ‘the terrible vice’.

1611

Birth - Chinese author, playwright and publisher Li Yu (Li Liweng) and Chinese poet Mao Xiang.

Death - Spanish statesman Antonio Pérez.  

Legal - Palatinate’s Landrecht (Regional Law) imposes penalty of burning for homosexual acts. 

Drama - English dramatist Cyril Tourneur’s play The Atheist’s Tragedy.  English dramatists John Fletcher’s play The Night Walker, or, the Little Thief.  John Fletcher and Francis Beaumont’s play The Maid’s Tragedy, with love triangle between two men and a woman.

1612

Death Holy Roman Emperor Rudolf II, King of Hungary and Croatia, King of Bohemia and Archduke of Austria.  

Drama - Japanese wakasha (youths) kabuki theatre commences with male youth actors only, often with same-sex themed plays.   English dramatist John Webster’s play The White Devil.  

Art - Bolognese painter Guido Reni’s painting Atalanta and Hippomenes.  

1614

Birth - Chinese poet Song Wan.  

Death - Hungarian Countess Báthory Erzsébet (Elizabeth Báthory) de Ecsed.

1615

Birth - Chinese Minister of Rites and poet Gong Dingzi (Zhi’an) and Friedrich Hermann von Schönberg, 1st Duke of Schomberg, 1st Count of Mertola, Marshal of France, English and Portuguese General.  

Death - Persian ‘king of poets’ Zulali Khvansari and Japanese warlord Ogasawara Hidemasa.  

Politics - Fall of Robert Carr, Earl of Somerset, favourite of King James I of England.  

Event - Allegation of sodomy made against Edward Bawde of Middlesex.  Sir Fulk Greville plans joint memorial to himself and Sir Philip Sidney in Saint Paul’s Cathedral.  

Art - (?) Bolognese painter Guido Reni’s painting Saint Sebastian.

1616 

Birth - Chinese scholar You Huai.  English playwright William Death - Shakespeare, English playwright Francis Beaumont and Tokugawa Ieyasu, 1st Tokugawa Shogun of Japan.  Inquisition burns a Spanish soldier and a Maltese boy for sodomy on Malta leading to a flight to Sicily of homosexuals.  

Legal - Dutch introduce anti-sodomy laws to Guyana.  Drama - English Ben Jonson’s play The Devil is an Ass.

1617

Death - Chinese playwright Tang Xianzu (Yireng).  

Politics - Privy Council debates male favourites with King James I of England.

1618

Birth - Flemish painter Michiel Sweerts, Chinese poet Wu Jiaji, Chinese playwright Yu Tong and Japanese painter and printmaker Hishikawa Moronobu.  

Death - Italian lawyer and judge Prospero Farinacci.  

Event - Frenchman Peter de Guy charged with sodomy with the son of a knight in Middlesex.  

Art - Bolognese painter Guido Reni’s painting St. Sebastian.

1619

Birth - French writer and duellist Cyrano de Bergerac.  

Legal - Dutch introduce anti-sodomy laws to Jakarta, Indonesia.

Religion - (to 1623) Sister Benedetta Carlini investigated in Pescia for claiming to have had visions telling her cellmate to masturbate her.

1620

Birth - French noble Henri Coiffier de Ruzé, Marquis of Cinq-Mars.  Death - Chinese Wanli Emperor Zhu Yijun (Shenzong) of the Ming and English poet Richard Barnfield. 

Legal - Duchy of Prussia’s Landrecht (Regional Law) imposes penalty of burning for homosexual acts.  Puritans settle Massachussetts Colony and introduce English anti-sodomy laws.

Politics - Xizong Zhu Youxiao becomes 15th Tianqi Emperor of Ming.  

Non-fiction - English pamphlet Haec Vir (This Womanlike Man) published to counter earlier pamphlet Hic Mulier (This Manly Woman), which attacked transvestites.

1621

Birth - English Margaret Cavendish, Duchess of Newcastle, French Louis II de Bourbon, Prince de Condé and English politician and poet Andrew Marvell.  

Death - Charles d'Albert, Duc de Luynes, Constable of France.   Legal - British introduce anti-sodomy laws to Nova Scotia.  Politics - Ferdinando II de’Medici becomes Mare Duce de Tuscana.  English philosopher and politician Francis Bacon, Viscount St Albans, forced from Lord Chancellor’s office for bribery linked to buggery.

Novel - Japanese Tomiyama Doya’s novel Chikusai monogatari (Tale of Chikusai).

Art - Bolognese painter Guido Reni’s painting Bacchus and Ariadne.  

1622

Birth - French playwright and actor Jean-Baptiste Poquelin (Molière) and (?) Chinese actor Wang Zijia.  

Death - Spanish poet Juan de Tassis, 2nd Conde de Villamediana.  Event - Somerset inn keeper George Dowdeney charged with sodomy after 14 years of similar offences.

Art - Bolognese painter Guido Reni’s painting An Allegory of Sacred and Profane Love.  

1623

Born - Chinese scholar and philologist Mao Qiling.

Death - Italian art collector Cardinal Stefano Pignatelli.  

Legal - British anti-sodomy laws introduced in St. Kitts.  French anti-sodomy laws introduced in Saint Barthélemy.  

Religion - Investigation and conviction in Pescia of Italian nun Benedetta Carlini for justifying lesbian activity with visions.

Politics - Japanese shogun Tokugawa Iemitsu (rules to 1651). 

Poetry - French poet and dramatist Théophile de Viau publishes poems Le Parnasse satyrique (The Satirical Parnassus) and is convicted of lèse-majesté divine (insult to the divine majesty), burned in effigy and imprisoned.  

1624

Death - Chinese writer Xie Zhaozhe and Japanese warlord Fukushima Masanori.  Captain Richard Cornish hanged for sodomy of servant William Cowse in Virginia Colony.  

Legal - Dutch introduce anti-sodomy laws to New Netherlands (New York).   

Drama - English John Fletcher’s play Love’s Cure on male transvestism.

1625

Birth - Japanese poet and scholar Kitamura Kigin and (or 1626) Chinese official, poet and writer Chen Weisong (Qi'nian, Jialing).  Death - King James I of England and VI of Scotland and English playwright John Fletcher.  Captain Richard Cornish, also known as Richard Williams, master of the merchant ship Ambrose, hanged for forcibly sodomizing crewmember steward William Couse in 1624; the first execution for sodomy in the British American colonies.  Japanese shogun Tokegawa Hidetada orders his page and lover, Koyama Nagata, to be killed for having sex with Naruse, lord of Bungo.  

Essay - English philosopher and politician Sir Francis Bacon, Viscount St. Albans’s Essays or Counsels. Civil and Moral (third and Latin collections).  

Art - (?) Bolognese painter Guido Reni’s painting Saint Sebastiano.

1626

Birth - Queen Christina of Sweden.

Death - Sir Francis Bacon, Viscount St. Albans and French poet and dramatist Théophile de Viau.

1627

Death - Salim Nuruddin Jahangir (Jahangir), 4th Moghul Emperor, Xizong Zhu Youxiao, 15th Tianqi Emperor of the Ming, and Italian diplomat and art connoisseur Cardinal Francesco Maria del Monte.  Legal - English introduce anti-sodomy laws to Barbados.    (to 1644?)  

Novel - Chinese writer Zuixifu Xinyuezhuren’s novels Yi-Chun Xiang-Zhi (Pleasant Spring and Fragrant Character) and Bian Er Chai (Wearing a Cap but also Hairpins).  

Story - Turkish writer Nev`izade `Atayi (Ataullah ibn Yahya)’s Heft han (The Seven Stories).

Art - Mohamed Qãsim Mussavir’s miniature of Shah Abbas I, Emperor of Persia, embracing a page.  

1628

Death - English poet, dramatist and statesman Sir Fulke Greville, 1st Baron Brooke, 13th Baron Latimer and 5th Baron Willoughby de Broke.  English George Villiers, Duke of Buckingham assassinated. Two Scotsmen burned to death for sodomy in Denmark.

Legal - British introduce anti-sodomy laws to Nevis.   Jurist Sir Edward Coke’s Institutes of the Laws of England. 

Event - John Hockenhall charged with buggery and sorcery at Chester.  

1629

Birth - Swedish Countess Ebba Larsdotter Sparre.  

Death - Shah Abbas I of Persia.

Legal - Dutch anti-sodomy laws introduced to Aruba.  

Politics - Charles Gonzaga, Prince d’Arches, Duc de Rethel et de Nevers, becomes Duc de Mantoue (Mantua) et de Montferrat.

Event - First known sodomy case in Massachussetts, which ships back to England five ‘beastly Sodomiticall boys’ who had confessed on board the Talbot.

 

1630

Event - Meredith Davy of Minehead charged with sodomitical assault on youth John Vicary.  Virginia’s governor orders Hugh Davis to be whipped for ‘defiling his body by lying with a Negro’.  Theory - Italian priest and philosopher Antonio Rocco writes L’Alcibiade fanciullo a scola (Alcibiades the Schoolboy).  Italian physician to two Popes, Paolo Zacchia, ‘the Spiritual Father of Forensic Medicine’s Quaestiones Medico-legales (Medico-legal Questions). 

1631

Birth - English poet Katherine Philips.  

Death - English poets Michael Drayton and John Donne.  Mervyn Touchet, 12th Lord Audley, 2nd Earl of Castlehaven scandal, leading to the first known trial and execution of a homosexual in England under the 1533 statute.

Legal - Dutch introduce anti-sodomy laws to Sint Maarten.  

1632

Birth - Anglo-Welsh poet Katherine Philips and French composer Jean-Baptiste Lully.

Death - Gottfried Heinrich, Graf zu Pappenheim, Field Marshal of the Holy Roman Empire killed at Lützen.  Henri II, 4th Duc de Montmorency executed.

Legal - British introduce anti-sodomy laws to Antigua.  

1633

Death - Cardinal Scipione Caffarelli Borghese.  

Non-fiction - English puritan William Prynne’s book attacking the theatre Histriomastix: The Player's Scourge, or Actor's Tragedy.

1634  

Birth - Chinese writer on poetry Wang Shizhen.  

Legal - English introduce anti-sodomy laws to Maryland.  Dutch introduce anti-sodomy laws to Curaçao.  

Politics - Christina becomes Queen of Sweden.

Poetry - John Milton’s Comus.

Drama - King Charles I of England dissociates himself from father’s habits in masque Coelum Britannicum (British Heaven). 

1635 

Birth - Françoise d'Aubigné, Marquise de Maintenon.

Death - Persian miniaturist painter Reza Abbasi and (or 1636?) Turkish writer Nev`izade `Atayi (Ataullah ibn Yahya).

Legal - English introduce anti-sodomy laws to Rhode Island. French introduce anti-sodomy laws to Guadeloupe, Saint Martin and Martinique.

1636

Birth - Chinese writer Wang Zhuo.

Legal - Dutch introduce anti-sodomy laws to Bonaire, Sint Eustatius and (?) Saba.  

Art - (to 1638) Flemish painter Peter Paul Rubens’s painting Rape of Ganymede.  (or 1637) Bolognese painter Guido Reni’s painting St. John the Baptist in the Wilderness.

1637

Birth - Chinese writer Shao Changheng.  

Death - French Charles Gonzaga, Prince d’Arches, Duc de Rethel, et de Nevers, et de Mantoue (Mantua) et de Montferrat.  

Event - Trial of John Alexander and servant Thomas Roberts in the Colony of Plymouth, Massachusetts, for lewd behaviour and unclean carriage, ‘spending their seed one upon the other’.  Alexander is whipped, branded and banished; Roberts is whipped and returned to his master.  

1638

Legal - Dutch introduce anti-sodomy laws to Mauritius.  French introduce anti-sodomy laws to Île Bourbon (Réunion).

Poetry - English poet John Milton’s poem Lycidas.

1639

Birth - Catherine Charlotte de Gramont, Princess of Monaco. 

Legal - English introduce anti-sodomy laws to Connecticut.  Poetry - English John Milton’s poem Epitaphium Damonis (Damon’s Epitaph) mourning the death of his friend Charles Diodati.

1640

Birth - Philippe of France, ‘Monsieur’, Duc d’Anjou, de Valois, de Chartres et de Nemours, Philippe I, Duc d’Orléans; Chinese writer Pu Songling and (?) English boy actor of female roles Edward Kynaston.  

Death - John Atherton, Bishop of Waterford and Lismore convicted of buggery with tithe proctor John Childe and hanged at Cork.  Two young Japanese samurai, Utami Ukyo and Mokawa Uneme, commit double suicide in Edo.  

Story - Japanese story Denbu monogatari (A Boor’s Tale).  Japanese story Mokuzu monogatari (Tale of Seaweed).

1641

Legal - Colony of Massachusetts enacts law against sodomy. English introduce anti-sodomy laws to New Hampshire. Dutch anti-sodomy laws introduced to Malacca. 

Non-fiction - Chinese Zhang Jun-ying’s Ren Jing Jing (The Canon of Using Human Beings as a Mirror).

Biography - English pamphlet The Life and Death of John Atherton.

1642

Birth - Japanese writer Ihara Saikaku.  

Death - Chinese writer and scholar Shen Defu, French noble Jean Louis de Nogaret de La Valette, Duc d’Épernon and Bolognese painter Guido Reni.  French noble Henri Coiffier de Ruzé, Marquis of Cinq-Mars executed.  

Legal - Dutch introduce anti-sodomy laws to Formosa (Taiwan).  

Even - In Plymouth colony, Edward Michell and Edward Preston whipped twice for sodomy.  

Drama - Japanese ban female impersonation in kabuki theatre because of the bloodshed it causes over rivalries (to 1644).

1643

Birth - English scientist Sir Isaac Newton, Swedish Axel Wachtmeister, Count of Mälsåker and French Philippe, Chevalier de Lorraine, lover of Philippe I, Duc d’Orléans.  

Death - King Louis XIII of France.  

Non-fiction - Japanese Shin’yuki (Book for the Friends of the Soul).  English John White’s The First Century of Scandalous, Malignant Priests.

1644

Birth - Chinese boy actor Xu Jiuqing/Xu Ziyun (Mansu - Purple Clouds) and and Princess Henrietta of England, Duchesse d’Orléans and Fille de France.

1645

Death - English Robert Carr, Earl of Somerset, Japanese swordsman Miyamoto Musashi, William Laud, English Archbishop of Canterbury  and Chinese writer and poet Feng Menglong.  

Event - Sodomy trial in Frankfurt of shopkeeper Heinrich Krafft for approaching boys and bestiality leads to his torture and exile.  History - Spanish missionary Andrés Pérez De Ribas S.J.’s Historia de los Triunfos de Nuestra Santa Fe entre gentes las más bárbaras ... conseguidos por los soldados de la milicia de Ia Compañía de Jesús en las misiones de la Provincia de Nueva-España (History of the Triumphs of Our Holy Faith among the most barbarous people ... achieved by the soldiers of the militia of the Society of Jesus in the missions of the Province of New Spain) mentions same-sex among the Tubares.

1646

Death - Black slave Jan Creoli choked then burned alive in Manhattan, New Netherlands for sodomy.  In New Haven colony, William Plaine executed for mutual masturbation with boys.

1647

Birth - English John Wilmot, 2nd Earl of Rochester.  

Event - Negro Domingo Cassedon Drago charged with buggery in Essex with boy William Wraxall.

1648

Birth - Marie Marguerite De Cosse, Duchesse De Villeroy.

Legal - English introduce anti-sodomy laws to the Bahamas.  Dutch introduce anti-sodomy laws to Tortola.  Japanese edict bans outrageous propositions to, or losing one’s head over, boys.  

Event - A drummer convicted of ‘crime against nature’ in New France, sentence commuted.  

Non-fiction - Japanese Baijoken’s Yodarekake, including Shiratama no soshi (The White Ball Book) (to 1653).

1649

Event - The first known conviction for lesbian activity in North America; Sarah White Norman is charged with ‘lewd behaviour each with other upon a bed’ with Mary Vincent Hammon in Plymouth, Massachusetts. Hammon was under 16 and not prosecuted.  English 16 year old John Durrant accused of being buggered by, and mutually masturbated with, seaman Abdul Rhyme on board a Royal Navy ship; both given forty lashes and bread and water. German Jesuit Adam Schall von Bell (Tang Ruowang)  accused of excessive affection for Chinese servant Pan Jinxiao.  

Non-fiction - English puritan lawyer Clement Walker describes newly built male brothels in London in Relations and Observations.  Art - Flemish painter Michiel Sweerts’s Wrestling Match.

1650

Birth - Dutch Prince William of Orange (later King William III of England).

Death - Basque cross dressing soldier Catalina de Erauso (La Monja Alférez; The Nun Lieutenant). 

Legal - British introduce anti-sodomy laws to Anguilla.  French introduce anti-sodomy laws to Saint Croix.  Japanese law forbids officials in shogun’s castle from engaging in sex with youths.

 

1651

Birth - Mexican poet Juana Inez de la Cruz and Swedish Field-Marshal Carl Gustav Rehnskiöld.  

Death - Tokugawa Iemitsu, 3rd Tokugawa Shogun of Japan.  

Poetry - Chinese man of letters and poet Wu Meicun’s poem ‘Wang lang qu’ (‘Song of Beau Wang’).

Drama - Chinese actor Wang Zijia appears on Beijing stage to adulation.  

1652

Legal - Dutch introduce anti-sodomy laws to the Cape Colony.   

Religion - German Lutheran theologian Johann Benedikt Carpzov enumerates six plagues for which homosexuals were responsible: earthquakes, famine, pestilence, Saracens, fat field mice and floods.

Theory - Italian priest and philosopher Antonio Rocco’s L’Alcibiade fanciullo a scola (Alcibiades in School), written in 1630, published anonymously and condemned by the Church.

Event - Joseph Davis fined for wearing women’s clothing in New Hampshire.  

1653

Birth - French actor Michel Baron and Claude Louis Hector de Villars, Prince de Martigues, Marquis then Duc de Villars, Vicomte de Melun, Marshal General of France.

Death - Italian priest and philosopher Antonio Rocco.

Legal - Japanese edict bans making or accepting propositions to boys in Edo.  Another Japanese law forbids bannermen from employing footboys as sex objects.

1654

Birth - Louis Joseph de Bourbon, Duc de Penthièvre et de Vendôme, Maréchal de France.

Death - Chinese actor Wang Zijia.  Flemish sculptor Jérôme Duquesnoy II strangled and burned in Ghent for sodomy with an acolyte.  

Legal - Japanese law makes youth and female role actors shave their forelocks to look like adult men.

Politics - Queen Christina of Sweden abdicates the throne.

1655

Birth - Philippe, Duc de Vendôme, Grand Prior of the Order of Malta. 

Death - French writer and duellist Cyrano de Bergerac, French César de Bourbon, Légitimé de France, Duc de Vendôme, et de Beaufort and et d’ Étampes.  

Legal - The Connecticut Colony passes a law against sodomy, including women. British introduce anti-sodomy laws to Jamaica.

1656

Birth - French statesman Cardinal Guillaume Dubois and Swiss soldier and Russian Admiral François Jacques Le Fort.  

Death - Chinese essayist and one of the ‘four high-ranking youths’ Chen Zhenhui.  

Legal - Lower Austria legal code peinliche Landgerichstordnung (Regional Capital Ordnance) of Emperor Ferdinand III, the Ferdinandea, prescribes beheading then burning for sodomy. Dutch introduce anti-sodomy laws to Colombo.  

Story - Margaret Cavendish, Duchess of Newcastle’s prose fiction Nature’s Pictures.

Art - Flemish painter Michiel Sweerts’s Portrait of a Young Man.

1657

Theory - Japanese Buddhist priest’s manual of shudo, Saiseki (Silkworm-hatching).

Story - Japanese stories Shudo monogatari (Tales of Shudo).  

1658

Birth - Johann Wilhelm II, Elector Palatine, Duke of Neuburg, Duke of Jülich and Berg, Duke of Upper Palatinate and Cham and Count of Megen.  

Legal - Dutch anti-sodomy laws introduced to Ceylon.  Personal - Chinese poet Chen Weisong (Qi'nian, Jialing) meets actor Xu Jiqing/Xu Ziyun (Purple Cloud) at Mao Xiang’s Shui Hui Yuan (Drawn-in-Water Garden) in Rugao, Jiangsu.

1659

Legal - British introduce anti-sodomy laws to Saint Helena.

1660

Legal - French anti-sodomy laws introduced to Saint Lucia.

Non-fiction - Japanese Asai Ryoi’s Tokaido meishoki (Famous Sights along the Tokaido).

Drama - Japanese guide to actors Yaro mushi (Yaro Bugs).   English play by anonymous author The Wandering Whore.  

Art - Jacob van Loo’s painting Amarillis Crowning Mirtillo.

1661

Birth - English peer and Governor of New York Edward Hyde, Viscount Cornbury then 3rd Earl of Clarendon.  

Death - Italian nun Benedetta Carlini.

1662

Birth - Queen Mary II of England.  

Death - French poet and playwright Abbé François le Métel de Boisrobert and Swedish Countess Ebba Larsdotter Sparre d.

1663

Birth - Prinz Eugen von Savoyen-Carignan, Field Marshal of the Holy Roman Empire and Chinese scholar Jin Zhi.  

Non-fiction - Dutch François Caron and  Joost Shouten’s A True Description of the Mighty Kingdoms of Japan and Siam discusses Japanese temple and aristocratic homosexuality.

Diary - English diarist Samuel Pepys records that buggery is common in Italy.   

1664

Birth - French aristocrat François Louis de Bourbon Prince de Conti et de La Roche-sur-Yon and Italian soldier, diplomat and Cardinal Giulio Alberoni. 

Death - English poet Katherine Philips, Chinese official and social historian Qian Qianyi and Flemish painter Michiel Sweerts.

Legal - English anti-sodomy law introduced to New York and New Jersey.  

Letter - English writer Margaret Cavendish, Duchess of Newcastle’s Sociable Letters.

Poetry - English poet Katherine Philips’s Poems.

1665

Birth - Queen Anne of England and Swedish Field-Marshal Count Magnus Stenbock.  

Poetry - English John Milton’s poem Paradise Lost.

Art - (C) Antoine Mathieu’s painting of Philippe of France, ‘Monsieur’, Duc d’Orléans.

1666

Death - German Jesuit Adam Schall von Bell (Tang Ruowang).   Legal - British introduce anti-sodomy laws to Barbuda.  Novel - English writer Margaret Cavendish, Duchess of Newcastle’s prose fiction The Blazing World.

1667

Birth - Irish writer Jonathan Swift.  

Legal - Dutch introduce anti-sodomy laws to Suriname.  Event - Juan Curan sentenced to the galleys in Zaragoza for sodomising Bernardo Martinez and giving him syphilis.  

Poetry - English politician Andrew Marvell’s poem ‘The Last Instruction to a Painter’.

1668

Legal - Spanish introduce anti-sodomy laws to Saipan.

Drama - English writer Margaret Cavendish, Duchess of Newcastle’s plays The Presence and The Convent of Pleasure.

1669

Event - A case of sodomy tried in an Essex court.

Diary - English diarist Samuel Pepys mentions in his diary that he failed to see actor of female roles Edward Kynaston.  

Poetry - English politician and poet Andrew Marvell’s poem ‘The Loyal Scot’.  

1670

Birth - (or 1673) French opera singer Julie d'Aubigny (Mademoiselle Maupin).  

Death - Ferdinando II de’Medici, Mare Duce de Tuscana, Princess Henrietta of England, Duchesse d’Orléans and Fille de France  and French poet Denis Sanguin de Saint-Pavin.  Execution of Major Weir for buggery of animals and incest with sister in Edinburgh.  

Legal - English introduce anti-sodomy laws to Carolina and the Cayman Islands.  

Event - London’s Piccadilly Swallow Close incorporates Naked Boy Alley.

Non-fiction - Japanese Kiyomizu Shunryu’s guide to the male brothels  Inu tsurezuregusa (Idle Thoughts of a Dog).

Novel - (C) Japanese novel Iro monogatari (Erotic Tales).  

Drama - English Earl of Rochester’s play Valentinian.

1671

Birth - Giovanni Battista Gastone de’Medici, 7th Mare Duce  de Tuscana.  

Death - Chinese poet Wu Meicun.  

Poetry - Japanese Nishiyama Toyoichi (Nishiyama Soin)’s poem ‘Hana de soro’ (‘My Name is Blossom’) in Rakkasha (A Collection of Scattered Blossoms).  

Drama - English dramatist Aphra Behn’s play with a homosexual character, Lorenzo.

1672

Birth - Tsar Peter the Great of Russia.

Legal - British anti-sodomy laws introduced in Tortola (British Virgin Islands).  Danish introduce anti-sodomy laws to Saint Thomas.

1673

Birth - Russian statesman Prince Aleksander Danilovich Menshikov Generalissimus, Prince of the Russian Empire, Duke of Izhora (Ingria), Prince of the Holy Roman Empire, Duke of Cosel. 

Death - English writer Margaret Cavendish, Duchess of Newcastle, Chinese Minister of Rites and poet Gong Dingzi (Zhi’an), Chinese poet Song Wan Song Wan and French playwright and actor Jean-Baptiste Poquelin (Molière).

1675

Birth - French soldier Claude Alexandre, Comte de Bonneval (Humbaracı Ahmet Paşa).  

Death - Chinese actor Xu Jiuqing/Xu Ziyun (Mansu - Purple Clouds).  

Legal - Danish introduce anti-sodomy laws to Saint John.  Non-fiction - English dramatist George Lesley’s pamphlet Fire and Brimstone: or, the Destruction of Sodom.  

History - French explorer J. Marquette’s Récit de voyages et de découvertes (Account of Voyages and Discoveries) describes same-sex among native Americans.  

1676

Poetry - Japanese poet and scholar Kitamura Kigin compiles the illustrated anthology of homoerotic poems Iwatsutsuji (Wild / Rock Azaleas), which is published in 1713.

1677

Death - French musician and poet Charles Coypeau d’Assoucy.  Event - Dorothy Hoyt sentenced to whipping for wearing men’s clothing in Massachusetts. Nicholas Senison accused of sodomising Nathaniel Pond in Windsor, Connecticut.

1678

Death - English politician and poet Andrew Marvell, Catherine Charlotte de Gramont, Princess of Monaco  and Dutch painter Anna Maria van Schurman.  

Theory - English Surgeon Charles Peter’s treatise on syphilis, A Description of the Venereal Disease: Declaring the Causes, Signs, and Effects, and Cure Thereof. With a Discourse of the Most Wonderful Antivenereal Pill.

1679

Legal - The Chinese Qing dynasty Daqing luli (legal code) prohibits sodomy.

1680

Death - English John Wilmot, 2nd Earl of Rochester and (or 1679?) Chinese playwright, novelist and publisher Li Yu.  

Legal - British introduce anti-sodomy laws to Anegada and Virgin Gorda (British Virgin Islands) and the Turks & Caicos Islands.  

Politics - Japanese shogun Tokugawa Tsunayoshi (rules to 1709; one of his lovers is later his Chamberlain, Yanagisawa Yoshiyasu).  Personal - English Amy Poulter (James Howard) marries Arabella Hunt in Marylebone Church.  

Drama - English playwrights Thomas Otway’s and Nathaniel Lees’s plays with homosexual characters Sir Thomas Tumble and Nemour respectively.

1682

Birth - King Charles XII of Sweden, Neapolitan Jesuit Matteo Ripa (Ma Guoxuian) and (or 1683?) Japanese painter Miyagawa Choshun.  

Death - Chinese poet and writer Chen Weisong (Qi'nian, Jialing) and Japanese poet Nishiyama Toyoichi (Nishiyama Soin).  English Sir John Finch and Sir Thomas Baines buried together in Christ’s Church, Cambridge.

Legal - English introduce anti-sodomy law to Pennsylvania, which then abolishes death penalty for sodomy.  

Politics - Peter I the Great becomes Tsar of Russia. His four favourites include Admiral François Jacques Le Fort and Prince Aleksander Danilovich Menshikov.  

Novel - Japanese poet and writer Ihara Saikaku’s Kōshoku Ichidai Otoko (The life of an Amorous /a Sensuous Man).

Drama - English dramatist Thomas Otway’s play Venice Preserved, or, A Plot Discovered.  

1683

Legal - Danish law prescribes death by burning for ‘intercourse against nature’.  

Story - Japanese Furyu Soga koyo based on 1640 double suicide of samurai, Utami Ukyo and Mokawa Uneme.

1684

Death - Chinese essayist Zhang Dai.  

Drama - English John Wilmot, 2nd Earl of Rochester’s play Sodom, or The Quintessence of Debauchery.

1685

Birth - German/British composer George Frideric Handel, Marie Adélaïde of Savoy, Duchess of Burgundy and Dauphine de France  and English pirate Mary (Mark) Read.  

Death - Chinese poet Wu Jiaji and French Louis II de Bourbon, Prince de Condé.

Event - French composer Jean-Baptiste Lully accused of sodomy by page Brunet.  

Novel - (or 1686) Japanese Ihara Saikaku’s novels Koshuku ichidai onna (Life of an Amorous Woman) and Koshoku gonnin onna (Five Amorous Women).

1687

Death - French composer Jean-Baptiste Lully.  

Story - Japanese poet and writer Ihara Saikaku’s short stories Nanshoku Okagami: Honchō Waka Fūzoku (Great Mirror of Male Love: The Custom of Boy Love in Our Land), stories Budo denrai ki and Nanshoku okagami based on 1640 double suicide of samurai Utami Ukyo and Mokawa Uneme.

1688

Politics - Prince William of Orange takes English throne as King William III.  

History - Spanish Bishop Lucas Fernández de Piedrahita’s Historia general de las Conquistas del nuevo reyno de Granada (General History of the Conquest of the New Kingdom of Granada) mentions the deliberate raising of 6th sons as passive homosexuals among the Laches.  

Novel - Japanese Ihara Saikaku’s novel Buke giri monogatari (Tales of Samurai Honour).  

1689

Birth - Prince Maximilian Emanuel of Württemberg-Winnental.  Death - Queen Christina of Sweden.

Legal - Japanese law bans non-actor prostitutes, ‘unregulated boys’, in Edo and Osaka.  

1690

Birth - French pederast Etienne-Joseph de La Fare, Bishop of Laon and (?) French pederast Étienne-Benjamin Deschauffours.  

Death - Friedrich Hermann von Schönberg, 1st Duke of Schomberg, 1st Count of Mertola, Marshal of France, English and Portuguese General killed at the Battle of the Boyne.  

Legal - Qing dynasty law prohibits sodomy in China.  Spanish introduce anti-sodomy laws to Texas.  

Event - First Society for the Reformation of Manners founded in England.  

History - German Englebert Kaempfer’s The History of Japan, giving an Account of the ancient and present State and Government of that Empire; of Its Temples, Palaces, Castles and other Buildings; of Its Metals, Minerals, Trees, Plants, Animals, Birds and Fishes; of The Chronology and Succession of the Emperors, Ecclesiastical and Secular; of The Original Descent, Religions, Customs, and Manufactures of the Natives, and of their Trade and Commerce with the Dutch and Chinese. Together with a Description of the Kingdom of Siam discusses Japanese male prostitution. 

1691

Birth - Prussian antiquarian Baron Philipp von Stosch.

Non-fiction - English writer John Evelyn’s Mundus Foppensis (The Foppish World).  

Poetry - Japanese poet Basho’s Saga nikki (Saga diary).

1692

Birth - Italian Cardinal-Nephew Allesandro Albani b.

1693

Birth - Anna Ioannovna, Duchess of Courland, Empress of Russia and  Chinese painter Zheng Xie (Zheng Banqiao).  

Death - Japanese poet and writer Ihara Saikaku and Chinese poet Mao Xiang.  

Novel - Japanese Ihara Saikaku’s novel Okimiyage (Souvenir).

1694

Birth - Theodor Stephan Freiherr von Neuhoff, King of Corsica.  Death - Queen Mary II of England and Japanese painter and printmaker Hishikawa Moronobu.

1695

Death - Mexican poet Juana Inez de la Cruz.

1696

Birth - English courtier John, Lord Hervey.

Death - Chinese scholar Yu Huai.  

Drama - English playwright and architect Sir John Vanbrugh’s play The Relapse; Or Virtue in Danger.

1697 

Birth - (or 1700) Irish pirate Anne Bonny.  

Politics - King Charles XII takes the throne of Sweden; his lovers include Axel Wachtmeister, General Rehnsköld, General Stenbock and Prince Maximilian of Württemberg.  

History - French traveller R.P.L. Hennepin’s Nouvelle découverte … dans l’Amérique  (New Discoveries in America) describes same-sex among the Illinois.

1698

Birth - Italian poet and librettist Pietro Antonio Domenico Trapassi (Metastasio).  

Politics - Japanese daimyo Ogasawara Nagatane loses half his fief as a penalty for appointing his lover, Akimoto, as his leading minister and allowing him to ruin the domain.  

Event - Raids in London by Society for the Reformation of Manners. Lord Portland, King William III of England’s ambassador to France, scandalises French court with Lord Westmoreland and Lord Raby.  English Captain Rigby RN prosecuted by Reverend Thomas Bray of the Society for the Reformation of Manners for approaching a young man, William Minton, in St. James’s Park.  Father Jacob Morelli S.J. prosecuted in Augsburg for homosexual affairs.

1699

Death - Swedish Axel Wachtmeister, Count of Mälsåker,  and Swiss soldier and Russian Admiral François Jacques Le Fort. Three men commit suicide rather than face penalties at Tyburn, including wool draper Grant and clerk Jermain.  

Legal - French introduce anti-sodomy law to Fort Maurepas, Louisiana and lands claimed in later States of Louisiana, Mississippi, Arkansas, Oklahoma, Missouri, Kansas, Nebraska, Iowa, Illinois, Indiana, Michigan, Wisconsin, Minnesota, North Dakota and South Dakota.  

Politics - Rumours circulating of close relations of English King William III and Arnold Joose van Kepple, 1st Earl of Albemarle.

Event - English Society for Reformation of Manners tract threatens exposure of ‘mollies’.    Arrests of sodomites in groups in London and Windsor.  

History - English publication of Tryal and Condemnation of Mervin, Lord Audley Earl of Castlehaven (1631).  

Story - Japanese Nanshoku giri monogatari (Tales of Nanshoku Honour).

