This document is intended to be a collection of chemicals, materials and reagents made by amateur chemists with brief notes about their synthesis. The purpose of this compilation is to:
1) for users to look for inspiration of what to try out or make
2) see if someone has beat you to making it and posting it firstИНХ СОРАН.
3) contact users about how they successfully made a comp
Use control F to search. If you wish to add to this list do so by following the format bellow:
Name of Reagent (bold) Username on SM Notes about preparation and
SM thread) Don’t add too many notes
(Insert Horizontal Line to denote the end of the entry)
Use the tab key to separate the name of the reagent, username, and notes. Formatted and edited by VSEPR_VOID
Copper (II) Nitrate Trihydrate VSEPR_VOID FW nitric acid w/ copper scrap from wires.
Slightly light sensitive: Do not dry by means of a desk lamp
TheMrbunGee Reaction of Calcium nitrate and Copper
Sulfate solutions. CaSO4 is then filtered off
And water is evaporated off at room temperature. Some calcium sulfate may crystallize out, so additional filtration must be done.
Silver Nitrate VSEPR_VOID FW nitric acid w/ 1 oz apmex silver 99.9%
round. The solution was slightly blue from copper in the coin
Tetraamine Copper (II) Hydroxide VSEPR_VOID
The electrolysis of copper (both electrodes
made of Cu wire from scrap) in a solution of 1:1 tap water and household ammonia.
Copper metal in the form of a fluffy clumps was also produced at the cathode along with small amounts of copper hydroxide
Copper (II) Chloride JJay Precipitation reaction.
Saturated copper sulfate (aq.) was mixed with an equimolar quantity of saturated calcium chloride (aq.), and the mixture was vacuum filtered. The solution was evaporated to dryness in an oven.
Carbon Refractory Foam elementcollector1 Single slice of bread was wrapped in aluminum
foil and baked at 500 F for 1 hour. End product was a light, carbon-black foam block that was brittle but mechanically resilient.
Easily withstood heat from a butane microtorch without noticeable effect. Note: DO NOT underbake. Bread will catch on fire. See “Carbon Foam Refractory Made From Bread” in Chemistry in General.
Potassium bromate woelen See
Bromine woelen See
Potassium periodate woelen See
Sodium orthoperiodate woelen See
Potassium tetraperoxochromate(V) woelen See
Barium chloride 2-hydrate woelen See
Iron (II) sulfate CobaltChloride The reaction of steel wool and sulfuric acid.
Product precipitated by refrigeration
Produced via the Sandmeyer reaction of phenylethylamine hydrochloride with water, using in situ nitrous acid.
Notes: crude product was an orange layer more dense than water, slightly soluble. No further workup/purification was attempted as it was a proof of concept regarding the Sandmeyer reaction in general.
Isopropyl nitrite LearnedAmateur
Esterification of propan-2-ol with in situ nitrous acid. Product was collected as a pale yellow layer less dense than water, and purification involved shaking with aqueous sodium carbonate in order to neutralise nitrogen oxides followed by manual separation of the (presumably) pure product.
Notes: burns with a pale yellow-grey flame and is extremely volatile, no residue after evaporation.
Tetraphenylethylammine copper nitrate LearnedAmateur
An experiment into copper complexes using basified phenylethylamine mixed with copper nitrate solution, following the rules of amine complexes.
Notes: is not explosive and takes some effort to ignite - does not sustain combustion but produces a smell similar to burning plastic, with a residue of copper oxides (red-black powder). Product is collected as a green coloured powder which is insoluble in water.
Sodium iodide LearnedAmateur
A small lump (0.05-0.1g) of sodium metal is placed with a few prills of iodine in a test tube. Both are heated together using a blowtorch until ignition is achieved, where a large volume of white smoke (sodium iodide) is observed. Easy and fast to conduct because both elements change states at relatively low temperatures hence react within a few seconds. There is also some sodium peroxide or superoxide generated as pale yellow masses.
A proof of concept reaction akin to other related demonstrations, such as aluminium and chlorine, or fluorine and steel wool to show reactivities of elements.
