This letter has been sent to the Academy School District 20 Board of Education. However, if you would like to add your signature to encourage continued advocacy for the contents of this letter, please sign at this link. We will communicate this continued support to the district.

Undersigned Academy School District 20 Students, Alumni, Parents, and Community Members

Corresponding emails:, 

June 18, 2020

Dear Academy School District 20 Board of Education, Superintendent J. Thomas Gregory, and Assistant Superintendent of Human Resources Dr. David Peak,

We, the undersigned Academy School District 20 students, alumni, parents, and community members write to you today to encourage the Board of Education to adopt sweeping reforms to address Academy School District 20’s failures in promoting a diverse, equitable, and inclusive environment for students. In addition to this petition, we recommend that the district review the letter sent to the administration of Liberty High School, calling for LHS to address racism and discrimination within the school, and providing detailed accounts of discrimination from students who attended Liberty High School in the past 12 years. Our demands of the school district are detailed below, but we would like to echo the demands in the letter to Liberty’s administration and suggest they be implemented district-wide.


According to data collected in 2017 from the National Center for Education Statistics, U.S. Department of Education’s Office for Civil Rights, Stanford University's Center for Education Policy Analysis, EDFacts, and U.S. Department of Education’s Common Core of Data, Miseducation estimates that District 20, as a whole, has a minority population of approximately 27%.[1] Therein, they report bias against minority students in three areas: opportunity, discipline, and achievement. Some prevalent statistics are listed below:

  • In Academy School District 20, Black students are 3 times more likely to be suspended than White students.[2] Hispanic students and Mixed Race students are 1.6 times more likely to be suspended than White students.
  • In Academy School District 20, White students are 1.3 times more likely to be enrolled in at least one AP class than Black students, Hispanic Students, and Asian, Pacific Islander, and Native Hawaiian students.
  • In Academy School District 20, Black students are, on average, academically 1.9 grades behind White students. Hispanic students are, on average, academically 1 grade behind White students.
  • At Air Academy High School, Black students are 4.2 times more likely to be suspended than White Students.
  • At Liberty High School, Black students are 4 times more likely to be suspended than White students.
  • At Aspen Valley High School, White students make up 100% of the Talented and Gifted Program. Students of color make up approximately 23% of the student body at Aspen Valley High School. 

Perhaps even more concerning are the following statistics, listed below, on our district’s elementary schools, which demonstrate deliberate systemic racism against children, directly contributing to the nation’s school-to-prison pipeline (further explanation of the policies and circumstances that create the school-to-prison pipeline can be found here). With rates of suspension more than 20 times higher for Black children, we are building the foundations of racism in the hearts and minds of impressionable youth.

  • At Discovery Canyon Campus Elementary School, Black students are 10.6 times more likely to be suspended than White students.
  • At Explorer Elementary School, Black students are 19.6 times more likely to be suspended than White students.
  • At The Classical Academy Charter School, Black students are more than 20 times more likely to be suspended than White students. Black students at The Classical Academy Charter School make up approximately 1% of the student body.[3] 
  • At Woodmen Roberts Elementary School, Black students are more than 20 times more likely to be suspended than White students. Black students at Woodmen Roberts Elementary School make up approximately 1% of the student body.

The ACLU regards that many students facing harsh punishments in schools “have learning disabilities or histories of poverty, abuse, or neglect, and would benefit from additional educational and counseling services. Instead, they are isolated, punished, and pushed out.”[4] Out-of-school suspensions are disruptive to the learning, development, and emotional needs of students, and can even lead to criminal involvement and incarceration.[5] Rather than reinforcing the criminalization of Black youth, we should recognize behavior as a symptom of other factors and implement more effective support mechanisms focused on the health and well-being of students of all colors.


        According to the National Center for Education Statistics, in the 2015-2016 school year, Black teachers made up just 7% of the national elementary and middle school teaching force.[6] This body requested demographic data from the Board of Education on June 10, 2020. We have not received this information, but as of 2013, Air Academy High School employed only one Black security guard, and one Black ROTC instructor. As of 2015, Rampart High School employed just 4 Black faculty members, only one of which was a teacher of a core course, despite having more than 100 Black students.