PART SIX – THE EUROPEAN ENLIGHTENMENT AND REVOLUTION

In Europe the power of Christian religion began to wane and the freer-thinking of the Enlightenment began to loosen the grip of religion on public morals.  In France, revolution led to the decriminalisation of homosexuality, which the empire of Napoleon spread to much of the continent.  But as the shoots of liberalism began to be seen in Europe, oppression spread in the rest of the world with the rise of vast European colonial empires and the decline of the Muslim powers.  China, Japan and Korea remained largely unaffected and continued as before, with the appreciation of same-sex relations and its literature at its height in Japan, but as peoples in the Americas, , Africa and much of south and south-east Asia lost their liberty, so they lost their freedoms to love whom they wished and draconian European legislation made same-sex acts illegal for the first time in those regions.  

18TH CENTURY

1700

Birth - Austrian protestant leader Nikolaus Ludwig, Reichsgraf von Zinzendorf und Pottendorf and Polish-Saxon statesman Heinrich, Graf von Brühl.

1701

Death - Philippe of France, ‘Monsieur’, Duc d’Anjou, et de Valois, et de Chartres et de Nemours, Philippe I, Duc d’Orléans.

1702

Death - King William III of England and French Philippe, Chevalier de Lorraine, lover of the Duc d’Orléans.

1703

Death - Court of Holland executes Gabriel de Berger for sodomy.  Legal - English introduce anti-sodomy laws to Delaware.   History - French explorer Louis Armand, Baron de Lahontan publishes accounts of his travels in the River Missouri area and dscribes same-sex among native Americans.  

Story - Japanese writer Urushiya Ensai’s stories nanshoku ki no me-zuke (The Pickled Bud of Male Love).  

Drama - English dramatist Thomas Baker’s play Tunbridge-Walks, or the Yeomen of Kent first uses the word ‘Molly’.

1704

Death - Chinese playwright Yu Tong and Chinese writer Shao Changheng.

Theory - Japanese Shinju okagami (The Great Mirror of Shinju). 

Event - English trial of John Norton for oral sex with John Coyney.  

1705

Death - Japanese poet and scholar Kitamura Kigin d.

1706

Death - James Ball, quartermaster of the Royal Navy ship Swallow, condemned to death for forcibly buggering a 13 year old boy in his cabin.

1707 

Death - French opera singer Julie d'Aubigny (Mademoiselle Maupin). 

Event - Raids in London by Society for the Reformation of Manners lead to arrests.  

Non-fiction - English broadsheet The Women-Hater’s Lamentation.

1708

Birth - English Archbishop George Stone of Armagh, Primate of Ireland.

Death - Marie Marguerite De Cosse, Duchesse De Villeroy.  

Theory - English surgeon John Marten/Martin’s Treatise of all the Degrees and Symptoms of the Venereal Disease.

Novel - Japanese Chikamatsu’s novel Tanba Yosaku (Yosaku from Tanba). 

Story - English writer Edward (Ned) Ward’s satire The Modern World Disrob’d, or, Both Sexes Stript of Their Pretended Vertue, including ‘Sir Narcissus Foplin: or, the Self-Admirer’.   

Drama - Japanese Chikamatsu Monzaemon’s play Mannengusa shinju (Stonecrop Love-suicide).

1709

Birth - French writer Julien Offray de La Mettrie. 

Death - Dutch English William Bentinck, Earl of Portland, Prince Maximilian Emanuel of Württemberg-Winnental and French François Louis de Bourbon Prince de Conti, Prince de La Roche-sur-Yon.  Japanese Shogun Tsunayoshi killed by his wife due to his love for the son of the Daimyo of Kai and his plans to adopt the Tokugawa youth as his successor.  

Politics -Shogun Tokugawa Ienobu (rules to 1712) appoints his lover Manabe Akifusa as Chamberlain. 

Event - Raids in London by Society for the Reformation of Manners.  

Non-fiction - English writer Edward (Ned) Ward’s ‘Of the Mollies Club’, second part of A Complete and Humorous Account of all the Remarkable Clubs and Societies in the Cities of London and Westminster.  

Novel - English writer and playwright Mary de la Rivière Manley’s novel The New Atlantis.  

Drama - English playwright Thomas Baker’s play The Female Tatler.

1710

Death - (or 1711) Chinese writer on poetry Wang Shizhen. English Mary Kendall’s monument in Westminster Abbey links her in death with Lady Catherine Jones with whom she’d lived in life.  

History - Case of John Atherton, Bishop of Waterford (1640) resurrected in The Case of John Atherton, Bishop of Waterford in Ireland. 

Poetry - British Army Captain Thomas Walduck stationed in Barbados writes poem about sodomy.

1711

Birth - Italian Antonio Branciforte Cardinal Colonna and Hongli, China’s Qianlong Emperor.  

Legal - Austrian Neue peinliche Halsgerichtsordnung (New Capital Ordinance) imposes penalty of death by fire or by beheading then burning for sodomy in Bohemia, Moravia and Silesia.  

Politics - Russian Anna Ioannovna becomes Duchess of Courland. Story - Japanese Ejima Kiseki’s Keisei kintanki (Courtesans Forbidden to Lose Their Tempers).

1712

Birth - King Frederick II of Prussia and Italian polymath and poet Conte Francesco Alagarotti.  

Death - Louis Joseph de Bourbon, Duc de Penthièvre et Duc de Vendôme, Maréchal de France, Marie Adélaïde of Savoy, Duchess of Burgundy and Dauphine de France and English boy actor of female roles Edward Kynaston.  

Drama - English dramatist Charles Johnson’s play The Successful Pyrate performed.

1713

Birth - British statesman and favourite John Stuart, 3rd Earl of Bute and Jesuit convert Lucio Wu Lujue.  

Legal - British anti-sodomy laws introduced in Gibraltar. Personal - English courtier John, Lord Hervey at Clare Hall, Cambridge.

Poetry - (to 1715) Japanese Kyoto publisher Sawada Kichizaemon’s publication of Japanese poet and scholar Kitamura Kigin’s  illustrated anthology of homoerotic poems Iwatsutsuji (Wild Azaleas).   

Drama - English dramatist Charles Johnson’s play The Successful Pyrate published.

1714

Birth - Italian Abbé Giovanni Battista Bastiani, Abbé in Breslau.  Death - Queen Anne of England.

1715

Birth - French writer and moralist Luc de Clapiers, Marquis de Vauvenargues.  

Death - Chinese writer Pu Songling.

Legal - French anti-sodomy law introduced in Mauritius and Dominica.  

History - (?) English historian and bibliographer Narcissus Luttrell’s Brief Historical Relation of Affairs from 1678 to 1714.  Novel - Japanese Ejima Kiseki’s novel Seken musuko (Characters of Worldly Young Men).

1716

Birth - English poet Thomas Gray, Silesian German Graf Philipp Gothard von Schaffgorsch, Coadjutor of the Prince-Bishopric of Breslau and Chinese poet scholar and artist Yuan Mei.

Death - Chinese scholar and philologist Mao Qiling and Johann Wilhelm II, Elector Palatine, Duke of Neuburg, Duke of Jülich and Berg, Duke of Upper Palatinate and Cham and Count of Megen.  Legal - Russia criminalizes sex between men only in the armed forces in the Military Articles.

Theory - Japanese Yamamoto Jocho’s Hagakure (Hidden by Leaves).

Personal - English courtier John, Lord Hervey on grand tour.  

1717

Birth - English writer Horace Walpole, 4th Earl of Orford, and German (Brandenburg) art historian Johann Joachim Winckelmann.  

Death - Swedish Field-Marshal Count Magnus Stenbock.  

Politics - English courtier John, Lord Hervey joins court of King George II of England.

Media - English writer Daniel Defoe devotes an issue of Review to sodomy and arson. 

Personal - English Circle of Lord Chesterfield, Alexander Pope, John Gay, Carr and John, Lord Hervey.

1718

Birth - Elisabeth Katharina Christine of Mecklenburg-Schwerin (Anna Leopoldovna). 

Death - King Charles XII of Sweden.  

Theory - French Charles Ancillon (C. d’Ollincan)’s Traité des Eunuques translated by Robert Samber as  Eunuchism Display’d, Describing all the Different Sorts of Eunuchs, etc. English compiler and writer Giles Jacob’s Tractatus de Hermaphroditis: Or, a Treatise of Hermaphrodites.

1719

Birth - Roman cross dresser Catterina Vizzani (Giovanni Bordoni), German poet Johann Ludwig Wilhelm Gleim, English libertine George Selwyn and Livonian aristocrat Julia von Mengden (Augusta Juliane).  

Death - Françoise d'Aubigné, Marquise de Maintenon.  

Event - English William Holdbrook pilloried in London for attempted buggery of Thomas Pendrill; the mob tears apart the coach carrying him.

1720

Birth - English dramatist Samuel Foote.  

Event - Pirates Mary (Mark) Read and Anne Bonny arrested in Jamaica.

1721

Death - English pirate Mary Read hanged, and (possibly) Anne Bonny after giving birth.  German crossdressing lesbian Catharina Margaretha Linck executed and her ‘wife’ Catherina Margaretha Mühlhahn punished in Halberstadt.  Legal - Danish introduce anti-sodomy laws to Greenland.  King Friedrich Wilhelm I of Prussia’s Landrecht (Regional Law) re-imposes penalty of burning for homosexual acts.  

Drama - (or 1722) Japanese Chikamatsu Monzaemon’s play Shinju yoi no kojin (Love-suicide on Vigil Night / Shinju on the Eve of the Goshin Festival).

1722

Death - Swedish Field-Marshal Carl Gustav Rehnskiöld.  

Event - Six French male aristocrats found having sex in the gardens of Versailles; all exiled to their estates, except the ringleader, the Marquis de Rambures, who is sent to the Bastille.  

1723

Birth - English novelist Sarah Scott, French actress Clair Josèphe Hippolyte Leris (Mademoiselle Clairon or La Clairon) and Prussian Major-General Johann Friedrich Adolf von der Marwitz.  

Death - English peer and Governor of New York Edward Hyde, Viscount Cornbury then 3rd Earl of Clarendon and French statesman Cardinal Guillaume Dubois. 

Politics - Giovanni Battista Gastone de’Medici becomes Mare Duce de Tuscana.  

Letter - Robert Spencer, 4th Earl of Sunderland exposed as a homosexual by the publication of his letters to his kept ‘mistress’ Beau Wilson in Love-Letters Between a Certain Late Nobleman and the Famous Mr Wilson.

1724

Personal - Sixteen year old Charles Armand René de La Trémoille, 6th duc de Thouars sent away from court where he had been accused of making fourteen year old King Louis XV his ‘Ganymede.’

1725

Birth - English Henry Stuart, Cardinal of York and Chinese poet Jiang Shiquan (one of ‘the Three Great Masters of Qianlong Period’).  Death - Tsar Peter the Great of Russia.  

Event - Molly houses raided in London including houses in Field Lane and Beech Lane, Covent Garden and the Red Lion in Soho leading to many arrests.  French lawyer Edmind-Jean-François Barbier writes that the noblemen of the court are so addicted to homosexuality that the ladies are in great distress.  

History - (C) Japanese historian Kimura Takaatsu’s  Zoku-zoku buke kandan (Idle Tales of Military Families).

1726

Birth - Prinz Friedrich Heinrich Ludwig (Henry) of Prussia.  

Death - French pederast Étienne-Benjamin Deschauffours strangled then burned in Paris. Richard Wise buried in Granville Piper’s tomb in St. Mary Magdalene, Launceston.  Last execution for sodomy (by decapitation) in Hamburg Imperial Free City. Mollies Gabriel Lawrence, William Griffin and Thomas Wright hanged at Tyburn.  Margaret ‘Mother’ Clap dies after being pilloried in the stocks.  French gentleman Benjamin Deschauffors burned in Paris for running a ‘sodomy school’ and selling boys.  

Event - Raids in London by Reformation of Manners Society.  London authorities set traps for mollies in St. James’s Park.  Trials of those arrested in molly houses in 1725.  Second batch of molly trials.   August William Brown entrapped in Moorfields.  

Personal - John, Lord Hervey meets Stephen Fox.  

1727

Birth - Prussian Kammerherr Ernst Ahasverus Heinrich Graf von Lehndorff and Chinese poet and critic Zhao Yi.

Death - English scientist Sir Isaac Newton.  

Legal - China’s Law Code criminalizes pederasty with a punishment of four weeks jail and 100 strokes with a bamboo cane.

Event - George Duffus charged with sodomy in London.

Personal - English writer Horace Walpole, 4th Earl of Orford goes to Eton; his ‘Triumvirate’ there includes George Montagu and Charles Lyttelton (later Bishop of Carlisle) and his ‘Quadruple Alliance’ there includes poet Thomas Gray, Richard West and Thomas Ashton.  His closest friend is Henry Seymour Conway, his ‘intimate’ is Lord Lincoln, later 2nd Duke of Newcastle. Libertines Richard Edgcumbe and George Selwyn (Lincoln’s closest friend and later close friend of Lord March – ‘sentimental sodomist’; ‘necrophile’) form the ‘Out of Town Party’.  

1728

Birth - Bohemian German painter Anton Mengs, Charles Peter Ulrich of Schleswig-Holstein-Gottorp Emperor Peter III of Russia and French diplomat and spy Charles-Geneviève-Louis-Auguste-André-Timothée d'Éon de Beaumont (Chevalier d’Éon de Beaumont).

Personal - English peer John, Lord Hervey goes to France with Stephen Fox.

1729

Birth - Sophie Friederike Auguste von Anhalt-Zerbst-Dornburg in Pomerania (Empress Yekaterina Alexeevna II - Catherine the Great of Russia) and French Admiral Comte Pierre André de Suffren de Saint Tropez, Bailli de Suffren.  

Death - French actor Michel Baron and Russian statesman Prince Aleksander Danilovich Menshikov Generalissimus, Prince of the Russian Empire, Duke of Izhora (Ingria), Prince of the Holy Roman Empire, Duke of Cosel.

Non-fiction - English book Hell Upon Earth: or, the Town in an Uproar.

1730

Birth - German (Magdeburg) soldier and American Master General of the Continental Army Friedrich Wilhelm August Heinrich Ferdinand von Steuben (Baron Friedrich von Steuben) and Chinese collector, editor and historian Bi Yuan (Bi Xiangheng, Bi Qiufan, Lingyan shanren).   

Death - King Frederick II of Prussia as Crown Prince attempts to elope with Hans von Katte, who is executed in front of him.  Sodomite burned at stake in Potsdam, Prussia. Starting in Utrecht, Dutch gay pogrom to 1731, with 75 executions (by strangling, hanging, beheading, singeing and drowning in water butts), 100 sentenced to death in absentia, 91 exiled.        

Legal - Province of Holland (in the United Provinces) criminalizes same-sex acts.  

Politics - Anna Ioannovna, Duchess of Courland becomes Empress of Russia.  

Event - Court of Frisia informs Groningen that homosexuals often give each other women’s names.

Art - Dutch engraving Justice Glorified by the Discovery and Punishment of Rising Sin.  Japanese two volume book of engravings Nanshoku yamaji no tsuuyu (Dew on the Mountain Path of Nanshoku) by Nishikawa Sokenobu (or 1715 / 1722).

1731

Death - King Friedrich Wilhelm I of Prussia bills Potsdam the cost of burning a sodomite named Lepsch.  

Politics - English politician William Pulteney, 1st Earl of Bath’s pamphlet attacks John, Lord Hervey for sodomy.  

Event - Collapse of dykes in the United Provinces (Netherlands) and flooding intensifies gay witch hunt.

Drama - English playwright George Lillo’s play The London Merchant.

1732

Birth - Stanislaw August II Poniatowski, last King and Grand Duke of the Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth.  

Legal - Dutch law ceases to enforce seizure of executed sodomites’ property.  

Personal - English John, Lord Hervey and English politician William Pulteney, 1st Earl of Bath duel.

1733

Legal - English introduce anti-sodomy laws to Georgia.  Danish anti-sodomy law introduced to Saint Croix.

Poetry - English poet Alexander Pope calls courtier John, Lord Hervey ‘Lord Fanny’ in ‘An Imitation of the First Satire of the Second Book of Horace’.

1734

Birth - Japanese author, scholar and poet Ueda Akinari.  

Death - Claude Louis Hector de Villars, Prince de Martigues, Marquis then Duc de Villars, Vicomte de Melun, Marshal General of France.  

Legal - Swedish National Law Code makes no mention of sodomy.  Sub-statute added to illicit sex chapter of Qing legal code proscribing sex between men, forced or consensual, with penalties of caning and imprisonment for one month. 

Personal - English writer Horace Walpole, 4th Earl of Orford goes up to King’s College, Cambridge; he falls in love with Henry Conway (later General and Secretary of State).

Autobiography - English courtier John, Lord Hervey writes Memoirs.

Poetry - English courtier John, Lord Hervey writes and poem in response to poet Alexander Pope: ‘Epistle to a Doctor of Divinity’.  

1735 

Non-fiction - English writer Thomas Gilbert’s A View of the Town: In an Epistle to a Friend in the Country. A Satire.

Poetry - English poet Alexander Pope attacks courtier John, Lord Hervey in ‘Epistle to Dr Arbuthnot’, characterising Hervey as ‘Paris’ and ‘Sporus’.  

1736

Birth - (1737?) French writer and politician Charles-Michel, Marquis de Villette.  

Death - Prinz Eugen von Savoyen-Carignan, Feldherren of the Holy Roman Empire.

Politics - Hongli becomes China’s Qianlong Emperor.  

Personal - Italian polymath and poet Conte Francesco Alagaroti arrives in London, introduced by Voltaire to John, Lord Hervey, who has triangular affair with Lady Mary Wortley and Alagaroti.  

Poetry - English Oxford don William King refers to Lady Frances Brudenell, Duchess of Newburgh as a ‘lesbian’ in The Toast.

1738

Birth - George Clavering Cowper, 3rd Earl Cowper.  

Event - Last Society for the Reformation of Manners disbanded in England.

1739

Birth - Irish Lady Eleanor Butler. 

Death - Giovanni Battista Gastone de’Medici, Mare Duce de Tuscana.   

Event - Reverend Robert Thislethwayte, Warden of Wadham College, Oxford, charged with sodomitical assault on a college commoner in College Wit Sharpened and flees to France.

Personal - English writer Horace Walpole, 4th Earl of Orford goes on grand tour with Thomas Gray, Richard West and Thomas Ashton.

1740

Birth - Donatien Alphonse Francois, Marquis de Sade, German poet Johann Georg Jacobi and French singer Sophie Arnould.  

Death - Chinese scholar Jin Zhi.

Legal - Qing dynasty law prohibits same-sex relations in China.  

Politics - Frederick II (the Great) becomes King of Prussia.  Elisabeth Katharina Christine of Mecklenburg-Schwerin (Anna Leopoldovna) becomes Regent of Russia (to 1741) and has an affair with Livonian aristocrat Julia von Mengden (Augusta Juliane).  

1741

Death - French pederast Etienne-Joseph de La Fare, Bishop of Laon. 

Theory - English physician James Parsons’s A Mechanical and Critical Enquiry into the Nature of Hermaphrodites.

Novel - English novelist Henry Fielding parodies John, Lord Hervey as Beau Didapper in the novel Joseph Andrews.  

1742

Death - English poet Richard West.

History - English book Select Trials … From the Year 1720 to this Time.  

Poetry - English poet Thomas Gray’s ‘Sonnet on the Death of Richard West’ and ‘Ode on a Distant Prospect of Eton College’.  Drama - Japanese Tsuuchi Hanjuro, Yasuda Abun and Nakada Mansuke’s kabuki play Narukami Fudo Kitayama zakura (Kitayama Cherry-blossoms of Narukami and Fudo).

1743

Birth - Prussian Major Christian Ludwig von Kaphengst, Russian Princess Yekaterina Romanovna Vorontsova-Dashkova and Italian occultist and forger Giuseppe Balsamo (Conte Alessandro di Cagliostro).  

Death - English courtier John, Lord Hervey and Roman cross dresser Catterina Vizzani (Giovanni Bordoni).  Execution for sodomy of an Irish doctor in Fort Frederica, Georgia.  

Art - English painter William Hogarth’s engravings Marriage-a-la-mode.

1744

History - French explorer Pierre François Xavier de Charlevoix S.J.’s Hist. et déscript. gen. de la Nouvelle France (History and General Description of New France) describes same-sex among the Iroquois.

Biography - Breve storia della vita di Catterina Vizzani romana che per ott'anni vesti abito da uomo in qualita di servidore, la quale dopo varj casi essendo in fine stata uccisa fu trovata pulcella nella sezzione del suo cadavero (A brief history of the life of Roman Catterina Vizzani, who for eight years wore a man's dress as a servant, who after several cases was finally killed and was found to have female organs in that section of her cadaver) by Giovanni Bianchi Bianchi.   

Art - François Boucher’s painting Jupiter and Callisto.

1745

Birth - Danish Count Frederik Vilhelm Conrad Holck, Field Marshal Prince Mikhail Illarionovich Golenishchev-Kutuzov and Countess Anna Stepanovna Protasov.  

Death - Irish writer Jonathan Swift.

Politics - Japanese shogun Tokugawa Ieshige (rules to 1760); accused of appointing his controversial lover Ooka Tadamitsu as an official.

1746

Birth - King Gustav III of Sweden.

Death - Neapolitan Jesuit Matteo Ripa (Ma Guoxuian).  Elisabeth Katharina Christine of Mecklenburg-Schwerin (Anna Leopoldovna) dies in prison.  

Event - Mary (Dr. Charles) Hamilton charged with fraud at Taunton, England, for marrying a woman, Mary Price, and sentenced to six months in prison with whipping in four West Country towns.

Novel - English novelist Henry Fielding’s novel The Female Husband.  

1747

Birth - English poet Anna Seward.

Death - French poet and moralist Luc de Clapiers, Marquis de Vauvenargues and French soldier Claude Alexandre, Comte de Bonneval (Humbaracı Ahmet Paşa).

Politics - Graf Philipp Gothard von Schaffgorsch (“the Bishop of Sodom”) becomes Prince-Bishop of Breslau.  

History - (pre) Japanese Dazai Shundai’s Sanno gaiki (Unofficial History of the Three Rulers).

Drama - English dramatist David Garrick plays Mr. Fribble in his own play Miss in Her Teen: or, The Medley of Lovers. He is attacked in The Pretty Gentleman: or, the Softness of Manners Vindicated from the False Ridicule Exhibited under the Character of William Fribble.

1748

Theory - French social commentator and political thinker Charles-Louis de Secondat, Baron de La Brède et de Montesquieu’s The Spirit of the Laws.  French writer Julien Offray de La Mettrie justifies homosexuality in Discours sur le bonheur (Discourse on Happiness).  

Event - Paris police report on gay hostelries.

Novel - Scottish poet and author Tobias George Smollett’s novel Roderick Random.  French writer Denis Diderot’s novel Les bijoux indiscrets (The Indiscreet Jewels).

1749

Birth - King Christian VII of Denmark, Marie Thérèse Louise of Savoy, Princesse de Lamballe and Yolande Martine Gabrielle Duchesse de Polignac. 

Death - Two workers burned to death for sodomy in Paris.  Sodomy trial in Hamburg.

Theory - English writer Thomas Cannon’s pamphlet Ancient and Modern Pederasty Investigated and Exemplify'd, the earliest defence of homosexuality in English.  

Event - English novelist John Cleland falls out with Thomas Cannon and accuses him of being a homosexual. Cannon and his printer are charged with obscenity, Cannon fleeing into exile for 3 years, his printer pilloried and jailed for a month.

Non-fiction - (or 1748) English pamphlet Satan’s Harvest Home: Reasons for the Growth of Sodomy, in England accuses Italy of fostering homosexuality.

Novel - English novelist John Cleland in Fleet Prison writes novel Memoirs of a Woman of Pleasure (Fanny Hill). 

1750

Birth - Scot James Ogilvy, 7th Earl of Findlater and 4th Earl of Seafield.  

Death - Carpenter and pork butcher burned at the stake in the Place de la Grève, Paris for sodomy.  

Religion - Thomas Sherlock, Bishop of London, blames two earthquakes on the rise of sodomy in the city.  

Theory - British surgeon George Arnaud’s Dissertation on Hermaphrodites.

Event - Two women denounced by their landlady in Amsterdam for cohabiting.  

Personal - Beijing gossip of two zhuangyaun furen (principal graduate wives), actor Fang Junguan with scholar Zhuang Bechun; Li Guiguan with scholar Bi Qiufan.   

History - Chinese Rulin waishi (Unofficial History of the Scholars) includes mention of seeking a male lover among scholars.

1751

Death - French writer Julien Offray de La Mettrie. 

Legal - Bavarian legal code Codex Iuris Bavarici Criminalis prescribes death by burning for sodomites.  Event - English writer Horace Walpole, 4th Earl of Orford’s brother Edward accused of sodomy, but accusers are imprisoned.  

Biography - The True History and Adventures of Catharine Vizzani by surgeon Giovanni Battista Bianchi, translated into English by pornographer John Cleland.

Letter - English poet Alexander Pope’s ‘A Letter to a Noble Lord’ attacking John, Lord Hervey’s sexuality published after both their deaths.  

Novel - Scottish novelist Tobias George Smollett’s novel The Adventures of Peregrine Pickle.  

Poetry - English poet Thomas Gray’s ‘Elegy Written in a Country Churchyard’.

1752

Birth - Maria Carolina Louise Josepha Johanna Antonia of Austria, Queen of Naples and Sicily and Swiss historian Johannes von Müller.  

Death - Italian soldier, diplomat and Cardinal Giulio Alberoni.

Event - Scandal in Rome of Henry Stuart, Cardinal of York and his majordomo, Lercari.

Personal - English writer Horace Walpole, 4th Earl of Orford begins reconfiguration of Strawberry Hill.  

1753

Birth - French lawyer and statesman Jean Jacques-Régis, 1st Duc de Parmes et 1st Duc de Cambacérès and Japanese printmaker and painter Kitagawa Utamaro.  

Death - Japanese painter Miyagawa Choshun.  

Non-fiction - Prinz Friedrich Heinrich Ludwig von Preussen (Prince Henry of Prussia) publishes Mémoire sur la situation présente de sa Majesté Prussienne (Memoir on the Present Situation of His Prussian Majesty) under the pseudonym ‘Maréchal Gessler’.

Biography - French writer and philosopher François-Marie Arouet (Voltaire) exposes King Frederick II of Prussia’s male lovers in La vie privé du roi de Prusse (The Private Life of the King of Prussia).  

Novel - Tobias George Smollett’s novel The Adventures of Ferdinand, Count Fathom.

Art - English painter William Hogarth’s The Analysis of Beauty.   

1754

Birth - Friedrich Wilhelm Karl, Frederick I, Duke, Elector then King of Württemberg and Countess Alexandra Branitskaya.  

Non-fiction - English re-publication of life of Bishop Atherton in The Political Balance for 1754 as an attack on Archbishop George Stone of Armagh, Primate of Ireland.

1755

Birth - Louis Stanislas Xavier de Bourbon, ‘le Desiré (‘the Desired’), Comte de Provence then King Louis XVIII of France and Navarre,  English the Honourable Sarah Ponsonby, Anglo-American businessman Tench Coxe, Maria Antonia Josepha Johanna of Austria (Marie Antoinette), Queen of France and (or 1757?) American philosopher and founding father Alexander Hamilton. Theory - German art historian Johann Joachim Winckelmann’s Gedanken über die Nachahmung der griechischen Werke in der Malerei und Bildhauerkunst (Reflections on the Imitation of Greek Works in Painting and Sculpture).

1756

Birth - German author and essayist Karl Philipp Moritz and French actress Françoise Marie Antoinette Joseph Saucerotte (Raucourt).  Death - Theodor Stephan Freiherr von Neuhoff, King of Corsica.  Legal - French introduce anti-sodomy laws to Seychelles.  Personal - English cross dresser Barbara Hill marries Ann Steed. Novel - English actress, playwright and novelist Charlotte Cibber Clarke’s novel The History of Henry Dumont, Esq.

1757

Birth - Finnish, Swedish and Russian courtier and diplomat Count Gustaf Mauritz Armfelt. 

Death - Prussian antiquarian Baron Philipp von Stosch.  

Event - Royal Navy seaman Henry Bicks given 500 lashes for sodomy and thrown out of the service with a halter round his neck.

1758

Legal - British introduce anti-sodomy laws to the Gambia.

1759

Birth - Chinese artist Qian Yong, German actor August Wilhelm Iffland, French noble Antoine Louis François de Bésiade, Duc d’Avaray and English writer Mary Wollstonecraft.  

Death - German English composer George Frideric Handel.  

Theory - German art historian Johann Joachim Winckelmann’s Erinnerung über die Betrachtung der Werke der Kunst’ (‘A Reminder about the Consideration of Works of Art’); ‘Beschreibung des Torso im Belvedere zu Rom’ (‘Description of the Torso in the Belvedere in Rome’) and ‘Von der Grazie in Werken der Kunst’ (‘On Grace in Works of Art’).  

Event - Court of Holland banishes the Reverend Andreas Klink for sodomy.  

Art - François Boucher’s painting Jupiter and Callisto.

1760

Birth - King George III of England and Hanover, English writer William Beckford, American soldier Deborah Sampson (Robert Shirtliff) and French linguist, philosopher and jurist Pierre-Étienne Du Ponceau (Peter Stephen Duponceau).

Death - Austrian protestant leader Nikolaus Ludwig, Reichsgraf von Zinzendorf und Pottendorf.

Politics - Japanese shogun Tokugawa Ieharu (rules to 1786) accused of appointing his controversial lover Tanuma Okitsugu as an official. 

Event - Hamburg procurer Martin Hartwig Scharrenberg arrested for sodomy and reveals a network of 20-24 men.

Novel - French philosopher and art critic Denis Diderot’s novel La Religieuse (The Nun).

1762

Death - Charles Peter Ulrich of Schleswig-Holstein-Gottorp, Emperor Peter III of Russia murdered. Cloth-maker beheaded for sodomy with apprentices in Württemberg. 

Politics - Catherine II becomes Empress of Russia; her lovers include Princess Yekaterina Romanovna Vorontsova-Dashkova, Countess Anna Stepanovna Protasova and Countess Alexandra Branitskaya.  

Event - Royal Navy seamen Martin Billin and James Bryan given 1,000 lashes for sodomy.  

Novel - English writer Sarah Scott’s novel A Description of Millenium Hall.

1763

Death - Polish-Saxon statesman Heinrich, Graf von Brühl and Jesuit convert Lucio Wu Lujue.  

Legal - English introduce anti-sodomy laws to Quebec, Prince Edward Island and Dominica.  French introduce anti-sodomy laws to Guiana (Guyane).  

Theory - German art historian Johann Joachim Winckelmann’s Abhandlung von der Fähigkeit der Empfindung des Schönen in der Kunst und dem Unterrichte in derselben’ (‘Essay on the Capacity for the Sentiment for the Beautiful in Art, and on Instruction in It’).  Poetry - English poet and satirist Charles Churchill attacks sodomy in his poem ‘The Times’.  

Art - François Boucher’s painting Jupiter, in the Guise of Diana, and Callisto.

1764

Birth - Anglo-Irish Percy Jocelyn Bishop of Leighlin and Ferns then of Clogher.  

Death - English Archbishop George Stone of Armagh, Primate of Ireland and Conte Francesco Algaroti.  Dutch persecution of homosexuals after conviction and execution of Jacobus Hebelaar for importuning a law officer leads to the execution of 7, imprisonment of 5, exile of 3 and 64 sentenced by default.  

Theory - Italian (Milan) jurist, politician and philosopher Cesare, Marchese de Beccaria-Bonesana’s Dei delitti e delle pene (Essay on Crimes and Punishment) states that same-sex acts should not be punished.  French writer and philosopher François-Marie Arouet (Voltaire)’s Dictionnaire philosophique (Philosophical Dictionary) describes sodomy as an ‘infamous outrage against nature.’  German art historian Johann Joachim Winckelmann’s Geschichte der Kunst des Alterthums (The History of Ancient Art).  

Politics - Stanislaw August II Poniatowski becomes last King and Grand Duke of the Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth.  

Event - Amsterdam Court notes special places homosexuals gather in the city.

Personal - English writer Horace Walpole, 4th Earl of Orford accused of effeminacy in a pamphlet by William Guthrie.  

Non-fiction - Hiraga Gennai’s guidebooks San no asa and Kiku no en (Chrysanthemum Garden).  

Novel - English writer Horace Walpole, 4th Earl of Orford’s novel Castle of Otranto.  

1765

Birth - Japanese Confucian scholar Ota Kinjo.  

Death - Chinese painter Zheng Xie (Zheng Banqiao).

Legal - English jurist and judge Sir William Blackstone’s Commentaries declares homosexuality ‘A crime not fit to be named.’

1766

Birth - Swiss-French writer Baronne Anne Louise Germaine de Staël -Holstein (Madame de Staël).  

Theory - French philosopher François-Marie Arouet (Voltaire)’s Commentaire sur le livre des délits et des peines (Commentary on Crimes and Punshments) states that same-sex acts are ‘vile, filthy, ubecoming, but no crime.’   German art historian Johann Joachim Winckelmann’s ‘Versuch einer Allegorie besonders für die Kunst’ (‘Essay on Allegory, Especially for Art’).

Politics - Christian VII becomes King of Denmark and Norway and Herzog von Schleswig-Holstein (his lovers: Sperling, a page; Kirchhoff, his valet; Brabt; Count Holck).  

Personal - English writer Horace Walpole, 4th Earl of Orford in France with Crauford.   

Story - An anonymous English writer’s The Fruit Shop, A Tale: or, a Companion to St James’s Street.

1767

Birth - French writer and secret agent Joseph Fiévée.

1768  

Birth - William "Kitty" Courtenay, 9th Earl of Devon and 3rd Viscount Courtenay of Powderham.  

Death - German art historian Johann Joachim Winckelmann murdered. 

Legal - Austrian Constitutio Criminalis Theresiana prescribes death by burning at stake for sodomites but prescribes beheading first.  

Theory - Dutch author claims to be able to identify sodomites by effeminate, whorish appearance.  Japanese author and pharmacologist Hiraha Gennai’s Nenashigusa kohen and Kiko no en (Chrysanthemum Garden).

Novel - Japanese novel Fumoto no iro (Eros of the Foothills).  

Story - Japanese Ueda Akinari’s short story Kikuka no chigiri (The Chrysanthemum Vow).

