“Literary Robots”

Overview
                In this unit, student will create robots that express different types of emotions and in different context situations.  Students will develop a need for basic construction and programming techniques in order to create robots that express emotions and perform simple actions.

BIG Idea
        “Robots are capable of expressing simple emotions and performing simple actions as they assist in telling a story.”

Standards
Technology: Standards for Technological Literacy
*Students will develop an understanding of the characteristics and scope of technology.
 (ITEA/STL 1)

- New products and systems can be developed to solve problems or to help do

things that could not be done without the help of technology. (1F)

- The development of technology is a human activity and is the result of individual or

collective needs and the ability to be creative. (1G)

*Students will develop an understanding of the core concepts of technology.
(ITEA/STL 2)

- Some systems are found in nature and some are made by humans. (2A)

- Systems have parts or components that work together to accomplish a goal. (2B)

- A subsystem is a system that operates as part of another system. (2F)

- When parts of a system are missing or malfunctioning, the system may not work

properly. (2G)

- Technology systems include input, process, output and, at times, feedback. (2M)

- Systems thinking involves considering how every part relates to another. (2N)

- An open-loop system has no feedback path and requires human intervention; while

a closed-loop system uses feedback. (2O)

- Technological systems can be connected to one another. (2P)

- Requirements are the parameters placed on the development of a product or

system. (2R)

*Students will develop an understanding of the role of troubleshooting, research and

development, invention and innovation, and experimentation in problem solving.

(ITEA/STL 10)


Science: Benchmarks for Science Literacy (AAAS, 1993)
*Design and Systems (AAAS, 3B, Grades 6–8)

- Almost all control systems have inputs, outputs, and feedback. The essence of

control is comparing information about what is happening to what people want to

happen and then making appropriate adjustments. This procedure requires sensing

information, processing it, and making changes. In almost all modern machines,

microprocessors serve as centers of performance control.

Core State Standards

*English Language Arts & Literacy in History/Social Studies, Science, and Technical Subjects

-Production and Distribution of Writing

4. Produce clear and coherent writing in which the development, organization, and style are appropriate to task, purpose, and audience.

5. With some guidance and support from peers and adults, develop and strengthen writing as needed by planning, revising, editing, rewriting, or trying a new approach, focusing on how well purpose and audience have been addressed.

-Research to Build and Present Knowledge

7. Conduct short research projects to answer a question (including a self-generated question), drawing on several sources and generating additional related, focused questions that allow for multiple avenues of exploration.

9. Draw evidence from informational texts to support analysis reflection, and research.

Teacher Planning

The classroom should provide a flexible, resource-rich learning environment that includes

areas for lecture and demonstrations, small-group meetings, and research activities. The

teacher adapts the learning environment based on the requirements of the unit or lesson. For

this lesson, areas for lecture and demonstration, design, small-group meetings, and fabrication

activities should be readied.

Tools/Materials/Equipment

Classroom Safety and Conduct

  1. Students use tools and equipment in a safe manner and assume responsibility for their safety as well as for the safety of others.
  2. Students demonstrate courtesy in regard to the ideas expressed by classmates and show appreciation for the efforts of others.

 

Lesson 1:  “My Robot, and Me”

Duration: 4-6 Hours

Highlights
Engagement: Students sketch various items around the room to gain an understanding of scope and scale.  Items get progressively more advanced and require more annotation to obtain clarity.
Exploration: Students sketch faces of their favorite animal, cartoon character, and non-fiction person.  Students explore how each face may look when expressing different types of simple emotions.
Explanation:  Students create a Robot companion that will express various emotions that a student experiences throughout a common day.  Focus will be on design and creative expression.   Movable eyebrows and lips will be demonstrated to create various emotions such as happy, sad and surprised.  Students will create a storyboard of a common or uncommon day in which the student and their robot encounter situations that will cause certain emotions.  Students will then design, create, and program their companion to follow their storyboard.
Extension: Students will create each “face” robot and script a narrative in which the robot faces react to each others current emotional state.
Evaluation: Students will present their story and robot to the classroom.

Objectives
Students will learn to:

-Create basic storyboards to explain a common or uncommon day.

-Utilize technological and creative design to create a robotic companion.

-Apply measuring techniques to modify a desired outcome via servo motors.

-Create a narrative through robotic programming and motions.

-Explain why the development of technology is a human activity and is the result of

individual or collective needs and the ability to be creative.