There is substantial evidence to support the necessity of hiring a diverse teaching staff. Phi Delta Kappan, a leading research journal on educational policies and practices, identifies three main benefits to employing a diverse faculty. First, students of color benefit from seeing role models of their race in a position of authority. When diversity is seen only in blue collar positions, such as a janitor or school security guard (as is the case at Air Academy High School), students develop a world-to-self connection, where they associate, for instance, the ability to teach with being white. Second, teachers of color are more likely to have high expectations for students of color. Studies indicate that “when teachers allow negative stereotypes to lower expectations, a self-fulfilling prophecy’ takes hold to perpetuate poor performance of students of color.” Finally, teachers of color are less likely to make negative assumptions about the behavior of students of color, leading to reduced disproportionate disciplinary action taken against Black students.[7] The Center for American Progress describes how Black students are frequently made victims of implicit bias:

As early as age 5, black girls are viewed by adults as more knowledgeable about sex and adult topics, less in need of nurture and support, and significantly older than white girls of the same age. The excessive discipline black children experience for offenses such as disruptive behavior and tantrums makes them 10 times more likely to face discipline, retention, or even incarceration later in life.[8]

        Additionally, Black teachers can provide critical insight for White students as well, particularly in History and English classes that deal heavily with topics of slavery, segregration, the Civil Rights Movement, and social injustice. In these topics, our curriculums tend to simplify, undermine, misrepresent, or simply omit important moments in Black American history.[9] Black teachers also incorporate important conversations on race and bias, personal observances of systemic racism, and simply provide a different perspective that creates more tolerance, creativity, and critical thinking skills in White students.



Due to the above statistics, as well as the testimonials about discrimination included in the letter above, we demand that Academy School District 20 take immediate action to correct discriminatory policies, practices, and procedures. We request Academy School District 20 do as follows:


We request the following action items be implemented in the next year:

  • Incorporate anti-racism resources and lessons into the schools curriculum for K-12. These curriculum and lesson plans are provided free of charge by the NAACP. These free resources are provided by Teaching Tolerance, and include classroom and professional development.
  • Create a diversity and inclusion resource page to be included on ASD20’s website and every school’s website, including resources for diverse communities including, but not limited to: racially, culturally, and ethnically diverse students; LGBTQ+ students; religious students; students with disabilities; and resources for women. For an example of a similar resource, see
  • Create, and incorporate into the ASD20 website and every school’s website a bias reporting mechanism for students, parents, and witnesses of discrimination. Academy School District 20 should have an independent body that reviews all bias reports, particularly reports against those employed by the district. For an example of a bias reporting mechanism, see
  • Create a role for a Director of Diversity, Equity, and Inclusion on the Superintendent’s Cabinet.
  • Appoint an independent Title VI counsel to review suspensions from the past five years to identify and amend school and district policies that disproportionately affect students of color. This counsel should not report to the school board or superintendent.
  • Investigate the Talented and Gifted Program at Aspen Valley High School to determine why students of color do not meet the requirements for the program, and, if academic related, why students of color are so far behind their White peers.
  • All District 20 educators should be required to complete bias training.
  • Implement restorative justice[10] programs as an alternative to traditional forms of student discipline.


We request the following actions be priorities within the next 5 years:

  • Prioritize hiring diverse teachers and administrators in the district, particularly in History and English teaching positions.[11] 
  • Employ more counselors, therapists, and social workers of color in schools and implement these resources as alternatives to discipline and punishment.
  • Abolish the use of out-of-school suspensions in ASD20 elementary schools, which disproportionately remove students of color from school and fundamentally sets them behind their peers academically.[12] 

Schools are perhaps the most important institutions in our nation. Outside of the home, schools are a formative place where opinions and ideas are taught and nurtured. We must think critically about the message our teachers and policies are sending our children. Schools should be the place where institutional racism is challenged and abolished - the sanctuary where Black children can openly approach teachers and administrators who look like them and be met with love and forgiveness - not the very place where racist systems and stereotypes are perpetuated and enforced. 

We ask the Academy School District 20 Board of Education to actively educate yourselves on the ways in which your school district and education in America continues to perpetuate white supremacy. Engage in conversations with your Black students, teachers, and parents. Recognize your shortcomings, no matter how unintentional they are. Question the system that has been built for you, and ask how you can better serve those you have failed.  