1769  

Birth - French Empereur Napoleon Bonaparte, German scientist (Friedrich Wilhelm Heinrich) Alexander Freiherr von Humboldt and Anglo-Irish politician Robert Stewart, Viscount Castlereagh, 2nd Marquess of Londonderry.  

Legal - Empress Maria Theresa’s Constitutio criminalis (Criminal Constitution), the Theresiana, gives penalty of death by fire or sword for sodomy in the inherited Austrian lands.  

Personal - English poet Thomas Gray meets Charles Victor de Bonstetten.  

Art - François Boucher’s painting Jupiter and Callisto.

1771

Birth - German author and reformer Johann Heinrich Daniel Zschokke and English Ernest Augustus, King of Hanover, Duke of Cumberland and Teviotdale and Earl of Armagh.  

Death - English poet Thomas Gray.  

Politics - Gustav III becomes King of Sweden.  

Event - English Isaac Bickerstaff flees to France to avoid trial for trying to seduce a Savoy Barracks sentry; English novelist and playwright William Kenrick lampoons playwright David Garrick for being involved in the case in Love in the Suds a Town Eclogue. Being the Lamentations of Roscius for the Loss of His Nyky.

1772

Birth - Herzog Emil Leopold August (Augustus; Emilie) der Glückliche (the Happy) of Saxe-Gotha-Altenburg. 

Event - English trial of Captain Robert Jones for sodomy with Francis Henry Hay; sentenced to death, pardoned by King George III, he flees to Lyons.  French Marquis de Sade sentenced to death in absentia for sodomy with his footman and his effigy burnt.  

Journal - French Michel de Montaigne’s Journal discovered.

1773

Birth - English book collector Richard Heber.

1774

Theory - English philosopher Jeremy Bentham starts making notes on reform of homosexual penalties.

1775

Birth - English novelist and dramatist Matthew Lewis and German poet Johann Diederich Gries.

Legal - British introduce anti-sodomy laws to South Georgia.  

Theory - German philosopher Christoph Meiners’s pamphlet Betrachtungen über die Männerliebe der Griechen (Observations on the Love of Men among the Greeks).  

Journal - English poet Thomas Gray’s Journal of His Tour in the Lake District.

1776

Event - Raids in London on molly houses.  Dutch persecution of homosexuals.  English Reverend Jackson, lampooned by dramatist Samuel Foote in The Capuchin, retaliates by accusing Foote of sodomy with a coachman, but he is acquitted.  

History - German geographer Johann Gottlieb Georgi’s Beschreibung aller Nationen des Russischen Reichs (Description of All the Nations of the Russian Empire) describes same-sex in Kamchatka.  

Story - Japanese author and scholar Ueda Akinari’s stories Ugetsu monogatari (Tales of Moonlight and Rain).

1777

Birth - German dramatist and poet Bernd Heinrich Wilhelm von Kleist, American (Massachusetts) teacher Charity Bryant, Russian Emperor Alexander I, French dramatist Théodore Leclercq and French socialite Jeanne Françoise Julie Adélaide Récamier.  

Death - English dramatist Samuel Foote.

Theory - French writer and philosopher François-Marie Arouet (Voltaire)’s entry ‘On Sodomy’ in Prix de la Justice et de l’Humanité (The Prize for Justice and Humanity).

Politics - American Alexander Hamilton Aide to George Washington (to 1781).

Personal - English writer William Beckford initiates affair with William Courtenay, son of the Earl of Devon.

1778

Personal - Anglo-Irish Lady Eleanor Butler and English the Honourable Sarah Ponsonby elope to Llangollen.

1779

Birth - American naval officer Commodore Stephen Decatur.  Death - Cardinal-Nephew Allessandro Albani and Bohemian German painter Anton Mengs.  

Legal - American Thomas Jefferson proposes liberalizing Virginia’s law on sodomy to state ‘Whosoever shall be guilty of Rape, Polygamy, or Sodomy with man or woman shall be punished, if a man, by castration, if a woman, by cutting thro’ the cartilage of her nose a hole of one half inch diameter at the least’, but the bill fails.

Theory - Dutch persecution of homosexuals prompts Swiss-Dutch Abraham Perrenot’s plea for tolerance in his tract Bedenking omtrent het straffen van zekere schandelijke misdaad (Objection Regarding the Punishment of a Certain Shameful Crime).

Event - Sons of Earl of Denbigh blackmailed for money, threatened with exposure as sodomites.  Chinese Qianlong Emperor’s 70th birthday party establishes respectability of including female impersonator actors, referred to as xianggong (male courtesans), in gatherings.  

1780

Birth - Maharaja Ranjit Singh of the Punjab, English Reverend John Church and (?) Chinese poetess Wu Tsao.

Death - Mob kills sodomite in London pillory.  

Legal - Irish statesman Edmund Burke proposes abolition of pillory in British House of Commons.  

Event - English Captain James Cook observes aikane, men who have sex with men, in Hawaii.  

Novel - (?) French writer Denis Diderot’s novel La Réligieuse (The Nun).

1781

Death - Prussian Major-General Johann Friedrich Adolf von der Marwitz. Sodomite strangled to death in Antwerp, Austrian Netherlands. 

Legal - English legal decision makes it necessary to prove penetration and emission of seed for a charge of buggery. Personal - English writer William Beckford’s first same-sex affair in Geneva.

1782

Birth - English Reverend John Church and Italian violinist and composer Niccolò (or Nicolò) Paganini.

Death - Italian poet and librettist Pietro Antonio Domenico Trapassi (Metastasio).  

Non-fiction - Johann Friedel’s Briefe über die Galenterien von Berlin (Letters about the Gallantries / Flirtations of Berlin ) describes Berlin’s boy bordellos and warme Brüder (‘warm brothers’).  

Novel - English writer William Beckford’s novel Vathek written.   

1783

Birth - American writer and diplomat Washington Irving.  

Legal - British introduce anti-sodomy law to North-Western Territory.

1784

Birth - Swiss German hatter and writer Heinrich Hössli and American Sylvia Drake.

Legal - British introduce anti-sodomy laws to New Brunswick.  Russians introduce anti-sodomy laws to the Aleutian Islands.  

Theory - (to 1791) German philosopher Johann Gottfried Herder’s Ideen zur Philosophie der Geschichte der Menschheit (Ideas on the Philosophy of Human History) sympathetically discusses Greek same-sex love.

Event - English writer William Beckford scandal at Powderham Castle with William Courtenay.   

Novel - Anonymous French writer’s pornographic novel La Cauchoise ou Mémoires d'une courtisane célèbre‬: ‪Roman pour servir de suite à tous les bon ouvrages de la philosophie de la nature‬ (The Cauchoise or Memoirs of a Famous Prostitute: a Novel to Serve for all the Good Works of Philosophy and Nature).

1785

Birth - Swiss lawyer Franz Desgouttes.  

Death - Chinese poet Jiang Shiquan (one of ‘the Three Great Masters of Qianlong Period’).

Theory - (to 1816) English philosopher Jeremy Bentham draws up arguments in an essay for penal reform of laws against same sex (never published) in ‘On Paederasty.   

Event - Raid on molly house near the Strand in London discovers male ‘mothers’ nursing make-believe children.  

Novel - French Marquis de Sade’s novel Les Cint Vingt Journées de Sodom (The One Hundred and Twenty Days of Sodom) written in the Bastille. German author and essayist Karl Philipp Moritz’s autobiographical novel Anton Reiser.  

Story - (C) Japanese Hiajitsu Tosaku’s travel tale Nikokuren pekidan.

1786

Birth - American Vice President William R. King, English politician John Cam Hobhouse, 1st Baron Broughton and English explorer and M.P. William John Bankes.  

Death - King Frederick II (the Great) of Prussia, Livonian aristocrat Julia von Mengden (Augusta Juliane), Italian Antonio Branciforte Cardinal Colonna and Italian Abbé Giovanni Battista Bastiani, Abbé in Breslau.

Legal - British introduce anti-sodomy laws to British Honduras (Belize) and Penang.  

Theory - French philosopher Marie Jean Antoine Nicolas de Caritat, Marquis de Condorcet calls for decriminalisation in edition of Voltaire’s Prix de la Justice et de l’Humanité (The Prize of Justice and Humanity).

Politics - Japanese shogun Tokugawa Ienari (ruled to 1837). Novel - English writer William Beckford’s novel Vathek published.  

1787

Legal - Imperial German law (Josephinische Strafsgesetzbuch, Josephine Criminal Code, the Josephina) of Emperor Joseph II replaces death penalty for sodomy with imprisonment, forced labour and flogging.  

Theory - Japanese scholar of Dutch learning Morishima Nakayoshi comments on Dutch capital punishment for same-sex acts. 

Personal - English writer William Beckford initiates Portuguese affairs.  

Art - John Webber’s painting A Chief of the Sandwich Isles.

1788

Birth - English poet George Gordon Byron, Lord Byron, French Admiral Aaron Louis Frédéric Regnault, Baron de La Susse and German philosopher Arthur Schopenhauer.

Death - French Admiral Pierre-André Suffren de Saint-Tropez murdered at Versailles.

Legal - British introduce anti-sodomy laws to Botany Bay, New South Wales.

Art - Japanese printmaker and painter Kitagawa Utamaro’s Uta Makura (The Pillow Book).

1789

Birth - American writer James Fenimore Cooper.  

Death - George Clavering Cowper, 3rd Earl Cowper dies in Florence and is later accused of sodomy by journalist Topham.

Legal - Spanish introduce anti-sodomy laws to Nootka Sound, Alaska.  

Event - English Captain William Bligh observes mahu (effeminate men) in Tahiti.   

History - English writer Horace Walpole, 4th Earl of Orford’s Reminiscences written.

1790

Birth - English William Spencer Cavendish, 6th Duke of Devonshire, French travel writer Astolphe-Louis-Léonor, Marquis de Custine  and American poet Fitz-Greene Halleck.  

Event - Two dozen sodomites arrested in Hamburg tavern.  

Biography - German writer Gotthold Ephraim Lessing’s Leben des Sophocles (Life of Sophocles).  

Story - French pamphlet Les petits bougres au manege (The Little Buggers of the Riding School).  

Art - (C) Japanese printmaker and painter Kitagawa Utamaro’s woodcut of preparation for sodomy in a brothel.

1791

Birth - English diarist Anne Lister, Austrian playwright Franz Grillparzer and American President James Buchanan.  

Death - English libertine George Selwyn. 

Legal - French penal code and Andorra decriminalise same-sex acts.  

Theory - French writer Marie A.J. Saucerotte (la citoyenne Raucourt)’s La nouvelle Sapho, ou, Histoire de la Secte anandryne (New Sappho or the History of the Anandryne Sect).  Edition of Jean-Jacques Rousseau’s epigrams has illustrations showing executions of homosexuals in Rome and Paris.  

Event - Jean-Jacques Scot James Ogilvy, 7th Earl of Findlater and 4th Earl of Seafield goes to the Continent in exile.  

Novel -  Chinese Cao Xuequin’s novel Shitouji (Story of the Stone or The Dream of the Red Chamber).

1792

Birth - Graf Alfred von Maltzan-Wedell (Count Cajus).  

Death - British statesman and favourite John Stuart, 3rd Earl of Bute d.  King Gustav III of Sweden, shot by an assassin, d in the arms of his favourite Finnish Count Gustav Mauritz Armfelt.  Marie Thérèse Louise of Savoy, Princesse de Lamballe murdered by a revolutionary mob.

1793

Birth - French General Nicolas Anne Theodule Changarnier.

Death - French writer and politician Charles-Michel, Marquis de Villette.  Maria Antonia Josepha Johanna of Austria (Marie Antoinette), Queen of France and Yolande Martine Gabrielle Duchesse de Polignac guillotined.

Legal - British introduce anti-sodomy laws to Trinidad.  Non-fiction - English tract The Cloistered Whores lampoons homosexuals in Paris.

1794

Death - German soldier and American Master General of the Continental Army Friedrich Wilhelm August Heinrich Ferdinand von Steuben (Baron Friedrich von Steuben). 

Legal - Prussian penal code Allgemeine Landrecht für die Preussischen Staaten (General Regional Law for the State of Prussia) replaces death penalty for same-sex acts with flogging, one year’s imprisonment and banishment.

1795

Death - German author and essayist Karl Philipp Moritz, Silesian German Graf Philipp Gothard von Schaffgorsch, Prince-Bishop of Breslau, Italian occultist and forger Giuseppe Balsamo (Conte Alessandro di Cagliostro) and English novelist Sarah Scott.

Legal - Homosexual acts decriminalised in Belgium and Luxembourg.  British anti-sodomy laws introduced to the Cape Colony.  

Story - French Marquis de Sade’s erotic dramatic dialogue La Philosophie dans le boudoir (Philosophy in the Bedroom).  

1796

Birth - German poet and dramatist Karl August Georg Maximilian Graf von Platen-Hallermünde.

Death - Empress Catherine II the Great of Russia and Hongli, China’s Qianlong Emperor.  

Legal - Montenegro law does not criminalize same-sex acts.  

Event - First trial for homosexual offence in Australia.  

Novel - English novelist and dramatist Matthew Lewis’s novel The Monk.

1797

Death - English writer Horace Walpole, 4th Earl of Orford, English writer Mary Wollstonecraft and Chinese collector, editor and historian Bi Yuan (Bi Xiangheng, Bi Qiufan, Lingyan shanren). Event - Dutch persecution of homosexuals.  Anna Grebou arrested for same sex activity in Amsterdam. English Reverend John Fenwick flees to France to escape sodomy charge.

1798

Birth - French actress Marie Dorval.  

Death - Stanislaw August II Poniatowski, last King and Grand Duke of the Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth and Chinese poet, scholar and artist Yuan Mei.

Legal - Homosexual acts decriminalised in some Swiss cantons.  

Theory - German Baron Friedrich Wilhelm Basilius von Ramdohr condemns same-sex in his Venus Urania.   

Events - Raids in London on molly houses.  

Personal - English George Ferrars Townshend, 3rd Marquess Townshend, 2nd Earl of Leicester (then Lord Chartley), goes to Trinity College, Cambridge with Italian servant Neri.  

1799

Birth - German actor Wilhelm Kunst and Charles Louis, King of Etruria, Duke of Lucca, Charles II Duke of Parma. 

Legal - (by) Islamic law on homosexuality established in Sierra Leone.  

History - English Captain James Wilson’s A Missionary Voyage to the Southern Pacific Ocean mentions same-sex mahhous on Tahiti.

19TH CENTURY

1800

Death - Prussian Major Christian Ludwig von Kaphengst and Danish Count Frederik Vilhelm Conrad Holck.

1801

Birth - English Cardinal John Henry Newman. 

Politics - Alexander I becomes Emperor of Russia; his favourite is Count Gustav Mauritz Armfelt.  

Personal - English poet George, Lord Byron at Harrow, writes poems to William Harness, George Earl Delawarr, the Duke of Dorset and the Earl of Clare.

1802

Birth - French ecclesiastic Jean-Baptiste Henri-Dominique Lacordaire.  

Death - Prince Friedrich Heinrich Ludwig (Henry) of Prussia and French singer Sophie Arnould.

Event - Scandal of English novelist and dramatist Matthew Lewis and fourteen year old William Kelly.  

Novel - Japanese Jippensha Ikku’s novel Tōkaidōchū Hizakurige (Shank’s Mare).

1803

Birth - American essayist and poet Ralph Waldo Emerson, German chemist Professor Justus von Liebig, English cleric Richard Hurrell Froude and English Sir James Brooke, Rajah of Sarawak.  

Death - French actress Clair Josèphe Hippolyte Leris (Mademoiselle Clairon or La Clairon) and German poet Johann Ludwig Wilhelm Gleim. Last execution for sodomy in Continental Europe occurs in Dutch Netherlands in Schiedam near Rotterdam.  Legal - Austrian Penal Code punishes ‘unnatural lust’ with six months to one year imprisonment.  American anti-sodomy laws introduced in the Louisiana Purchase (Louisiana, Mississippi, Arkansas, Oklahoma, Missouri, Kansas, Nebraska, Iowa, Illinois, Indiana, Michigan, Wisconsin, Minnesota, North Dakota, South Dakota).  Montenegro law revision continues to not criminalize same-sex acts.  

Personal - English poet George, Lord Byron’s affair with Lord Grey de Ruthyn.

1804

Birth - French author Armandine Aurore Lucie Dupin, Baroness Dudevant (Georges Sand) and German Lutheran pastor and poet Eduard Friedrich Mörike.

Death - American philosopher and founding father Alexander Hamilton.

Legal - Napoleonic code introduced in France and Italy, decriminalising homosexuality.  Russians introduce anti-sodomy laws to Alaska.  

1805

Birth - Danish author and poet Hans Christian Andersen.  

Personal - English poet George, Lord Byron goes to Cambridge; writes poems to chorister John Edlestone; his circle includes Charles Skinner Matthews, John Cam Hobhouse and Scrope Berdmore Davies; love for page Fulton; closest friends William Bankes and Edward Noel Long.  

Biography - German writer and politician Johann Wolfgang von Goethe’s biographical essay on German art historian Johann Winckelmann, Winckelmann und sein Jahrhundert (Winckelmann and His Century), speaks sympathetically of same-sex love.  

Novel - Herzog Emil Leopold August (Augustus; Emilie) der Glückliche (the Happy) of Saxe-Gotha-Altenburg’s novel Ein Jahr in Arkadien: Kyllenion (A Year in Arcadia: Kyllenion).

Drama - (pre) German writer Johann Christoph Friedrich (von) Schiller’s fragment of a drama Der Malteser (The Maltese Man).  

1806

Birth - French General Christophe Léon Louis Juchault de Lamoricière and German-Russian novelist Alexander, Baron von Ungern-Sternberg.

Death - Japanese printmaker and painter Kitagawa Utamaro.

1807

Birth - American Governor and Senator James Henry Hammond and Finnish poet and historian Fredrik Cygnaeus.

Death - English Henry Stuart, Cardinal of York.

Poetry - English George, Lord Byron’s poems Hours of Idleness and poem ‘The Cornelian’.

1808

Death - King Christian VII of Denmark and Norway and Duke of Schleswig-Holstein.  

Legal - British introduce anti-sodomy laws to New Caledonia and Freetown (Sierra Leone).  Islamic laws on homosexuality introduced to Sokoto Caliphate in northern Nigeria. 

Event - English Reverend John Church ejected from Banbury living due to ‘sodomitical assaults’ on young men.  

Novel - Japanese Ishikawa Masamochi’s novel Hida no takumi monogatari (Tale of a Hida Craftsman).

1809

Birth - English poet Alfred, Lord Tennyson, English politician and poet Richard Monckton Milnes 1st Baron Houghton, Russian (Ukrainian) dramatist and novelist Nikolai Vasilevich Gogol, American President Abraham Lincoln, German actor Hermann Hendrichs and English poet and writer Edward FitzGerald.

Death - Japanese scholar and poet Ueda Akimari (Ueda Shūsei), Swiss historian Johannes von Müller and English poet Anna Seward.  Legal - Dutch criminal code Criminal Wetboek voor het Koningrijk Holland condemns sodomy with penalty of life imprisonment.       

Event - English George Ferrars Townshend, 3rd Marquess Townshend (then 2nd Earl of Leicester) accused of picking up young Guardsmen and, with wife about to accuse him, successfully sues the Morning Herald but flees to Genoa. Marianne Woods and Jane Pirie, schoolmistresses in Edinburgh, accused of lesbianism and take their case to court (eventually winning in the House of Lords in 1819).

Personal - English poet George, Lord Byron travels east with John Hobhouse, 1st Baron Broughton and visits Beckford’s old palace in Portugal, then reaches Albania and Greece; his friendship with Nicolo Giraud.

1810

Birth - Polish composer Fryderyk Franciszek Chopin and French writer Charles Forbes René de Montalembert, Comte de Montalembert, Deux-Sèvres.

Death - French diplomat and spy Charles-Geneviève-Louis-Auguste-André-Timothée d'Éon de Beaumont (Chevalier d’Éon de Beaumont) and Russian Princess Yekaterina Romanovna Vorontsova-Dashkova.  Sellis, the valet of English Prince Ernest Augustus Duke of Cumberland and Teviotdale and Earl of Armagh, allegedly killed by the Duke for accusing him of relations with Neale, another valet.  John Newball Hepburn and Thomas White executed in England for sodomy.

Legal - British anti-sodomy law introduced in the Seychelles, Mauritius and the Chagos Islands (Diego Garcia).  Napoleonic code re-enacted in France in the Code pénal and introduced into French-controlled German states, decriminalising homosexuality in the latter.  

Event - English Reverend John Church commences marrying mollies in the Swan molly house in Vere Street, London.  Vere Street pilloryings.  

Non-fiction - English pamphlet The Trying and Pillorying of the Vere Street Club describes the pillorying of seven men in Haymarket.  

Poetry - Scottish novelist Sir Walter Scott publishes three volumes of English poet Anna Seward’s poems.  

Drama - German dramatist, novelist and poet Bernd Heinrich Wilhelm von Kleist’s play Prinz Friedrich von Homburg.

1811

Birth - English poet Arthur Henry Hallam.  

Death - Prussian Kammerherr Ernst Ahasverus Heinrich Graf von Lehndorff and French noble Antoine Louis François de Bésiade, Duc d’Avaray.  German dramatist, novelist and poet Bernd Heinrich Wilhelm von Kleist commits suicide.  English Ensign John Hepburn and Drummer Thomas White executed for sodomy.  Death of Scot James Ogilvy, 7th Earl of Findlater and 4th Earl of Seafield in Dresden, leaving all his property to the family of a young man named Fischer.  

Legal - Homosexual acts decriminalised by Napoleon in the Netherlands and its colonies, including the Dutch East Indies.  

Event - Coachman of Anglo-Irish Bishop Percy Jocelyn of Leighlin and Ferns accuses him of sodomy but is himself imprisoned.  English William ‘Kitty’ Courtenay, 3rd Viscount Courtenay of Powderham accused by Exeter magistrate of sodomy and flees to France.  

Autobiography - Memoirs of Prince Eugene of Savoy, Field Marshal of the Holy Roman Empire published.  

Poetry - English poet George, Lord Byron’s poem ‘To Thyrza’.

1812

Birth - English artist and poet Edward Lear.

Event - English Reverend V.P. Littlehales sexually assaults a footman, admits charge and flees to the U.S.  

Poetry - English poet George, Lord Byron’s poem Childe Harold’s Pilgrimage and poems ‘One Struggle More and I Am Free’ and ‘Sometimes in the Haunts of Men’.  American poet Fitz-Greene Halleck and American Joseph Rodman Drake’s satirical ‘Croaker’ poems.

1813

Birth - American evangelist Henry Ward Beecher, Danish philosopher Søren Aabye Kierkegaard and American explorer John Charles Frémont.  

Death - Russian Field Marshal Prince Mikhail Illarionovich Golenishchev-Kutuzov. 

Legal - Bavarian criminal code decriminalizes sodomy, hitherto punished by decapitation then burning.  

Theory - Japanese Õta Kinjõ remarks on prevalence of same-sex love amongst warriors in Japan.

Event - English Reverend John Church charged with sodomy but acquitted.

Non-fiction - English lawyer Richard Holloway’s The Phoenix of Sodom, or the Vere Street Coterie.

1814

Birth - English hymn writer Frederick William Faber.  

Death - French Donatien Alphonse Francois Marquis de Sade, German actor August Wilhelm Iffland, Finnish, Swedish and Russian courtier and diplomat Count Gustaf Mauritz Armfelt, German poet Johann Georg Jacobi, Maria Carolina Louise Josepha Johanna Antonia of Austria, Queen of Naples and Sicily and Chinese poet and critic Zhao Yi.

Legal - British introduce anti-sodomy laws to Malta, Saint Lucia and British Guiana (Guyana).  

Politics - Louis Stanislas Xavier de Bourbon, ‘le Desiré (‘the Desired’), Comte de Provence becomes King Louis XVIII of France and Navarre; he has an affair with the Duc d’Avaray.

Event - Reverend John Church builds the Surrey Tabernacle.  French imprisonment of seller and engraver of print mocking Napoleon’s Archchancellor of the Empire, Jean-Jacques-Régis de Cambacérès, 1st Duc de Parme and 1st Duc de Cambacérès, for sex with servants.  

History - Russian naval officer and explorer Yuri Fedorovich Lisianski’s A Voyage Round the World describes same-sex among the Eskimo.

1815

Birth - Italian Saint Giovanni Melchiorre Bosco (Don Bosco), German aristocrat art collector Fritz von Farenheid, German poet and historian Adolf Friedrich, Graf von Schack and American lawyer and politician Richard Henry Dana Jr.  

Death - French actress Françoise Marie Antoinette Joseph Saucerotte (Raucourt).  

Legal - Napoleon decriminalizes same-sex acts in Duchy of Luxembourg and five Rhineland States, including Baden and Württemberg.  British anti-sodomy laws introduced in Ceylon (Sri Lanka) and Ascension Island.  

Biography - German Carolus de Lang (Karl Heinrich von Lang)’s Reverendi in Christo patris Jacobi Morelli S.J. amores (The Loves of the Reverend Father in Christ Jacob Morelli S.J.).

1816

Birth - English scholar and churchman Charles John Vaughan, Anglo-American painter William Rimmer and English William Kenworthy Browne.  

Death - Friedrich Wilhelm Karl, Frederick I, Duke, Elector then King of Württemberg.  English prosecution and execution of James Cooper and three other crew of H.M.S. Africaine.  

Legal - British introduce anti-sodomy laws to Tristan da Cunha.  Bulgarian Penal Code Book prescribes up to three years imprisonment for same-sex offences.  

Event - English poet George, Lord Byron’s wife initiates proceedings causing his ostracism and his departure for the continent. Disgrace of English General Sir Eyre Coote for flagellation with schoolboys of Christ’s Hospital School.  

Personal - English William Spencer Cavendish, 6th Duke of Devonshire hosts Grand Duke Nicholas, later Czar of Russia, at Chatsworth.

1817

Birth - American author and poet Henry David Thoreau.

Death - Swiss-French writer Baronne Anne Louise Germaine de Staël-Holstein (Madame de Staël).  Swiss lawyer Franz Desgouttes executed for murdering his lover, Daniel Hemmeler.  

Event - Reverend John Church convicted of sodomy and jailed for two years.  

Non-fiction - Dutch anti-homosexual pamphlet.  

Drama - Japanese Nanboku Tsuruya’s drama Sakura hime azuma bunsho (Eastern Documents of the Cherry-blossom Princess) and Chigogafuchi hana no shiranami (White Waves of the Flowers of Chigogafuchi).

1818

Death - English dramatist and novelist Matthew Gregory Lewis. Legal - End of pillory for same-sex crimes in England.  

Theory - English poet Percy Bysshe Shelley translates Plato’s Symposium and writes essay ‘A Discourse on the Manners of the Antient Greeks Relative to the Subject of Love’, published privately.  German philosopher Arthur Schopenhauer’s Die Welt als Wille und Vorstellung (The World as Will and Representation).

History - English writer Horace Walpole, 4th Earl of Orford’s Reminiscences.

Letter - English writer Horace Walpole, 4th Earl of Orford’s Letters to George Montagu.  

Poetry - English poet Percy Bysshe Shelley publishes poem Laon and Cynthia (an incestuous love story).

1819

Birth - English poet Arthur Hugh Clough, American poet Walt Whitman and American novelist Herman Melville.  

Legal - Kingdom of the Two Sicilies decriminalizes sodomy.  British introduce anti-sodomy laws to Singapore.  American anti-sodomy law introduced in Florida.  

Poetry - English poet John Keat’s poem The Eve of St Agnes attacks sexual asceticism.  English poet George, Lord Byron’s poem Don Juan mocks moral hypocrisy.

1820

Birth - American rights campaigner Susan B. Anthony and (?) Anglo-Irish Post Office Secretary Gustavus Charles Cornwall (Cornwall-Dalyell).  

Death - King George III of England and Hanover and (?) Chinese poetess Wu Tsao.  American Commodore Stephen Decatur killed in a duel.

Legal - Parma, Piacenza and Guastalla decriminalizes sodomy.  (by 1820s) Hanover and Brunswick decriminalizes sodomy.

Politics - Anglo-Irish Percy Jocelyn Bishop of Leighlin and Ferns becomes Bishop of Clogher.

Novel - Irish Charles Robert Maturin’s novel Melmoth the Wanderer. 

Art - (C) American artist Mary Ann Willson’s painting The Two Sisters.

1821

Birth - English explorer Sir Richard Francis Burton, German naturalist Carl August Bolle, German poet and dramatist Salomon Hermann Mosenthal and English politician George Augustus Frederick Cavendish-Bentinck.  

Birth - French Empereur Napoleon Bonaparte.  

Legal - Chinese Daoguang Emperor prohibits gentlemen from attending drinking parties with actors.

Essay - Swiss-German author Heinrich Zschokke’s essay Eros. Ein Gespräche über die Liebe (Eros: A Conversation on Love) based on notes given to him by Heinrich Hössli.  

Poetry - English poet Percy Bysshe Shelley’s poem ‘Adonais’, an elegy on John Keats.  

Art - Japanese artist Katsushika Hokusai’s woodcut of female same-sex love in a brothel.

1822

Birth - French artist Rosa Bonheur, English lawyer and novelist Thomas Hughes, and English Brigadier-General John Nicholson.

Death - Herzog Emil Leopold August (Augustus; Emilie) der Glückliche (the Happy) of Saxe-Gotha-Altenburg.  Robert Stewart, Viscount Castlereagh, 2nd Marquess of Londonderry confesses to King George IV that he is being blackmailed and commits suicide.  Legal - Spain decriminalizes sodomy.  

Event - Scandal of Anglo-Irish Percy Jocelyn Bishop of Clogher and a Guardsman (who had dined earlier with John Cam Hobhouse, 1st Baron Broughton).  Jocelyn flees to Scotland.  

Personal - William Makepiece Thackeray invited to have sex on arriving at school aged 11.  English diarist Anne Lister visits the Ladies of Llangollen.

History - English writer Horace Walpole, 4th Earl of Orford’s Memoirs of the Reign of George II first published.

1823

Birth - King Karl Friedrich Alexander, Karl I of Württemberg, English politician the Honourable Gerard James Noel, Chichester Samuel Parkinson-Fortescue, 2nd Baron Clermont and 1st Baron Carlingford, English magistrate Sir Franklin Lushington, Charles III Duca di Parma e Piacenza and English schoolmaster poet William (Johnson) Cory.  

Event - Reverend Thomas Jephson, Fellow of St John’s College, Cambridge, mugged in a male honey trap, charges assailants, charged in turn, is acquitted but is told to leave the College.  

Personal - English poet George, Lord Byron goes to Greece and meets boy Lukas.

1824

Birth - German composer Carl August Peter Cornelius.  

Death - King Louis XVIII of France and Navarre, Archchancellor of the French Empire, Jean-Jacques-Régis de Cambacérès, 1st  Duc de Parme and 1st Duc de Cambacérès, Anglo-American businessman Tench Coxe and English poet George, Lord Byron.

Legal - British anti-sodomy law introduced in Malacca.

Theory - English philosopher Jeremy Bentham’s last writing on legal reform.

Personal - English diarist Anne Lister falls in love with Maria Barlow. 

History - German (Hanoverian) scholar Karl Otfried Müller’s Die Dorier (History and Antiquities of the Doric Race). 

Autobiography - Russian Vice Admiral Vasily Mikhailovich Golovnin’s Memoirs of a Captivity in Japan, during the Years 1811, 1812 and 1813, with Observations on the Country and the People.  Poetry - English poet George, Lord Byron’s poems ‘On This Day I Complete My Thirty-Sixth Year’, ‘Love and Death’ and ‘Last Words in Greece’.

1825

Birth - American poet Bayard Taylor and German (Hanover) lawyer Karl Heinrich Ulrichs.  

Death - Japanese Confucian scholar Ota Kinjo and Russian Emperor Alexander I.  

Event - English suppression of Barley Mow molly house. French travel writer Astolphe-Louis-Léonor, Marquis de Custine is thrashed by soldiers he’s propositioned and is ostracised by Paris society.

1826

Birth - American composer Stephen Foster, German composer Franz von Holstein, King Carl Ludvig Eugen, Charles / Karl XV of Sweden and Karl XV of Norway and Friedrich Wilhelm Ernst Georg, Prinz von Preussen (Gunther von Freiberg and George Conrad).  Death - Russian Countess Anna Stepanovna Protasova.  

Legal - English sodomy act amended to remove need for penetration and emission of seed and re-imposes death penalty.  British introduce anti-sodomy laws to Labuan, Arakan, Manipur, Assam and Tenasserim. 

Event - English poet George, Lord Byron’s friend Richard Heber flees to Continent to avoid scandal.

1827

Birth - Prince Frans Gustaf Oscar of Sweden and Norway, Duke of Uppland, lover of his Adjutant Lieutenant Byström.  

Death - American soldier Deborah Sampson (Robert Shirtliff). American poet Fitz-Greene Halleck attacked in press after death of American poet Joseph Rodman Drake.  

Event - English suppression of Rose and Crown molly house. Non-fiction - Chinese Zhang Xintai’s notebook on Guangdong customs Yue you xiao zhi.

1828

Birth - Irish Patrick Ronayne Cleburne, Major-General in the American Confederate Army and Swedish novelist Abraham Viktor Rydberg.  

Death - American writer Theodore Winthrop.

Legal - English Offences against the Person Act, Section 16, prescribes death penalty for buggery. The term ‘crime against nature’ is used in the U.S. Criminal Code.

1829

Birth - American composer Louis Moreau Gottschalk, German (Nassau) editor Adolf Glaser and Henry Lygon, 5th Earl Beauchamp.  Death - Anglo-Irish Lady Eleanor Butler d. 

Legal - British introduce anti-sodomy laws to Western Australia.

Politics - Afghan Shahzada Kamran Durrani becomes Emir of Herat.  

Personal - English poet Arthur Henry Hallam’s close friendship with poet and politician Richard Monckton Milnes, 1st Baron Houghton.  

Non-fiction - Heinrich Heine outs August Graf Platen in Die Bäder von Lucca (The Baths of Lucca). 

History - English missionary William Ellis’s Polynesian Researches mentions same-sex on Tahiti.  

Autobiography - of Basque cross dressing soldier Catalina de Erauso, La Monja Alférez (The Nun Lieutenant) published in Paris. Drama - Japanese Nanboku Tsuruya’s drama Asakusa reigenki (Account of the Asakusa Miracle).

