HISTOLOGY 2008/2009

QUESTION 1

  1. interstitial cells of Leydig

-excessive sER

-few profiles of rER

-mitochondria with tubular cristae

-few Golgi bodies

-no secretory granules

-some inclusions (lipochrome pigments & crystals of Reinke)

  1. Tail

Middle piece

axoneme (2 central singlets & 9 outer doublets microtubules), 9 outer dense fibres, mitochondria (spirally-arranged sheath)

principal piece

axoneme (2 central singlets & 9 outer doublets microtubules), 9 outer dense fibres, fibrous sheath formed of a number of ribs connected by ventral & dorsal columns

end piece

axoneme covered by flagellar membrane

QUESTION 2

  1. paraventricular & supraoptic nuclei
  2. deficiency in ADH hormone
  3. posterior pituitary gland

- unmyelinated axons

- Herring’s bodies

- pituicytes

- rich blood capillary plexus

QUESTION 3

  1. fused basal lamina of podocytes & glomerular endothelium

EM- lamina densa (central electron-dense zone)

      - lamina rara interna & externa (electron-lucent zones)

  1. principal component of filtration barrier dt its thickness & continuity

physical barrier

helds up macromolecules dt presence of collagen type IV in lamina densa

electrical barrier

polyanions present in lamina rara interna & externa prevent –vely charged molecules from passing across lamina

  1. fenestrated endothelium of glomerular capillaries

filtration slits between pedicles of podocytes bridged by diaphragm

QUESTION 4

  1. interstitial part, isthmus, infundibulum
  2. mucosa
  1. epithelium- partially ciliated simple columnar epithelium
  2. corium- loose connective tissue with abundant BV

QUESTION 5

Structure

Function

extensive cytoplasmic ramifications

supportive to spermatogenic cells

microtubules & microfilaments in cytoplasm

help in change of cell shape to facilitate movement & lodging of the germ cells

primary & secondary lysosomes in cytoplasm

phagocytosis of dead sperms & residual cytoplasm discharged during spermiogenesis

extensive lipid sroplets in cytoplasm

accumulation of testosterone

tight junctions between adjacent Sertoli cells

formation of the blood-testis barrier

QUESTION 6

Mesangial cells

Extraglomerular mesangial cells

Site

interstitial spaces between glomerular capillaries at surf not covered by visceral layer of Bowman’s capsule

angle between afferent & efferent arterioles

structure

enclosed by basal lamina of glomerular capillaries, stellate cells with cytoplasmic processes, abundant actin & myosin in cytoplasm

small rounded cells with a pale staining cytoplasm

Function

-supportive

-phagocytic

-contractile

-secretion

-contribute in the control of systemic blood pressure

-supportive

-sensory function dt the presence of receptors on their surface for Ag II & ANP

QUESTION 7

modified cells lining part of the wall of distal convoluted tubules that comes in close contact with afferent arteriole at vascular pole of glomerulus

- tightly packed columnar cells

-crowded nuclei with superimposed over one another

-apical cell membrane possess numerous microvilli & central cilium

-no basal membrane folds & cytoplasmic compartmentation

QUESTION 8

thickest layer of the uterus

  1. submucosa- thin layer & consists of longitudinal smooth muscle fibres
  2. vascular- thickest layer & consists of oblique smooth muscle fibres arranged around numerous BV in 8-shaped figures
  3. supravascular- thin layer & consists of circular smooth muscle fibres
  4. subserosal- thin layer & consists of longitudinal smooth muscle fibres

QUESTION 9

  1. secretory units are at different stages of activity

- simple cuboidal in alveoli full of milk

- tall columnar in resting alveoli

- columnar in regenerating alveoli

  1. intralobular loose CT with very little fat cells

  1. interlobar CT becomes reduced to thin septa

  1. myoepithelial cells surrounding the secretory acini

QUESTION 10

Spongiocytes

arranged  into cords perpendicular to surface with one or two cells thick, separated by

longitudinal-arranged fenestrated capillaries

LM

EM

large, pale & round nuclei with peripheral heterochromatin clumps, large

amount of lipid droplets in the cytoplasm

extensive rER, numerous mitochondria with tubular cristae, lysosomes, lipochrome pigments, large number of lipid droplets (cholesterol & ascorbic a)

QUESTION 11

-merocrine compound tubule-alveolar gland

-fibroelastic capsule which is thin & consists of smooth muscles

-thick trabeculae consist of CT, elastic f, smooth m.

-parenchymatous CT made up of fibroelastic f & smooth m.

-secretory acini

  1. mucosal- central, small, lined by pseudostratified columnar epi
  2. submucosa- medium, lined by pseudostratified columnar epi
  3. outer- peripheral, large & numerous, lined by simple columnar epi

-corpora amylacia inside lumen of acini

-ducts= those that are open into prostatic urethra- ejaculatory ducts & ducts of prostatic acini