-Compare and contrast natural and human-made systems.

-Describe how parts or components of a system work together to accomplish a goal.

-Make a two-dimensional representation of a technological system.

-Make a three-dimensional representation of a technological system.

-Disassemble a common product and identify the common systems and subsystems                 found inside.

-Analyze precision, accuracy, and approximate error in measurement situations.

-Identify requirements that are placed on the development of a system.


Lesson Plan

Engagement: 

  1. Lead a discussion on the basics on communication utilizing artistic and technical drawings.  Note that artistic drawing may include personal views of an object and is objective in nature while a technical drawing is designed to increase clarity.  Show examples of both artistic drawings and technical drawing to the class.  Students are to then compare the drawings, cite similarities and differences, and come to a class consensus about what differentiates the two types of drawings.
  1. Technical Drawings contain:
  1. Descriptive Geometry
  2. Annotations
  3. Dimensioning
  1. Select a basic tool or technical device from around the room.  Instruct the students to produce a technical drawing of the item in their engineering design journals.  Remind students to focus on shape, scale, and orientation of all parts of the item.  Artistic ability is not important here, students are documenting the item in order to create clear communication.  Repeat the processes two more times with increased complexity of the items.  
  2. Select a student to reproduce their drawing on the board for each item to be critiqued by the rest of the class.  Lead the class in a discussion about each drawing.  Add ANNOTATIONS to each drawing to express movement, functions, and other important attributes about the item.  Inform students that accurate and comprehensive annotations or notes are just as important as the drawing itself.  
  3. Students are to revise their drawings with added annotations.


Exploration:

  1. Ask the students about how they feel about drawing things other than technical items.
  1. Are drawings of animals and cartoon characters done artistically or technically?  
  2. What are some challenges about drawing these characters technically?
  3. Can we identify locations of specific attributes in order to document the character?
  1. Students are to select their favorite animal and produce a “technical” drawing of its face in their engineering design journals.  
  2. Students are to identify important features of the animals face including: mouth, nose, eyes, ear, and other details.  Students are to repeat this process with chosen cartoon and non-fictional characters.


Explanation:

  1. Review the basics of a servo motor and light emitting diodes (LEDs).  Explain common uses and limitations.  
  2. Give a brief explanation of the Hummingbird control board.  
  3. Demonstrate appropriate connecting and procedures.  Explain the basics of the programming software, such as modifying values and saving expressions.
  4. Have the students identify common emotions their characters might make and how the characters may facially express these emotions.  Students should make parallels to possible applications of servo motor movements to change facial features and express simple emotions.  Students are to select three basic emotions (happy, sad, excited) that their character will express.
  5. Students are to select one of their characters (or combine all 3) and develop a plan construct their robot.
  6. Students are to construct their robot companion.
  7. Students are to trouble shoot movements in order to create different emotions.  Examples:  Eyebrows up = Excited, Red Glow = Anger
  1. Advanced students may want to use the program to set emotions and modify faces, while basic student will manually place attributes at this point during construction.  Eventually, all students are to work towards troubleshooting construction symbiotically  with saving expressions with the software.


Extension:

  1. Utilizing storyboarding, students will build a narrative of a common or uncommon day in which they will encounter with their robotic companion.  Students are to detail through narration, drawing a picture of the scene, labeling the frame with one of the three simple emotions, and a time which shows how long it takes to read the scene out loud.  Student are to have at least six scenes, expressing 3 emotions.
  2. Students are to match their created robot with their story board to express the emotions as the student reads the story.


Evaluation:

  1. Students’ knowledge, skills, and attitudes are assessed using selected response items and rubrics for brief constructed responses and class participation. The rubrics are presented in advance of the activities to familiarize students with the expectations and performance criteria, and they are also reviewed during the activities to guide students in the completion of assignments.

Lesson 2:  “Their leader you are not, take me to your Robot”

Duration: 3-5 Hours

Highlights
Engagement:  Students discuss a Dr. Seuss book and different literary styles.  Students complete a KWL chart about Dr. Seuss’s writing style.
Exploration: In small groups, students read a Dr. Seuss book and then create an original story utilizing at least one of the key styles discussed earlier.
Explanation:  Each student creates a Robot character that will play a key part in the students’ story.  Focus will be on design and creative expression.   Movable arms, necks and legs will be demonstrated to model various “scenes” of the story.  Students will create a storyboard of their story to help with the planning of the robot movements.  Students will then design, create, and program their character to follow their storyboard.
Extension: Student will utilize the text to speech tool so that each robot has a signature saying or slogan.
Evaluation: Students will present their story and robots to the classroom.