1830

Birth - American poet Emily Dickinson, English painter and sculptor Frederic Leighton, 1st Baron Leighton, Abdur Rahman Khan Amir of Afghanistan, French revolutionary Louise Michel and English poet Christina Rosetti.  

Legal - (post) Greek criminal code criminalises homosexual acts with a penalty of at least a year.  

Event - English suppression of Bull Inn molly house.  

Personal - English poet Arthur Henry Hallam rejects love of poet and politician Richard Monckton Milnes, 1st Baron Houghton.  

Non-fiction - Japanese Kitamura Nobuyo’s Kiya Shoran (An Amusing Miscellany for Your Perusal).

1831

Birth - English cleric Frederic William Farrar, American Indian chief Ta-Tanka l-Yotank (Sitting Bull), English Lieutenant-Colonel Sir Henry Clarke Jervoise, Russian philosopher Konstantin Nikolayevich Leontiev, German singer Anne Marie Stegemann (Felicita Vestvali), Russian Theosophist Helena Petrovna Blavatsky, Austrian writer and poet Eduard Kulke, Yizhu Chinese Xianfeng Emperor and English Sir Robert George Wyndham Herbert, 1st Premier of Queensland.   

Legal - Homosexual acts decriminalised in Brazil.  

Personal - William ‘Kitty’ Courtenay, 3rd Viscount Courtenay of Powderham becomes 9th Earl of Devon.

Essay - English poet Arthur Henry Hallam’s essay ‘On Cicero’.

1832

Birth - American author  Reverend Horatio Alger, German actress Adelheid Luise (Adele) Spitzeder (Adele Vio) and English Australian lawyer, politician and civil servant Sir John Bramston.  

Death - English The Honourable Sarah Ponsonby. 

Legal - Russian criminal code prescribes flogging and exile of four years in Siberia for muzhelozhestvo (homosexual crimes).  

Personal - English writer Edward Fitzgerald meets 16 year old William Kenworthy Browne and falls in love with him.

1833

Birth - English Major-General Charles George Gordon and German (Frankfurt) socialist politician Johann Baptist von Schweitzer.  Death - English poet Arthur Henry Hallam and English book collector Richard Heber. Captain Henry Nicholas Nicholls hanged for sodomy, abandoned by his family.

Event - Arrest of English poet George, Lord Byron’s closest Cambridge friend, explorer M.P. William John Bankes, for sex with a Guardsman in a toilet near House of Commons; the Duke of Wellington testifies for him and he is found not guilty.  

Personal - French author George Sand meets actress Marie Dorval.  Novel - French writer Alfred de Musset’s novel Gamiani ou Deux nuits d’excès (Gamiani or Two Nights of Excess).  

Poetry - Poem Don Leon (a plea for law reform) written at time of Peel’s reform bill and appointment of Commission on Criminal Law.

1834

Birth - English aristocrat Roden Berkeley Wriothesley Noel, English Lieutenant-Colonel John Wallace Hozier and French composer Prince Edmond Melchior Jean Marie de Polignac.  

Legal - British introduce anti-sodomy laws to the Falkland Islands.  Bolivia’s Penal Code does not criminalize same-sex acts.  

Theory - French jurists Faustin Hélie and Adolphe Chauveau’s Théorie du code penal (Theory of the Penal Code) explains the omission of same-sex acts in the Napoleonic Code due to the disturbance their investigations cause to society.  

Event - English public school Eton attacked for immorality.

Media - English Quarterly Journal of Education first suggests prurience between masters and boys.

Non-fiction - Japanese Nishimura Sadao’s Shikido kinpisho (Compendium of Sexual Secrets).

 

1835

Birth - English author Samuel Butler and French composer Camille Saint-Saëns.  

Death - English Reverend John Church, English William ‘Kitty’ Courtenay, 9th Earl of Devon and 3rd Viscount Courtenay of Powderham and German poet and dramatist August Graf von Platen-Hallermünde.  Last executions for sodomy in England of James Pratt and John Smith.  

Legal - Russia extends penalties for same-sex acts to civilians, with penalty birching and exile and extends anti-homosexual laws to Russian occupied Poland.  

Novel - French poet, dramatist and novelist Théophile Gautier’s novel Mademoiselle de Maupin.  

Art - American painter George Catlin’s painting of the Dance to the Berdashe of Sauk and Fox Indians on Great Plains.

PART SEVEN – AESTHETIC AND ARTISTIC CHANGE, MEDICAL INTERPRETATIONS, LEGAL REPRESSION AND THE BEGINNINGS OF SELF-REALISATION AND ACTIVISM

The last seven decades of the 19th Century began to change the lot of homosexuals in the western world.  Starting in France and America, then spreading to England, literature addressed same-sex love in gradually less discrete ways.  Walt Whitman’s poetry began a huge growth in self-expression in verse.  The aesthetic theory developed by Walter Pater at Oxford found fruit in Oscar Wilde and the dilettantism of the end of the century.  As western men began for the first time since the classical world to write, initially secretly, of same sex love, the medical profession, largely in the German speaking lands of Europe, began to theorise on the causes and treatment of same-sex desire.  Yet legal repression increased, albeit with less lethal penalties.  For the first time, brave individuals began to campaign for homosexual rights.  European colonialism spread its legal prohibitions to the last free parts of the globe, affecting Japan,  which began to view homosexual acts as antithetical to nation building, the strength of its people and international standing.  Only China remained unchanged.

1836

Birth - German (Prussian) aristocrat Bernhard Ludwig Ernst Freiherr von Richthofen.

Death - English cleric Richard Hurrell Froude.  

Legal - (to 1837) Homosexual acts decriminalised in Peru .  English Commission on Criminal Law refuses to remove death penalty for sodomy but penalty tacitly abandoned. American anti-sodomy law introduced to Texas.  

Theory - Volume One of Swiss German hatter and writer Heinrich Hössli’s anthology Eros, Die Männerliebe der Griechen, ihre Beziehungen zur Geschichte, Erziehung, Literatur und Gesetzgebung aller Zeiten (Eros or the Male-male Love of the Greeks, Their Relationship to History, Education, Literature and Legislation of all Time).   French medical hygienist Alexandre-Jean-Baptiste Parent Duchâtelet’s study of Paris prostitution.

Event - Peter Sewally, the ‘man-monster’, cross dressing thief and prostitute, sentenced to five years’ imprisonment in New York.  

1837

Birth - English poet Algernon Charles Swinburne, German painter Hans von Marées, German novelist and dramatist Adolf von Wilbrandt and English scholar Oscar Browning.  

Legal - Prussia reduces penalty for same-sex acts to a prison term.  

Theory - German philologist Moritz Hermann Eduard Meier’s article on ‘pederasty’ in Ersch and Gruber’s Allgemeine Encyclopädie der Wissenschaften und Künste (General Encyclopaedia of Sciences and Arts).

Politics - English Ernest Augustus, Duke of Cumberland and Teviotdale and Earl of Armagh becomes King of Hanover.  

Event - Roman Catholic Bishop Polding of Sydney alleges that two thirds of prisoners on Norfolk Island indulge in homosexuality.  

Non-fiction - (to 1853) Japanese Kitagawa Morisada’s Morisada Manko (Morisada’s Dirty Book).  

Art - French painter Numa Boucoiran’s painting Saint Sebastian.

1838

Birth - English Secretary of Lloyds and politician Colonel Sir Henry Montague Hozier, Austro-Hungarian writer Emerich Simon Damian Joseph Graf von Stadion-Thannhausen and English teacher and translator Henry Graham Dakyns.  

Death - Russian Countess Alexandra Branitskaya.  

Legal - Mauritius Criminal Code outlaws sodomy.  British introduce anti-sodomy laws to Aden and the Pitcairn Islands.  

Theory - Volume Two of Swiss German hatter and writer Heinrich Hössli’s anthology Eros, Die Männerliebe der Griechen, ihre Beziehungen zur Geschichte, Erziehung, Literatur und Gesetzgebung aller Zeiten (Eros or the Male-male Love of the Greeks, Their Relationship to History, Education, Literature and Legislation of all Time), after which both Volumes of his work are banned by Glarus council.

1839

Birth - English scholar and writer Walter Pater, Russian (Belorussian) geographer Nikolai Mikhaylovich Przhevalsky, English tutor to Queen Victoria Canon John Neale Dalton, Russian Prince Vladimir Petrovich Meshchersky and Russian composer Modest Petrovich Mussorgsky.  

Death - Maharaja Ranjit Singh of the Punjab and French writer and secret agent Joseph Fiévée.  

Legal - Württemberg decriminalizes same-sex acts.  Piedmont-Sardinia’s criminal code punishes ‘unnatural lust’ in cases of public scandal with ten years’ imprisonment.  

History - Baltic German naval officer Ferdinand Friedrich Georg Ludwig Freiherr von Wrangel’s Reise längs der Norküste von Siberien (Journey along the North Coast of Siberia) mentions same-sex among the Chukchi, Korjaks and Eskimo.  

Novel - Henry David Thoreau’s novel Sympathy.

1840

Birth - English scholar John Addington Symonds, English classical scholar Professor Ingram Bywater, English painter Simeon Solomon, Austro-Hungarian Czech entertainer Emil Mario Vacano, English banker Francis (Frank) Augustus Bevan, English aristocrat Lord Arthur Pelham-Clinton, English teacher Arthur Sigwick, Russian poet Aleksey Nikolayevich Apukhtin and Russian composer Pyotr Ilyich Tchaikovsky.

Death - English diarist Anne Lister, Italian violinist and composer Niccolò (or Nicolò) Paganini and Afghan Shahzada Kamran Durrani, Emir of Herat.  

Legal - Brunswick and Hanover decriminalizes same-sex acts.  

Event - German actor Wilhelm Kunst banished from Vienna due to a homosexual scandal.  

History - French explorer Jules Sébastien César Dumont d'Urville’s Voyage au Pôl Sud (Voyage to the South Pole) discusses same-sex in Polynesia. 

Autobiography - American lawyer and politician Richard Henry Dana Jr.’s memoir Two Years before the Mast.

Novel - American writer James Fenimore Cooper’s novel Jack Tier.

1841

Birth - Welsh American explorer and journalist John Rowlands (Sir Henry Morton Stanley), French monarchist politician Charles-Eugène Le Bègue de Germiny, Comte de Germiny and American judge Oliver Wendell Holmes, Jr.

Legal - Bill to abolish death penalty for sodomy passes in Commons but fails in Lords. British introduce anti-sodomy laws to Hong Kong.  

Event - English explorer and M.P. William John Bankes accused of sodomy with Guardsman in Green Park and flees to continent.  History - American C. Catlin’s Manners, Customs of the Indians describes berdaches among the Dakota.  

Essay - American essayist and poet Ralph Waldo Emerson’s essay ‘Friendship’.

1842

Birth - Archduke Ludwig Viktor Josef Anton (Lutzi Wutzi) of Austria, American journalist and writer Ambrose Gwinnett Bierce, English politician, educationalist and writer Sir Philip Magnus, 1st Baronet, Anglo-Welsh English translator and collector George Ernest John Powell, English composer Sir Arthur Seymour Sullivan and Australian bushranger Andrew George Scott (Captain Moonlight).  

Death - German poet Johann Diederich Gries.  

Novel - American poet Walt Whitman’s temperance novel Franklin Evans.

1843

Birth - American author Charles Warren Stoddard, Peter Doyle (lover of Walt Whitman), Paul Maximilian Lamoral Fürst von Thurn und Taxis, William (Willie) Fear Dyer (choirboy beloved of John Addington Symonds) and American novelist Henry James.  

Death - Anglo-Irish  Percy Jocelyn deposed Bishop of Clogher d.  Event - Shopkeepers in Galerie d’Orléans in Paris petition police to stop cruising there.  

Drama - Russian dramatist Nikolai Gogol’s play The Gamblers.

1844

Birth - English poet and priest Gerard Manley Hopkins, German (Prussian Saxony) philosopher Friedrich Nietzsche, French poet Paul Verlaine, English financier, courtier and conservative politician Horace Brand Farquhar, 1st Earl Farquhar, American artist Thomas Cowperthwaite Eakins, Russian writer Anna Mikhaylovna Yevreinova (Johanna von Evreinov), German prince Anton Gunther Friedrich Elimar, Herzog von Oldenburg and English reformer Edward Carpenter.  

Death - English writer William Beckford, Chinese artist Qian Yong and French linguist, philosopher and jurist Pierre-Étienne Du Ponceau d.  

Personal - English painter and nonsense poet Edward Lear meets Chichester Fortescue in Rome.  

Novel - Benjamin Disraeli’s novel Coningsby.

1845  

Birth - English Lord Ronald Gower, (?) English Captain Charles Montague Barber, Yorkshire gentleman George Ripley and King Ludwig Otto Friedrich Wilhelm (Ludwig II) of Bavaria, Count Palatine of the Rhine, Duke of Bavaria, Franconia and in Swabia. Legal - Russian Penal Code Book removes exile from its penalty for homosexual offences but leaves flogging and imprisonment of four to five years for anal penetration.   Personal - English William Johnson Cory appointed Master at Eton.  

History - English writer Horace Walpole, 4th Earl of Orford’s Memoirs of the Reign of George III first published.  

Letter - The Correspondence of Sir Philip Sidney and Hubert Languet, translated by Steuart A. Pears.

1846

Birth - English art historian and critic Sir Claude Phillips and English cross dressing Frederick William (Fanny Winifred) Park b. Novel - American novelist Herman Melville’s novel Typee.  

1847

Birth - German Philipp Frederick Alexander Fürst zu Eulenburg und Hertefeld, Graf von Sandels, Lieutenant General Kuno Augustus Friedrich Karl Detlev Graf von Moltke, Anglo-Irish Captain Martin Oranmore Kirwan and English Archibald Primrose, 5th Earl of Rosebery.  

Death - German author and reformer Johann Heinrich Daniel Zschokke.  

Legal - Prussia inadvertently decriminalises lesbian sex during a redrafting of the law.  

Novel - American novelist Herman Melville’s novel Omoo.  

1848

Birth - French novelist Charles-Marie-Georges Huysmans (Joris-Karl Huysmans), English cross-dressing Thomas Ernest (Stella) Boulton and English American musician and composer Jesse Shepard. 

Legal - American anti-sodomy law introduced to California, New Mexico, Arizona, Nevada, Colorado, Utah and Oregon.  

Personal - English poet Edward Lear meets Franklin Lushington in Malta.  

Non-fiction - Japanese Takizawa Bakin’s Kinsei setsu bishnen roku (A Record of Recent Rumours about Beautiful Youths).

History - English Admiral Rodney Mundy’s Narrative of Events in Borneo and Celebes mentions same-sex tjelebei and bissus among the Bugis and Macassars.  Autobiography - English courtier John, Lord Hervey’s Memoirs first published.

Novel - American writer James Fenimore Cooper’s novel Jack Tier: or the Florida Reefs.

1849

Birth - English critic and poet Sir Edmund Gosse, Swedish novelist and playwright John August Strindberg, Swedish writer Charlotte Leffler-Edgren, Duchess of Cajanello, American poet James Whitcomb Riley, American Zuni Indian berdache We’wha, Imperial German Chancellor Bernhard Heinrich Karl Martin Fürst von Bülow, German writer Heinrich Bulthaupt, German opera singer Theodor Reichmann, German writer Elise Therese Levien (Ilse Frapan / Ilse Frapan-Akunian) and English Lord Henry Richard Charles Somerset. 

Death - Polish composer Fryderyk Franciszek Chopin, French socialite Jeanne Françoise Julie Adélaide Récamier and French actress Marie Dorval. 

Legal - English introduce anti-sodomy laws to Vancouver.  Novel - American author George Thompson (Greenhorn)’s novel City Crimes, Or, Life in Boston and New York.  American novelist Herman Melville’s novel Redburn and novella Billy Budd written but not published.  American essayist Henry David Thoreau’s novel A Week on the Concord and Merrimack Rivers.  Chinese novelist Chen Sen’s novel Ping-hua Bao-jan (Precious Mirror for Judging Flowers or A Mirror of Theatrical Life).  

Poetry - English poet Alfred, Lord Tennyson’s poem In Memoriam in memory of poet Arthur Hallam.  

1850

Birth - English Field Marshal Earl Kitchener of Khartoum, German officer and diplomat General Maximilian von Schwartzkoppen, Russian mathematician and writer Sophia Kovalevsky, German Friedrich Botho Graf zu Eulenburg, American Charles Burger Woodcock, Freiherr Woodcock-Savage, French aristocrat Jacques Godart, 6th Marquis de Belbeuf and Scottish novelist Robert Louis Balfour Stevenson. 

Event - Scandal at Royal Military Academy, Woolwich; 33 boys expelled.  

Non-fiction - English ‘H. Smith’ (William Dugdale)’s ‘A Few Words about Margeries – the Way to Know the Beasts, their haunts, etc’ in Yokel’s Preceptor: or, More Sprees in London!

Novel - American novelist Herman Melville’s novel White Jacket.  Story - American poet Bayard Taylor’s story ‘Hylas’.

1851

Birth - English writer on art Joseph William Gleeson White, German Friedrich Franz III Grand Duke of Mecklenburg-Schwerin, Belgian poet Théodore Hannon,English diplomat Sir Francis Edmund Hugh Elliot, Norman Moor (lover of John Addington Symonds), English poet Richard C. Jackson and Lord Henry Arthur George (Arthur) Somerset.  

Death - English Ernest Augustus, King of Hanover, Duke of Cumberland and Teviotdale and Earl of Armagh, American (Massachusetts) teacher Charity Bryant, French dramatist Théodore Leclercq and American writer James Fenimore Cooper.  

Legal - In the Strafgesetzbuch für die preussische Staaten (Penal Code for the Prussian States) Prussia extends criminalization of same-sex acts to the Rhine states, hitherto governed by the Napoleonic Code.  Portuguese Penal Code Book does not criminalize same-sex acts.  

Politics - Yizhu becomes Chinese Xianfeng Emperor.  

Event - Prussian aristocrat Graf Alfred von Maltzan-Wedell (Count Cajus) arrested in Berlin for homosexual ofences; he is imprisoned and his diary leads to the imprisonment of thirteen other men.  English writer Charles Kingsley attacks Tractarians.  

Novel - American novelist Herman Melville’s novel Moby Dick.

Novella - English poet Edward Fitzgerald’s Euphranor, a Dialogue on Youth.  

Poetry - American poet Bayard Taylor’s poem ‘To a Persian Boy’.  

1852

Birth - English courtier Reginald Brett, 2nd Viscount Esher, English artist George Francis (Frank) Miles, German photographer Wilhelm von Plüschow (Guglielmo Plüschow), German General Adjutant Hans Dietrich Graf von Hülsen-Haeseler, English actor manager Sir Herbert Beerbohm Tree and Irish novelist George Augustus Moore. Death - Russian playwright Nikolai Vasilevich Gogol and Prince Frans Gustaf Oscar of Sweden and Norway, Duke of Uppland.  Legal - Portugal decriminalizes homosexual acts. Austrian Penal Code increases penalty for same-sex acts to five years’ imprisonment with hard labour.  British introduce anti-sodomy laws to Lower Burma.  

Theory - German Professor Johann Ludwig Casper’s article on same-sex desire ‘Über Notzucht und Päderastie und deren Ermitlung Seitens des Gerichtsartzes’ (‘About Rape and Pederasty and Their Determination on the Part of the Court Physician'), in which he argues for the first time that same- sexual orientation is innate.  

Poetry - English poet and cultural critic Matthew Arnold’s poem ‘Empedocles on Etna’.

1853

Birth - English businessman and imperialist Cecil Rhodes, English composer and suffragette Dame Ethel Mary Smyth, German zoologist and anthropologist Ferdinand Karsch-Haack and Scot Major-General Sir Hector Macdonald.  

Death - American Vice President William R. King.  

Legal - American anti-sodomy law introduced in Washington State.  

Non-fiction - E.A. Duchesne’s De La Prostitution dans la Ville d’Alger depuis la Conquête (Prostitution in the City of Algiers since the Conquest).

1854

Birth - Scottish historian of Venice Horatio Robert Forbes Brown, French poet Arthur Rimbaud, German industrialist Friedrich ‘Fritz’ Krupp, German (Munich) painter Paul Hoecker, English theosophist Charles Webster Leadbeater, French Marshal Louis Hubert Gonzalve Lyautey, Flemish writer Georges Eekhoud, English poet Francis Edwin Murray, German Lieutenant General Graf Georg Albrecht Wilhelm von Hohenau, English William Welsford Ward (Ward the Choirboy - Oxford friend of Wilde), German writer Wilhelm Walloth, Dutch Sinologist Johannes Jacobus Maria de Groot and Anglo-Irish poet and dramatist Oscar Wilde.  

Death - Charles III Duca di Parma e Piacenza assassinated. 

Legal - New Zealand adopts British laws against sodomy with death penalty.  

Theory - German physician Wilhelm Gollmann’s Homeopathic Guide to all Diseases of the Urinary and Sexual Organs.  

Event - German lawyer Karl Heinrich Ulrichs forced to resign from Hanover government service due to his homosexuality.  

History - Austrian diplomat Johann Georg von Hahn’s Albanesische Studien (Albanian Studies) discusses boy love among the Ghegs.  

Novel - American essayist Henry David Thoreau’s novel Walden, or a Life in the Woods.

1855

Birth - American novelist Howard Overing Sturgis, French aesthete Marie Joseph Robert Anatole, Comte de Montesquiou-Fézensac, French poet and novelist Paul Duval (Jean Lorrain), Chinese official and literatus He Gangde, English author Marie Corelli, South African writer Olive Schreiner and English poet Edward Cracroft Lefroy.  

Death - Danish philosopher Søren Aabye Kierkegaard.  English explorer and M.P. William John Bankes d in Venice. English George Ferrars Townshend, 3rd Marquess Townshend, 2nd Earl of Leicester d in Genoa as Signor Compton.  

Legal - Montenegro law revision continues to not criminalize same-sex acts.  Haiti’s Penal Code Book does not criminalize same-sex acts.  

Non-fiction - London guide says streets full of ‘margeries’ and ‘pooffs’.  

Poetry - American poet Walt Whitman’s poem Leaves of Grass.  American poet Bayard Taylor’s Poems of the Orient.

1856

Birth - German (Mecklenburg) photographer Baron Wilhelm von Gloeden, American painter John Singer Sargent, American theatrical & literary agent Elisabeth (Bessy) Marbury, Venetian gondolier Giacomo (Angelo) Fusato (lover of John Addington Symonds), English academic and writer Wilfred Austin Gill, Prussian pharmacist Joseph Schedel, Zaichun Chinese Tongzhi Emperor and English novelist Violet Paget (Vernon Lee).  

Theory - American poet Walt Whitman first uses the term ‘adhesiveness’.

History - American writer George William Curtis’s The Howadji in Syria.  

Story - American novelist Herman Melville’s short story ‘I and My Chimney’.

Poetry - English cleric and hymn writer Fredrick William Faber’s Poems.

1857

Birth - English Lieutenant-General Robert Baden-Powell 1st Baron Baden-Powell, Grand Duke Sergei Alexandrovich of Russia, Australian bushranger James Nesbitt, German artist Christian Wilhelm Allers, American novelist Henry Blake Fuller, American teacher suffragette Martha (M.) Carey Thomas, Danish writer Herman Joachim Bang, French diplomat Raymond Lecomte, Irish prostitute Jack Saul, English amanuensis to Cecil Rhodes, Neville E. Pickering, Richard Reginald Harding (‘Kitten’ – Oxford friend of Wilde) and English poet Charles Philip Castle Kains Jackson.  Death - French writer Astolphe-Louis-Léonor, Marquis de Custine. Brigadier-General John Nicholson killed at the siege of Delhi.  Legal - British Obscene Publications Act.  

Theory - English physician and writer William Acton’s The Functions and Disorders of the Reproductive Organs condemns masturbation.  French physician and forensic scientist Dr. Auguste-Ambroise Tardieu’s A Medico-Legal Study of Indecent Assaults.  1857 – 1859.

Letter - English writer Horace Walpole, 4th Earl of Orford’s Complete Correspondence of Horace Walpole, 9 vols, ed. Peter Cunningham.

Novel - English novelist Thomas Hughes’s novel Tom Brown’s Schooldays.

1858

Birth - English artist Henry Scott Tuke, American essayist and poet Horace Traubel, King Gustav V of Sweden, Grand Duke Konstantine Konstantinovich of Russia, Dutch criminal anthropologist Arnold Aletrino, Swedish author Selma Lagerlöf, English suffragette composer Dame Ethel Smyth, Irish novelist Edith Somerville, French mystic Joséphin Péladan (Sâr Péladan), English art expert and editor More Adey, English actor Norman Forbes-Robertson and American author Edward Irenaeus Prime-Stevenson (Xavier Mayne).  

Death - William Spencer Cavendish, 6th Duke of Devonshire and Graf Alfred von Maltzan-Wedell (Count Cajus).  

Legal - Homosexual acts decriminalised in the Ottoman Empire in its Penal Code Book  and in Timor-Leste. English introduce anti-sodomy laws to British Columbia.  

Theory - German Professor Johann Ludwig Casper’s book Practisches Handbuch der gerichtlichin Medizin (Practical Handbook of Forensic Medicine) argues for innateness of sexual orientation.  Part Three of French forensic physician Auguste Ambroise Tardieu’s Étude médico-légale sur less attentats aux moeurs (Forensic Study on Immoral Behaviour) considers ‘pederasty’ innate in some.  

Event - English scholar John Addington Symonds brings about disgrace of Dr. Vaughan, Headmaster of Harrow.  

Personal - English poet Alfred, Lord Tennyson meets poet Algernon Charles Swinburne.

Novel - English cleric Frederic William Farrar’s novel Eric, or Little by Little.  

Poetry - English school master William (Johnson) Cory’s poems Ionica.  

1859

Birth - English poet Alfred Edward (A.E.) Housman, American author and poet Wallace deGroot Cecil Rice, Welsh writer Ernest Percival Rhys, American decorator Elsie de Wolfe, Lady Mendl, German Kaiser Wilhelm II (Friedrich Wilhelm Viktor Albert von Preußen), English Lieutenant William Alfred Ernest Lonergan, Russian painter Maria Feodorova, Hungarian writer Sarolta (Count Sandor) Vay, Austro-German writer Maria Janitschek and Scottish writer Kenneth Grahame.

Death - English William Kenworthy Browne, beloved of Edward Fitzgerald, American writer and diplomat Washington Irving, German actor Wilhelm Kunst  and German scientist Friedrich Freiherr von Humboldt.  

Legal - Piedmont-Sardinia’s criminal code repeats punishment of  ‘unnatural lust’ in cases of public scandal with ten years’ imprisonment.  Canada enacts death penalty for sodomy.   

Politics - Maharajadhiraja Raj Rajeshwar Sawai Shri Sir Shivaji Rao Holkar Bahadur XII becomes Maharajah Holkar of Indore.  Event - Resignation of Reverend Dr Charles John Vaughan as Headmaster of Harrow.  

Theory - Edition 3 of Danzig German philosopher Arthur Schopenhauer’s Die Welt als Wille und Vorstellung (The World as Will and Representation) includes an Addendum to Paragraph 44 of the chapter on the ‘Metaphysics of Love’, which states that same-sex is natural and only bad if it involves the seduction of minors. English political writer John Stuart Mill’s On Liberty argues against the persecution of minorities and cites Athen’s execution of Socrates for corrupting youth.

History - English writer Horace Walpole, 4th Earl of Orford’s Journal of the Reign of George III from the Year 1771 to 1783 first published.  

Novel - French writer Joseph Méry’s novel Monsieur Auguste.  Poetry - English writer Edward FitzGerald’s translation of the poem Rubaiyat of Omar Khayam inspired by Edward Byles Cowell.

Art - English Simeon Solomon’s painting David Playing Before Saul.

1860

Birth - English writer Frederick William Rolfe (Baron Corvo), English poet Reverend Edwin Emanuel Bradford, Estonian German poet Stanislaus Eric Count Stenbock, Scottish writer Sir James Matthew Barrie 1st Baronet, American campaigner Jane Addams, English poet and political activist John Evelyn Barlas (Evelyn Douglas), English stockbroker Hugh Weguelin, English Russophile and antiques dealer Albert Henry Stopford, French writer Marguerite Vallette-Eymery (Rachilde) and American art collector and writer Edward (Ned) Perry Warren (Arthur Lyon Raile). 

Death - German philosopher Arthur Schopenhauer and French Admiral Aaron Louis Frédéric Regnault, Baron de La Susse.  

Legal - Section 377 of the Indian Penal Code criminalizes same-sex acts.

Event - English scholar John Addington Symonds is disgraced at Magdalen College, Oxford. Reverend Charles John Vaughan offered Bishopric of Rochester but is forced by John Addington Symonds’s father to withdraw.  In Tianjin, China, 35 brothels employ 800 boy prostitutes.  

History - English missionary Thomas Williams’s Fiji and the Fijians describes anal intercourse at circumcision ceremonies.  Poetry - American poet Walt Whitman adds poem ‘Calamus’ to the U.S. version of Leaves of Grass.  English priest and poet Gerard Manley Hopkins starts writing poems.

1861

Birth - American critic and novelist Alfred J. Cohen (Alan Dale), English writer Horace Annesley Vachell, Ferdinand Maximilian Karl Leopold Maria of Saxe-Coburg and Gotha-Koháry (Ferdinand I, King of Bulgaria), Danish American manager and aide to ex-President Herbert Hoover Lauritz (Lawrence) Waldemar Tonner, English journalist and biographer Robert Harborough Sherard Kennedy, Italian Jesuit Pietro Tacchi Venturi and English writer and suffragette Edith Mary Oldham Ellis (née Lees).

Death - English poet Arthur Hugh Clough, French ecclesiastic Jean-Baptiste Henri-Dominique Lacordaire, Yizhu Chinese Xianfeng Emperor and American writer Theodore Winthrop.  

Legal - English Parliament repeals the Buggery Act of 1533 and enacts Offences against the Person Act, reducing penalty for sodomy to ten years to life imprisonment.   Sierra Leone adopts English Offences Against the Person Act criminalizing homosexual acts.

Personal - English American musician and composer Jesse Shepard ‘adopted’ by American explorer John C. Frémont.  

Novel - American writer Theodore Winthrop’s novel John Brent.  Poetry - English scholar John Addington Symonds writes poem ‘What Cannot Be’.

1862

Birth - English academic Goldsworthy Lowes Dickinson, English herald Sir Arthur Vicars,  Swedish painter Eugène Jansson, Chinese President Cao Kun Cao Kun (Zhongshan), English academic the Reverend Frederick William Bussell, French artist Comte Antoine de La Rochefoucauld and English writer Arthur Christopher (A.C.) Benson.  

Death - American writer Henry David Thoreau.  

Legal - Peru’s Penal Code criminalizes sodomy and pederasty.  

Politics - Zaichun becomes Chinese Tongzhi Emperor.  

Event - Enraged by imprisonment in Frankfurt of German shooting club official, socialist politician Johann Baptist von Schweitzer, for an unproven charge of molesting a male youth, German lawyer Karl Heinrich Ulrichs starts writing private letters on homosexuality to contacts in Germany and comes out to his family as a ‘pure bred Uranier’.  Seventy men accused of same-sex offences in Hamburg fined four hundred marks or four weeks in jail.

Personal - English priest and poet Gerard Manley Hopkins goes up to Brasenose College, Oxford and recommends friends to read Theocritus’s idylls on boy love, ‘Thalusia’ and ‘Hylas’.   

Religion - German compilation Enthüllungen über Lehren und Leben der katholischen Geistlichkeit (Discoveries on the Teachings and Life of the Catholic Clergy).  

Non-fiction - German botanist Berthold Carl Seeman’s Viti describes same-sex relationships on Fiji.  

History - French physician Victor Henri de Rochas’s La Nouvelle-Calédonie et ses habitants : productions, mœurs, cannibalisme (New Caledonia and Its Inhabitants: Productions, Manners, Cannibalism) discusses same-sex acts on the islands.  Novel - American writer Theodore Winthrop’s novels John Brent and Cecil Dreeme.  French novelist Gustav Flaubert’s novel Salammbô.  

Poetry - American poet Bayard Taylor’s poems The Poet’s Journal.  

1863

Birth - English poet Reverend Samuel Elsworth Cottam, Anglo-French poet, librarian and medical biographer Victor Gustave Plarr, Egyptian Greek poet Constantine Cavafy, Dutch author Louis Couperus, American architect Ralph Adams Cram, London male brothel owner Alfred Waterhouse Somerset Taylor, English art gallery director Arthur Bellamy Clifton, English designer Charles Robert Ashbee, German Maximilian Egon II, Prinz zu Fürstenberg, French artist Mathilde Marquise de Morny and Spanish philosopher and writer Jorge Agustín Nicolás Ruiz de Santayana y Borrás (George Santayana).  

Death - English cleric Frederick Faber.  Last execution for homosexuality in Australia (Tasmania).  

Theory - German Professor Johann Ludwig Casper’s Klinische Novellen (Clinical Anecdotes) attacks the belief that same-sex love is a condition leading to disease. 

1864

Birth - French poet and writer Marc-André Raffalovich, English poet and novelist Robert Smythe Hichens, Anglo-Irish diplomat Sir Roger Casement, Scottish anarchist John Henry Mackay (Sagitta), Austro-Hungarian officer Colonel Alfred Victor Redl, English architect, designer and poet Herbert Percy Horne, French collector Alphonse Kahn, German Prinz Aribert Joseph Alexander von Anhalt, German (Hanover) playwright Benjamin Franklin (Frank) Wedekind, English diplomat Sir Louis du Pan Mallet, Australian painter Agnes Goodsir, English writer Osman Edwards (student friend of Wilde), German lesbian activist Johanna Elberskirchen, German orientalist Josef Marquart (Markwart) and English poet Charles Edward Sayle.  

Death - Governor and Senator James Henry Hammond, American composer Stephen Foster and Swiss German hatter and writer Heinrich Hössli.  Major-General Patrick Ronayne Cleburne killed at the Battle of Franklin, Tennessee.  

Legal - (to 1874) Romanian Penal Code Book does not criminalize same-sex acts.  

Religion - Italian Saint Giovanni Bosco founds Society of St. Francis de Sales.