Jordan Hare J.D., Air Academy High School ‘13

Ashlyn Hare, Rampart High School ‘15

Cailinanne Johnson, Rampart High School ‘12

Holden Rieping, Air Academy High School ‘14

Ryan Schafer, Air Academy High School ‘13

Hannah Dimmick, Liberty High School ‘13

Thea Ramsey, Rampart High School ‘15

Serene Singh - Rhodes Scholar, Rampart High School ‘15

Jordan Thornlow, Rampart High School ‘12

Janice Jin, Rampart High School ‘15

Micaela van der Meulen, Rampart High School ‘18

Ashley Mitton, Air Academy High School ‘13

Shaine Michalski, Rampart High School ‘13

Jemma Fadum, Rampart High School ‘12

Hannah Young, Rampart High School ‘13

Suzanne Mapatano, Rampart High School ‘15

Aliya Granger, Rampart High School ‘13

Kelli Warmouth, Rampart High School ‘15

Michelle Soileau, Rampart High School ‘13

Grace Woodman, Rampart High School ‘13

Kyla Ramsey, Rampart High School ‘18

Margaret Juran, Air Academy High School ‘13

Krystal Gonzalez, Rampart High School ‘13

Kyra Parker, Rampart High School ‘18

Shelby Allen, Rampart High School ‘13

Alexandra Leddy, ‘13

Julie Phillips, Rampart High School ‘15

Skyler Sward, Rampart High School ‘13

Avery Austin, Rampart High School ‘14

Sydney Cunfer, Rampart High School ‘16

Elizabeth Wittasek, The Classical Academy ‘18

Kassie Potter, Rampart High School ‘15

Bret Wolter, Air Academy High School ‘15

Polina Mareyassich, Rampart High School ‘15

Anna Barnes, Rampart High School ‘13

Alex Cortez, Rampart High School ‘15

Abigail Lopez, Rampart High School ‘17

Sullivan Waskosky, Liberty High School ‘15

Kylie Berry, Liberty High School ‘17

Katy Clasquin, Rampart High School ‘14

Alex Feeback, Rampart High School ‘14

Adrienne Jordan, Rampart High School ‘12

Stephanie Oatman, Rampart High School ‘12

Aaliyah, Rampart High School ‘20

Dakota Divich, Pine Creek High School ‘15

Mckail Boynton, Rampart High School ‘15

Patty Fadum, Parent - Rampart High School ‘12

Sheela Kailasam, Rampart High School ’13

Tianna Terrell, Rampart High School ‘16

Zoe Vance, Rampart High School ‘12

Karen Orton, Air Academy High School ‘13

Ronald Hare, Parent - Air Academy High School ‘13, Rampart High School ’15

Ross Schafer, Air Academy High School ‘17

Lindsay Smith, Rampart High School ‘12

Amanda Ferguson, Rampart High School IB ‘12

Ryan Fortune Acree, Rampart High School ‘16

Beth Plentl, Liberty High School ‘15

Dre Forst, Sierra High School

Kelsey Schuch, Rampart High School ‘12

Marie Angoulvant, Rampart High School ‘12

Keira Conley, Rampart High School ‘14

Laura Christians Matthews, Rampart High School ‘12

Amanda Keene, Rampart High School ‘12

Baleigh Greene, Rampart High School ‘13

Seth Francis Noel, Rampart High School ‘13

Gautham Viswaroopan, Rampart High School ‘13

Kaylee Harris, Rampart High School ‘12

Megan Garrison, Rampart High School ‘12

Kaitlyn Thiem, Rampart High School ‘18