Benzoic acid LearnedAmateur
Excess toluene and concentrated potassium permanganate solution are refluxed for a few hours until the purple colouration of the aqueous phase disappears and there is a thick layer of brown-black MnO2 observed in the reaction vessel. After filtration using a fritted Büchner funnel, the aqueous phase is treated with mineral acids (H2SO4 in my case), the same manner as Plunkett’s procedure below, to obtain a quantitative mass of white precipitate. Upon recrystallisation from hot water, benzoic acid forms needle-like crystals which can be collected easily and are of high purity.
Note: no other solvent is required - in fact, water is likely the best option available due to the vast difference in solubility at near-boiling and room temperature solvent.
Benzoic acid Plunkett
A saturated solution of sodium benzoate was combined with a stoichiometric amount of hydrochloric acid, causing benzoic acid to fall out of solution because of its poor solubility in water. The benzoic acid was filtered and rinsed twice with cold distilled water before drying it on a glass plate under a heat lamp.
Methyl benzoate Plunkett
80 mL of methanol (HEET gas line antifreeze), 10 g of benzoic acid and 2.2 mL of drain cleaner sulfuric acid (~93%) were combined into a flask and refluxed for 90 minutes. After cooling, the reaction mixture was added to a separatory funnel along with 30 mL of a saturated NaCl solution and 35 mL of naphtha (Coleman camping fuel). The aqueous layer was drained and discarded, then 30 mL of a saturated sodium bicarbonate solution was added to the separatory funnel. The aqueous layer was again discarded and the organic layer transferred to a beaker where it was gently heated to drive off the naptha leaving slightly discolored methyl benzoate. Based on this procedure, using naptha instead of diethyl ether: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=B2HdN4gcVyc
A human subject consumed large amounts of cheese. After several hours, gaseous methane was produced in a violent explosive reaction.
Copper (II) Oxide VSEPR_VOID Produced by the electrolysis of a weak
solution of sodium hydroxide using copper
electrodes made from copper wire scraps
Copper (II) Oxide TheMrbunGee Produced by reaction of copper sulfate and
sodium hydroxide solutions, then heating
copper hydroxide. CuO was then washed,
filtered and dried.
Brass, various ratios MrHomeScientist Created by adding zinc to molten copper.
Brasses with estimated zinc content of 6%,
11%, and 17% have been made, each with a
different color. See thread: http://www.sciencemadness.org/talk/viewthread.php?tid=81819
Copper Slag VSEPR_VOID Copper wire was melted in a forge and poured
onto sand. It was cleaned by submerging the slag in vinegar, salt, and hydrogen peroxide.
Charcoal VSEPR_VOID Wood scraps were placed into a soup can
and heated by means of a fire pit with the
aid of a hot air gun as a bellows.
See Thread: http://www.sciencemadness.org/talk/viewthread.php?tid=82077
Hydroferrocyanic Acid VSEPR_VOID Potassium Ferrocyanide was treated with
A strong excess of HCl and the H4Fe(CN)6 separated by filtration
Cupric Ferrocyanide VSEPR_VOID Hydroferrocyanic acid and copper
White Phosphorus VSEPR_VOID Heating red phosphorus
Tetraethyl orthosilicate 12thealchemist Ethanolysis of silicon sulphide, itself
prepared by union of the elements. See thread for details: http://www.sciencemadness.org/talk/viewthread.php?tid=82809
Hydroferrocyanic Acid VSEPR_VOID The addition of concentrated acid, in excess,
to a solution of potassium ferrocyanide
Chromium (III) hydroxide CobaltChloride Reaction of stainless steel forks with HCl followed by filtration to remove Ni and C. The solution resulting was treated with NaOH
Hexamine is dissolved in Acetic acid of varying concentration, and a solution of NaNO2 in water is added. The mixture is set in an ice bath for an hour, wherein the DNPMT precipitates as a pale yellow crystalline solid.
Phenyl Isocyanide Rhodanide
15mLs of Chloroform and 15mLs Aniline are dissolved in separate mixtures containing 90% Ethanol & 10% water. In another beaker, NaOH is dissolved in Ethanol. The two solutions of Aniline & CHCl3 are combined in a flask. Quick addition of the base solution starts the reaction. Heating to 70C for one hour completes the reaction.
Distilling off the Ethanol & Water leaves the crude final product which has an unbelievably foul odor.