Theory - German lawyer Karl Heinrich Ulrichs’s first three of twelve pamphlets under the name Numa Numantius on ‘the intermediate sex’, Forschungen Über Das Rätsel Der Mannmänlichen Liebe (Researches into the Riddle of Love between Men); Vindex: Social-juristiche Studien über mannmännliche Geschlechtsliebe (Vindicator: Social and Legal Studies on Man-Manly Love), which contained the first use of the term Urning; Inclusa: Anthropologische Studien über mannmännliche Geschlechtsliebe  (Included: Anthropological Studies on Man-Manly Love); and Vindicta: Kampf für Freiheit von Verfolgung (Revenge/Rod of Freedom: Battle for Freedom from Persecution).  The first two are seized by the Leipzig police but released by a court.

Politics - Ludwig II becomes King of Bavaria.  

Event - English academic Walter Pater delivers paper ‘Diapheneite’ to students at Oxford and is a member of the Old Mortality society, which includes Swinburne, John Addington Symonds, C.L. Shadwell, Provost of Oriel College, and classical scholar Professor Ingram Bywater, all homosexually inclined.

Personal - English reformer Edward Carpenter goes up to Trinity Hall, Cambridge.  English writer Edward Fitzgerald meets Joseph Fletcher, ‘Posh’.  

History - English explorer Richard Burton’s A Mission to Gelele, King of Dahomey reports ‘royal women’ who are men guarding the ruler.

Biography - Hungarian writer Karl-Maria Benkert (Károly Mária Kertbeny)’s Errinerungen an Charles Sealsfield (Recollections of Charles Sealsfield) mentions Karl Heinrich Ulrichs, and the two writers correspond.  

Autobiography - English Cardinal John Henry Newman’s Apologia pro Vita Sua.

Art - (C) English artist Simeon Solomon’s painting Sapho and Erinna.

 

1865

Birth - English playwright and novelist Laurence Housman, Francis Bennett-Goldney M.P., Athlone Pursuivant, American Presidential aide Major Archibald Butt, English heiress Winnaretta Singer, Princesse Edmond de Polignac, Anglo-South African writer and art historian Henry Currie (Harry - H.C.) Marillier (schoolboy and student friend of Wilde), American poet, essayist and critic Logan Pearsall Smith, Irish composer Norman Houston O’Neill, English actor Charles Maitland Hallard, English writer Henry Currie (Harry) Marrillier (schoolboy and student friend of Wilde), Scottish poet, translator, critic and diplomat Grant Duff Douglas Ainslie (student friend of Wilde), American dramatist Clyde Fitch and English poet and critic Arthur William Symons. 

Death - French General Christophe Léon Louis Juchault de Lamoricière.  Abraham Lincoln assassinated.  

Legal - San Marino decriminalizes sodomy.  Hong Kong adopts British 1861 Offences against the Person Act. 

Theory - German lawyer Karl Heinrich Ulrichs’s fourth and fifth pamphlets on ‘the intermediate sex’: Formatrix: Anthropologische Studien über mannmännliche Geschlechtsliebe  (Formative: Anthropological Studies in Man-Manly Love);  and Ara Spei (Refuge of Hope).   Ulrichs and his publisher tried but found not guilty of ‘illegal behaviour’ in Leipzig, Saxony.

Personal - English scholar John Addington Symonds reads American poet Walt Whitman.  American writer Henry James’s affair with American judge Oliver Wendell Holmes, Jr.

Poetry - English poet Algernon Charles Swinburne’s poems Atalanta in Calydon.  

Art - English Simeon Solomon’s painting Love among the Schoolboys.

1866

Birth - Spanish playwright Jacinto Benavente, English poet John Gambril Francis Nicholson, German Jewish sexologist Benedict Friedlander, English artists Walford Graham Robertson, Vishwanath Singh Maharaja of Chhatarpur, English poet John Henry Gray, English aristocrat Lord Albert Edward Godolphin Osborne, English poet Richard Le Gallienne, Russian painter and stage designer Léon Samoilovitch Bakst and English poet Dr. William George Headlam.  

Death - Henry Lygon, 5th Earl Beauchamp. 

Legal - Danish Penal Code Book ends death by burning for ‘intercourse against nature’ and prescribes up to six years imprisonment instead.  

Event - American writer Reverend Horatio Alger scandal in Boston.  German lawyer Karl Heinrich Ulrichs imprisoned for a year in Minden.

Media - English journalist James Greenwood’s three articles in the Pall Mall Gazette, ‘A Night in the Workhouse’.

Personal - English academic Walter Pater is tutor to poet Gerard Manley Hopkins at Oxford.    

Poetry - Poem Don Leon (account of Byron’s gay loves) published by William Dugdale.  English poet Algernon Charles Swinburne’s Poems and Ballads, First Series.  English cultural writer Matthew Arnold completes the elegy on poet Arthur Clough, ‘Thyrsis’.  English poet Christina Rosetti’s Goblin Market and Other Poems.

1867

Birth - German-English poet and sexual reformer George Cecil Ives, English novelist Edward Frederic (E.F.) Benson, German Jewish industrialist and Foreign Minister Walther Rathenau, Japanese novelist Natsume Kinnosuke (Natsumi Soseki), Japanese author and naturalist Minakata Kumagusu, English poet Lionel Pigot Johnson, Anglo-Irish thief and murderer Captain Richard Gorges, German American classicist Edith Hamilton, Zulu gang leader Nongoloza Mathebula, English art historian Campbell Dodgson, English pornographer Paul Harry Ferdinando (‘Lively Poll’; P.H. Carrington), Russian poet Polyxena Soloviova, German poet Josef Kitir and English poet Edmund St.Gascoigne Mackie.

Death - American poet Fitz-Greene Halleck.  Castrated body of a 16-year old apprentice found in a Berlin park and another mutilated body in a Berlin apartment cause a panic; Lieutenant Karl E. von Zastrow later charged with their murder.  

Legal - New Zealand reduces death penalty for buggery to life imprisonment.  American anti-sodomy law introduced to Alaska.  Code pénal Belge (Belgian Penal Law) excludes mention of same-sex offences.  

Theory - English Medical Times and Gazette article ‘Aberrations of the Sexual Instinct’.

Event - German lawyer Karl Heinrich Ulrichs became the first self-proclaimed homosexual to speak out publicly for homosexual rights at the Congress of German Jurists in Munich, but he is shouted down half way through his speech.    

History - G. Heriot’s Travels through the Canadas describes same-sex among native Americans.  

Essay - English academic Walter Pater’s essay ‘Winckelmann’ in the Westminster Review.  

Novel - American writer Reverend Horatio Alger’s novel Ragged Dick.

Drama - French playwright Henri Becque’s play and opera libretto Sardanapale.

1868

Birth - German (Prussian) poet Stefan Anton George, German Jewish physician sexologist Magnus Hirschfeld, Danieri Basammula-Ekkere Mwanga II Mukasa Kabaka of Buganda, English barrister, writer and poet William Percy Addleshaw (Percy Hemingway), English activist Esther Roper, English academic Francis Fortescue (Sligger) Urquhart, German Scottish photographer [Baron?] Adolphus (Adolph) de Meyer,  Anglo-German Graf Harry Clément Ulrich Kessler, German Grossherzog Ernst Ludwig Karl Albrecht Wilhelm von Hessen und bei Rhein, Anglo-American writer Walter Blackburn Harte and English writer Norman Douglas.  

Death - English Sir James Brooke, Rajah of Sarawak, American Sylvia Drake, and German-Russian novelist Alexander, Baron von Ungern-Sternberg  and American President James Buchanan.  Legal - North Carolina abolishes death penalty for sodomy.  

Theory - Ulrichs publishes sixth and seventh pamphlet on same-sex law reform: Gladius Furens: Das Naturräthsel der Urningsliebe und der Irrthum als Gesetzgeber. Eine Provocation an den deutschen Juristentag (Raging Sword: The Nature of the Riddle of Urning Loves and the Error of Legislators.  A Challenge to German Jurists); and Memnon: Die Geschlechtsnatur des mannliebenden Urnings (Memnon: The Sexual Nature of Man-Loving Urnings).

Event - Hungarian journalist and rights campaigner Karoly Maria Benkert (Kertbeny) coins the term ‘homosexualität’ in a letter of 6 May to German lawyer Karl Ulrichs.   

Personal - English reformer Edward Carpenter reads American poet Walt Whitman’s poems.  English academic Walter Pater introduces poet Gerard Manley Hopkins to English painter Simeon Solomon, who visits Italy with academic Oscar Browning .

Non-fiction - English poet Algernon Charles Swinburne mentions Whitman in critical study William Blake.  

Poetry - English Roden Noel’s Beatrice and Other Poems including ‘Ganymede’.  American Walt Whitman’s poem ‘Calamus’ published in England.  English poet Dante Gabriel Rosetti includes Whitman’s poems in a collection. English scholar John Addington Symonds’s poem ‘Eudiades’ written.  English poet Alfred Lord Tennyson starts to write Idylls of the King.

Art - Simeon Solomon has his painting Bacchus exhibited.

1869

Birth - French writer André Gide, Romanian actor Édouard de Max, English author and aesthete Reginald ‘Reggie’ Turner, French courtesan Anne Marie Chassaigne (Liane de Pougy), Fürstin Ghica/Ghika, Russian painter Konstantin Andreyevich Somov and Canadian journalist and art critic Robbie Ross.  

Death - English politician John Cam Hobhouse, 1st Baron Broughton and American composer Louis Moreau Gottschalk.   Legal - South Carolina last American state to abolish death penalty for sodomy.    Canada removes death penalty for sodomy.  

Theory - The Prussian Royal Scientific Committee for the Board of Health and its Austrian equivalent advise their Governments to delete prohibition of same-sex acts from the new legal code but are ignored.  Hungarian journalist Karoly Maria Kertbeny’s memorandum to the Prussian Justice Minister Leonhardt, The Social Harm Caused by Paragraph 143 of the Prussian Legal Code, publishes word ‘homosexualität’ (‘homosexuality’) for the first time.  He publishes this and another pamphlet anonymously.  Karl Ulrichs publishes his eight work, Incubus, and Argonauticus, his ninth pamphlet on same-sex law reform, then Prometheus, his tenth pamphlet.  

Event - Trial and imprisonment of Karl E. von Zastrow.  Austrian ecclesiastical superintendent Karl Forstner forcibly extradited from Munich to Vienna and given one year forced labour for ‘attempted anal intercourse’.   

Essay - English academic Walter Pater’s essay ‘Notes on Leonardo da Vinci’ in The Fortnightly Review.  

Story - American writer Bret Harte’s short story ‘Tennessee’s Partner’ in the Overland Monthly.  

Art - French artist Jean-Frédéric Bazille’s painting Scène d’été (Summer Scene).  American artist William Rimmer’s painting Fall of Day (to 1870).

1870

Birth - English Lord Alfred Douglas, Finnish painter Magnus Knut Enckell, Belgian-French poet and photographer Pierre Félix Louis (Pierre Louÿs), Anglo-Irish poet and activist Eva Gore-Booth, English painter Ernest Boulton, German painter Rudolph Karl Alexander (Sascha) Schneider and English writer Hector Hugh Munro (Saki).  

Death - French writer Charles Forbes René de Montalembert, Comte de Montalembert, Deux-Sèvres.  English aristocrat Lord Arthur Pelham-Clinton reported to have d. 

Legal - Prussian Penal Code imposed throughout the North German Confederation with Paragraph 175 outlawing homosexual acts.  Spain’s Codigo penal reformado (Revised Penal Code) does not criminalize homosexuality.

Theory - German lawyer Karl Heinrich Ulrichs’s eleventh pamphlet Araxes.  German psychiatrist Carl Westphal first to use the term ‘contrary sexual feeling’ in his article ‘Die konträre Sexualempfindung’ (‘Contrary Sexual Feeling’) in Archiv für Psychiatrie und Nervenkrankanheiten (Archive for Psychiatry and Nervous Disorders).   

Event - Arrest in London of Frederick (Fanny Winifred) William Park and Thomas Ernest (Stella) Boulton, charged with, then acquitted of, a series of sexual offences; the scandal involves Lord Arthur Clinton, son of the 4th Duke of Newcastle.

Personal - English poet A.E. Housman meets Moses John Jackson at Oxford.   

History - The Dutch traveller Michael Theophile Hubert Perelaer’s Ethnographic Beschrijving der Dajaks (Ethnographic Description of the Dajaks) details same-sex practices on Borneo.  American explorer William Healy Dall’s Alaska and Its Resources describes same-sex among the native women.  

Novel - American poet Bayard Taylor’s novel Joseph and His Friend.  

Poetry - English reformer Edward Carpenter’s Narcissus and Other Poems.

Art - French painter and sculptor Jean-Léon Gérôme’s painting The Snake-charmer.

1871

Birth - French writer Marcel Proust, Australian poet John Le Gay Brereton, American writer Claude Hartland, English art expert Sir William Rothenstein, English George Seymour 7th Marquess of Hertford, Russian Georgi Vasilyevich Chicherin, Soviet People’s Commissar for Foreign Affairs, English lover of Sir Alfred Douglas Maurice Schwabe, Neapolitan-Franco-English socialite Donna Maria Beatrice Olga Alberta Caracciolo, Baroness de Meyer, Princess Catherine Hilda Duleep Singh of the Punjab, Russian art writer Walter Feodorovich Nouvel, George Arthur Maurice Hamilton-Gordon, 2nd Baron Stanmore, English film actor and diplomat Sir Charles Ferdinand Mendl, American historian Gaillard Thomas Lapsley, English art patron and female impersonator Herbert Charles (Jerome) Pollitt (Diane de Rougy), German librettist Karl Michael von Levetzow and Anglo-German poet Theodore William Graf Wratislaw.  

Death - German actor Hermann Hendrichs d.  

Legal - Mexico’s Penal Code Book does not criminalize same-sex acts.  Guatemala decriminalises homosexual acts.  Costa Rica decriminalises homosexual acts in Constitution of President General Tomás Miguel Guardia Gutiérrez.  

Personal - French poet Arthur Rimbaud meets poet Paul Verlaine.  English scholar John Addington Symonds starts to write to American poet Walt Whitman.

Poetry - English scholar John Addington Symonds writes poems ‘Eudiades’ and ‘Love and Death: A Symphony’. English painter Simeon Solomon’s prose poem A Vision of Love Revealed in Sleep.  American writer Bayard Taylor’s poem ‘Twin Love’.

1872

Birth - English essayist and caricaturist Sir Henry Maximilian (Max) Beerbohm, English illustrator and writer Aubrey Vincent Beardsley, William Lygon 7th Earl Beauchamp, Russian poet and musician Mikhail Alekseyevich Kuzmin, English polymath and civil servant Sir Edward Howard Marsh, English bibliographer Christopher Sclater Millard, American Senator and Governor David Walsh, American actress Maud Adams, Irish American film director William Cunningham Deane-Tanner (William Desmond Taylor), American female impersonator Hal Wadell (or Waddell) or Ramón Ícarez (Ray (Rae) Bourbon), Baltic German poet and writer Elisar von Kupffer (Elisarion), Russian writer Dmitry Vladimirovich Filosofov, Austrian Sinologist Erwin Ritter von Zach and Russian impresario Sergei Diaghilev.

Death - Austrian playwright Franz Grillparzer and King Carl Ludvig Eugen, Charles / Karl XV of Sweden and Karl XV of Norway.  

Legal - Alsace-Lorraine, Baden, Bavaria and Württemberg adopt North German Confederation Paragraph 175 of the Deutsche Reichsstrafgesetzbuch (Penal Code of the German Empire), the law on homosexuality, as part of the new German Reich.  

Event - English William (Johnson) Cory dismissed from post of Master at Eton.  

Autobiography - Georg Prinz von Preussen’s autobiography Vergilbte Blätter (Yellowed Leaves).

1873

Birth - English author and cleric John Francis Bloxam, French novelist Sidonie- Gabrielle Colette, American author Willa Sibert Cather, English journalist and editor Benjamin Guy (B.G.) Horniman, German writer and cultural historian Hans Otto August Ostwald, German (Riga) writer Guido Hermann Eckardt (Fritz Geron Pernauhm) and English linguist and fraud Sir Edmund Backhouse.  

Death - German chemist Professor Justus Freiherr von Liebig.  Legal - Japan criminalizes same-sex acts.  Venezuala’s Penal Code Book does not criminalize same-sex acts.  

Event - Conviction of English painter Simeon Solomon for cottaging with George Roberts, stableman.

Personal - French poet Rimbaud shoots poet Verlaine.

Essay - English Roden Noel publishes an essay on George, Lord Byron, ‘Lord Byron and His Times’ in St. Paul’s Magazine, working out Byron’s bisexuality from Mary Shelley’s publication in 1840 of a letter from Percey Bysshe Shelley to Peacock about Byron’s life at Venice; Roden Noel becomes Groom of the Privy Chamber to Queen Victoria.

History - English academic Walter Pater’s Studies in the History of the Renaissance, dedicated to Charles L. Shadwell, Provost of Oriel College.  (to 1876) English scholar John Addington Symonds’s Studies of the Greek Poets.  

Novel - American writer Charles Warren Stoddard’s novel South-Sea Idylls.  

Story - English stories The Romance of Lust, or Early Experiences published by William Lazenby (in 4 volumes to 1876).  

Poetry - English poet and critic Edmund Gosse’s poems On Viol and Flute. English reformer Edward Carpenter’s poems Narcissus and Other Poems.  French poet Arthur Rimbaud’s poem Une Saison en Enfer (A Season in Hell).

1874

Birth - American transgender Earl Lind, English author W. Somerset Maugham, German rights campaigner and anarchist Adolf Brand, American painter Beatrice Romaine Goddard (Romaine Brooks), American writer Gertrude Stein, Venezuelan composer Reynaldo Hahn, American poet Amy Lowell, English owner of The Ladies Review, impresario and writer Roy Horniman, Oscar Wilde’s lover clerk Edward Shelley and Iranian poet Prince Iraj Mirza, Jalal-ol-Mamalek.  

Death - German composer Carl August Peter Cornelius.   

Legal - British introduce anti-sodomy laws to Fiji.  Monaco law does not criminalize same-sex acts.  Chile’s Code Book criminalizes sodomy with penalty of the penitentiary. Event - English Benjamin Jowett, Master of Balliol College, prevents academic Walter Pater’s appointment as Proctor having heard he was ‘spooning’ undergraduate William M. Hardinge.  

Personal - English reformer Edward Carpenter moves to Leeds, where he begins correspondence with American poet Walt Whitman.  (or 1875) Irish playwright Oscar Wilde meets English artist George Francis (Frank) Miles at Oxford.  

History - Irish scholar John Pentland Mahaffy’s Social Life in Greece.  

Poetry - French poet Paul Verlaine’s poems Romances sans parole (Romance without Words).

1875

Birth - English magus and writer Aleister Crowley, Irish writer Forrest Reid, French composer Maurice Ravel, Henry Cyril Paget ‘Toppy’, Earl of Uxbridge and 5th Marquess of Anglesey, Irish art dealer Sir Hugh Percy Lane, French writer and physician Henri-Léon Vengeon (Henri Ghéon), Anglo-Irish composer Norman Houston O'Neill, English prostitute (and accuser of Wilde) Frederick Atkins, Anglo-Italian composer and translator Isidore Leo Pavia  and German writer Thomas Mann.  

Death - Danish writer Hans Christian Andersen, German Lutheran pastor and poet Eduard Friedrich Mörike, Zaichun Chinese Tongzhi Emperor and German (Frankfurt) socialist politician Johann Baptist von Schweitzer.  

Event - English academic and poet Oscar Browning dismissed from Eton.  English Bishop of Oxford attacks academic Walter Pater’s Studies in the History of the Renaissance.

Activism - German H. Marx’s pamphlet Urningsliebe (Uranian Love) calls on urnings to organise themselves.  

Personal - American author Henry James emigrates to Europe.  History - Second edition of Irish scholar John Pentland Mahaffy’s Social Life in Greece removes mention of pederasty.  (to 1886) English scholar John Addington Symonds starts publishing The Renaissance in Italy .

Novel - American author Henry James’s novel Roderick Hudson.  German novelist and dramatist Adolf von Wilbrandt’s Fridolin's heimlich Ehe: Nach Erinnerungen und Mittheilungen (Fridolin’s Mystical Marriage: by Memories and Medium), the first openly gay German novel.

Poetry - English scholar John Addington Symonds’s poems Lyra Viginti Cordarum, including ‘Three Visions of Imperial Rome, Midnight at Baiae’.

1876

Birth - American playwright and novelist Natalie Clifford Barney, German writer and rights campaigner Friedrich Radszuweit, Dublin Herald Francis Richard Shackleton, French poet, author and painter Max Jacob,  English Tom Kennion, lover of Oscar Wilde, Eugenio Maria Giuseppe Giovanni Pacelli (Pope Pius XII) and Spanish composer Manuel de Falla y Matheu.

Death  French author Armandine Aurore Lucie Dupin, Baroness Dudevant (Georges Sand).  

Event - French monarchist politician Charles-Eugène Le Bègue de Germiny, Comte de Germiny, arrested in a Paris urinal with youth Edmond-Pierre Chuard; sentenced to two months imprisonment and a fine of 200 francs, he is divorced and goes into exile in Argentina.  

History - English scholar John Addington Symonds’s last part of his Studies of the Greek Poets.  English academic Walter Pater writes ‘A Study of Dionysus’.  

Art - English Frederic, Lord Leighton, paints explorer Richard Burton.

1877

Birth - American writer Alice B. Toklas, English poet Pauline Mary Tarn (Renee Vivien), English critic James Agate, Chinese playwright and scholar Qi Rushan, American artist Marsden Hartley, American artist and architect Edward (Ed) Shepard Hewitt, English seller of political honours John Arthur Maundy Gregory and English mathematician Godfrey Harold (G.H.) Hardy.

Death - French General Nicolas Anne Theodule Changarnier, German poet and dramatist Salomon Hermann Mosenthal and American evangelist Henry Ward Beecher.  

Legal - (to 1878) British introduce anti-sodomy laws to British North Borneo (Sabah).  

Theory - German psychiatrist Richard von Krafft-Ebing publishes his first article on same-sex eroticism, ‘Über gewisse Anomalien des Geschlectsliebe’ (‘On Certain Anomalies of the Sex Drive’) in the Archiv für Psychiatrie und Nervenkrankanheiten (Archive for Psychiatry and Nervous Disorders). 

Event - Walter Pater and John Addington Symonds withdraw from contest for Professorship of Poetry at Oxford.  English Reverend St. John Tyrwhitt attacks scholar John Addington Symonds and Oxford Aestheticism in ‘The Greek Spirit in Modern Literature’ in The Contemporary Review.  

Personal - English reformer Edward Carpenter visits poet Walt Whitman in the U.S.  English academic Walter Pater meets poet Richard Jackson at Oxford.

History - English academic Walter Pater prepares the second edition of Studies in the History of the Renaissance. Dutch writer I.A. Kruigt’s Atjeh en de Atjehers (Acheh and the Achenese) discusses sedatti, dancing boys used for sex.  

Novel - Swedish novelist Abraham Viktor Rydberg’s novel Romerska Dagar (Roman Days). 

Poetry - English poet Gerard Manley Hopkins ordained priest and writes poem ‘God’s Grandeur’. Irish dramatist and poet Oscar Wilde’s poems Wasted Days.  English schoolmaster William (Johnson) Cory’s poems Ionica II.  

1878

Birth - Chinese politician Cheng Ke, Minister of the Interior and Mayor of Tianjin, Austrian photographer Rudolph Franz Lehnert, German photographer Ernst Heinrich Landrock, Anglo-American businesswoman Elizabeth Arden, French Princesse Eugène (Violette) Murat, German writer Hermann Breuer (Bill Forster), German writer Ruth Margarete Roellig, Alphonse Conway (picked up by Wilde at Worthing aged 16), French writer Victor Segalen, German lawyer and language professor Vincenz Maria Hermann Hundhausen, French restaurateur and writer Xavier Marcel Boulestin and Japanese author and poet Yosano Akiko.  

Death - American poet and writer Bayard Taylor and German composer Franz von Holstein.  

Legal - British introduce anti-sodomy laws to Cyprus.  

Politics - John George Edward Henry Douglas Sutherland Campbell, 9th Duke of Argyll becomes Governor General of Canada.  Event - English Lord Henry Somerset’s liaison with Harry Smith discovered.  German editor Adolf Glaser prosecuted for sodomy.  

Personal - German photographer Baron Wilhelm von Gloeden settles in Taormina.  

History - English scholar John Addington Symonds’s The Sonnets of Michael Angelo Buonarotti and Tommaso Campanella.  

Autobiography - English academic Walter Pater’s autobiographical ‘Imaginary Portraits 1: the Child in the House’ in Macmillan’s Magazine.  

Poetry - English poet Algernon Charles Swinburne’s Poems and Ballads, Series II.  English scholar John Addington Symonds’s poems Many Moods.

1879

Birth- English writer E.M. Forster, Irish nationalist Patrick Pearse, George Gordon, 2nd Marquess of Aberdeen and Temair (Lord Haddo to 1916), Polish musician Wanda Landowska, American author Mabel Dodge Luhan, Russo-American actress Alla Nazimova, English actor Ernest Frederic Graham Thesiger, English conservative politician and colonial governor George Ambrose Lloyd, 1st Baron Lloyd, English composer John Nicholson Ireland, German artist Marcus Michael Douglas Behmer, English diplomat Charles Archibald Walker Rose, English poet St. John Welles Lucas-Lucas, Prince Francis Joseph of Braganza, Infante of Portugal, German writer Otto Adolf Alexander Freiherr von Taube, German writer and activist Peter Hamecher, French diplomat Georges Soulié de Morant and English Air-Commodore L.E.O. Charlton.  

Death - German Paul Maximilian Lamoral Fürst von Thurn und Taxis and Anglo-American painter William Rimmer.  Australian bushranger James Nesbitt shot dead.

Legal - Luxembourg Code pénal (Penal Code) does not criminalize same-sex acts.   

Theory - German lawyer Karl Heinrich Ulrichs’s last pamphlet of twelve on ‘the intermediate sex’: Critische Pfeile: Denkschrift über die Bestrafung der Urningsliebe. An die Gesetzgeber (Critical Arrows: Memorandum to the Legislature on Punishing the Urnings Lover).

Event - English Lord Henry Somerset resigns as Comptroller of the Queen’s Household and goes into exile in Europe. English Lord Ronald Gower sues journal Man of the World for publishing hints of his homosexual liaisons; the Prince of Wales writes him a letter accusing him of being a ‘member of an association for unnatural practices’.  Australian Edward De Lacy Evans revealed in Melbourne to be Ellen Tremayne.  

Personal - English poet Algernon Charles Swinburne goes to live with Theodore Watts-Duncan in Putney.    

Novel - French novelist Julien Viaud (Pierre Loti)’s novel Aziyadé.  German novelist Aurelius’s novel Rubi.  

Poetry - English poet Gerard Manley Hopkins’s poem ‘The Bugler’s First Communion’.

1880

Birth - English writer Marguerite Radclyffe Hall, English plant collector Reginald John Farrer, English writer Lytton Strachey, French novelist Baron Jacques d’Adelswärd Fersen, American writer Carl Van Vechten, Manuel Azaña Díaz, President of Spain, English poet and soldier Sydney Frederick McIlree Lomer (Sydney Oswald), American poet and author Angelina Weld Grimké, American actor Eugene O’Brien, American pianist Richard Moritz Buhlig, Austrian filmmaker Richard W. Ornstein (Richard Oswald), English diplomat  Aubrey Nigel Henry Molyneux Herbert, English Conservative politician Samuel John Gurney Hoare, 1st Viscount Templewood, German lesbian activist Theodora (Theo) Anna Sprüngli (Anna Rüling) and English cleric and writer Augustus Montague Summers.  Death - Australian bushranger Andrew George Scott (Captain Moonlight) and German singer Anne Marie Stegemann (Felicita Vestvali).

Legal - Homosexual acts decriminalised in Japan.   Paraguay’s Code Book does not criminalize same-sex acts.  Hungary’s Penal Code Book criminalizes same-sex acts with a penalty of up to one year imprisonment. 

Politics - Maharaja Sir Sardar Singh Bahadur becomes Maharajah of Jodhpur.  Abdur Rahman Khan becomes Amir of Afghanistan.  Event - English police raid drag ball at Temperance Hall in Hulme, Manchester.    English scholar John Addington Symonds asks American poet Walt Whitman if ‘adhesivness’ means same-sex acts; the question ends their correspondence.  

Non-fiction - English Charles Edward Hutchinson’s attack on Oxford homosexuals in pamphlet Boy Worship.  

Novel - French novelist Octave Mirbeau’s novel Sébastien Roch.  Poetry - English poet and priest Gerard Manley Hopkins, working in a Liverpool parish, writes poem ‘Felix Randal’. English scholar John Addington Symonds’s New and Old: A Volume of Verse.  

1881

Birth - English novelist Louis Umfreville Wilkinson (Louis Marlow), American painter Russell Cheney, King Vajriravudh (Rama VI) of Thailand, Mustafa Kemal Ataturk, President of Turkey, Dutch poet Jacob Israël de Haan, English colonial civil servant Sir Ronald Henry Amherst Storrs, Scottish painter William Bruce Ellis Ranken,  Irish American actor Whitford Kane, English colonial governor Sir Ronald Henry Amherst Storrs, English explorer and MP Lieutenant-Colonel Charles Kenneth Howard-Bury, English socialist politician Albert Victor Grayson, German diplomat Leopold von Hoesch, French aristocrat Comte Hamelin François Albert de Warren, American poet Harold Witter Bynner (Emanuel Morgan), American mentor Henry Wadsworth Longfellow Dana, Angelo Giuseppe Roncalli (Pope John XXIII), English diplomat Robert Gilbert Vansittart, 1st Baron Vansittart and English writer and trader John Moray Stuart-Young.  

Death - Russian composer Modest Mussorgsky, Finnish poet and historian Fredrik Cygnaeus and English cross dressing Frederick William (Fanny Winifred) Park (Graham).  

Legal - Dutch Penal Code criminalises same-sex only with minors.  

Personal - English scholar John Addington Symonds meets Venetian gondolier Angelo Fusato.  

Autobiography - Irish prostitute Jack Saul’s pornographic account The Sins of the Cities of the Plain, or, The Recollections of a Mary-Anne (ghost written by painter Simeon Solomon?).  

Story - French writer Guy de Maupassant’s short story La Femme de Paul  (Paul’s Woman). 

Poetry - Irish playwright Oscar Wilde’s Poems and Eleutheria, including ‘Helas!’  Anglo-German poet Stanislaus Eric, Count Stenbock’s poems Love, Sleep and Dreams.  English reformer Edward Carpenter starts poem Towards Democracy.  Belgian poet Théodore Hannon’s poems Rimes de joie (Rhymes of Joy). 

Music - English Gilbert and Sullivan’s musical Patience: or, Bunthorne’s Bride.

1882

Birth - English novelist Adeline Virginia Stephen (Virginia Woolf), Polish composer Karol Maciej Szymanowski, Australian poet and writer Frederic Manning, American actor John Barrymore, Danish painter Einar Magnus Andreas Wegener / Lili Elbe, German physician Edwin Bab, English diplomat Archibald Clark Kerr, 1st Baron Inverchapel, German writer Elsa Jutta Rosalie von Bonin, English politician Philip Henry Kerr, 11th Marquess of Lothian and English novelist Humphrey Neville Dickinson.  

Death - American essayist and poet Ralph Waldo Emerson, Anglo-Welsh English translator and collector George Ernest John Powell and American lawyer and politician Richard Henry Dana Jr.  

Theory - French neurologist Jean-Martin Charcot and Victor Magnan’s article ‘Inversion du sens génital et autres perversion sexuelles’ (‘Inversion of the Genital Senses and Other Sexual Perversions’) in Archives de neurologie.  German W. Bernhardi’s Der Uranismus, Lösung eines mehrtausendjährigen Rätsels (Uranism: Solution to a Several-Thosand-Year-Old Riddle).   

Politics - Jai Singh Prabhakar becomes Maharajah of Alwar.  Personal - Anglo-Irish poet Oscar Wilde visits American poet Walt Whitman twice.  

Autobiography - American poet Walt Whitman’s autobiography Specimen Days in America.  

Poetry - Anglo-Irish playwright Oscar Wilde’s Poems.  English writer John Addington Symonds’s sonnet cycle L’Amour de l’impossible (The Love of the Impossible). Belgian poet Edmond Haraucourt (Sire de Chambly)’s poems La Légende des sexes: Poèmes hystériques (Legend of the Sexes: Hysterical Poems).

1883

Birth - English poet Edmund John, English economist John Maynard Keynes, English army officer Kenneth Searight, French designer Coco Chanel, American artist Charles Demuth, English actress Estelle Winwood, Italian poet Umberto Poli (Saba), American gossip columnist and socialite Elsa Maxwell, American actor John Lennox Arthur Williams (Johnny Arthur), French painter Marie Laurencin, Freifrau von Waëtjen, Austro-Hungarian German-Jewish writer Franz Kafka, English historian Canon Frederick Arthur (Snipper) Simpson (or 1884), English psychiatrist Adrian Stephen, French decorator and costumier Étienne Jacques Alexandre Marie Joseph, Comte Bonnin de la Bonninière de Beaumont, French writer Ernest Psichari, Finnish-Swedish director Mauritz Stiller, Irish peer Edward Turnour, 6th Earl Winterton, English Lieutenant-Colonel Denis Daly RA and English eccentric Gerald Hugh Tyrwhitt-Wilson, 14th Lord Berners.  

Death - English writer Edward FitzGerald and Charles Louis, King of Etruria, Duke of Lucca, Charles II Duke of Parma.  

Event - Dublin Castle scandal involving French, Cornwall and Connelan.  

Personal - English biographer Robert Sherard meets Irish playwright Oscar Wilde in Paris.  (post) English poet and political activist John Evelyn Barlas (Evelyn Douglas) introduced by Robert Sherard to Irish playwright Oscar Wilde at Oxford.

Non-fiction - English novelist and journalist Eliza Lynn Linton’s article ‘The Epicene Sex’ in The Girl of the Period and Other Social Essays.  

History - English scholar John Addington Symonds’s A Problem in Greek Ethics circulated privately.  Dutch physician Julius Jacobs’s Eenigen Tijd onder der Baliers (Some Time among the Balinese) discusses male and female same-sex and gandrungs, dancing boys used for sex.  German ethnographer Adolf Bastian’s Zur Kenntnis Hawaii’s (Information on Hawaii) mentions same-sex on the islands.  