Isabella Reyes, Rampart High School ‘13

Kelsey Conley, ‘11

Anonymous, Rampart High School ‘11

Kaytlyn Rosko, Rampart High School ‘13

Lindsay Dean, Rampart High School ‘13

Rebekah Kenitzer

Natalie Unger, Liberty High School ‘20

Ava Armacost, Liberty High School ‘14

Christina Maroldo, Air Academy High School ‘12

Gary Ringeman, Rampart High School ‘12

Michael Sulpizio, Rampart High School ‘12

Tavia Morgan, Pine Creek High School ‘21

Lisa Barnes, Parent - Liberty High School ‘08, Rampart High School ‘13

Kaylin Larkin, Rampart High School ‘14

Parker Hamel, Rampart High School ‘22

Jodi Reed, Pine Creek High School ‘20

Kevin Flanegin, Rampart High School ‘14

Nathan Leitch, Rampart High School ‘13

Bobby, Air Academy High School ‘14

Caitlyn Scott, Rampart High School ‘15

Philip Shimel, Liberty High School ‘12

Emily Jones, Liberty High School ‘14

Taylor Hutchison, Rampart High School ‘17

Molly Sharples, Community Member

Caitlin Mulligan, Rampart High School ‘12

Hannah Ashton, Liberty High School ‘14

Cassidy Swart, Rampart High School ‘19

Jayda Wayman, Air Academy High School ‘21

Rachel Broeren, Liberty High School ‘13

Corinne Belva, Liberty High School ‘13

Ryan Bliss, Rampart High School ‘16

Hannah Mackay, Rampart High School ‘13

Tommy Newsom II, Liberty High School ‘12

Breanna, Rampart High School ‘13

Claire Alexander, Rampart High School ‘15

Vernita Hare, Parent - Air Academy High School ‘13, Rampart High School ‘15

McKenna Thornlow, Rampart High School ‘14

Juliette Angoulvant, Rampart High School ‘13

Colt Wise, Rampart High School ‘15

Amanda Cushen, Rampart High School ‘15

Siobhain Kilgallen - Parent - Rampart High School ‘15

Ashlee Workman, Rampart High School ‘17

Carli Snyder, Rampart High School ‘13

Kristen Eller, Pine Creek High School ‘12

Emilie Tarasiewicz, Rampart High School ‘12

Desiree L Terrell, Parent - Rampart High School ‘16

Selena Alarcon, Rampart High School ‘14

Kira Hietala, Rampart High School ‘13

Hayley Tornquist, Rampart High School ‘19

Lyndsey Gonsoulin, Rampart High School ‘13

Christina, Rampart High School ‘14

Greg Schlabs, Parent - Air Academy High School ‘10 & ‘12

Tatum Foster, Pine Creek High School ‘24

Terri Schlabs, Parent - Air Academy High School ‘10 & ‘12

Kylee Dangelo, Rampart High School ‘16

Jack Quinn, Liberty High School ‘15

Shelbi Peters, Liberty High School ‘13

Madisen Tafoya, Rampart High School ‘12

Tyler Tafoya, Rampart High School ‘12

Olivia Ruth, TCA College Pathways ‘21

Andy Lawrence, Rampart High School ‘12

Meelan Patel, Rampart High School ‘15

Jenna Watts, Pine Creek High School ‘22

Sarah Personius, Liberty High School ‘14

Rachel Suter, Pine Creek High School ‘21

Hannahmarie Forgath, Community Member

Ariel Shepherd-Hall, '12

Carly Wilborn, Air Academy High School ‘15

Jennifer Schafer, Parent - Air Academy High School ‘13 & 17, Pine Creek High School ‘20