Objectives
Students will learn to:

-Model a narrative through robotic programming and motions.

-Explain why the development of technology is a human activity and is the result of

individual or collective needs and the ability to be creative.

-Describe systems in terms of inputs, processes, outputs, and at times, feedback.

-Describe how parts or components of a system work together to accomplish a goal.

-Make a two-dimensional representation of a technological system.

-Make a three-dimensional representation of a technological system.

-Analyze precision, accuracy, and approximate error in measurement situations.

-Identify requirements that are placed on the development of a system.

-Contribute to a group endeavor by offering useful ideas, supporting the efforts of others,                 and focusing on the task.


Lesson Plan
Engagement: 

  1. View trailers for “The Cat In The Hat” movie and “The Grinch.” Who are the main characters in each story? Listen to the stories being told to be able to describe the meter and pattern of the rhymes in each story. For example: In “The Cat In The Hat” the rhyme scheme follows this pattern: A B A B (the first line rhymes with the third and the second line rhymes with the fourth).  http://trailers.apple.com/trailers/universal/thecatinthehat/large.html
  2. Create a word wall of rhymes in which rhyming words are grouped by same ending.
  3. Create a KWL chart on the board. Elicit from students information that they already know about Dr. Seuss' writing style and have the students write them under the “what they KNOW” column.  Next, ask the students “what they WANT to know” about Dr. Seuss’s writing styles and have them record them on the board.  Students are to copy the KW columns in their journals.  Students are to begin research utilizing the questions in the WANT column as a guide.  Students are to fill in the “what you have LEARNED” column to complete the research.
  4. Research should uncover some basic Dr. Seuss characteristics:
  1. Simple and complex sentences give a rhythm to the stories.
  2. The theme of the books is stated in a simple sentence on the first pages of the books.
  3. Seuss writes his works in the third person. 
  4. Political and moral messages are used.
  5. Satire is used.
  6. Words and phrases are repeated.


Exploration:

  1. Organize students into small groups of three or pairs.  Assign each group a Dr. Seuss book to read, with each student reading and alternating page by page.  Note: Teacher may elect to take students to the library, have student bring in books from home, provide the books, or have them look up short stories on the Internet.
  2. Students are to answer the following questions about the story in their journals.
  1. What is the rhyme scheme of your book?  What is the pattern? (A B A B)
  2. What is the overall message or lesson learned from the book?
  3. What words or phrases were repeated throughout the book?
  1. Students will now create an original story of their own.  Each member must produce a character to help realize the overall “lesson” of their story.  Students are to use the following check list to ensure they are following Dr. Seuss’s style.
  1. Is the story humorous?
  2. Are the characters silly?
  3. Does the story include characters that are mischievous?
  4. Does the story include rhyming words?
  5. Are words repeated?
  6. Are there elements in the plot that are outrageous?
  7. Is the theme of the book stated within the first few pages?
  8. Is there an element of the plot that is unexpected?
  9. Is there an element of satire in the story?
  10. Does the story teach a lesson?

Explanation:

  1. Review the basics of a servo motor and light emitting diodes (LEDs).  Explain common uses and limitations.  Give a brief explanation of the Hummingbird control board.  Demonstrate appropriate connecting and procedures.  Explain the basics of the programming software, such as modifying values and saving expressions.
  2. Have the students identify common actions of their characters.  Students should make parallels to possible applications of servo motor movements and LED light to create different scenes.  
  3. Students are to develop a plan to construct their robot.
  4. Students are to construct their robot character.
  5. Students are to troubleshoot movements in order to create different actions.  Examples:  arms up = lifting, Red Glow = Anger, legs moving = running


Extension:

  1. Utilizing storyboarding, students will build scenes to illustrate their stories.  Each scene will represent a page in their book.  Instead of including simple drawings, the students’ robots will be acting out the scene.  Student should have at least six scenes.


Evaluation:

  1. Students’ knowledge, skills, and attitudes are assessed using selected response items and rubrics for brief constructed responses and class participation. The rubrics are presented in advance of the activities to familiarize students with the expectations and performance criteria, and they are also reviewed during the activities to guide students in the completion of assignments.