Autobiography - English Lord Robert Gower’s My Reminiscences.  Poetry - Anglo-German poet Stanislaus Eric, Count Stenbock’s poems Myrtle, Rue and Cypress.  (to 1884) English poet Edward Cracroft Lefroy’s poems Echoes from Theocritus and Other Poems published in four pamphlets. English reformer Edward Carpenter’s first part of poem Towards Democracy.  

Art - American painter Thomas Cowperthwaite Eakins’s painting The Swimming Hole.

1884

Birth - English writer James Elroy Flecker, English Field-Marshal Sir Claude Auchinleck, American 1st Lady Eleanor Roosevelt, English novelist Sir Hugh Walpole, American composer Charles Tomlinson Griffes, American poet Sara Teasdale, American writer and Nazi activist George Sylvester Viereck (Stuart Benton), English broadcaster and writer Naomi Ellington Collinson Jacob, Scottish Captain Neil Boyd Watson McEachern, American choreographer Louis Horst,  English painter Glyn Warren Philpot, American writer Hallett Abend, Russian artist Andrey Avinoff, Swedish painter Gösta Adrian-Nilsson (GAN), Austrian-American botanist Joseph Francis Charles Rock, German cabaret singer born Clara Wortmann (Claire Waldoff) and English novelist Ivy Compton Burnett.  

Legal - Germany introduces anti-sodomy laws to South-West Africa (Namibia), Togoland and German New Guinea. Britain introduces anti-sodomy laws to British New Guinea.  

Politics - Danieri Basammula-Ekkere Mwanga II Mukasa becomes 31st Kabaka of Buganda.  

Event - In the United Ireland, Irish nationalist William O’Brien accuses James Ellis French of the Dublin C.I.D. and Gustavus Cornwall, Secretary to the Post office, of sodomy. The ensuing Dublin libel trial is followed by the felony trial of French (who is sentenced to two years), Cornwall, Captain Martin Oranmore Kirwan of the Dublin Fusiliers, Surgeon Major Juan Albert Fernandez of the 3rd Battalion, Grenadier Guards (the three of whom are acquitted), 70 year old Quaker merchant James Pillar (who confesses and is imprisoned for 20 years) and two male brothel keepers, George ‘Mother’ Fowler and Daniel Considine (both of whom are imprisoned for 2 years hard labour).  

Personal - American art collector Edward (Ned) Perry Warren meets John Marshall at Oxford.  

Novel - German Adolf Wilbrandt’s novel Fridolin's heimlich Ehe: Nach Erinnerungen und Mittheilungen (Fridolin’s Mystical Marriage: by Memories and Medium) translated into English. English novelist Violet Paget (Vernon Lee)’s novel Miss Brown.  French writer Marguerite Eymery (Rachilde)’s novel Monsieur Vénus.  

Story - Swedish writer August Strindberg’s ‘Nature the Criminal’ in short stories Getting Married.  

Poetry - English scholar John Addington Symonds’s poems Fragilia Labilia.  Ango-French poet Marc-André Raffalovich’s poems Cyril and Lionel: A Volume of Sentimental Studies.

1885

Birth - English novelist D.H. Lawrence, English painter Duncan James Corrowr Grant, Russian ballerina Ida Lvovna Rubenstein, Russian poet Sophia Yakovlena Parnok, English musical hall artist Frederick (Fred) Jester Barnes, German Jewish writer and activist Kurt Hiller (Keith Lurr and Klirr (Thule)), German activist Max Danielsen,  English diplomat  Gerald Wellesley, 7th Duke of Wellington, French writer François Charles Mauriac, English barrister, industrialist and MI5 operative Sir George Joseph Ball and English writer Leonard Green.

Death - English poet and politician Richard Monckton Milnes 1st Baron Houghton. English Major-General Charles George Gordon killed in Khartoum.

Legal - Henry Labouchere’s amendment to Section 11 of the English Criminal Law Amendment Act establishes ‘gross indecency’ offence. 

Theory - Italian neurologist Paolo Mantegazza’s Gli Amori degli Uomini (The Sexual Relations of Mankind).

Event - National Vigilance Association founded in England.  The Eagle Street College established in Bolton, England. Berlin police raid Seeger Restaurant with 11 men convicted of homosexual offences, the last gay bar raid in Berlin until 1933.  German (Prussian) aristocrat Bernhard Ludwig Ernst Freiherr von Richthofen appointed Berlin President of Police.  Berlin Police Commissioner Leopold von Meersheidt-Hüllessem establishes Homosexuallen Dezernat (Department of Homosexuals).

Personal - Anglo-Irish writer Oscar Wilde has a dalliance with schoolboy Henry [Harry – H.C.] Marillier.   English painter Henry Scott Tuke moves to Falmouth. English American musician and composer Jesse Shepard meets Lauritz (Lawrence) Waldemar Tonner.   

Autobiography - American writer Charles Warren Stoddard’s autobiography A Troubled Heart.  

Novel - English academic Walter Pater’s novel Marius the Epicurean.  French writer Joris-Karl Huysmans’s novel À rebours (Against Nature). 

Poetry - English reformer Edward Carpenter’s second part of poem Towards Democracy.  English poet Edward Cracroft Lefroy’s Echoes from Theocritus and Other Poems published as a book, including ‘A Palaestral Study’ and ‘An Idler Listening to Socrates Discussing Philosophy with His Boy-Friends’.  Anglo-French poet Marc-André Raffalovich’s poems Tuberose and Meadowsweet.  English poet Charles Sayle’s poems Bertha: A Story of Love. English poet and political activist John Evelyn Barlas (Evelyn Douglas)’s poems Bloody Heart.  English poet Gerard Manley Hopkins writing ‘dark sonnets’.

1886

Birth - English poet and merchant navy doctor John Leslie Barford, English diplomat and writer Sir Harold Nicolson, English writer Siegfried Sassoon, English novelist Arthur Annesley Ronald Firbank, English author Thomas Burke, American poet and novelist Hilda Doolittle (H. D.), American publisher Margaret Anderson, American actor Edward Everett Horton, French writer and soldier Henri Alban-Fournier (Alaine-Fournier), English mountaineer George Herbert Leigh Mallory, Anglo-German Prince Alexander Albert of Battenberg (Alexander Albert Mountbatten, 1st Marquess of Carisbrooke), Austrian lawyer and activist Hermann Freiherr von Teschenberg, American blues singer Gertrude Malissa Nix Pridgett (Ma Rainey), English Conservative politician Robert Spear Hudson, 1st Viscount Hudson and American writer and philosopher Professor Alain LeRoy Locke.  

Death - American poet Emily Dickinson, English amanuensis to Cecil Rhodes, Neville E. Pickering and King Ludwig Otto Friedrich Wilhelm (Ludwig II) of Bavaria.  

Legal - Portugal recriminalizes homosexuality.  Argentina’s Penal Code Book criminalizes sodomy with a penalty of three to six years in prison.  

Theory - Russian sexologist Benjamin Mikhailovich Tarnowsky’s Sexual Instinct and Its Morbid Manifestations from the Point of View of Jurisprudence and Psychiatry.  German psychiatrist Richard, Freiherr von Krafft-Ebing’s Psychopathia Sexualis (Psychopathic Sexuality).  German sexologist B. Tarnowsky’s Die krankhafter Erscheinungen des Geschlechtsinnes (The Pathological Manifestations of the Sexual Instinct).  

Event - American Zuni Indian berdache We’wha represents his/her tribe in Washington as a woman.

Personal - Irish playwright Oscar Wilde meets (and is seduced by) Canadian critic Robbie Ross, English architect, designer and poet Herbert Percy Horne and theatrical impresario Harry Melville.

Non-fiction - German study Die Verbrecherwelt von Berlin (The Criminal World of Berlin).  Chinese writer Li Hongruo’s Chaoshi congzai (A Broad View of the Capital City).  English scholar John Addington Symonds’s edition of Sir Thomas Browne’s Religio medici (The Religion of a Physician of 1642): Urn burial (of 1658), Christian morals (of the 1670s), and other essays.

History - English Roden Noel re-publishes ‘Lord Byron and His Times’ in Essays on Poetry and Poets dedicated ‘to my friend, John Addington Symonds’.   

Biography - English scholar John Addington Symonds’s biography  Sir Philip Sidney.  

Essay - English explorer Sir Richard Francis Burton’s ‘Terminal Essay’ to Volume 10 of his translation of the Arabic One Thousand and One Nights, The Thousand Nights and a Night; this was the first essay on homosexuality to be published in English - in it he postulates the existence of ‘the Sotadic Zone’.  

Novel - English writer A.C. Benson’s novel Memoirs of Arthur Hamilton.  Scottish novelist Robert Louis Stevenson’s novel The Strange Case of Dr. Jekyll and Mr Hyde.

Story - English academic Walter Pater writes short story ‘Denys l’Auxerrois’. Swedish writer August Strindberg’s short stories Getting Married II.  

Poetry - Anglo-French poet Marc-André Raffalovich’s poems In Fancy Dress, including ‘Rose Leaves When the Rose is Dead’ and ‘The World Well Lost IV and XVIII’.  German lawyer Karl Heinrich Ulrichs’s Cupressi: Carmina in memoriam Ludovici II Regis Bavariae (Cypress: Lyrical Poems in Memory of Ludwig II King of Bavaria). 

1887

Birth - English poet Rupert Brooke, English writer Winifred Ashton (Clemence Dane), English Field Marshal Viscount Montgomery of Alamein, English Lady Una Troubridge, American publisher Nancy Woodbridge (Sylvia) Beach, American anthropologist Ruth Benedict, Anglo-American actress Lynn Fontanne, German novelist Anna Elisabet (A.E.) Weirauch, Spanish painter Gabriel Morcillo Raya, Armenian dancer Armen Ohanian, English psychoanalyst James Beaumont Strachey, Chilean gambler and diplomat José Antonio (Tony) Gandarillas Huici (Baroness von Bülop), Australian politician Albert Augustine (Bert) Edwards, Anglo-Irish M.P. Captain John Henry Thorpe (Thorpey), English courtier Sir Alan Frederick (Tommy) Lascelles, English Labour politician Edward Hugh John Neale Dalton, Baron Dalton, English economist Gerald Frank Shove, Russian Prince Felix Felixovich Yusupov, Count Sumarokov-Elston  and German S.A. leader Ernst Röhm.

Death - German painter Hans von Marées.  

Legal - Homosexual acts decriminalised in Argentina.  Politics - Ferdinand I becomes Prince Regent of Bulgaria.  

Non-fiction - Swedish writer August Strindberg’s article ‘The Last Word on the Question of Women’.  

Biography - English scholar John Addington Symonds’s translation of Benvenuto Cellini’s The Life of Benevenuto Cellini.  Novel - American writer Edward Irenaeus Prime-Stevenson’s novel White Cockades: An Incident -Five’ of the ‘Forty.   Irish writer George Moore’s novel A Mere Accident.  

Poetry - English writer Joseph William Gleeson White’s poems Ballads and Rondeau. English poet and political activist John Evelyn Barlas (Evelyn Douglas)’s poems Phantasmagoria: Dream-Fugues.

1888

Birth - English arabist and writer Thomas Edward (T.E.) Lawrence, American poet Thomas Stearns (T.S.) Eliot, English memoirist and international scoundrel Gerald Bernard Francis Hamilton (Patrick Weston), English poet Fabian Strachey Woodley, English poet Theodore Percival (T.P.) Cameron Wilson, English writer Katherine Mansfield, German film director Friedrich Wilhelm Murnau, German Hungarian novelist playwright Christa Winsloe, Baroness Hatveny, American actor Monty Woolley, Scottish schoolmaster John Ferguson Roxburgh, English private secretary to Prime Minister Stanley Baldwin Sir Geoffrey Storrs Fry, 1st Baronet, English law academic Philip Landon, German writer Hans Blüher, English politician Sir Philip Albert Gustave David Sassoon, 3rd Baronet,  Scottish doctor and Unionist politician Walter Elliott Elliott, English Anglican priest Ronald Arbuthnott Knox, English broadcaster Hilda Matheson, French writer Marcel Jouhandeau and Portuguese poet Fernando António Nogueira de Seabra Pessoa. Death - Italian Saint Giovanni Bosco (Don Bosco), Russian geographer Nikolai Przhevalsky, German aristocrat art collector Fritz von Farenheid and English poet and illustrator Edward Lear.  Legal - Germans introduce anti-sodomy laws to Tanganyika coast.  

Event - King Karl I of Württemberg elevates his American lover Charles Woodcock to the rank of Baron Strange, but is forced to exile him due to the scandal; he then has an affair with theatre director Wilhelm George.  

Personal - Anglo-Irish writer Oscar Wilde first meets male prostitutes at Piccadilly, has a dalliance with English poet Richard Le Gallienne and an affair with clerk Frederick (Fred) Althaus. 

Activism - Swedish writer Charlotte Leffler-Edgren, Duchess of Cajanello and Russian mathematician and writer Sophia Kovalvsky’s Kampen för lyckan (The Struggle for Happiness).

Novel - French writer Henri d’Argis’s novel Sodome (Sodom).  

Poetry - English poet and priest Gerard Manley Hopkins’s poem ‘Epithalamion’.  English poet Charles Philip Castle Kains Jackson’s poem ‘Hyacinthus’ appears in The Artist, taken as the start of the Uranian poets.

1889

Birth - Scottish writer and translator Charles Kenneth Scott-Moncrieff, English film director James Whale, American Cardinal Francis Joseph Spellman, English writer Benjamin Musser, Jamaican American writer and poet Festus Claudius (Claude) McKay, German Nazi Adolf Hitler, German homosexual rights activist Richard Schultz, English author and broadcaster Naomi Eleanor Clare Jacob, German philosopher Ludwig Wittgenstein, English historian and science writer Henry Fitzgerald (Gerald) Heard, Scottish broadcasting executive John Reith, 1st Baron Reith, Austro-Hungarian film director Leontine Schlesinger (Leontine Sagan), American actor Franklin Pangborn, American actor Clifton Webb, Russian American conductor Alexander Smallens, English socialite Dorothy (Dotty) Violet Wellesley, Duchess of Wellington, English writer Francis Frederick Locker Birrell, English diplomat and author Frank Trelawny Arthur Ashton-Gwatkin, English poet 2nd Lieutenant James Stanley Yates, English scholar of Burma Gordon Hannington Luce, French philosopher Gabriel Honoré Marcel, English sinologist Arthur David Schloss (Arthur David Waley), SA Gruppenführer Hans-Adam Otto (Peter) von Heydebreck and French writer and artist John Cocteau.

Death - English poet and priest Gerard Manley Hopkins.

Legal - Death penalty for sodomy abolished in Scotland.   Italy decriminalizes sodomy in whole country in Codice penale (Penal Code) Zanardelli  (hitherto only the north had criminalised it).  British introduce anti-sodomy laws to British Central African Protectorate (Nyasaland/Malawi).  Uruguay’s Penal Code Books does not criminalize same-sex acts.  

Event - English Cleveland Street scandal involving Prince Albert Victor (eldest son of the Prince of Wales), Henry James Fitzroy, Earl of Euston and Lord Arthur Somerset opens with the Old Bailey trial of pimps George Daniel Veck and Henry Newlove, who are sentenced to nine and four months jail.  Ernest Parke publicises the case in the North London Press, naming Euston and Somerset; Euston sues for libel.  Trial in Vienna of Hungarian writer Sarolta (Count Sandor) Vay for marrying a woman.  

Media - German lawyer Karl Friedrich Ulrichs begins to publish the journal Alaudae (Larks) from L’Aquila in Italy (to 1895). 

Personal - Anglo-Irish playwright Oscar Wilde has an affair with American dramatist Clyde Fitch then meets poet John Gray.

Autobiography - English scholar John Addington Symonds’s Memoirs written.  

Letter - W. Aldis Wright’s three-volume Letters and Literary Remains of Edward Fitzgerald.   

Essay - Anglo-Irish playwright Oscar Wilde publishes essay ‘The Portrait of Mr W.H.’ in Blackwood’s magazine.  

Novel - American critic Alfred J. Cohen (Alan Dale)’s novel A Marriage below Zero. American writer Edward Prime-Stevenson (Xavier Main)’s novel Janus: A Matter of Temperament.  French writer Henri d’Argis’s novel Gomorrhe (Gomorra).  French writer Marguerite Vallette-Eymery (Rachilde)’s novel Les hors nature (The People outside Nature).  

Poetry - Anglo-French poet Marc-André Raffalovich’s poems It Is Thyself including ‘Sonnet CXX’.  English Lord Henry Somerset’s autobiographical poems Songs of Adieu.  English poet Charles Sayle’s poems Erotidia.  English poet Algernon Charles Swinburne’s Poems and Ballads, Series III.  English writer Arthur Symons’s poems Days and Nights. English poet and political activist John Evelyn Barlas (Evelyn Douglas)’s poems Love Sonnets.  

Art - American artist Thomas Cowperthwaite Eakins’s photograph Bill Duckett Nude, at the Art Students’ League of Philadelphia.

1890

Birth - English writer Rose Laure Allatini (A.T. Fitzroy), Danish American opera singer Lauritz Melchior, English poet Philip Gillespie Bainbrigge, American playwright & poet Blanche Marie Louise Oelrichs (Michael Strange), English international cad Gerald Frank Hamilton Souter (Gerald Hamilton), Captain Sir Harold Malcolm Bullock M.P., 1st Baronet, English economist Sir Dennis Holme Robertson, German diplomat and anti-Nazi Andreas Theodor Albrecht Graf von Bernstorff, German painter Jeanne Mammen, American mother of Gypsy Rose Lee, Rose Evangeline Hovick (née Thompson), French painter Marie Joseph Paul Jean de Gaigneron-Morin, German member of the Frontbann Paul Oskar von Röhrbein, English soldier Lieutenant-Colonel Anthony John Muirhead MC and bar, English Conservative politician Sir Sidney Herbert, 1st Baronet and Polish dancer Vaslav Nijinski.

Death - English Cardinal John Henry Newman, English explorer Sir Richard Francis Burton, American Indian chief Ta-Tanka l-Yotank (Sitting Bull), American explorer John Charles Frémont and King Carl I of Württemberg.  

Legal - British introduce anti-sodomy laws to Kenya, Southern Rhodesia (Zimbabwe) and Northern Rhodesia (Zambia).  Brazil’s Code Book does not criminalize same-sex acts.  Colombia’s Code Book criminalizes sodomy with penalty of three to six years imprisonment.  Ecuador’s Code Book criminalizes pederasty with a penalty of four to sixteen years imprisonment.  

Event - The English libel trial of the Earl of Euston against Ernest Parke ends with Parke imprisoned for 12 months.

Personal - English critic Sir Edmund Gosse writes to scholar John Addington Symonds acknowledging his own homosexuality. German photographer Baron von Gloeden visits Tunisia.  Anglo-Irish playwright Oscar Wilde meets Lionel Johnson at Walter Pater’s rooms in Oxford and Fred Althaus at the Crown public house in Charing Cross.

Novel - Anglo-Irish playwright Oscar Wilde’s novel The Picture of Dorian Gray published in the American journal Lipincott’s.

Poetry - English explorer Sir Richard Francis Burton and publisher Leonard Smithers’s Priapeia, or Sportive Epigrams on Priapus by Divers Poets in English Verse and Prose.

Drama - French writers Paul Ginisty and Jules Guérin’s Les rastaquouères : Étude parisienne (The Rastaquoueres: A Parisian Study) and Deux tourtereaux: pièce en un acte (Two Love Birds: One Act Play).

1891

Birth - American composer Cole Porter, American choreographer Ted Shawn, French writer Maurice Rostand, Scottish socialite and singer Dorothy (Dickie) Fellowes-Gordon, SS Oberführer Emil Sembach, Austrian playwright Theodor Tagger (Ferdinand Brückner), British literature academic Bonamy Debrée, Hungarian aristocrat Romola de Pulszky (Nijinsky), English anthropologist and psychologist John Layard, English painter and poet Vivian Forbes, German writer Hans Siemsen (Pfarrer Silesius),  English official Major Sir Desmond Morton, Scottish peer Captain Ian Colin Maitland, 15th Earl of Lauderdale, Swiss artist Paul Thévenaz, English fashion designer Edward Henry Molyneux and English director Edmund Goulding.  

Death - English poet Edward Cracroft Lefroy, American novelist Herman Melville, Russian mathematician and writer Sophia Kovalevsky, English artist George Francis (Frank) Miles, French aristocrat Arthur Anne Marie Charles Vicomte de Noailles, English politician George Augustus Frederick Cavendish-Bentinck, Russian philosopher Konstantin Nikolayevich Leontiev, Russian Theosophist Helena Petrovna Blavatsky, King Karl I of Württemberg and French poet Arthur Rimbaud.  

Legal - British introduce anti-sodomy laws to Bechuanaland (Botswana).  

Theory - German psychiatrist Richard von Krafft-Ebing’s Neue Forschungen auf dem Gebiet der Psychopathia sexualis (New Research in the Area of Psychopathic Sexuality).  German sexologist Albert Moll’s Die Konträre Sexualempfindung (Contrary Sexual Feeling).  English scholar John Addington Symonds’s A Problem in Modern Ethics issued privately.

Politics - Maharaja Sir Bhupinder Singh becomes Maharajah of Patiala.  

Event - Two men in Victoria, Canada, sentenced to 15 years’ imprisonment for same-sex acts. (?) The word ‘homosexuality’ enters general English usage.   Scandal and flight of Edward Samuel Wesley de Cobain M.P.  

Personal - English reformer Edward Carpenter meets George Merrill.  Estonian German Count Eric Stenbock meets Irish composer Norman Houston O’Neill on top of an omnibus in Piccadilly.   French writer André Gide meets Anglo-Irish playwright Oscar Wilde in Paris.  Oscar Wilde meets actor Roland Atwood and, though Lionel Johnson, meets Bosie, Lord Alfred Douglas, who is being blackmailed and for whom he pays the blackmailer.  Oscar Wilde bails out of jail English poet and political activist John Evelyn Barlas (Evelyn Douglas), who has fired three revolver shots from Westminster Bridge at the Houses of Parliament and is then confined in an asylum (to 1914).  Edith Lees marries Havelock Ellis.  Non-fiction - Irish playwright Oscar Wilde’s The Soul of Man under Socialism.    French mystic Joséphin Péladan (Sâr Péladan)’s books L’androgyne (The Androgyne) and La gynandre (The Gynandre).  

Novel - Swedish writer August Strindberg’s novel The Cloister.  Irish playwright Oscar Wilde’s novel A House of Pomegranates.  American writers Fergus Redmond and Archibald Clavering Gunter’s novel A Florida Enchantment.  American writer Edward Irenaeus Prime-Stevenson’s novel Left to Themselves: Being the Ordeal of Philip and Gerald.  Anglo-American writer Howard Overing Sturgis’s novel Tim: A Story of Eton.  

Story - American writer Ambrose Bierce’s stories Tales of Soldiers and Civilians.  American novelist Henry James’s short story ‘The Pupil’.

Poetry - English writer Richard Le Gallienne’s poems The Book-Bills of Narcissus.  German poet Josef Kitir’s Leben und Stimmung. Ausgewählte Gedichte (Life and Mood. Selected Poems). Drama - American writer Henry Blake Fuller’s play At Saint Judas’s.  German playwright Benjamin Franklin (Frank) Wedekind’s play  Frühlings Erwachen (Spring Awakening).  

Art - The Artist reports on English writer Frederick Rolfe’s painting of a Roman Catholic church in Christchurch.

1892

Birth - English poet Ralph Nicholas Chubb, English writer and publisher David ‘Bunny’ Garnett, English writer Vita Sackville West, Australian sexologist Norman Zions (Haire), American actress Mary Jane (Mae) West, English memoirist Sir Frances Osbert Sacheverell Sitwell, 5th Baronet, American diplomat Benjamin Sumner Welles, Irish nationalist General Eoin O’Duffy, American poet and playwright Edna St. Vincent Millay, Chinese author and historian Guo Moro, Amanullah Khan, Amir of Afghanistan, German American rights campaigner Henry Gerber, American psychiatrist Harry Stack Sullivan, Russian poet Marina Tsvetaeva, American writer Janet Flanner, French artist Suzanne Alberte Eugénie Malherbe, (?) American female impersonator Hal Wadell (or Waddell) or Ramón Ícarez (Ray (Rae) Bourbon), American dancer and artist Hubert Julian (Jay) Stowitts, English actor producer Patrick Desmond, English music critic Alec Robertson, Russo-French artist Romain de Tirtoff (Erté), American lover of Somerset Maugham Frederick Gerald Haxton and American writer Djuna Barnes.

Death - American poet Walt Whitman, English poet Alfred, Lord Tennyson, Swedish writer Charlotte Leffler-Edgren, Duchess of Cajanello, Austro-Hungarian Czech entertainer Emil Mario Vacano, English stockbroker Sydney Russell-Cooke and English schoolmaster and poet William (Johnson) Cory d. Freda (Fred) Ward killed by lover Alice Mitchell in Memphis.  

Legal - Canada extends laws against homosexuality to include ‘gross indecency’.  

Theory - German Baron Albert von Shrenck-Notzing’s Die Suggestionstherapie bei Krankhaften Erscheinungen des Geschlechtssinnes (Suggestion Therapy in the Case of Pathological Manifestations of the Sexual Feeling). 

Event - English scholar John Addington Symonds uses term ‘homosexual’ in a letter and agrees to collaborate with Havelock Ellis on an essay on homosexuality.  Dr. James Kiernan uses ‘homosexual’ as a noun in an American medical journal.  First use of ‘bisexual’ appears in Charles Gilbert Chaddock’s translation of German psychiatrist Richard von Krafft-Ebing’s Psychopathia Sexualis.   

Event - Oscar Wilde and his group, including his then lover Edward Shelley, wear green carnations to the opening performance of his play Lady Windermere’s Fan.  

Media - English poet and political activist John Evelyn Barlas (Evelyn Douglas)’s article Oscar Wilde: A Study in the Novel Review.  

Activism - English writer and feminist Edith Lees Ellis’s pamphlet A Noviciate for Marriage.

Personal - English poet John Henry Gray meets Anglo-French poet Marc-André Raffalovich.   Anglo-Irish writer Oscar Wilde meets publishing sales assistant Edward Shelley and begins an affair.  English Lord Alfred Douglas (Bosie), editor of magazine The Spirit Lamp, blackmailed at Oxford, where he has been having an affair with Maurice Schwabe, is bailed out by Oscar Wilde, with whom he starts a love affair.  Bosie and Alfred Taylor introduce Wilde to lamp-wick factory clerk Sydney Mavor, with whom Wilde starts an affair.  Maurice Schwabe introduces Wilde to bookmaker’s clerk Freddie Atkins, with whom they both go to Paris and have sex together. Bosie has sex with working class Alfred Wood then introduces him to Wilde, who does too.  English rights campaigner George Ives reads Edward Carpenter’s poem ‘Towards Democracy and meets Irish playwright Oscar Wilde.  

Biography -  English scholar John Addington Symonds’s translation of Life of Michelangelo Buonarotti.

Autobiography - English scholar John Addington Symonds’s Our Life in the Swiss Highlands.

  

Poetry - English poetry anthology The Book of the Rhymers' Club. French mystic Joséphin Péladan (Sâr Péladan)’s book La queste du Graal - proses lyriques de l'éthopée - la décadence latine (The Quest of the Grail – Lyrical Ethiopian Prose – Latin Decadence).  English poet John Gambril Nicholson’s Love in Earnest: Sonnets, Ballades, and Lyrics. Irish playwright Oscar Wilde’s Poems re-issued.  English rights campaigner George Ives’s poems The Lifting of the Veil.  German poet Stefan George’s poems Algabal.  American actor and poet William Theodore Peters’s poems The Tournament of Love.  English writer Arthur Symons’s poems Silhouettes.

Drama - English writer Arthur Symons’s play The Minister’s Call shown privately at the Independent Theatre Society to avoid censorship.

1893 

Birth - Welsh composer Ivor Novello, American actor director Alfred Lunt, French author Mercedes de Acosta, Italian author Carlo Emilio Gadda, American journalist Dorothy Thompson, American tennis star Bill Tilden, English writer Sylvia Townsend Warner,  American film actress Jean Acker, Prince Paul of Yugoslavia, Welsh poet Evan Frederic Morgan, 2nd Viscount and 4th Baron Tredegar, English Conservative politician and colonial governor Colonel John Jestyn Llewellin, 1st Baron Llewellin, English Liberal politician Leslie Hore-Belisha, 1st Baron Hore-Belisha, English Conservative politician Harry Frederick Comfort Crookshank, 1st Viscount Crookshank, English poet Robert Malise Bowyer Nichols, African-American composer Lawrence Brown, English entertainer Douglas Byng, Canadian-American actress Grace Marie Glionna (Grace Darmond), Nazi Stormtrooper Gerhard Roßbach and English poet Wilfrid Owen.  

Death - English scholar John Addington Symonds, Russian poet Aleksey Nikolayevich Apukhtin and Russian composer Pyotr Ilyich Tchaikovsky.  

Theory - German psychiatrist and sexologist Albert Moll’s Die konträre Sexualempfindung (Contrary Sexual Feeling).  Die Enterbten des Liebesglückes oder das dritte Geschlecht (Those Dispossessed of Love or the Third Sex) by homosexual German Otto Podjuki (Otto de Joux).  French Julien Chevalier’s L’Inversion sexuelle (Sexual Inversion).  

Event - English trial and sentencing of Edward Samuel Wesley de Cobain M.P.  English Lieutenant-Colonel John Wallace Hozier arrested and discharged for picking up soldiers in Westminster.  English Lord Alfred Douglas stops editing magazine Spirit Lamp.

Organisation - English rights campaigner George Ives founds the Order of Chaeronea.  

Personal - French writer André Gide arrives in Tunisia and has his first sex with a man, an Arab boy named Ali.  English art historian Campbell Dodgson becomes librarian at British Museum.   Sent down for failing exams, Lord Alfred Douglas (Bosie) takes Campbell Dodgson as tutor and they join Wilde at Babbacombe, Devon, then Bosie and Wilde live together in the Savoy and Albemarle Hotels in London, which becomes known publicly. Alfred Waterhouse Somerset Taylor introduces Wilde to Charlie and William Parker and others, with all of whom Wilde has sex.  Bosie’s English lover, Maurice Schwabe, is exiled by his family for two years to Australia and New Zealand.  Alfred Taylor in drag ‘marries’ Charles Spurrier Mason; he pimps Charlie and William Parker to Oscar Wilde.  An attempt is made by rent boy Alfred Wood, William Allen and Robert Clibborn to blackmail Wilde over a letter to Bosie.   He and Bosie have sex with seventeen-year-old Oxford servant boy Walter Grainger.  Wilde, Bosie and Robbie Ross have sex with sixteen-year-old schoolboy Philip Dansey, whose father Colonel Dansey threatens to expose them.  Bosie goes to Cairo where he claims to have sex with the then Brigadier Herbert Kitchener.  Non-fiction - Brabazon Purcell’s report into boy wives in Kimberley District of Cape Province.  French army surgeon Jacobus X’s L’Amour aux colonies (Love in the Colonies).  

Biography - English scholar John Addington Symonds’s Walt Whitman: A Study and The Life of Michelangelo Buonarroti.

Essay - English scholar John Addington Symonds’s In the Key of Blue and Other Prose Essays.  

Novel - Teleny, ‘the first novel in English to concern itself with homosexuality to its fullest extent’.  French writer André Gide’s novel; Le Voyage d’Urien (Urien’s Journey).  

Story - English academic Walter Pater’s short story ‘Apollo in Picardy’.  English writer Reverend Edwin Emanuel Bradford’s short story ‘Boris Orloff’’.  

Poetry - English Lord Alfred Douglas’s poem ‘Hyacinthus’ appears in The Artist, as does Anglo-German poet Theodore William, Graf Wratislaw’s poem ‘To a Sicilian Boy’.  Theodore William, Graf Wratislaw’s poems Caprices, including ‘To a Sicilian Boy’.  Anglo-German poet Stanislaus , Count Stenbock’s poems The Shadow of Death.  English poet John Henry Gray’s poems Silverpoints. English courtier Viscount Esher’s poems Foam.  English poet Charles Sayle’s poems Musa Consolatrix (Muse of Comfort). American actor and poet William Theodore Peters’s poems Posies out of Rings, and Other Conceits.  

Art - German photographer Baron Gloeden’s photographic exhibitions at Egyptian Hall and Pall Mall, London.  English poet Joseph William Gleeson White’s Studio reproduces photographs of Baron Gloeden and English writer Frederick Rolfe.  

1894

Birth - American sexologist Alfred Kinsey, Dutch artist and author Willem Arondeus, Peking opera star Mei Lanfang, German writer and polymath Hans Jürgen von der Wense, Polish actress Pola Negri, American writer Clarkson Crane, Italian pianist Renata Borgatti, Prince Edward Albert Christian George Andrew Patrick David, later King Edward VIII, Chilean painter Álvaro Guevara, French photographer Lucy Mathilde Renée Schwob (Claude Cahun), French antique dealer Yvonne Anne-Marie de Bremond d'Ars, English writer Annie Winifred Ellerman (Bryher), English painter Arthur Lett-Haines, American blues singer Bessie Smith, Barbadian doctor Cecil Belfield Clarke, American activist Prescott Townsend  and English writer Violet Trefusis.  

Death - English poet Christina Rosetti, Scottish writer Robert Louis Stevenson, English aristocrat Roden Noel, German poet and historian Adolf Friedrich, Graf von Schack and English academic Walter Pater.  Suicide of Francis, Viscount Drumlanrig, private secretary to Archibald Primrose, 5th Earl of Rosebery, Prime Minister of England.

Legal - British introduce anti-sodomy laws to Uganda.  Finnish penal code gives penalty of two years imprisonment for indecent same-sex acts.  

Theory - French psychologist Ludovic Dugas’s L’Amitié antique d’après les moeurs populaires et les théories des philosophes (Ancient Friendship According to Popular Culture and the Theories of Philosophers).  German psychiatrist Richard von Krafft-Ebing’s Der Konträrsexuelle vor dem Strafrichter (The Contrarysexual before the Criminal Court Judge).  German Norbert Grabowsky’s Die Verkehrte Geschlechtsempfindung (Inverted Sexual Feeling). 