Alissa Padilla, Rampart High School ‘12

Amulya Kanekal, Rampart High School ‘17

Mikhail Preston, Rampart High School ‘16

Jake Reiling, Rampart High School ‘15

Jim Lowe, Community Member

David De La Cruz, Rampart High School ‘14

Keenan Wezensky, Rampart High School ‘12

Taylor Young, Liberty High School ‘12

Alexa Reed, Liberty High School ‘14

Kelsey Springer, Rampart High School ‘12

Kirsten Mann, Liberty High School ‘14

Stephanie Hellings, Rampart High School ‘11

Chirag Patil, Rampart High School ‘12

Sweet Hope Mapatano, Rampart High School ‘13

Georgia McClellan, Liberty High School ‘13

Keith Karnes, Rampart High School ‘12

Aubrey Shanahan, Rampart High School ‘12

Colleen McCollum, Liberty High School ‘12

Victoria Michaelson, Liberty High School ‘08

Evan Burtschi, Rampart High School ‘14

Jonathan Colarelli, Pine Creek High School ‘12

Nathan Simonson, Liberty High School ‘13

Pete McCollum, Parent - Liberty High School ‘07 & ‘10

Josué Rodas, Rampart High School ‘12

Melissa Neal, ‘11

Divya Reddy, Rampart High School ‘12

Gina Di Vittorio, Air Academy High School ‘13

Megan Witt, Liberty High School ‘12

Ronan Beltracchi, Liberty High School ‘08

Chelsea Rardob, TCA College Pathways ‘21

Ian Parker, Discovery Canyon Campus ‘12

Ellary Johnson, Community Member

Elizabeth Scutellaro, Parent - Woodmen Roberts Elementary School

Kayla Doyle, Rampart High School ‘13

Chandler Herbst, Pine Creek High School ‘13

Emma Young, Rampart High School ‘10

Michelle Richardson, Rampart High School ‘08

Parker Richardson, Rampart High School ‘09

Kelly Major, Rampart High School ‘06

Duke Roberts, Rampart High School ‘07

Cassandra Durham, Rampart High School ‘08

Dennis Major, Parent - Liberty High School ‘99 & ‘03, Rampart High School ‘06

Alyssa Priest, Parent - Woodmen Roberts Elementary School

Cassandra Falcon, Community Member

Alexander Anderson, Rampart High School ‘08

Adriana Layne, Community Member

Mary Burch, Community Member

Vanessa Morales, Parent - Explorer Elementary School

Lindsey Tippets, Parent - Rampart High School ‘01, Antelope Trails

Sofia Alaska, Rampart High School ‘20

Kristina Ruff, Rampart High School ‘08

Mario Mathis-Downing, Rampart High School ‘15

Katherine Hernandez, Air Academy High School ‘10

Kathryn Gorab, Rampart High School ‘16

Kimmy Kirk, Rampart High School ‘13

Andrea Pabst, Liberty High School ‘16

Hunter Anderson, Community Member

Rev. Herbert W. Burch, Jr., Community Member

Noopur Naik, Discovery Canyon Campus High School ‘18

Noah Orgish

Shalaka Natu, Discovery Canyon Campus High School ‘19

Riley Blackwood, Liberty High School ‘17

Apoorva Kanekal, Rampart High School ‘20

Nidhi Unnikrishnan, Air Academy High School ‘19

Sachi, The Classical Academy ‘20

Ria Paradkar, Discovery Canyon Campus ‘18

Maya Toczek, Liberty High School ‘17

Megan Allen, Parent - The Classical Academy ‘34

Michael Eller, Rampart High School

Chris Clementi

Justin Miller, The Classical Academy ‘13

Alex Miller, The Classical Academy ‘16

Brady Miller, The Classical Academy ‘18

Dylan Miller, The Classical Academy ‘19

Lisa Miller, Parent - The Classical Academy ‘13, ‘16, and ‘18

Chadd Miller, Parent - The Classical Academy ‘13, ‘16, and ‘18

Mia Mathis-Downing, Rampart High School ‘20

Nicole, The Classical Academy ‘19

Amaneet Brar, ‘21

Vito Villa, Rampart High School ‘20

Shyanne Hawken, Rampart High School ‘17

Rebecca Kerber, Community Member

Grace Storm, ‘20

Nikhil Madhu, Rampart High School ‘20

Meha Khanna, Rampart High School ‘18

Kevin Mack, Community Member

Jadyn Torres, Rampart High School ‘22

Michelle Grudzinski, Rampart High School ‘08

Kiley West, Discovery Canyon Campus High School ‘22

Tanatswa Hodza, Rampart High School ‘22

Avery Hamel, Rampart High School ‘22

Kiara Casmer, Rampart High School ‘21

Benjamin Tag, Rampart High School ‘22

Rachel Rivera, ‘12

Naisha Naik, Discovery Canyon Campus ‘24

Ashley Root, Pine Creek High School ‘12

Daniel Hinojosa, Liberty High School ‘17

Leann Morgan, Parent - Chinook Trail Middle School

Joseph Antinora, Rampart High School ‘20

Lydia Coulthurst, Rampart High School ‘20

Hanna Cook, Rampart High School ‘08

Christian Kleynhans, Discovery Canyon Campus ‘23

Casey Fortman, Parent - Rampart High School, High Plains Elementary

Carrie Barnhardt, Teacher - Pine Creek High School, Parent - DaVinci Academy, Discovery Canyon Campus