Silver Methylacetylide Rhodanide & Axt
Silver Nitrate is dissolved in distilled water. Next, a bottle of MAPP (Methyacetylene-Propadiene-Propane)
which has been purchased from the hardware store is set up with a modified welding gas adapter connected to a rubber tube. A glass tube is fitted to the end of the tube and is led into the AgNO3 soln. Gas flow is started, however precipitate may not immediately appear. Within minutes or less, a flocculent white precipitate of AgC3H3 forms. Continue gas flow for a further few minutes, then turn it off. Filter the white solid, further referred to as SMADS. A fair yield should be obtained if all goes well, as there is little to no AgCl precipitate when NaCl is added to the filtrate. Use a small volume of filtrate to test this. If AgCl is observed, continue gas flow for a further
few minutes through the filtrate to improve yield. SMADS is a fluffy white to grey powder with no odor. SMADS
decomposes violently upon heating, friction or impact with a deep, but not deafening report. Note: “The name ‘SMADS’ refers to the related compound SADS. It is not known whether this compound is a singular component or a double-salt - hence the ‘DS’ in SMADS & SADS for clarity and recognition - as opposed to the acronym ‘SMA’ which may have many meanings.” -Rhodanide
Concentrated Sulfuric Acid VSEPR_VOID
FAILURE: Sulfuric acid of unknown concentration was boiled. This, even with boiling chips, resulted in a steam-acid explosion which scorched the ceiling of the lab. This researcher does not recommend this.
Holmium Hydroxide VSEPR_VOID
Holmium metal was dissolved in a solution of HCl and hydrogen peroxide. This was treated with NaOH solution and filtered. The material that collected in the filter was dried by steam.
Cupric Oxide VSEPR_VOID Heating of cupric hydroxide
Lead acetate fusso
Adding slight excess glacial acetic acid to lead carbonate slurry and heat to boiling until all solids dissolved and all gases expelled. Then filter to remove insoluble impurities. cover vessel with tissue paper to prevent dust entering during crystallization.
Lead oxalate fusso
Adding slight excess oxalic acid slurry to the lead acetate solution to precipitate lead oxalate. Filter out the solids. Wash solids with a little cold water to remove remaining acetic and oxalic acids.
Nitric Acid Chem Science
Nitric acid can be made by dry distillation of stoichiometric amounts of Sodium bisulfate and nitrate salt, sulfuric acid and nitrate salt, oxalic acid and nitrate salt. But the best is using sulfuric acid, second best is bisulfate and third is oxalic ( But the acid comes out contaminated with oxalic ) A cheaper procedure is to mix solutions of calcium nitrate and oxalic acid ( both hot ) let the mixture cool and precipitate Calcium oxalate,Filter and distil the filtrate ( Fractional ) to remove 80% of the water, Stop. put mixture on freezer and filter the oxalic that precipitates, put back to fractionation and get nitric acid boiling at 120-121 degrees yield is 50% or around 200ml of azeotropic acid (65%) For more info search the post.
Copper (II) Oxide Abromination
Made in the reaction of concentrated sodium hydroxide and copper sulfate (after decomposition). Using 2:1 ratio of sodium hydroxide and copper sulfate, the NaOH was dissolved into water making about a 70% solution. The copper sulfate pentahydrate was added undissolved into the solution and was left for a week. The copper (II) hydroxide decomposed into Cu(OH)2 and was filtered and rinsed 3 times.
Copper (II) Acetylsalicylate Abromination
Add 2.01g sodium bicarbonate to 30mL water. With stirring, add 3.6 grams of isopropanol recrystallized acetylsalicylic acid to a flask and slowly add sodium bicarbonate. Add 2.5g copper (II) sulfate pentahydrate to 20mL water and add slowly to the reaction flask. Let react for several hours and filter, rinse and dry your copper (II) acetylsalicylate.
Copper (II) Acetate Abromination
Heat a 1:1 mixture of acetic acid and hydrogen peroxide. It does not need to boil. Add an excess of copper metal SLOWLY to the hot mixture and let sit for 3 hours. Filter out the the copper and boil down to about 10 mL and let cool.
Place copper acetate into the fridge. Scoop out crystals of copper acetate and let dry.