Event - London male brothel owner Alfred Waterhouse Somerset Taylor and cross dressing Arthur Marling arrested at John Preston’s party in Fitzroy Street, London with eighteen men, two in drag.  English writer George Ives is attacked for his article in the Humanitarian.

Media - English writer John Francis Bloxam edits magazine The Chameleon; he includes short story ‘The Priest and the Acolyte’ and Lord Alfred Douglas’s poem ‘Two Loves’ in its single Oxford edition, including the line: ‘The love that dare not speak its name.’ The first edition of the English literary quarterly The Yellow Book.  

Activism - English writer George Ives’s article in the Humanitarian advocating same-sex relations.

Personal - English painter Simeon Solomon in St. Giles workhouse.  Anglo-Irish playwright Oscar Wilde and Lord Alfred Douglas (Bosie) have sex with sixteen-year-old Alphonse Conway at Worthing. They meet French writer André Gide in Florence. English architect, designer and poet Herbert Percy Horne moves to Italy.  English academic the Reverend Frederick William Bussell, Chaplain of Brasenose College, delivers sermon on his dead friend Walter Pater.  Venezuelan composer Reynaldo Hahn meets French writer Marcel Proust.

Non-fiction - Swedish writer August Strindberg’s article ‘Perverts’ published in French.

Essay - Poet Charles Philip Castle Kains Jackson publishes essay ‘The New Chivalry’ and is sacked as editor of The Artist.   English reformer Edward Carpenter’s Homogenic Love, and its Place in a Free Society, first delivered as a public lecture in Manchester; the Manchester Labour Press publishes his essays ‘Sex Love’, ‘Woman’ and ‘Marriage’.  

Novel - English writer Robert Hichens’s novel The Green Carnation.  Anglo-American writer Howard Overing Sturgis’s novel All that Was Possible.  

Poetry - Anglo-German poet Stanislaus Eric, Count Stenbock’s short stories and poems Studies of Death.  English poetry anthology The Second Book of the Rhymers' Club.  English poet Alan Stanley’s poems Love Lyrics. French poet Alphonse Marius Gossez’s poems Six Attitudes d’adolescent (Six Teenage Attitudes). Belgian-French poet and photographer Pierre Félix Louis (Pierre Louÿs)’s prose poetry collection Les Chansons de Bilitis (Songs of Bilitis).  

Drama - Irish playwright Oscar Wilde’s play Salome translated by Lord Alfred Douglas. Anglo-French poet Marc-André Raffalovich and English poet John Henry Gray’s play The Blackmailers.  German playwright Frank Wedekind’s play Lulu.  

Art - German painter Rudolph Karl Alexander (Sascha) Schneider’s painting The Anarchist.

1895

Birth - Erzherzog Wilhelm Franz Joseph Karl von Habsburg-Lothringen (the Red Prince), German painter Walter Spies, English novelist Leslie Poles (L.P.) Hartley, American film star Rudolph Valentino, Anglo-Irish socialite Dolly Ierne Wilde, German historian Ernst Hartwig Kantorowicz, American lyricist Lorenz Milton Hart, Russian poet Sergey Alexandrovich Yesenin, Russian head of N.K.V.D. Nikolai Ivanovich Yezhov, Prince Pierre of Monaco, Duc de Valentinois, Austrian psychoanalyst Anna Freud, English Edward (Ned) William Bootle-Wilbraham, 3rd Earl of Lathom, American actress Hattie McDaniel, English writer Charles Raymond Mortimer Bell (Tray Mortimer), Irish director Brian Desmond Hurst, American composer Leo Sowerby, German Generalfeldmarschall Wolfram Freiherr von Richthofen, American gold mine heiress Alice Antoinette Delamar, German writer Ewald Tscheck, American blues singer Alberta Hunter, English writer Louis Golding, English Captain Edward Harold Brittain M.C., German politician Rudolph Katz, English actor Robert Tobias (Bobbie) Andrews (Reginald Frank Andrews), American sinologist George Norbert Kates, English Liberal politician William Mabane, 1st Baron Mabane and F.B.I. Director J. Edgar Hoover.

Death - Anglo-German poet Stanislaus Eric, Count Stenbock, Norman Moor (lover of John Addington Symonds), German actress Adelheid Luise (Adele) Spitzeder (Adele Vio), German prince Anton Gunther Friedrich Elimar, Herzog von Oldenburg, and Swedish novelist Abraham Viktor Rydberg and German lawyer Karl Heinrich Ulrichs.  German (Prussian) aristocrat Bernhard Ludwig Ernst Freiherr von Richthofen, Berlin President of Police, said to have committed suicide.  

Legal - British introduce anti-sodomy laws to Upper Burma.  

Theory - Anglo-French poet and writer Marc-André Raffalovich’s Die Entwicklung der Homosexualität (The Development of Homosexuality).  English reformer Edward Carpenter’s pamphlet Homogenic Love and book Love’s Coming of Age, with a chapter on ‘The Intermediate Sex’.  Its publisher, T. Fisher Unwin, withdraws after the Wilde trials, so Manchester Labour Press publishes it.  

Event - Resignation of Archibald Primrose, 5th Earl of Rosebery, from the post of English Prime Minister.  The three Wilde trials.  Sidney (Jenny) Mavor refuses to testify against Wilde.  Friend of Wilde Alfred Waterhouse Somerset Taylor arrested at home, where police seized women’s clothing, and tried with Oscar Wilde, whom he refuses to betray; both sentenced to two year’s hard labour. English Newspaper Truth attacks Lord Alfred Douglas.  

Media - English writers Arthur Symons and Aubrey Beardsley edit and publisher Lionel Smithers publishes magazine The Savoy (to 1896).  

Personal - Anglo-Irish playwright Oscar Wilde and Bosie, Lord Alfred Douglas meet French writer André Gide in Blidah, Algieria.  Wilde meets Oxford student Tom Kennion in London.  George Seymour, 7th Marquis of Hertford settles in Mackay, Australia. Anglo-Irish poet and activist Eva Gore-Booth meets Esther Roper in Italy.

Non-fiction - Anglo-French poet and writer Marc-André Raffalovich’s L’Affaire Oscar Wilde (The Oscar Wilde Affair) published in Paris.  

Biography - American novelist Henry James refuses to write biography of English scholar John Addington Symonds. Scottish historian Horatio Robert Forbes Brown’s biography of English scholar John Addington Symonds.  

Novel - Swedish writer August Strindberg’s autobiographical novel Le Plaidoyer d'un fou (The Defence of a Fool or A Madman’s Defence). Anglo-American novelist Howard Overing Sturgis’s novel All That Was Possible.  Scottish writer Kenneth Grahame’s novel The Golden Age. Irish novelist George Moore’s novel Celibates. French writer Henri d’Argis’s novel L’Éducation conjugale (The Education of Marriage).  French writer Pierre Louÿs’s novel Aphrodite: mœurs antiques (Aphrodite; Ancient Ways).  

Story - American poet, essayist and critic Logan Pearsall Smith’s The Youth of Parnassus, and Other Stories.  English writer Percy Lancelot Osborn’s short story ‘Saida Effendi’ published in Out of Egypt.  

Poetry - English magus and writer Aleister Crowley’s Aceldama, a Place to Bury Strangers in: a Philosophical Poem.  Canadian writer Walter Blackburn Harte’s poems Meditations in Motley.  Anglo-French poet Marc-André Raffalovich’s poems The Thread and the Path.  English writer Arthur Symons’s poems London Nights. English barrister, writer and poet William Percy Addleshaw (Percy Hemingway)’s poems The Happy Wanderer and Other Poems. 

Drama - Anglo-Irish playwright Oscar Wilde’s play The Importance of Being Earnest.  German playwright Benjamin Franklin (Frank) Wedekind’s play Erdgeist (Earth Spirit).  

Film - American inventor Thomas Alva Edison’s film The Gay Brothers, the first film with a gay theme. 

1896

Birth - English writer Joe Randolph (J.R.) Ackerley, French writer Henry Marie Joseph Frédéric Expedite Millon de Montherlant, American composer Virgil Thomson, Russian choreographer and ballet dancer Leonid Fyodorovich Myasin (Léonide Massine), German Nazi Philipp, Prinz und Landgraf von Hessen, Chinese writer and poet Yu Dafu, French publisher Gustave Léon Beyria, American singer Ethel Waters, American novelist Myron Brinig, English peer Captain Napier (Naps) George Henry Sturt, 3rd Baron Alington, Japanese writer Nobuko Yoshiya, English Conservative politician Colonel Victor Alexander Cazalet, English writer Robert Cedric Sherriff, American actor Charles Edward Butterworth, German SA Gruppenführer Albrecht Johannes (Hans) Hayn and American writer and poet Robert Menzies McAlmon.

Death - American Zuni Indian berdache We’wha and French poet Paul Verlaine.  English painter Lord Frederic Leighton dies one day after elevation to a barony as 1st Baron Leighton.  

Legal - British introduce anti-sodomy laws to Gold Coast (Ghana).  

Theory - German sexologist Magnus Hirschfeld’s pamphlet, published under the pseudonym Th. Ramien, Sappho und Sokrates: Wie erklärt sich die Liebe der Männer und Frauen zu Personen des eigenen Geschlechts? (Sappho and Socrates: How Do We Understand the Love of Men and Women for Persons of Their Own Sex?).  Otto Podjuki (‘Otto de Joux’)’s Die hellenische Liebe in der Gegenwart (Greek Love in the Present Day).  English scholar John Addington Symonds’s A Problem in Greek Ethics published. Sexologist Havelock Ellis’s Sexual Inversion published in Leipzig as Das Konträre Geschlectsgefühl.  Anglo-French poet Marc-André Raffalovich’s Uranisme et Unisexualité (Uranism and Unisexuality) published in Paris.

Event - English academic the Reverend Frederick William Bussell becomes Vice-Principal of Brasenose College, Oxford (to 1944).  

Media - German rights campaigner and anarchist Adolf Brand publishes Der Eigene (The Special/Unique), world’s first homosexual journal (to 1931).  Italian psychiatrist Pasquale Penta publishes magazine Archivio delle psychopathie sessuali (Archives of Psychopathic Sexuality) for one year. 

Non-fiction -   Anthology Der Eros und die Kunst: Ethischen Studien (Eros and Art: Ethical Studies) by German ‘Ludwig Frey’.  Marchese Dr. Niccolò Persichetti’s In memoriam Caroli Henrici Ulrichs (In Memory of Karl Heinrich Ulrichs).

History - English anthropologist Henry Ling-Roth’s The Natives of Sarawak describes same-sex practices of the manangbali of the Lake Dajaks.  English academic Goldsworthy Lowes Dickinson’s The Greek View of Life. English academic the Reverend Frederick William Bussell’s School of Plato.

Diary - German poet August, Graf von Platen’s diaries published (and in 1900). 

Novel - English writer E.F. Benson’s novel The Babe B.A.  

Story - Austro-German writer Maria Janitschek’s Vom Weibe – Charakterzeichnungen (Of Women – Character Drawings).   Poetry - English poet Lord Roden Noel’s My Sea and Other Poems.  English poet John Gambril Nicholson’s poems A Chaplet of Southernwood.  English poet A.E. Housman’s poems A Shropshire Lad.  English Lord Alfred Douglas’s Poems. English rights campaigner George Ives’s poems Book of Chains. Anglo-French poet, librarian and medical biographer Victor Gustave Plarr’s poems In the Dorian Mood 1896 (Decadents, Symbolists, Anti-Decadents).   Drama - American writers Fergus Redmond and Archibald Clavering Gunter’s play of their novel A Florida Enchantment. American novelist Henry Blake Fuller’s play At Saint Judas’.

1897

Birth - English journalist and writer Michael Davidson, American novelist and playwright Thornton Niven Wilder, American director Dorothy Arzner, French poet and novelist Louis Aragon, English sociologist Walter John Herbert ‘Sebastian’ Sprott, Sudeten German nationalist Heinrich (Heinz) Ruth, Australian actress Dame Judith Anderson, American composer Henry Cowell, Australian costume designer John Orry-Kelly, American film designer Natacha Rambova, English museum curator Sir Arthur Leigh Bolland Ashton, American female impersonator George Francis Peduzzi (Karyl Norman), English arabist Gerald de Gaury MC, German SA Deputy Leader Edmund Heines, Hungarian film star Lya de Putti, American art director Jere Abbott, Anglo-American Conservative MP Arthur Ronald Lambert Field Tree, English Prime Minister Robert Anthony Eden, 1st Earl of Avon, New Zealand writer Hector Bolitho, Brazilian director Alberto de Almeida Cavalcanti, English painter William Park (Gabriel) Atkin, American poet John Wheelwright,  Giovanni Battista Enrico Antonio Maria Montini (Pope Paul VI), New Zealand poet and Chinese communist supporter Rewi Alley, American artist Thomas (Tom) Scofield Handforth, Scottish Conservative politician Sir James Henderson-Stewart, 1st Baronet, German-British psychotherapist Charlotte Wolff and Anglo-American politician and socialite Sir Henry (‘Chips’) Channon.

Death - English cleric and schoolmaster Reverend Charles John Vaughan, Austrian writer and poet Eduard Kulke and Friedrich Franz III, Grossherzog von Mecklenburg-Schwerin.  

Legal - America introduces anti-sodomy laws to Hawaii.  German Kaiser Wilhelm II issues a decree against pederasty in the Army.

Theory - Dutch criminal anthropologist Arnold Aletrino publishes an article saying homosexuals could be normal, non-criminal men.  Sexologist Havelock Ellis’s Sexual Inversion published in German as Die Homosexualität; its first British edition includes scholar John Addington Symonds’s A Problem in Modern Ethics, but is bought up by Scottish historian Horatio Brown and suppressed.  Its second edition brought out without Symonds’s name on title page.  German sexologist Norbert Grabowsky’s Die verkehrte Geschlechtsempfindung oder die mannmännliche und weibweiblicher Liebe (Inverted Sexual Feeling or Man-Manly and Woman-Womanly Love).  Otto de Joux’s Die hellenische Liebe in der Gegenwart. Psychologische Studien (Contemporary Greek Love: Psychological Studies).

Politics - Mwanga II Mukasa, 31st Kabaka of Buganda deposed.

Media - The last edition of the English literary journal The Yellow Book.   

Organisation - German sexologist Magnus Hirschfeld founds Wissenschaftlich-humanitäres Komitee (Scientific Humanitarian Committee) in Charlottenberg and petitions Reichstag to abolish German Legal Code’s Paragraph 175.  

Activism - Start of German Social Democratic Party (S.P.D.)’s support for abolition of Paragraph 175.  Personal - English rights campaigner George Ives visits reformer Edward Carpenter at Millthorpe. Anglo-Irish playwright Oscar Wilde released from jail and goes to the Continent.  He goes to Naples with Lord Alfred Douglas and meets Neapolitan poet Giuseppe Garibaldi Rocco and Englishman I.D.W. (Sir John) Ashton; together they pick up Italian boys.  In Taormina he meets Latvian photographer Baron von Transéhe-Roseneck, English Russophile and antiques dealer Albert Henry Stopford and German ‘Baron’ Wilhelm von Gloeden.  Londoner Alfred Waterhouse Somerset Taylor released from jail and goes to the U.S.  English art historian and critic Sir Claude Phillips becomes first Keeper of the Wallace Collection (to 1911).  

Biography - English writer Wilfred Austin Gill’s Edward Cracroft Lefroy: His Life and Poems.

Autobiography - Anglo-Irish playwright Oscar Wilde writes autobiographical De Profundis.  English Army officer Kenneth Searight’s erotic collection Paidikion commences (to 1917).   

Letter - English schoolmaster and poet William (Johnson) Cory’s Extracts from the Letters and Journals.  American poet Walt Whitman’s Calamus: A Series of Letters Written During the Years 1868-1880 by Walt Whitman to a Young Friend, Peter Doyle.  

Novel - Swedish writer August Strindberg’s autobiographical novel Inferno. French poet and novelist Paul Duval (Jean Lorrain)’s novel Monsieur de Bougrelon.  French writer André Gide’s novel Les Nourritures terrestres (Fruits of the Earth).  

Novella - Belgian writer Georges Eeekhoud’s novella Mes communions (My Communions).  

Poetry -  English rights campaigner George Ives’s poems A Book of Chains, including ‘With Whom, Then, Should I Sleep’.  English writer Arthur Symons’s poems Amoris Victima (Victim of Love).  

Music  (to 1898) French composer Claude Debussy sets friend Belgian-French poet and photographer Pierre Félix Louis (Pierre Louÿs)’s prose poems Les Chanson de Bilitis (Songs of Bilitis) for piano and voice (Lesure Number 90).

1898

Birth - German poet and playwright Bertolt Brecht, German actor Hans Heinrich von Twardowski, English journalist and writer Beverley Nichols, American photographer Berenice Abbott, Spanish poet and dramatist Federico del Sagrado Corazón de Jesús García Lorca, Russian painter Pavel Tchelitchew, American actor Randolph Scott, English actress Gertrude Lawrence, American director Mitchell Leisen, French editor Gaston Lestrade, Anglo-Canadian poet Elsa Gidlow, Polish painter Maria Górska (Tamara de Lempicka), French writer Pierre Guyolot-Dubasty (Axerios), Italian Jeweller Fulco Santo Stefano della Cerda, Duca della Verdura e di Carolina Valguarnera dei principi di Niscemi e Marchese di Murata La Cerda (Fulco di Verdura), Australian fashion editor Madge McHarg (Garland), Lady Ashton, Anglo-American socialite Robert Gould Shaw III, English academic Sir Cecil Maurice Bowra, American pianist Allen C. Tanner,   Anglo-Irish playboy Herbert Frank (Adrian) Bishop, English harpsichord maker Thomas Goff, English freelance architect and photographer Montague Charles Glover, English diplomat and journalist Victor Cunard, American Sinologist Alan Reed Priest, English Conservative politician Brigadier John Percival Whiteley and Russian film director Sergei Mikhailovich Eisenstein.

Death - English poet Joseph William Gleeson White, Chichester Samuel Parkinson-Fortescue, 2nd Baron Clermont and 1st Baron Carlingford, French monarchist politician Charles-Eugène Le Bègue de Germiny, Comte de Germiny and English illustrator Aubrey Beardsley.  

Legal - English Vagrancy Act outlaws importuning or soliciting.  American anti-sodomy law introduced to the Phlippines, Guam and Puerto Rico. 

Theory - Russian sexologist Benjamin Mikhailovich Tarnowsky’s Anthropological and Medico-Legal Studies on Pederasty in Europe.

Event - English trials at the Old Bailey of blackmailers of homosexuals; Andrew Grant ‘Queen Anne’, Henry Coulton and Albert Edward Thorpe given life sentences, William Allen and Robert Cliburn seven years.  German Prinz Aribert Joseph Alexander von Anhalt dismissed for pederasty by Kaiser Wilhelm II. German Friedrich Botho Graf zu Eulenburg flees to Italy.  Kansas asylum castrates 48 homosexuals. Aberdeen press attacks English writer Frederick Rolfe.

Activism - German Scientific-Humanitarian Committee’s pamphlet Eros vor dem Reichsgericht (Eros before the Imperial Court).  German Social Democratic Party sponsors a debate in the Reichstag on repealing Paragraph 175 but fails.   George Bedborough, Secretary of the Legitimization League, convicted of selling ‘lewd’ book, sexologist Havelock Ellis’s Sexual Inversion (2nd edition); future volumes of Ellis’s work Studies in the Psychology of Sex (of which Sexual Inversion forms Volume 2) all published in the U.S.

Personal - Australian poet and writer Frederic Manning brought to England by Reverend Arthur Galton.  Henry Cyril Paget ‘Toppy’, Earl of Uxbridge becomes 5th Marquess of Anglesey. German industrialist Friedrich Krupp commences holidays on Capri.    Non-fiction - French writer A. Essebac’s ‘Partenza’……. vers le beauté! (‘Partenza’ – to the Beauty!).  

Biography - English writer Arthur Symons’s Aubrey Beardsley.  English reformer Edward Carpenter’s Some Friends of Walt Whitman: A Study in Sex Psychology.  

Autobiography - Swedish writer August Strindberg’s autobiographical sketches Legends.   Scottish writer Kenneth Grahame’s novel Dream Days.  

Novel - German writer Kurt Martens’s Roman aus der Décadénce (Novel from the Decadent Life). 

Story - English writer Frederick Rolfe’s Stories Toto Told Me.  Poetry - English magus and writer Aleister Crowley’s poems Jephthah and Other Mysteries, Lyrical and Dramatic and White Stains: The Literary Remains of George Archibald Bishop, a Neuropath. English poet Edmund St. Gascoigne Mackie’s poems Charmides: or, ‘Oxford Twenty Years Ago’.  Anglo-Irish playwright Oscar Wilde’s poem The Ballad of Reading Gaol.

1899

Birth - Actor playwright Sir Noël Coward, Anglo-Irish producer and actor Alfred Willmore (Michéal MacLiammóir),  American letter writer Jebb Alexander, American poet Harold Hart Crane, Australian artist Sir William Dobell, French composer Francis Jean Marcel Poulenc, English actor Charles Laughton, Mexican American actor Ramón Navarro, Chinese sociologist and eugenicist Pan Guangdan, Japanese novelist Miyamoto Yuriko, English historian, economist and Cooperativist George Douglas Howard (G.D.H.) Cole, American director George Dewey Cukor, Anglo-French actress and theatre producer Eva Le Gallienne, English Conservative politician Sir Ian Macdonald Horobin, English actor and producer George K. Arthur, American film producer Irving Grant Thalberg,  German dancer prostitute Anita Berber, American publisher Monroe Wheeler, German sexologist Richard Linsert, English architectural conservationist and editor of Country Life Christopher Edward Clive Hussey, Anglo-Polish author and Islamist Romauld (Rom) Landau,  English Conservative politician Derick Heathcoat-Amory, 1st Viscount Amory and 4th Baronet, English Conservative politician Sir Ian Macdonald Horobin, German diplomat and anti-Nazi Wolfgang Gans Edler Herr zu Putlitz, Alice Wrench (Princess Dilkusha de Rohan), English publisher Roger Henry Pocklington Senhouse, American poet and playwright Rollie Lynn Riggs and English colonial Governor Oliver, 2nd Earl Baldwin.  

Death - American writer Reverend Horatio Alger, English academic and writer Wilfred Austin Gill and French artist Rosa Bonheur.  Legal - America and Germany introduce anti-sodomy laws to Samoa.  

Religion - William Brenton Greene’s article ‘The Metaphysics of Christian Apologetics’ in The Presbyterian and Reformed Review.  

Theory - German Hermann Rohleder’s Vorlesungen über Geschlechtstrieb und Geschlechtsleben des Menschen (Lectures on the Human Sex Drive and Sex Life).  German sexologist Albert Moll’s Die Konträrer Sexualempfindung (Contrary Sexual Feelings).

Politics - Maharaja Sir Kishan Singh becomes Maharaja of Bharatpur.  

Media - German sexologist Magnus Hirschfeld starts Jahrbuch für sexuelle Zwischenstufen (Yearbook on Sexual Intermediaries) in Germany (23 volumes to 1923). 

Non-fiction - Japanese publication Eastern World attacks same-sex practices.  German Adolf Brand publishes Baltic German poet and writer Elisar von Kupffer (Elisarion)’s anthology Lieblingminne und Freundesliebe in der Weltliteratur (Preferred Form of Love and Love of Friends in World Literature) written as a response to the imprisonment of Oscar Wilde.   South African writer and art historian Henry Currie (H.C.) Marillier writes preface to the Early Works of Aubrey Beardsley.  Russian writer and philosopher Vasili Vasilievich Rozanov’s book People of the Moonlight.

History - German ethnologist Dr. Michael Haberlandt records male prostitution in Zanzibar.     

Novel - English writer Rudyard Kipling’s novel Stalky & Co.  English writer Edward A.W. Clarke’s novel Jaspar Tristram.  Belgian writer Georges Eeekhoud’s novel Escal-Vigor (translated in 1930 as A Strange Love -  A Novel of Abnormal Passion), its author prosecuted but not found guilty of pornography in Bruges. 

Poetry - English Lord Alfred Douglas’s poems The City of the Soul.  English writer Arthur Symons’s poems Images of Good and Evil.  Drama - German dramatist Dilsner’s play Jasminblüte (Jasmine Blossom).  

Art - American artist Thomas Cowperthwaite Eakins’s painting Wrestlers.  (C) Italian painter Marcello Dudovich’s poster for Inchostri.

20TH CENTURY

1900

Birth - English Admiral of the Fleet Louis, 1st Earl Mountbatten of Burma, last Viceroy of India, English Admiral of the Fleet Sir Charles Edward Lambe, American writer in French Julian Hartridge (Julien) Green, American academic and critic Professor Newton Arvin, English writer and bibliographer Alphonse James Albert (A.J.A.) Symons, Sri Lankan cinematographer, collector and musician Lionel Wendt, Japanese historian Iwata Jun’ichi, American actress Jean Arthur, American actress Joan Crawford, American actor William Haines, American explorer Richard Halliburton, English Conservative politician Robert John Graham Boothby, Baron Boothby, British power boat racer Marion Barbara (Joe) Carstairs, Baltic German fashion photographer Baron George Hoyningen-Huene, English student and model for Peter Pan, Michael Llewelyn Davies, English student and poet Rupert Erroll Victor Buxton, French surrealist writer René Crevel, French singer Suzanne Marion (Suzy Solidor), Japanese mathematics teacher Chiyo Monma, American scriptwriter George Oppenheimer,  Canadian composer Colin McPhee, Chilean-French art collector Arturo (Arturito) López Willshaw, communist René Crevel, English courtesan (Jessie) Doris Delevingne, Viscountess Castlerosse,  English socialite the Honourable Hamish St Clair Erskine, American arts sponsor Arthur Everett (Chick) Austin, Jr., German activist Karl Giese, English composer Alan Bush, German activist Max Miede, English artist Sir Roland Algernon Penrose, French writer and photographer Marc Allégret, English politician Edward Marjoribanks, German restaurateur Karl Zehnter and American composer Aaron Copland.  

Death - German philosopher Friedrich Nietzsche, Anglo-Irish playwright Oscar Wilde, English composer Sir Arthur Seymour Sullivan and Anglo-American writer Walter Blackburn Harte.  

Legal - Russian penal code replaces flogging with four to five years imprisonment for homosexual offences.

Politics - Maharajadhiraja Raj Rajeshwar Sawai Shri Sir Shivaji Rao Holkar Bahadur XII of Indore forbidden trips abroad by the Viceroy of India due to his scandalous behaviour.  

Event - English author and aesthete Reginald ‘Reggie’ Turner forced to leave England.  English Lord Alfred Douglas attacked by boys’ pimps in Paris.  German Prinz Aribert Joseph Alexander von Anhalt has his marriage annulled, reputedly because of his homosexuality.  

Activism - German writer Elisabeth Dauthendy’s essay Vom neue Frau und seine Liebe (On the New Woman and Her Love).

Diary - Austrian playwright and poet Franz Seraphicus Grillparzer’s Briefe und Tagebücher (Diary and Correspondence).  

Letter - The Correspondence of Thomas Gray ed. Duncan C. Tovey, vol. 1.  

Novel - German writer Fanny (Franziska) Herzogin zu Reventlow’s novel Virages oder Hetären (Men-women or Concubines).   French novelist Octave Mirbeau’s novel Le Journal d'une femme de chambre (Diary of a Chambermaid).  French writer Catulle Mendès’s novel Méphistophéla (Miss Mephistophela).  French writer E.D.’s novel La Comtesse de Lesbos ou La Nouvelle Gamiani (The Countess of Lesbos or the New-fashioned Gamiani).  German writer Guido Hermann Eckardt (Fritz Geron Pernauhm)’s novel Ercole Tomei.  

Novella - French novelist Achille Bécasse (Achille Essebac)’s novellas Luc (Luke) and L’Élu (The Chosen One).

Poetry - Scottish historian Horatio Forbes Brown’s poems, Drift.  English rights campaigner George Cecil Ives’s poems Eros’ Throne.  

1901

Birth - American novelist Glenway Wescott, English policeman Harry Daley, English designer Sir Norman Hartnell, German film star singer Marie Magdalene (Marlene) Dietrich, American actor Clark Gable, American anthropologist Margaret Mead, American sculptor Thelma Ellen Wood, American painter Beauford Delaney, Chinese Peking opera star Zhu Qinxin, American puppeteer and novelist Forman Brown (Richard Meeker), American actor singer Nelson Ackerman Eddy, American actress Mildred Harris, English actress Blyth (Blythe) Daly, English music critic and writer Edward Charles Sackville-West, 5th Baron Sackville, King Paul of Greece, English painter John Christopher (Kit) Wood, English socialite and antiquarian the Honourable Ralph Edward (Eddie) Gathorne-Hardy,  French composer Henri-Pierre Poupard (Henri Sanguet), French journalist and writer Robert de Saint-Jean, French director Jean Grémillon, English novelist John Frederick Norman Hampson Simpson (John Hampson), Anglo-Irish politician Brendan Bracken, 1st Viscount Bracken, English architect Paul Edward Paget, English diplomat and historian Stewart Henry Perowne, English secret agent Denis Rake, English actor Eric Portman, French theologian and philosopher Jean Guitton and English poet Wilfrid Scawen Blunt.  

Death - English magistrate Sir Franklin Rushington, French composer Prince Edmond Melchior Jean Marie de Polignac, Austro-Hungarian writer Emerich Simon Damian Joseph Graf von Stadion-Thannhausen and Amir Abdur Rahman Khan of Afghanistan.

Legal - Hong Kong codifies legislation in Offences against the Person Ordinance with buggery attracting a life sentence. 

Theory - English scholar John Addington Symonds’s A Problem in Modern Ethics published.  Richard Krafft-Ebing’s Der Conträrsexuelle vor dem Strafrichter (The Countrasexual in Criminal Court).  German Professor Friedrich Wachenfeld’s Homosexualität und Strafgesetz (Homosexuality and Penal Law).  Event - Dutch criminal anthropologist Arnold Aletrino defends homosexuals at the Fifth Congress of Criminal Anthropology in Amsterdam.  Mexico City police arrest 41 males at a dance.

Activism - German Scientific-Humanitarian Committee’s pamphlet Was Soll das Volk vom dritten Geschlecht Wissen? (What Should the People Know about the Third Sex?).   German writer and activist Peter Hamecher comes out in his Zwischen den Geschlechtern (Between the Sexes).  

Personal - English art gallery director Arthur Bellamy Clifton and art expert and writer More Adey open Carfax Gallery, Camden Town, London.  German Grossherzog Ernst Ludwig Karl Albrecht Wilhelm von Hessen und bei Rhein divorced by wife, Victoria Melita, for homosexuality.  

Non-fiction - Japanese guide to schools warns pupils against accepting tuition in return for same-sex.  

Autobiography - American writer Claude Hartland’s autobiography The Story of a Life.  

Novel - English writer Frederick Rolfe’s novel In His Own Image.  French courtesan Liane de Pougy’s novel Une Idylle Saphique (A Sapphic Idyl).  French poet and novelist Paul Duval (Jean Lorrain)’s novel Monsieur de Phocas.  French writer Henri de Régnier’s novel L'amour et le plaisir (Love and Pleasure).  French composer Gabriel Fauré’s novel La Dernière journée de Sapphô (Sappho's Final Day).  French writer de Lys’s novel Les Virages de Sodom (The Manly Women of Sodom). German writer Wilhelm Walloth’s novel Der Sonderling (The Odd One).  Scottish German writer John Henry Mackay (Sagitta)’s novel Der Schwimmer (The Swimmer).  German writer Bob’s novel Geschlechter der Menschen (Human Sexes).  German writer Aimée Duc’s novel Sind Es Frauen? Roman Uber Das Dritte Geschlecht (Are They Women? Novel about the Third Sex).  German writer Georg Kelms’s novel Pariser Geschichten (Paris Stories). 

Novella - French novelist Achille Bécasse (Achille Essebac)’s novella Dédé.  

Poetry - English poet Percy Lancelot Osborn’s poems Rose Leaves from Philostratus.  

1902

Birth - The Prince George Edward Alexander Edmund (Babe), Duke of Kent, American poet James Mercer Langston Hughes, English film director Anthony (Puff) Asquith, American actress Tallulah Brockman Bankhead, American novelist André Tellier, Spanish poet Luis Cernuda, American actor Will Geer, English artist Edward Eardley Knollys, English mountaineer Andrew (Sandy) Comyn Irvine, French artist and designer Christian (Bébé) Bérard, American costume designer Walter Plunkett, English schoolmaster and M.P. Maurice Christopher Hollis, English historian Richard Pares, Barbadian author and actor Terence Lucy Greenidge, English politician Alexander Gavin Henderson, 2nd Baron Faringdon, English Liberal politician Robert Hamilton Bernays, American art historian Alfred Hamilton Barr, Jr., English art critic Adrian Stokes, German writer Kurt Neuburger, English literary scholar and director George Humphrey Wolferstan (Dadie) Rylands, William Cecil James Philip John Paul Howard, 8th Earl of Wicklow (Billy Clonmore), American dancer and activist Mabel Hampton, English writer and botanist the Honourable Robert Gathorne-Hardy, English Liberal politician Stephen Noel Furness, Scottish filmmaker and writer Kenneth Macpherson, French photographer and ethnographer Pierre Edouard Leopold Verger (Fatumbi or Fátúmbí) and American critic Francis Otto (F.O.) Matthiessen.  

Death - Friedrich Wilhelm Ernst Georg Prinz von Preussen,  English imperialist businessman Cecil Rhodes and English writer Samuel Butler.  English poet Lionel Pigot Johnson d an alcoholic.  Suicide of German industrialist Friedrich ‘Fritz’ Krupp.  

Legal - Norway Penal Code Book criminalizes same-sex acts with a punishment of imprisonment up to one year.   

Theory - German ethnologist and historian Heinrich Schurtz’s Altersklassen und Männerbünde: Eine Darstellung der Grundformen der Gesellschaft (Ages and Male Bonding:  A Presentation of the Basic Forms of Society). 

Event - German industrialist Friedrich ‘Fritz’ Krupp deported from Italy for sex with minors. Krupp scandal engulfs community on Capri; German artist Christian Wilhelm Allers flees to New Zealand and changes his name to Andresen.  German Social Democratic Party paper Vorwärts reports Krupps scandal.  German photographer Wilhelm von Plüschow (Guglielmo Plüschow) convicted of procuration and seduction of minors in Naples and sentenced to eight months jail.  Prince Francis Joseph of Braganza, Infante of Portugal, found not guilty of indecent acts with a man in London but loses his commission in the Austro-Hungarian Army.  