Bryan Salagovic, Staff - Eagleview Middle School

Ali Obertubbesing, Rampart High School ‘07

Charles Anderson, Rampart High School ‘97

Anabel Alvarez, Liberty High School ‘23

Cassandra Glaser, Rampart High School ‘08

Marlee Sedgwick, Community Member

Samiat Agunbiade, MD, Rampart High School ‘08

Jessica Hawken, ‘20

Jessica Shand, Discovery Canyon Campus High School ‘17

Erika de la Cuadra, Pine Creek High School ‘09

Jennifer Headle, Air Academy High School ‘12

Lauren Gressly, Discovery Canyon Campus High School ‘17

Hana Christenson, Pine Creek High School ‘11

Skyler Kovac, Liberty High School ‘23

Laura Sullivan, Parent - Pine Creek High School ‘12 & ‘15

Amy Keating, Staff - Discovery Canyon Campus High School

Lauren Barnes, Discovery Canyon Campus High School ‘18

Jenaya, Discovery Canyon Campus

Lindsey Rice, Discovery Canyon Campus High School ‘17

Michal Ross, Pine Creek High School ‘13

Gillian Locklar, Discovery Canyon Campus High School

Eva Pokorny, Rampart High School ‘10

Chas Douthit, Staff- Discovery Canyon Campus High School

Kelcee, Rampart High School ‘16

Charles Mathews, Staff - Discovery Canyon Campus

Matt Chaudberry, Discovery Canyon Campus ‘18

Max Lamphere, Rampart High School ‘12

Sunni Hamilton, Community Member

Amy Plapp, Parent - Air Academy High School ‘15

Noah Sullivan, Pine Creek High School ‘15

Kimberley Carpenter, Rampart High School ‘08

Brooke Youngberg, Parent - Liberty High School ‘20

Natasha Yowell, Rampart High School ‘14

Shelby Isaacs, ‘16

Justin Carpenter, Staff - Discovery Canyon Campus

Michael Carpenter, Staff - Discovery Canyon Campus High School

Bret Wright - Staff - Discovery Canyon Campus, Parent - Discovery Canyon Campus High School ‘20

Douglas Jameson

Cameron Hughes, Rampart High School ‘17

Corey Wiggins, Pine Creek High School ‘08

Missy Wengert

Allison Sommers, Pine Creek High School ‘14

[1] Miseducation | Academy School District 20 | ProPublica

[2] *All of the following statistics refer exclusively to out-of-school suspensions.

[3] According to a news story by KRDO, the school district has previously received complaints of racism from current and former parents at TCA in 2009. See Racism And Bullying At The Classical Academy?.

[4] Search School-to-Prison Pipeline

[5] For more information on how zero tolerance discipline policies place youth at risk for criminal involvement, see From the School Yard to the Squad Car: School Discipline, Truancy, and Arrest.

[6] Characteristics of Public School Teachers by Race/Ethnicity

[7] Why we need a diverse teacher workforce

[8] From Preschool to Prison: The Criminalization of Black Girls

[9] The Status of Black History in U.S. Schools and Society

[10] Denver Public schools have recently started to implement restorative justice into their schools with positive results. See Three Denver schools provide national model for how to discipline differently. "Educators must begin to think critically about the coercive nature of punishment. Instead of mirroring the oppressive and violent nature of the state, schools should be spaces where we do the revolutionary work of creating a better world. We cannot see students as potential criminals and rabble rousers; we must see them as dreamers and scholars, budding scientists and artists, aspiring doctors and writers. We must afford students the compassion and love to grow and learn from the myriad mistakes they will undoubtedly make." See When We Criminalize Students, It’s African-American Kids Who Suffer the Consequences. For more information on the benefits of restorative justice, see Restorative practice in schools.

[11] Studies by economists at Johns Hopkins show that Black students with at least one Black teacher in elementary school are more likely to graduate high school and consider attending college. Having one Black teacher in grades 3-5 increased graduation rates by 29% for Black students, and 39% for low-income Black males. Therefore, lack of diversity in teaching effectively serves as a gatekeeper to increased diversity in the profession for future generations. See With Just One Black Teacher, Black Students More Likely to Graduate. According to The Gazette, in 2008 the District hired Shelley Zion, director of the Culturally Responsive Urban Education Center at the University of Colorado at Denver. She specifically recommended that the district increase representation in classrooms to improve the educational experience. See Racism at school is hard to measure and correct.

[12] Studies suggest that out-of-school suspensions do not work to correct behavioral issues in schools, and can have negative long-term legal and occupational effects. In addition to leaving children to their own devices at home, which can actually increase behavioral problems long-term, forcing students to fall behind in school can lead to further detachment in their education. See Does Suspending Students Work? Studies in CA on the effectiveness of out-of-school suspension and expulsion show that students disciplined via these means are at an increased risk of low achievement, dropping out, and involvement in the juvenile justice system. Additionally, these studies show, as does the data in D20, that suspensions disproportionately affect minority students, and do not mirror the diversity of the schools. “In other words, out-of-school suspensions do the exact opposite of what they are intended to do.” See Margaret Lavin: Out-of-school suspensions have no academic benefit.