Non-fiction - English reformer Edward Carpenter’s collection Iolaus: An Anthology of Friendship.

Autobiography - English writer Robert Harborough Sherard’s semi-autobiographical Oscar Wilde: The Story of an Unhappy Friendship.  

Diary - Lord Ronald Gower’s Old Diaries, 1881-1901.  

Novel - American novelist Owen Wister’s novels The Virginian and A Horseman of the Plains.  French writer André Gide’s novel L’Immoraliste (The Immoralist).  French writer Colette’s novel Claudine en ménage (Claudine Married).  French writer Jean Lombard’s novel L’Agonie (The Agony).  French writer Francis Lepage’s novel Les Fausses vierges (The False Maidens).  Danish writer Herman Joachim Bang’s novel Mikaël.  

Novella - Austro-German writer Maria Janitschek’s novellas Die neue Eva (The New Eve), banned in Germany in 1909.

Poetry - English poets Arthur Edward (E.) Knox and Arthur Linton’s A Book of Poems.  English poet Roden Noel’s The Collected Poems.  English writer Arthur Symons’s Poems.  

Art - Paul Gaughin’s paintings Man in a Red Cape and Bathers.

1903

Birth - Belgian French writer Marguerite Yourcenar, American poet Countee Cullen, American author Charles Reginald Jackson, English writer Rupert Croft-Cooke, American author and diarist Anaïs Nin, American cooking writer James Beard, English historian Alfred Leslie (A.L.) Rowse, English writer Evelyn Waugh, English critic and writer Cyril Vernon Connolly, American pianist and composer Vladimir Samoylovich Horowitz, Soviet mathematician Andrey Nikolaevich Kolmogorov, American director Vincente Minnelli, American actress Josephine Hutchinson, Austrian dancer and actress Ottilie Ethel Leopoldine (Tilly) Losch, Countess of Carnarvon, English film maker John Sutro, English opera director Sir David Webster, English art historian Roger Packman Hinks, New Zealand writer James Francis Courage, French writer Raymond Radiguet, Anglo-Irish actor and producer Hilton Edwards, Swiss adventurer and writer Ella Maillart, English diplomat Sir Arthur Harry Tandy, Argentine/English historian and novelist Alfredo León (Alfred) Duggan, American artist Maurice Grosser,  American poet Edwin Denby, American artist Thomas Dabney Mabrey, American architectural historian Henry-Russell Hitchcock, American photographer Walker Evans, Anglo-Irish aristocrat Arthur Paul John James Charles Gore, 7th Earl of Arran, English dancer Ernest Reginald Wollfield (Rupert Doone), Anglo-American MP Sir Hamilton William Kerr, 1st Baronet, Irish author and British MP William Teeling, British historian Sir James Cochran Stevenson Runciman, English Master of Wellington College Robert (Bobby/Bobbie) Paton Longden, English composer Sir Lennox Randal Francis Berkeley, Russian Jewish painter George Bergen, American photographer Walker Evans, American actress Owena Wolcott (Ona Munson), Austrian-American singer Margaretha (Greta) Keller, French writer Pierre Herbart, American actor and film producer David Levy (David Lewis), Welsh Conservative politician  James Purdon Lewes Thomas, 1st Viscount Cilcennin, English Conservative MP Edward Antony James Bulwer-Lytton, Viscount Knebworth, English Conservative politician Anthony Crommelin Crossley and English writer William Plomer.

Death - Mwanga II, Kabaka of Buganda, American miners Jason Chamberlain and John Chaffee,  Anglo-Irish Post Office Secretary Gustavus Charles Cornwall (Cornwall-Dalyell), English stockbroker Hugh Weguelin, German opera singer Theodor Reichmann and English cleric Frederic William Farrar d. Scot Major-General Sir Hector Macdonald’s suicide.  Suicide (?) of English trader and philanthropist Quintin Hogg.  

Legal - Russian penal code reduces penalty for same-sex acts to at least three months’ imprisonment.  

Theory - German sexologist Iwan Bloch’s Beiträge zur Ätiologie der Psychopathia sexualis (Contributions to the Etiology of Psychopathic Sexuality). German sexologist Magnus Hirschfeld’s pamphlet Der Urnischer Mensch (The Uranian Person); his survey finds 2% homosexual.  German physician Edwin Bab’s Die Gleichgeschlechtliche Liebe (Same-sex Love).  German M. Braunschweig’s Das Dritte Geschlecht (The Third Sex).  Austrian philosopher Otto Weininger’s Geschlecht und Charakter (Sex and Character).

Event - Frederic William Farrar Baron d’Adelswärd-Fersen and Comte Hamelin Francois Albert de Warren accused of ‘public offence against decency’ in Paris for holding gay parties and black masses, sentenced to six months’ imprisonment and a fine.  New York police conduct the first raid recorded in the U.S. on a gay bathhouse, the Ariston Hotel Baths; 26 men arrested and 12 brought to trial on sodomy charges, 7 men receiving sentences ranging from 4 to 20 years in prison.  German rights campaigner Adolf Brand is imprisoned for two months for ‘lascivious content’ in his Der Eigene magazine.

Organisation - German rights campaigner Adolf Brand and sexologist Benedict Friedlander found Gemeinschaft der Eigenen (Community of the Special), an organisation to repeal Paragraph 175 of the German Legal Code.  

Activism - Russian-American Vladimir Vladimirovich Nabokov’s pamphlet against state interference in same sex issues.   

Biography - German anthropologist Ferdinand Karsch-Haack’s Der Putzmacher von Glarus Heinrich Hössli, ein Vorkämpfer der Männerliebe. Ein Lebensbild (The Cleaner from Glarus Heinrich Hössli, a Champion of Love for Men. A Biography).  

Novel - American writer Gertrude Stein’s unpublished novel Q.E.D.  American author Charles Warren Stoddard’s novel For the Pleasure of His Company: An Affair of the Misty City. French novelist Jacques Élie Henri Ambrose Ner (Han Rymer)’s novel La Fille manquée (The Would-be Girl).  French Professor Maurice Morel’s novel Sappho de Lesbos (Sappho of Lesbos).  French writer Renée Vivien’s novel Sapho.  Austro-German writer Maria Janitschek’s novel Mimikry - Ein Stück modernes Leben (Mimicry – A Piece of Modern Life).

Novella - American writer Henry James’s novella The Beast in the Jungle.  

Poetry - American poet and art collector Arthur Lyon Raile (Edward ‘Ned’ Perry Warren)’s Itamos: a Volume of Poems. German writer Hans Ostwald’s Lieder aus dem Rinnstein (Songs from the Gutter), 3 vols. (to 1906).

Drama - French writer André Gide’s play Saul.

1904

Birth - English author Christopher Isherwood, English actor Sir John Gielgud, English aesthete Sir Harold Acton, English diplomat Alastair Graham, English novelist Angela du Maurier, American writer and poet Harrison Parker Tyler, English-American film star Archibald Alexander Leach (Cary Grant), American artist Paul Cadmus, English artist Oliver Hilary Samborne Messel, English writer Mary Renault, Umberto II, King of Italy, Spanish artist Salvador Dali, French ballet dancer and choreographer Serge Lifar, Mexican writer and poet Salvador Novo López, Japanese artist Okawa Tatsuji, American actor Charles (Buddy) Rogers, American photographer Jerome Zerbe, English stage and house designer Oliver Hilary Sambourne Messel, English dancer and choreographer Sir Frederick William Mallandaine Ashton, Franco-Russian editor Nicolas Louis Alexandre (Niki), Baron de Gunzburg , Russian dancer and librettist Boris Evgenievich Kochno, Dutch musician and resistance fighter Frieda Belinfante, American journalist Paul Mooney, American landscape architect and homophile movement founder William Dorr Lambert Legg (W. Dorr Legg), the Honourable Hugh Patrick Lygon, Scottish historian John Patrick Douglas Balfour, 3rd Baron Kinross, English actor Anthony (Tony) Arnatt Bushell,  American author, critic and librarian George Reynolds Freedley, English Sir Peter Norton-Griffiths, 2nd Baronet,  American academic biographer Howard N. Doughty, English politician Alan Tindal Lennox-Boyd, 1st Viscount Boyd of Merton, English Conservative politician John Selwyn Brooke Lloyd, Baron Selwyn-Lloyd, English writer Lieutenant Commander Anthony Heckstall-Smith DSC, Welsh photographer Angus McBean, English ballet dancer and choreographer Sydney Francis Patrick Chippendall Healey-Kay (Sir Anton Dolin), American director Moss Hart, French-American actress and singer Liliane Marie-Madeleine Carré (Lili Damita), SA-Gruppenführer Karl Ernst, German translator Kurt Wagenseil, English businessman Dudley Jack Barnato Joel, French anarchist writer Daniel Guérin, Albanian bey Paul Adamidi Frasheri Bey and English photographer Sir Cecil Beaton.  

Death - Welsh American explorer and journalist John Rowlands (Sir Henry Morton Stanley), Captain Martin Oranmore Kirwan of the Royal Irish Fusiliers, English cross dressing Thomas Ernest (Stella) Boulton and Irish prostitute Jack Saul.  

Theory - German Heinrich Magnus Hirschfeld’s ‘Berlins drittes Geschlecht’ (‘Berlin’s Third Sex’) in Grossstadt-Dokumente (Urban Documents), Volume 3.  German sexologist Benedict Friedländer’s Renaissance des Eros Uranios (Renaissance of Uranian Love).  French playwright Oscar Méténier’s Virtus et vices allemands (German Virtues and Vices).  American sexologist Charles Godfrey Leland’s The Alternative Sex: or, The Female Intellect in Men, and the Masculine in Women.

Event - Scandal of homosexual orgies in the Paris studio of English painter Ernest Boulton involves many figures but all are acquitted. German judge August Hesse shoots a homosexual blackmailer in Berlin but is set free.  German (Saxon) lawyer Dr. Paul Ackermann sentenced to two months’ suspended jail for homosexual offence with blackmailer.  

Activism - German activist Adolf Brand’s pamphlet Kaplan Dasbach und die Freundesliebe (Kaplan Dasbach and Friend-love) outs Jesuit politician Kaplan Dasbach who resigns as leader of the Center Party and is said to commit suicide in 1907. 

Personal - Photographers Austrian Rudolph Franz Lehnert and German Ernst Heinrich Landrock found photographic studio in Tunis.   

Non-fiction - English poet Charles Edward Sayle’s three-volume edition of works of English writer Sir Thomas Browne.  French Marquis de Sade’s Les Cinq Vingt Journées de Sodom (120 Days of Sodom) discovered and published by Eugène Dühren, a pseudonym used by German sexologist Iwan Bloch.  English writer Arthur Symons’s Studies in Prose and Verse.

Biography - Thomas Wright’s The Life of Edward Fitzgerald.   English biographer Thomas Wright’s Life of Edward Fitzgerald.  German Eugen Dühren’s Der Marquis de Sade und seine Zeit (The Marquis de Sade and His Times).  

Letter - The Correspondence of Thomas Gray ed. Duncan C. Tovey, vols 2-3.  English poet John Henry Gray’s The Last Letters of Aubrey Beardsley.  

Novel - English writer Howard Overing Sturgis’s novel Belchamber.  English writer Hector Hugh Munro (Saki)’s novel Reginald. American writer Charles Warren Stoddard’s novel The Island of Tranquil Delights.  English writer Frederick Rolfe (Baron Corvo)’s novel Hadrian VII.  French novelist louis Lumet’s novel Les cahiers d’un congréganiste (Notes from a Congreganist).  French novelist Jules Hoche’s novel Moeurs d’exception: Le Vice mortel (Exceptional Habits: Deadly Vice).  French novelist Eugène Bouton (Jean Rodes)’s novel Les Adolescents: Moeurs collégiennnes (The Adolescents: College Habits). French poet and novelist Paul Duval (Jean Lorrain)’s novel La Maison Philibert (The House of Philibert).  French writer André Gide’s novel Les norritures terrestes (Earthly Nourishment).  Belgian writer Georges Eeekhoud’s novel L’autre vue (The Other View). Dutch poet Jacob Israël de Haan’s novel  Pijpelijntjes (Lines from De Pijp) causes him to be dismissed as a teacher.  Hermann Breuer (Bill Forster)’s novel Anders als die Andern (Different from the Others).  German writer Guido Hermann Eckardt (Fritz Geron Pernauhm)’s novel Der junge Kurt (The Young Kurt).  

Story - English writer E.M. Forster’s short story ‘The Story of a Panic’.  

Drama - German playwright Benjamin Franklin (Frank) Wedekind’s play Die Büchse der Pandora (Pandora's Box).  

Art - German painter Paul Hoecker’s portrait on Capri of Nino Cesarini, lover of French Baron Adelswärd-Fersen. German painter Rudolph Karl Alexander (Sascha) Schneider’s painting Hypnose (Hypnosis).

1905 

Birth - English writer Sjovald Cunyngham-Brown, American painter Jared French, English politician Thomas Edward Neil (Tom) Driberg, Swedish film star Greta Lovisa Gustafsson (Greta Garbo), English aesthete Brian Howard, English composer Sir Michael Tippett, Welsh actor Emlyn Williams, German actress, English Major Sir Herbert Paul Latham, 2nd Baronet and M.P., German writer Erika Julia Hedwig Mann, American tycoon Howard Hughes, American composer and librettist Marcus (Marc) Samuel Blitzstein, American actress Joan Crawford, American actress Clara Gordon Bow, French director Jean Vigo, English writer Sidney Arthur Brahma Rogers, American art collector Arthur Jeffress, Alexander (Lexel) Friedrich Wilhelm Georg Konrad Ernst Maximilian Graf von Hochberg, Baron zu Fürstenstein, 5th Fürst von Pless, French religious Jean Bourgoint, English painter Reginald John ‘Rex’ Whistler, English travel writer Robert Byron, German bass singer Doda Conrad, French writer André Fraigneau, English painter Charles Robert Owen Medley, Irish Conservative politician Colonel John (Jack) Robert Jermain Macnamara, English Labour politician Thomas Cecil (Tom) Skeffington-Lodge, English actor and scriptwriter Sir Basil Hardington Bartlett, 2nd Baronet, English colonial governor Sir Roland Evelyn Turnbull, American theatrical producer Richard Halliday and English artist Edward Burra.

Death - English 1st Premier of Queensland Sir Robert George Wyndham Herbert, Henry Cyril Paget ‘Toppy’, 5th Marquess of Anglesey, English Lieutenant-Colonel John Wallace Hozier, William (Willie) Fear Dyer (choirboy beloved of John Addington Symonds), French revolutionary Louise Michel, German writer Heinrich Bulthaupt and English painter Simeon Solomon. German Jewish Kommerzienrat (Commercial Counsel) Hermann Israel commits suicide after homosexual blackmail.  Grand Duke Sergei Alexandrovich of Russia assassinated.  

Theory - Austrian psychiatrist Sigmund Freud’s Drei Abhandlungen zur Sexualtheorie (Three Essays on the Theory of Sexuality) published in Vienna.  

Event - German publisher Adolf Brand imprisoned for two months for ‘lewd items; in magazine Der Eigene (The Unique). 

Personal - Anglo-French poet Marc-André Raffalovich builds church and clergy house for English poet John Henry Gray in Edinburgh.   

Non-fiction - English bibliographer Christopher Sclater Millard (Stuart Mason) translates essay of French writer André Gide on Irish playwright Oscar Wilde.

Autobiography - Oscar Wilde’s autobiographical De Profundis published.  English writer Robert Harborough Sherard (Kennedy)’s autobiography Twenty Years in Paris: Being Some Recollections of a Literary Life.  French writer Jean Bosc’s Le vice marin: confessions d'un matelot (The Marine Vice: Confessions of a Sailor).

Novel  French Baron Jacques d’Adelswärd Fersen’s novel Lord Lyllian.  English writer E.M. Forster’s novel Where Angels Fear to Tread.  English writer Horace Annesley Vachell’s novel The Hill: A Romance of Friendship.  Irish novelist Forrest Reid’s novel The Garden God.  French novelist Ferri-Pisani’s novel Les Pervertis, roman d’un potache (Perverts: A Schoolboy Novel). 

Novella - Danish writer Herman Joachim Bang’s Exzentrische Novellen (Eccentric Novellas).

Story - English writer Arthur Annesley Ronald Firbank’s book of two short stories, Odette d’Antrevernes and A Study in Temperament.  Scottish German writer John Henry Mackay (Sagitta) commences his series of stories Die Bücher der namenlosen Liebe (Books of the Nameless Love).  American writer Willa Sibert Cather’s stories ‘Paul’s Case’ and ‘The Sculptor’s Funeral’.  

Poetry - English writer A.C. Benson reprints English schoolmaster and poet William (Johnson) Cory’s poems.  English writer John Moray Stuart-Young’s Osrac, the Self-Sufficient and Other Poems, with a Memoir of the Late Oscar Wilde and An Urning’s Love. (Being a Poetic Study of Morbidity).  Arthur Symons’s A Book of Twenty Songs.  American author and poet Wallace de Groot Cecil Rice’s poetry compilation The Athlete’s Garland.  German poet Josef Kitir’s poems Inseln des Eros (Isles of Eros). 

Art - German painter Rudolph Karl Alexander (Sascha) Schneider’s painting Morgendämmerung (Dawn).

1906

Birth - American writer and painter Richard Bruce Nugent, English interior designer John Beresford Fowler, American writer Frederick Prokosch, English director John Richard Schlesinger, French writer Maurice Sachs, English aesthete Stephen James Napier Tennant, English writer Godfrey Winn, American editor and novelist George Davis, Emperor Pu Yi of China, English poet Valentine Ackland, English artist and architect Felix Harbord, English Sidney Herbert, 16th Earl of Pembroke, 13th Earl of Montgomery, English museum curator Carl Winter, American architect Philip Cortelyou Johnson, German-American photographer Horst Paul Albert Bohrmann (Horst P. Horst), English actor Alan Webb, English academic John Hanbury Angus Sparrow, Irish actor, playwright and theatrical agent Arthur John Perry, Hungarian British writer Adam De Hegedus (Rodney Garland), American dancer and choreographer Lester Horton, English botanist and diplomat Mark Ogilvie-Grant, American writer John Myers Myers, American editor of Musical America Cecil Michener Smith, English poet laureate Sir John Betjeman, English physicist Professor Derek Ainslie Jackson, English lover of Robert Heber-Percy, Captain Hugh Gordon Cruddas Porteus, German writer Klaus Mann, English Conservative politician Alexander Victor Edward Paulet Montagu, 10th Earl of Sandwich, Leader of the British Labour Party Hugh Todd Naylor Gaitskell, Turkish painter Nurullah Berk, English author Terence Hanbury (Tim; T.H.) White, American poet Robert Nichols Montague Hunt, American film maker and poet Willard Maas, English documentary filmmaker Sir Arthur Hallam Rice Elton, 10th Baronet and Italian director Luchino Visconti.  

Death - American rights campaigner Susan B. Anthony, American singer Josephine Baker, South African production designer Michael Weight, French aristocrat Jacques Godart, 6th Marquis de Belbeuf and French poet and novelist Paul Duval (Jean Lorrain).  

Theory - German sexologist Iwan Bloch’s Das Sexualleben unserer Zeit in seinen Beziehungen zur modernen Kultur (The Sexual Life of our Time in its Relations to Modern Civilization).  German Heinrich Pudor’s Bisexualität (Bisexuality).  German zoologist and anthropologist Ferdinand Karsch-Haack’s Das gleichgeschlechtliche Leben der Kulturvölker - Ostasiaten: Chinesen, Japanese, Korea (The Homosexual Life of the Civilised Peoples – East Asian: Chinese, Japanese, Korean).  German writer Hans Freimark’s Der Sinn des Uranismus (The Sense of Uranism).  German writer J.E. Meisner’s Uranismus oder sogenannte gleichgeschlechtliche Liebe (Uranism or So-called Same-sex Love).  Dutch reformer Lucien Sophie Albert Marie Römer’s Die uranische Familie: Untersuchungen über die Ascendenz der Uranier (The Uranian Family: Investigation into the Ascendance of Uranians).  

Event - German Wilhelm Jansen becomes leader of the Alt-Wandervogel.  English bibliographer Christopher Sclater Millard (Stuart Mason) jailed for three months for gross indecency.

Media - German journalist Maximilian Harden begins publishing articles in Die Zukunft (The Future) on homosexuality at the German court, accusing Fürst Philipp zu Eulenburg-Hertefeld, Lieutenant General Graf Kuno Augustus Friedrich Karl Detlev von Moltke and others of the Kaiser’s circle of homosexuality.

Activism - German writer and activist Peter Hamecher’s Entrechtet (Deprived of Their Rights).  

Personal - Welsh writer Ernest Percival Rhys founds Dents’s Everyman’s Library book series.

Non-fiction - German writer Hans Ostwald’s Männliche Prostitution im kaiserlichen Berlin (Male Prostitution in Imperial Berlin).  German sexologist Wilhelm Hammer’s Die Tribadie Berlins (Berlin’s Lesbians).  American writer Ambrose Gwinnett Bierce’s The Cynic’s Wordbook.  

Biography - Edward Carpenter’s Days with Walt Whitman.  English writer A.C. Benson’s Walter Pater. English journalist and biographer Robert Harborough Sherard’s The Life of Oscar Wilde.  

Journal - American essayist Henry David Thoreau’s Journal published in 14 volumes, ed. Bradford Torrey and Francis H. Allen.  Novel - American writer Edward Irenaeus Prime-Stevenson (Xavier Mayne)’s novel Imre: A Memorandum, America’s first openly gay novel, published privately in Naples. Austrian novelist Robert Musil’s novel Die Verwirrungen des Zöglings Törleß (The Confusions of Young Torless).  German writer  Guido Hermann Eckardt (Fritz Geron Pernhaum)’s novel Die Infamen (The Infamy).  German writer Wilhelm Walloth’s novel Eros.  Russian writer Mikhail Alekseyevich Kuzmin’s novel Kril’ya (Wings).  English writer John Moray Stuart-Young’s novel Passion’s Peril.  German writer Wilhelm Cremer’s novel Verlorene Söhne (Lost Sons).  (to 1910) Chinese writer Zhang Chunfan’s novel Jiuweigui (Nine-tailed Turtle – Nine Times Cuckold).  

Poetry - English writer Arthur Symons’s The Fool of the World and Other Poems.  German dramatist Herbert Hirschberg’s play Fehler (Mistake).

Art - French illustrator Édouard-Henri Avril (Paul Avril)’s lithograph ‘Hadrian and Antinoüs’ in Manuel d’érotologie classique, an edition of Friedrich Karl Forberg’s 1824 anthology of classical erotic texts, De figuris Veneris.  German painter Rudolph Karl Alexander (Sascha) Schneider’s painting Ikarus.

1907

Birth - Louis Ferdinand Viktor Eduard Albert Michael Hubertus Prinz von Preussen, English poet W.H. Auden, English poet Rudolf John Frederick (John) Lehmann, American photographer George Platt Lynes, English spy Anthony Blunt, English writer Daphne du Maurier, English actor Sir Laurence Olivier, American writer, impresario and art connoisseur Lincoln Edward Kirstein, French diplomat, writer and rights campaigner Roger Peyrefitte, Mexican painter Frida Kahlo, American actor Cesar (Butch) Romero, American actress Barbara Stanwyck, American writer and poet Hubert Creekmore, American actress Glesca Marshall, English socialite Sir Charles Michael Robert Vivian Duff, 3rd Baronet, Anglo-Irish writer and music critic Desmond Christopher Shawe-Taylor, English photographer Leonard John French, American Republican official Arthur Hendrick Vandenberg, Jr., American theatrical lawyer L. Arnold Weisberger, American songwriter Alexander (Alec) Lafayette Chew Wilder, Welsh playwright Keith Winter, English Lady Sibell Rowley (nee Lygon),  British poet Edward William Frank James, American writer and journalist Lucius Morris Beebe, English T.V. broadcaster and journalist Gilbert Charles Harding, English writer Maurice Richardson, American journalist Varian Mackey Fry, American singer Gladys Bentley, Ulster politician and historian Harford (H.) Montgomery Hyde, American debutante Leslie Foster (later Nast, then Lady Benson), Irish-American Elizabeth Maud Kerr-Smiley (Mrs Christopher Hussey), English Conservative politician Major John Ronald Hamilton Cartland, English Labour politician Richard Howard Stafford Crossman, English female impersonator Barri Chatt, English jazz composer Reginald Foresythe, English ballet dancer and designer William Evelyn Chappell, French indologist Alain Daniélou, American Sinologist Laurence Chalfant Stevens Sickman and English schoolmaster and writer Thomas Cuthbert (T.C.) Worsley.

Death - French novelist Charles-Marie-Georges Huysmans (Joris-Karl Huysmans), English Secretary of Lloyds Colonel Sir Henry Montague Hozier and American poet Walt Whitman’s lover Peter Doyle. 

Legal - Transvaal Colony and Swaziland Roman-Dutch law prohibits homosexuality.   

Theory - German sexologist Hermann Rohleder’s Vorlesungen über Geschlechtslieb und gesamtes Geschlechtsleben des Menschen (Lectures on the Sex Drive and All Human Sex Life).  German writer Hermann Michaelis’s Die Homosexualität in Sitte und Recht (Homosexuality in Morals and Law).  German classical philologist Erich Julius Adolf Bethe publishes article ‘Die dorische Knabenliebe’ (Doric Boy-Love).

Politics - Gustav V becomes King of Sweden.  Friedrich Heinrich, Prince of Prussia, refuses Grand Mastership of the Knights of St John on grounds of his own homosexuality.

Event - Irish Dublin Castle scandal; theft of Irish Crown Jewels by Francis Shackleton and disgrace of Chief Herald, Sir Arthur Vicars and Dublin Herald Francis Richard Shackleton; revealed to be homosexual were Vicars, his close friend George Gordon, Lord Haddo, the eldest son of the 1st Marquis of Aberdeen and Temair, the Viceroy and Lord Lieutenant of Ireland; Shackleton and his ‘intimate friend’ Captain Richard Gorges, an instructor at the Curragh Camp; Francis Bennett-Goldney M.P., Athlone Pursuivant; and another intimate friend of Shackleton, John George Edward Henry Douglas Sutherland Campbell, 9th Duke of Argyll, who was married to Princess Louise, sister to King Edward VII and had been (as the Marquis of Lorne) Governor General of Canada.  German scandal of Fürst Philipp zu Eulenburg-Hertefeld, General-Leutnant Graf Kuno von Moltke; first trials involving both.  German publisher Adolf Brand alleges that Reichskanzler (Imperial Chancellor) Fürst Bernhard von Bülow had a relationship with his Private Secretary, Privy Councillor Max Scheefer; at libel trial Brand is imprisoned for 18 months.  Scandal involving German photographer Wilhelm von Plüschow (Guglielmo Plüschow) in Naples.  

Media - English sexologist Havelock Ellis writes of the Wilhelm von Plüschow in the socialist journal New Age, saying ‘to be abnormal is not to be unnatural’.

Personal - American writers Gertrude Stein and Alice B. Toklas meet.  The Marquise de Morny is refused permission to marry Sidonie-Gabrielle Colette at a Paris registry office.  English academic Oscar Browning leaves King’s College Cambridge.  

Non-fiction - British report of South African miners taking amankotshane or izinkotshane (young male concubines) in mining camps.  Austro-Croatian sexologist Friedrich Salomon Krauss’s Das Geschlechtsleben in Glauben, Sitte und Brauch der Japaner (Sex Life in the Faith, Customs and Tradition of the Japanese).

Biography - English biographer Thomas Wright’s The Life of Walter Pater.  Ranger Gull (Leonard Creswell Ingleby)’s Oscar Wilde. German writer Elisar von Kupffer’s biography Giovan Antonio - il Sodoma.  

Autobiography - English poet and critic Sir Edmund Gosse’s autobiography, Father and Son.  

Diary - German Tagebuch einer männlichen Braut (Diary of a Male Bride) based on diary of suicide Alfred H.  

Letter - English poet Edward Lear’s Letters.  

Novel - English novelist E.M. Forster’s novel The Longest Journey.  Anglo-American writer Humphrey Neville Dickinson’s novel Keddy: A Story of Oxford.  French writer Guillaume Apollinaire’s pornographic novel Les Onze Mille Verges ou les Amours d’un Hospodar (The Eleven Thousand Rods or the Loves of a Lord) banned.  French writer Baron Jacques d’Adelswärd-Fersen’s novel Le baiser de Narcisse (The Kiss of Narcissus).  (to 1908) German writer Otto Julius Bierbaum’s novel Prinz Kuckuck – Leben, Taten, Meinungen und Höllenfahrteines Wollüstlings (Prince ‘Old Nick’ – Life, Deeds, Opinions and Journey to Hell of a Sensualist).  German writer Claire Bernhardt’s novel Der halbe Mensch, die Tragödie des dritten Gesclechts (The Half-Human: The Tragedy of the Third Sex).  German writer Georg Müller’s novel Verbene Junkers Liebe: ein Roman, dem toten Oskar Wilde (Verbene Junker’s Life: A Novel for the Dead Oscar Wilde).  German writer Bernhard Steiner’s novel Sappho.  German writer Elisabeth Rodenberg’s novel Briefe an eine Freundin (Letters to a Girlfriend).  

Novella - German writer Leopold Sacher-Masoch’s novella Die Liebe des Plato (Plato’s Love).  

Poetry - English cleric Alphonsus Joseph-Mary Augustus Montague Summers’s Antinous and Other Poems. French Baron Jacques d’Adelswärd Fersen’s poems Ainsi chantait Marsyas (Marsyas Is still Singing).  German poet Stefan George’s poems Der siebente Ring (The Seventh Ring).  

Drama - German writer Elisar von Kupffer’s play Aino und Tio.  German dramatist Moldau’s play Wahrheit (Truth). Polish Yiddish play Got fun nekome (God of Vengeance).  

Film - American studio Vitagraph’s film The Spy: A Romantic Story of the Civil War.

Art - Swedish painter Eugène Jansson’s painting The Naval Bathhouse.

1908

Birth - English writer Quentin Crisp, English actor Sir Michael Redgrave, English writer Lord David Alexander Reginald Herbert, English diarist James Lees-Milne, English theatre manager and producer Hugh ‘Binkie’ Beaumont, English arts benefactor Victor William (Peter) Watson, Chinese novelist Qin Shou’ou (Ch'in Hao), American actor Gene Raymond, American actress Ethel Merman, American editor and novelist William Keepers Maxwell, German art dealer Erica Brausen, American writer and playwright Leonard Spigelgass, Swiss adventurer and writer Annemarie Schwarzenbach, American female impersonator and entertainer Victor Eugene James Malinovsky (Gene Malin/Jean Malin/Imogene Wilson), American producer Leonard Sillman, American actor Hiram Sherman, Australian caricaturist Stanley Parker, American philanthropist Edward (Eddie) Warburg, English Communist Gabriel (Bill) Carritt, English writer Arthur Calder-Marshall, English writer Henry Robin Romilly Fedden, English writer and naturalist Jocelyn Brooke, English writer John Robert Liddell, English playwright Norman Ackland Bernstein (Rodney Ackland), English founder of the Colony Club Muriel Belcher, English diplomat Ian Asher David Wilson Young, English Labour politician James Eugene MacColl, American cabaret artist James (Jimmie) Lesley Daniels  and American Senator Joe McCarthy.

Death - English poet Dr. William George Headlam,  Maharajadhiraja Raj Rajeshwar Sawai Shri Sir Shivaji Rao Holkar Bahadur XII of  Indore and English Lieutenant-Colonel Sir Henry Clarke Jervoise.  German sexologist Benedict Friedlander commits suicide.  General Adjutant Graf Dietrich von Hülsen-Haeseler dies wearing a ballerina’s tutu while dancing in front of the Kaiser.  German writer Elise Therese Levien (Ilse Frapan / Ilse Frapan-Akunian) and her lover Emma Mandelbaum jointly commit suicide in Geneva.  

Legal - British introduce anti-sodomy laws to the South Sandwich Islands and the British Antarctic Territory.  British South Africa’s Paragraph 21 of the Immorality Ordinance of 1903 strengthened to include gross indecency with another male.  

Theory - German L. Loewenfeld’s Homosexualität und Strafgesestz (Homosexuality and Criminal Law).  German Army Officer Karl Franz von Leexow’s Armee und Homosexualität: Schadet Homosexualität der militärischen Tüchtigkeit einer Rasse (The Army and Homosexuality: Homosexuality Harms a Race’s Military Prowess).  German psychiatrist Paul Näcke’s article ‘Classification of Homosexuals’ in the Journal of General Psychiatry.  American writer Edward Irenaeus Prime-Stevenson (Xavier Mayne)’s The Intersexes: A History of Simisexualism as a Problem in Social Life, the first American survey, published privately.

Politics - Ferdinand I becomes Tsar of Bulgaria.  Emperor Pu Yi ascends the throne of China as the twelfth and last Qing Emperor.

Event - German General Graf Johannes Lynar and Lieutenant General Graf Wilhelm von Hohenau courtmartialled for homosexual conduct; Hohenau dimissed and Lynar imprisoned for fifteen months.  Fürst Philipp zu Eulenburg-Hertefeld arrested and tried for perjury; he feigns sickness and the trial is indefinitely prorogued, but he returns all his orders and is exiled from court. Prosecution of Scottish-German writer John Henry Mackay (Sagitta) in Germany for volumes extolling same sex love.  

Personal - English art expert and writer More Adey leaves Carfax Gallery and becomes Co-editor of the Burlington Magazine, leaving Arthur Bellamy Clifton as Director of the Carfax Gallery, Camden Town, London.   

Non-fiction - German psychiatrist Paul Näcke’s article ‘Über Homosexualität in Albanien’ (‘About Homosexuality in Albania’) in the Yearbook for Sexual Intermediates.  French journalists Henri de Weindel and F.P. Fischer’s L’homosexualité en Allemagne (Homosexuality in Germany).  

Biography - English writer James Blyth’s Edward Fitzgerald and Posh: Herring Merchants (Including letters from E. Fitzgerald to J. Fletcher).  Thomas Wright’s The Life of Walter Pater.  

Novel - English writer E.M. Forster’s novel A Room with a View. Dutch poet Jacob Israël de Haan’s novel